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pyrites

pyrites

pyrites Sentence Examples

  • in some places sulphur is extracted from iron pyrites by one of two methods.

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  • Of the rarer bismuth minerals we may notice the following: - the complex sulphides, copper bismuth glance or wittichenite, BiCu 3 S 3, silver bismuth glance, bismuth cobalt pyrites, bismuth nickel pyrites or saynite, needle ore (patrinite or aikinite), BiCuPbS 3, emplectite, CuBiS 2, and kobellite, BiAsPb 3 S 6; the sulphotelluride tetradymite; the selenide guanajuatite, B12Se3, Iv.

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  • Pyrites >>

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  • Their produce has gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced.

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  • Near Tokat copper pyrites, with iron and manganese, kaolin and coal are found; but most of the copper worked here comes from the mines of Keban Maden and Arghana Maden, on the upper Euphrates and Tigris.

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  • Enclosures of pyrites may give a bluish colour to amber.

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  • Sublimed sulphur also results from the spontaneous combustion of coal seams containing pyrites.

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  • Free sulphur may also result from the decomposition of pyrites, as in pyritic shales and lignites, or from the alteration of galena: thus crystals of sulphur occur, with anglesite, in cavities in galena at Monteponi near Iglesias in Sardinia; whilst the pyrites of Rio Tinto in Spain sometimes yield sulphur on weathering.

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  • copper pyrites (copper), galena (lead), blende (zinc), cinnabar (mercury), &c. Of the sulphates we notice gypsum and anhydrite (calcium), barytes (barium) and kieserite (magnesium).

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  • The pyrites is subjected to dry distillation from out of iron or fire-clay tubular retorts at a bright red heat.

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  • Such pyrites sulphur is usually contaminated with arsenic, and conse- quently is of less value than Sicilian sulphur, which is characteristically free from this impurity.

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  • Lampadius, who obtained it by heating a mixture of charcoal and pyrites.

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  • Ruthenium sulphides are obtained when the metal is warmed with pyrites and some borax, and the fused mass treated with hydrochloric acid first in the cold and then hot.

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  • Galena occurs in veins in the Cambrian clay-slate, accompanied by copper and iron pyrites, zinc-blende, quartz, calcspar, iron-spar, &c.; also in beds or nests within sandstones and rudimentary limestones, and in a great many other geological formations.

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  • The alum schists employed in the manufacture of alum are mixtures of iron pyrites, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium and Scotland.

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  • The conglomerate bands and quartzites contain large quantities of iron pyrites deposited subsequent to their formation, that in the conglomerates containing the gold.

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  • Of minerals containing this element mention may be made of cassiterite or tinstone, Sn02, tin pyrites, Cu 4 SnS 4 + (Fe,Zn) 2 SnS 4; the metal also occurs in some epidotes, and in company with columbium, tantalum and other metals.

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  • Throughout the world, primary deposits of tinstone are in or closely connected with granite or acid eruptive rocks of the same type, its mineral associates being tourmaline, fluorspar, topaz, wolfram and arsenical pyrites, and the invariable gangue being quartz: the only exception to this mode of occurrence is to be found in Bolivia, where the tin ore occurs intimately associated with silver ores, bismuth ores and various sulphides, whilst the gangue includes barytes and certain carbonates.

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  • in diameter, leaves the stamps in suspension in water, and passes through a series of troughs in which the heavier mineral is collected; this then passes through a series of washing operations, which leaves a mixture consisting chiefly of tinstone and arsenical pyrites, which is calcined and washed again, until finally black tin containing about 60 to 65% of metal is left.

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  • The outcrop of a metalliferous vein frequently manifests itself as a line of rocks stained with oxide of iron, often honeycombed and porous, the " gossan " or " eisen-hut," the iron oxide of which results from the decomposition of the pyrites, usually present as a constituent of such veins.

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  • As the coal and the associated rocks usually contain pyrites, these springs are often chalybeate.

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  • It may also be accompanied by pyrites, galena, arsenides and antimonides, quartz, calcite, dolomite, &c. It is widely distributed, and is particularly abundant in Germany (the Harz, Silesia), Austro-Hungary, Belgium, the United States and in England (Cumberland, Derbyshire, Cornwall, North Wales).

