The first settlers on the site of the city were several Quaker families who came in the 18th century.
From the beginning of the 18th century the zeal of the Quaker body abated.
MARIA MITCHELL (1818-1889), American astronomer, was born of Quaker ancestry on the island of Nantucket on the 1st of August 1818.
Kilham's wife (Hannah Spurr, 1 77418 3 2), whom he married only a few months before his death, became a Quaker, and worked as a missionary in the Gambia and at Sierra Leone; she reduced to writing several West African vernaculars.
c. 4), which were strained to cover the case of itinerant Quaker preachers.
The meetings for business further concern themselves with arrangements for spreading the Quaker doctrine, and for carrying out various religious, philanthropic and social activities not neces sarily confined to the Society of Friends.
Barclay, Inner Life of Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (1876) for a good account of Mennonite anticipations of Quaker views and practices; F.
In the middle region between them religion had a large share in promoting the formation of Pennsylvania, which was founded by the Quaker William Penn.
Lord Ashley now retired into Holland, where he became acquainted with Le Clerc, Bayle, Benjamin Furly, the English Quaker merchant, at whose house Locke had resided during his stay at Rotterdam, and probably Limborch and the rest of the literary circle of which Locke had been a cherished and honoured member nine or ten years before.
The offices known to the Quaker body are: (1) that of minister (the term " office " is not strictly applicable, see above as to " recording "); (2) of elder, whose duty it is " to encourage and help young ministers, and advise others as they, in the wisdom of God, see occasion "; (3) of overseer, to whom is especially entrusted that duty of Christian care for and interest in one another which Quakers recognize as obligatory in all the members of a church.
More than one-fourth of the value of its manufactures is in Quaker Oats and other food preparations; among those of less importance are lumber and planing-mill products, foundry and machineshop products, furniture, patent medicines, pumps, carriages and waggons, packed meats and agricultural implements.
More than once mobs freed Quaker prisoners.
In 1652 a number of people in Westmorland and north Lancashire who had separated from the common national worship,' came under the influence of Fox, and it was this community (if it can be so called) at Preston Patrick which formed the nucleus of the Quaker church.
The principal churches, in order of their membership were, in 1890, the Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Protestant Episcopal, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Quaker and Lutheran.
His dress, the simplicity of his external appearance, the friendly meekness of the old man, and the apparent humility of the Quaker, procured for Freedom a mass of votaries among the court circles who used to be alarmed at its coarseness and unsophisticated truths.
William Rogers set forth his views in The Christian Quaker, 1680; the story of the dissension is told, to some extent, in The Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth, by R.
There is also a Quaker who plays a very creditable part in Roxana (1724), and Defoe seems to have been well affected to the Friends.
The Paxton massacre marked the close of Quaker supremacy and the beginning of the predominance of the Scotch-Irish pioneers.
It was only gradually that the Quaker community clothed itself with an organization.
They left behind them, however, many influential members, who may be described as a middle party, and who strove to give a more " evangelical " tone to Quaker doctrine.
The record of the journey across Africa, with its surprising anticipations of subsequent discoveries, yields in interest to no work of the kind known to us; and the semipiratical Quaker who accompanies Singleton in his buccaneering expeditions is a most life-like character.
THOMAS MIFFLIN (1744-1800), American soldier and politician, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 10th of January 1744, of Quaker parentage.
The chief features of this epoch -the Antinomian dissensions, the Quaker and Baptist persecutions, the witchcraft delusion (four witches were executed in Boston, in 1648, 165r, 1656, 1688) &c.-are referred to in the article Massachusetts.
Of late years the stringency of the Quaker discipline has been relaxed: the peculiarities of dress and language have been abandoned; marriage with a non-member or between two nonmembers is now possible at a Quaker meeting-house; and marriage elsewhere has ceased to involve exclusion from the body.
See also " Quaker " in the index to Masson's Life of Milton.
JOHN WOOLMAN (1720-1772), American Quaker preacher, was born in Northampton, Burlington county, New Jersey, in August 17 20.
