During this period Quakerism was sketched from the outside by two very different men.
The father of Quakerism in Ireland was William Edmondson; his preaching began in 1653-1654.
Even Quakerism he could scarcely endure.
The history of Quakerism in England may be divided into three periods: - (1) from the first preaching of George Fox in 1647 to the Toleration Act 1689; (2) from 1689 to the evangelical movement in 18 35; (3) from 1835 to the present time.
Although many " General " and other meetings were held in different Period of parts of the country for the purpose of setting P Y P P g forth Quakerism, the notion that the whole Christian church would be absorbed in it, and that the Quakers were, in fact, the church, gave place to the conception that they were " a peculiar people " to whom, more than to others, had been given an understanding of the will of God.
Thomas Clarkson (Portraiture of Quakerism) has given an elaborate and sympathetic account of the Quakers as he knew them when he travelled amongst them from house to house on his crusade against the slave trade.
There is not now the sharp distinction which formerly existed between Friends and other non-sacerdotal evangelical bodies; these have, in theory at least, largely accepted the spiritual message of Quakerism.
Apart from points of doctrine which can be more or less definitely stated (not always with unanimity) Quakerism is an atmosphere, a manner of life, a method of approaching questions, a habit and; attitude of mind.
Quakerism was preached in Scotland; very soon after its rise in England; but in the north and south of Scotland there existed, independently of and before this, preaching, groups of persons who were dissatisfied with the national form of worship and who met together in silence fordevotion.
On the attitude of Friends in America to slavery, see the section " Quakerism in America " (above).
Statistics of Quakerism.
Edmund Harvey (The Rise of the Quakers) and by Mrs Emmott (The Story of Quakerism).
An excellent portraiture of early Quakerism is given in William Tanner's Lectures on Friends in Bristol and Somersetshire.
Joseph Smith's Descriptive Catalogue of Friends' Books (London, 1867) gives the information which its title promises; the same author has also published a catalogue of works hostile to Quakerism.
For an exposition of Quakerism on its spiritual side many of the poems by Whittier may be referred to, also Quaker Strongholds and Light Arising by Caroline E.
Other works which may usefully be consulted are the Journals of John Woolman, Stephen Grellet and Elizabeth Fry; also The First Publishers of Truth, a reprint of contemporary accounts of the rise of Quakerism in various districts.
See also works mentioned at the close of sections on Adult Schools and on Quakerism in America, Scotland and Ireland, and elsewhere in this article; also Fox, George.
The Quakerism of this period was largely of a traditional kind; it dwelt with increasing emphasis on the peculiarities of its dress and language; it rested much upon discipline, which developed and hardened into rigorous forms; and the correction or exclusion of its members occupied more attention than did the winning of converts.
The result was a separation of the Society in America into two divisions which persist to the present day (see below, " Quakerism in America ").
(See NEW Jersey.) But beyond question the most interesting event in connexion with Quakerism in America is the foundation by William Penn (q.v.) of the colony of Pennsylvania, where he hoped to carry into effect the principles of his sect - to found and govern a colony without armies or military power, to reduce the Indians by justice and kindness to civilization and Christianity, to administer justice without oaths, and to extend an equal toleration to all persons who professed a belief in God.
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