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  • The difficulty in separating zinc blende from iron pyrites is well known, and probably the most elaborate ore-dressing works ever built have been designed with this end in view.

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  • Neither mechanical nor magnetic concentration can effect much in the way of separation when, as in many complex ores, carbonates of iron, calcium and magnesium replace the isomorphous zinc carbonate, when some iron sulphide containing less sulphur than pyrites replaces zinc sulphide, and when gold and silver are contained in the zinc ore itself.

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  • Old schists, free from fossils and rich in quartz, overlie it in parallel chains through the whole length of the peninsula, especially in the central and highest ridges, and bear the ores of Chu-goku (the central provinces), principally copper pyrites and magnetic pyrites.

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  • Lebanon has thick deposits of lignite coal, but of inferior quality owing to the presence of iron pyrites.

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  • These are the only certain examples of natural combinations of the metal, the minute, though economically valuable, quantity often found in pyrites and other sulphides being probably only present in mechanical suspension.

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  • Prominent among these are galena and iron pyrites, the former being almost invariably gold-bearing.

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  • Iron pyrites, however, is of greater practical importance, being in some districts exceedingly rich, and, next to the native metal, is the most prolific source of gold.

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  • Magnetic pyrites, copper pyrites, zinc blende and arsenical pyrites are other and less important examples, the last constituting the gold ore formerly worked in Silesia.

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  • Four distinct types of reef gold deposits may be distinguished: (I) Gold may occur disseminated through metalliferous veins, generally with sulphides and more particularly with pyrites.

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  • At Schemnitz, Kerpenyes, Kreuzberg and other localities in Hungary, quartz vein stuff containing a little gold, partly free and partly associated with pyrites and galena, is, after stamping in mills, similar to those described above, but without rotating stamps, passed through the so-called " Hungarian gold mill " or " quick-mill."

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  • One of the greatest difficulties in the treatment of gold by amalgamation, and more particularly in the treatment of pyrites, arises from the so-called " sickening " or " flouring " of the mercury; that is, the particles, losing their bright metallic surfaces, are no longer capable of coalescing with or taking up other metals.

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  • The process was introduced in 1858 by Deetken at Grass Valley, California, where the waste minerals, principally pyrites from tailings, had been worked for a considerable time by amalgamation.

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  • The conversion of silver into the sulphide may be effected by heating with antimony sulphide, litharge and sulphur, pyrites, or with sulphur alone.

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  • Small quantities are occasionally met with in iron pyrites, and hence tellurium is found with selenium in the flue dust, or chamber deposits of sulphuric acid works.

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  • The bottom of the Black Sea is covered by a stiff blue mud in which Sir John Murray found much sulphide of iron,' grains or needles of pyrites making up nearly 50% of the deposit, and there are also grains of amorphous calcium carbonate evidently precipitated from the water.

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  • The divisional planes often contain small films of other minerals, the commonest being calcite, gypsum and iron pyrites, but in some cases zeolitic minerals and galena have been observed.

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  • pyrites, which yields sulphates by combustion.

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  • An indication of the character of the ash of a coal is afforded by its colour, white ash coals being generally freer from sulphur than those containing iron pyrites, which yield a red ash.

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  • MARCASITE, a mineral with the same chemical composition as pyrites, being iron disulphide FeS2, but crystallizing in the orthorhombic instead of in the cubic system.

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  • Agricola in 1546 under the names Wasserkies or Weisserkies and Leberkies, and it has been variously known as white pyrites, hepatic pyrites, lamellar pyrites, radiated pyrites (German Strahlkies) and prismatic pyrites.

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  • The orthorhombic form of the crystals, as distinct from the cubic form of pyrites, was recognized by Rome de 1'Isle in 1772, though later R.

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  • This frequent twinning gives rise to characteristic forms, with many re-entrant angles, to which the names "spear pyrites" and "cockscomb pyrites" are applied.

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  • Apart from crystalline form, the external characters of marcasite are very similar to those of pyrites, and when distinct crystals are not available the two species cannot always be easily distinguished.