Hermon Husband (c. 1724-1795) was the chief agitator of measures for relief, but, since, as a Quaker, he discouraged violence, the cause was left without a recognized leader.
The chief features of Pennsylvania history in colonial days were the predominance of Quaker influence, the heterogeneous character of the population, liberality in matters, of religion, and the fact that it was the largest and the most 7successful of proprietary provinces.
WILLIAM COOKWORTHY (1705-1780), English potter, famous for his discovery of the existence of china-clay and chinastone in Cornwall, and as the first manufacturer of a porcelain similar in nature to the Chinese, from English materials, was born at Kingsbridge, Devon, of Quaker parents who were in humble circumstances.
EDWARD GIBBON WAKEFIELD (1796-1862), British colonial statesman, was born in London on the 10th of March 1796, of an originally Quaker family.
"HERBERT CLARK HOOVER (1874-), American mining engineer and public official, was born of Quaker parentage on a farm at West Branch, Ia., Aug.
The British pursued, and the next day there was a severe engagement in which the Americans were driven from Turkey and Quaker Hills.
29) at Quaker Hill, at the N.
Other causes have been at work modifying the Quaker society.
Of late years, in certain of their meetings on Sunday evening, it has become customary for part of the time to be occupied with set addresses for the purpose of instructing the members of the congregation, or of conveying the Quaker message to others who may be present, all their meetings for worship being freely open to the public. In a few meetings hymns are occasionally sung, very rarely as part of any arrangement, but almost always upon the request of some individual for a particular hymn appropriate to the need of the congregation.
BENJAMIN RUSH (1745-1813), American physician, was born in Byberry township, near Philadelphia, on a homestead founded by his grandfather, a Quaker gunsmith, who had followed Penn from England in 1683.
On the Quaker Persecution: R.
Kildare, and educated first at the Quaker school at Carlow and afterwards at Rome, where he joined the Urban College of the Propaganda and, after passing a brilliant course, was ordained in 1829.
In 1675 John Fenwicke, an English Quaker, entered the Delaware river and founded the first permanent English settlement on the Delaware (which he called Salem).
The Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Acts of 1664 and 1670, designed to enforce attendance at church, and inflicting severe penalties on those attending other religious gatherings, were responsible for the most severe persecution of all.
Voltaire (Dictionnaire Philosoplzique, " Quaker," " Toleration ") described the body, which attracted his curiosity, his sympathy and his sneers, with all his brilliance.
In fact, the number of men, either Quakers or of Quaker origin and proclivities, who occupy positions of influence in English life is large in proportion to the small body with which they are connected.
The outward beginning of this movement was the Manchester Conference of 18 95, a turning-point in Quaker history.
A genuine vein of philanthropy has always existed in the Quaker body.
Early in the 18th century William Sewel, a Dutch Quaker, wrote a history of the Society and published an English translation; modern (small) histories have been written by T.
For an exposition of Quakerism on its spiritual side many of the poems by Whittier may be referred to, also Quaker Strongholds and Light Arising by Caroline E.
The social life of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th is portrayed in Records of a Quaker Family, the Richardsons of Cleveland, by Mrs Boyce, and The Diaries of Edward Pease, the Father of English Railways, edited by Sir A.
The periodicals issued (not officially) in connexion with the Quaker body are The Friend (weekly), The British Friend (monthly), The 1 See A History of the Adult School Movement by J.
After a year and a half in London, Franklin was persuaded by a friend named Denham, a Quaker merchant, to return with him to America and engage in mercantile business; he accordingly gave up printing, but a few days before sailing he received a tempting offer to remain and give lessons in swimming - his feats as a swimmer having given him considerable reputation - and he says that he might have consented " had the overtures been sooner made."
P. Hallowell, The Quaker Invasion of Massachusetts (Boston, 1883; rev. ed., 1887).
John Fiske, The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America (2 vols., Boston, 1900) is admirable in its generalizations but unreliable in its details.
Before the Seven Years' War the Quakers dominated the government, but from that time until the failure of the Whisky Insurrection (17g4) the more belligerent Scotch-Irish (mostly Presbyterians) were usually in the ascendancy, the reasons being the growing numerical strength of the Scotch-Irish and the increasing dissatisfaction with Quaker neglect of means of defending the province.
George Fox, the Quaker, wrote to " All Friends everywhere that have Indians or blacks, to preach the Gospel to them .and their servants."
Among the Church organizations are: the First (Unitarian; originally Trinitarian Congregational), which dates from 1629 and was the first Congregational church organized in America; the Second or East Church (Unitarian) organized in 1718; the North Church (Unitarian), which separated from the First in 1772; the Third or Tabernacle (Congregational), organized in 1735 from the First Church; the South (Congregational), which separated from the Third in 1774; several Baptist churches; a Quaker society, with a brick meeting-house (1832); St Peter's, the oldest Episcopalian church in Salem, with a building of English Gothic erected in 1833, and Grace Church (1858).
ALEXANDER MITCHELL PALMER (1872-), American politician, was born of Quaker parentage at Moosehead, Pa., May 4 1872.
Under the Quaker Act of 1662 and the Conventicle Act of 1664 a number were transported out of England, and under the last-named act and that of 1670 (the second Conventicle Act) hundreds of households were despoiled of all their goods.
There were Methodist (1829), Baptist, Quaker, Catholic and Presbyterian missions active by 1837.
JACOB BROWN (1775-1828), American soldier, was born of Quaker ancestry, in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, on the 9th of May 1775.
Locke was then at Rotterdam, where he lived for a year in the house of a Quaker friend, Benjamin Furley, or Furly, a wealthy merchant and lover of books.
SAMUEL HANSON COX (1793-1880), American Presbyterian divine, was born at Rahway, N.J., on the 25th of August 1793, of Quaker stock.
At Dover he came under Quaker influence, and signified his readiness at last to be done with "carnal sword fightings and fleshly bustlings and contests"; and in 1655, on giving security for his good behaviour, he was set free.
In 1695 a bill was passed in Parliament allowing the solemn affirmation of a Quaker, instead of an oath.
discarnate soul talking to her was a Quaker woman by the name of Patience Worth.
Other business will include the receipt of the draft epistle, and amendments to Quaker faith & practice.
The Quaker families in those concerns, like their 18th century forebears, accumulated wealth on a stunning scale.
Quaker culture proved instrumental in material and commercial advancement.
He also traveled to Norway in 1853 and 1860 on Quaker missionary journeys.
Present day Lurgan still has an active Quaker community that gathers regularly in a newly built meetinghouse.
John Hustler died 1790 A Bradford Quaker and wool merchant.
Stuart led a group studying Quaker history, religious history and medieval mysticism.
However, the system works well enough and doesn't undermine the primacy of the local meetings in our Quaker lives.
His father was a Quaker and a tory, but Fielden grew up a radical, and ultimately became a Unitarian.
Its objects embrace (a) admonition to those who fail in the payment of their just debts, or otherwise walk contrary to the standard of Quaker ethics, and the exclusion of obstinate or gross offenders from the body, and, as incident to this, the hearing of appeals from individuals or meetings considering themselves aggrieved; (b) the care and maintenance of the poor and provision for the Christian education of their children, for which purpose the Society has established boarding schools in different parts of the country; (c) the amicable settlement of " all differences about outward things," either by the parties in controversy or by the submission of the dispute to arbitration, and the restraint of all proceedings at law between members except by leave; (d) the " recording " of ministers (see above); (e) the cognizance of all steps preceding marriage according to Quaker forms; (f) the registration of births, deaths and marriages and the admission of members; (g) the issuing of certificates or letters of approval granted to ministers travelling away from their homes, or to members removing from one meeting to another; and (h) the management of the property belonging to the Society.
The present organization of the Quaker church is essentially democratic; every person born of Quaker parents is a member, and, Periodic together with those who have been admitted on their own Periodic request, is entitled to take part in the business assemblies ."