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  • The colour is usually pale bronze-yellow, often rather lighter than that of pyrites; on freshly fractured surfaces of pure marcasite the colour is tin-white, but this rapidly tarnishes on exposure to air.

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  • Many experiments have been made with a view to determining the difference in chemical constitution of marcasite and pyrites, but with no very definite results.

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  • It is a noteworthy fact that whilst pyrites has been prepared artificially, marcasite has not.

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  • Marcasite occurs under the same conditions as pyrites, but is much less common.

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  • Whilst pyrites is found abundantly in the older crystalline rocks and slates, marcasite is more abundant in clays, and has often been formed as a concretion around organic remains.

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  • In the Chalk of the south-east of England nodules of marcasite with a fibrous radiated structure are abundant, and in the Chalk Marl between Dover and Folkestone fine twinned groups of "spear pyrites" are common.

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  • The mineral is also met with in metalliferous veins, though much less frequently than pyrites; for example the "cockscomb pyrites" of the lead mines of Derbyshire and Cumberland.

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  • Minute rods or needles of rutile are also common in slates, and well-formed cubes of pyrites are often visible on the splitting faces.

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  • It is often associated with blende and pyrites, and with calcite, fluorspar, quartz, barytes, chalybite and pearlspar as gangue minerals; in the upper oxidized parts of the deposits, cerussite and anglesite occur as alteration products.

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  • After coal and iron the most valuable minerals are zinc, lead, pyrites and copper.

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  • Iron is found in eastern Tibet in the form of pyrites, and is rudely smelted locally.

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  • In many cases it has been formed from other iron oxides, like haematite and magnetite, or by the alteration of pyrites or chalybite.

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  • By the operation of meteoric agencies, iron pyrites readily pass into limonite often with retention of external form; and the masses of "gozzan" or "gossan" on the outcrop of certain mineral-veins consist of rusty iron ore formed in this way, and associated with cellular quartz.

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  • PYRITES, a term applied to iron disulphide when crystallized in the cubic system, but used also in a general sense to designate a group of metallic sulphides of which this mineral is the most characteristic example.

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  • When employed as a group-name the constituent species are distinguished by prefixes: thus the type is called iron pyrites, whilst other species are known as copper pyrites, arsenical pyrites, &c. The original word pyrites (from Gr.

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  • The compound FeS 2 is dimorphous, and the modern practice is to distinguish the cubic forms as pyrites and the orthorhombic as marcasite (q.v.).

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  • Sometimes, however, the term pyrites is loosely applied to both species, and the cubic pyrites is then differentiated by the name "pyrite" - a form which brings the last syllable into harmony with the spelling of the names of most minerals.

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  • Iron pyrites, or pyrite, belongs crystallographically to the parallelfaced hemihedral class of the cubic system.

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  • Pyrites presents a conchoidal fracture, and a very indistinct cubic cleavage.

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  • Moreover, the colour of pyrites is pale brass-yellow, whilst that of marcasite when untarnished may be almost tin-white.

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  • On exposure to meteoric influences pyrites commonly becomes brown, by formation of ferric hydrate or limonite, whence the change is called "limonitization."

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  • Another kind of alteration which pyrites may suffer has been termed "vitriolization," since the products are ferrous sulphate, with free sulphuric acid and sometimes a basic ferric sulphate.

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  • According to the formula FeS2, pyrites contains theoretically 46.67% of iron and 53.33 of sulphur.

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  • Gold is often present, and in many gold-mining districts the precious metal is obtained mainly from auriferous pyrites.

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  • As pyrites, from its brass-yellow colour, is sometimes mistaken for gold, it has been vulgarly called "fool's gold."

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  • Traces of thallium, which are present in some pyrites, may be detected in the flues of the furnaces where the metal is roasted.

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  • Arsenic is an impurity which may be of serious consequence in some of the purposes to which pyrites is applied.

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  • Pyrites is a mineral of very wide distribution, occurring under varied conditions and probably originating in various ways.