It was written from the point of view of a Quaker who did not believe in revealed religion, but who held that "all religions are in their nature mild and benign" when not associated with political systems. Intermixed with the coarse unceremonious ridicule of what he considered superstition and bad faith are many passages of earnest and even lofty eloquence in favour of a pure morality founded on natural religion.
lat., and by assigning the province east of this line (East Jersey) to Carteret and the province west of this line (West Jersey), about five-eighths of the whole, to the Quaker associates.
His father was a Quaker and a tory, but Fielden grew up a radical, and ultimately became a unitarian.
Quaker marriages were recorded in the Meeting minutes.
Ancestry.com has a database of Quaker Records, covering Quaker meetings in several counties.
This furniture collection focuses on the simplicity of the Quaker era, with a golden cherry finish.
More recently, Cheerios and Quaker Oats market their products as being heart smart and cholesterol reducing.
Thomas, The History of Friends in America (4th edition, 1905); Isaac Sharpless, History of Quaker Government in Pennsylvania (1898, 1899); R.
It is noteworthy that Quaker efforts for the education of the poor and philanthropy in general, though they have always been Christian in character, have not been undertaken primarily for the purpose of bringing proselytes within the body, and have not done so to any great extent.
In 1811 he co-operated with William Allen (1770-1843), quaker and chemist, in a periodical called the Philanthropist.
His father, Jacob Bright, was a much-respected Quaker, who had started a cottonmill at Rochdale in 1809.
BENJAMIN LUNDY (1789-1839), American philanthropist, prominent in the anti-slavery conflict, was born of Quaker parentage, at Hardwick, Warren county, New Jersey, on the 4th of January 1789.
It must be remembered that at this time, and for long after, there was no definite or formal membership or system of admission to the society, and it was open to any one by attending the meetings to gain the reputation of being a Quaker.
It was noted for the first time in this February speech, but the most striking instance was in a speech on Mr Osborne Morgan's Burials Bill in April 1875, in which he described a Quaker funeral, and protested against the "miserable superstition of the phrase `buried like a dog.'" "In that sense," he said, "I shall be buried like a dog, and all those with whom I am best acquainted, whom I best love and esteem, will be ` buried like a dog.'
Garrison was deeply impressed by the good Quaker's zeal and devotion, and he resolved to join him and devote himself thereafter to the work of abolishing slavery.
Whittier, the Quaker poet, interceded with Henry Clay to pay Garrison's fine and thus release him from prison.
The settlement of Trenton began in 1680 with the erection by Mahlon Stacy, a Quaker colonist of Burlington, of a mill at the junction of the Assanpink creek' with the Delaware river.
In 1656 George Fox the Quaker was imprisoned in the north-east tower for disturbing the peace at St Ives by distributing tracts.
THOMAS PAINE (1737-1809), English author, was born at Thetford, Norfolk, on the 29th of January 1737, the son of a Quaker staymaker.
The English colony of Maryland, planned by the Catholic George Calvert (1st Lord Baltimore), and founded (1634) by his son the Catholic Cecilius Calvert (2nd Lord Baltimore), and Pennsylvania, founded (1681) by the tolerant Quaker William Penn, first permitted the legal existence of Catholicism in English-speaking communities of the New World.
The Quaker colonies, with their large measure of religious liberty, early attracted a considerable number of Baptists from New England, England and Wales.
His father, Ferdinand, was a teacher of philology and philosophy in the gymnasium, while his mother was a Hanoverian lady, a lineal descendant of the great Quaker William Penn.
He came of an old Quaker family long prominent in the political history of Delaware.
The isolated cases of the torturing of a revolutionary priest in Mexico in 1816, and of a relapsed Jew and of a Quaker in Spain during 1826, cannot really be considered as auto-da-fes.
1687), a Quaker merchant.3 On the 29th of June the duke of York received a new patent similar to that of 1664, and he at once (on the 28th and 29th of July) confirmed Carteret in all his rights in that portion of New Jersey N.
His ancestors, English Friends, settled in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, between 1640 and 1660; his father was a farmer, a Quaker, and in 1798 and in 1814 was a member of the New York Assembly.
His earliest work was directed against Quaker mysticism and appeared in 1656.
WILLIAM EDWARD FORSTER (1818-1886), British statesman, was born of Quaker parents at Bradpole in Dorsetshire on the 11th of July 1818.
In 1849 he wrote a preface to a new edition of Clarkson's Life of William Penn, defending the Quaker statesman against Macaulay's criticisms. In 1850 he married Jane Martha, eldest daughter of the famous Dr Arnold of Rugby.
She was not a Quaker, and her husband was formally excommunicated for marrying her, but the Friends who were commissioned to announce the sentence "shook hands and stayed to luncheon."
JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER (1807-1892), America's " Quaker poet " of freedom, faith and the sentiment of the common people, was born in a Merrimack Valley farmhouse, Haverhill, Massachusetts, on the 17th of December 1807.
Although a Quaker, he had a polemical spirit; men seeing Whittier only in his saintly age knew little of the fire wherewith, setting aside ambition and even love, he maintained his warfare against the " national crime," employing action, argument and lyric scorn.
Along with the Quaker poet's homing sense and passion for liberty of body and soul, religion and patriotism are the dominant notes of his song.
At thirteen she was sent to a Friends' boarding school, at Nine Partners, near Poughkeepsie, New York, where James Mott (1788-1868), who like her was of old Quaker stock and whom she married in 1811, was then a teacher.
By 1808 the opponents of slavery, found chiefly among the Quaker settlers in the south-eastern counties, began to awake to the danger that confronted them, and in 1809 elected their candidate, xIv.
drapers shop in Whitechapel owned by another Quaker.
The volumes have not appeared in chronological order of subject, but form a nearly complete colonial history, as follows: The Discovery of America, with some Account of Ancient America, and the Spanish Conquest (1892, 2 vols.); Old Virginia and her Neighbours (1897, 2 vols.); The Beginnings of New England; or, The Puritan Theocracy in its Relations to Civil and Religious Liberty (1889); Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America (1899); The American Revolution (1891, 2 vols.); and The Critical Period of American History, 1783-1789 (1888).
The East Division of Quaker, Tropicana and Gatorade, affiliated with PepsiCo, offers the Quality, Trust and Growth Scholarship to current college students majoring in business or liberal arts with an interest in sales and marketing.
Penn's development of Pennsylvania as a colony devoted to Quaker ideals and religious freedom would also be of grave importance to the infant United States.
He now settled at Eltham in Kent, frequently preaching at Quaker meetings in the neighbourhood during the brief remainder of his troubled life.
Among those of New Haven are the prohibition of trial by jury, the infliction of the death penalty for adultery, and of the same penalty for conspiracy against the jurisdiction, the strict observance of the Sabbath enjoined, and heavy fines for " concealing or entertaining Quaker or other blasphemous hereticks."
Children love savory biscuits, try Quaker's mini rice cakes with different flavors.
She showed violent displeasure against our baptized Quaker, saying, " God had showed her, he would destroy all outward things.
We had Quaker Oats and sometimes what they call hasty pudding.
moths found in Quaker Oats packs Boxes of Quaker Oats are pulled from the shelves because of the presence of moth pupae and larvae.
Put simply, Quaker networks proved vital to the pursuit of Quaker commerce.
It was owing to these physical manifestations that the name " Quaker " was either first given or was regarded as appropriate when given for another reason (see Fox's Journal concerning Justice Bennet at Derby in 1650 and Barclay's Apology, Prop. 11, § 8).
P. Hallowell, The Quaker Invasion of Massachusetts (1887), and The Pioneer Quakers (1887).
Moths found in Quaker Oats packs Boxes of Quaker Oats are pulled from the shelves because of the presence of moth pupae and larvae.
His commercials for Quaker Oats and Liberty Mutual make him a familiar face on television.
These include things like certain breads, packaged organic oats (Quaker oats and others that contain flavorings are packed full of simple sugars), muesli and brown rice.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.