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  • In coal it not infrequently forms bands and nodules known as "brasses," and may also be finely disseminated through the coal as "black pyrites"; but much of the so-called pyrites of coal is really marcasite.

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  • Films of pyrites sometimes coat the joint-planes of coal.

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  • It is believed that the bluish colour of many clays and limestones is referable to the presence of finely divided pyrites, and it is known that certain deposits of blue mud now forming around continental shores owe their colour, in part, to disseminated iron sulphide.

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  • Many fossils are mineralized with pyrites, which has evidently been reduced by the action of decomposing organic matter on a solution of ferrous sulphate, or perhaps less directly on ferrous carbonate dissolved in water containing carbonic acid, in the presence of certain sulphates.

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  • A similar action probably explains the origin of pyrites and marcasite in coal and lignite, in clay and shales, and in limestone like chalk.

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  • Pyrites is largely worked for sake of the sulphur which it contains, and in many cases it has displaced brimstone in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.

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  • Pyrites low in sulphur is incapable of sustaining its own combustion without the aid of an external source of heat, and 45% of sulphur is, for economic reasons, usually regarded as the lowest admissible for sulphuric acid manufacture.

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  • An extremely important variety of pyrites is that which is more or less cupriferous, and is commonly known commercially as "copper-pyrites" (q.v.), though distinct mineralogically from that mineral.

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  • Deposits of such cupriferous pyrites are widely distributed and are often of great magnitude.

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  • The largest producer is Spain, with upwards of 350,000 tons, including the cupriferous pyrites.

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  • Then follows Portugal, with its important output of cupreous pyrites.

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  • In the United States the production of pyrites now reaches more than 200,000 tons per annum.

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  • The state of Virginia is the chief producer, followed successively by Georgia, North Carolina, Colorado, Massachusetts, California, Missouri, New York, &c. From Indiana and Ohio a quantity of pyrites is obtained as a by-product in coalmining.

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  • Magnetic pyrites of commercial importance occurs also in Virginia and Tennessee.

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  • The United Kingdom yields but little pyrites, the annual output being not more than about io,000 tons.

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  • See, for the early history of pyrites, J.

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  • Henckel's Pyritologia, oder Kieshistorie (Leipzig, 1725); of which an English translation appeared in 1757, entitled Pyritologia; or a History of the Pyrites, the Principal Body in the Mineral Kingdom.

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  • For a modern description of the deposit of pyrites of economic importance reference may be made to A Treatise on Ore Deposits, by J.

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  • They are four important iron ores, magnetite, haematite, limonite and siderite, and one of less but still considerable importance, pyrite or pyrites.

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  • Under all these three conditions the diamond is associated with fragments of the rocks of the country and the minerals derived from them, 'especially quartz, hornstone, jasper, the polymorphous oxide of titanium (rutile, anatase and brookite), oxides and hydrates of iron (magnetite, ilmenite, haematite, limonite), oxide of tin, iron pyrites, tourmaline, garnet, xenotime, monazite, kyanite, diaspore, sphene, topaz, and several phosphates, and also gold.

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  • The other minerals found in the concentrates are pebbles and fragments of pyrope, zircon, cyanite, chrome-diopside, enstatite, a green pyroxene, mica, ilmenite, magnetite, chromite, hornblende, olivine, barytes, calcite and pyrites.

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  • Other objects found in the graves are small flint knives, stone axes, flint and lumps of pyrites for obtaining fire, and, in the womens graves, hand-mills for grinding corn.

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  • Up to 1896 the sulphur industry was in a state of crisis due to the competition of pyrites, to the subdivision of the mines, to antiquated methods, and to a series of other causes which occasioned violent oscillations in and a continual reduction of prices.

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  • It was discovered in 1861 by Sir William Crookes, who, during a spectroscopic examination of the flue-dust produced in the roasting of seleniferous pyrites occurring at Tilkerode in the Harz, observed a green line foreign to all then known spectra.

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  • Traces of thallium exist in many kinds of pyrites, as used for vitriol-making.

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  • The best raw materials for the preparation of thallium are the flue-dusts produced industrially in the roasting of thalliferous pyrites and the "chamber muds" accumulating in vitriol-chambers wrought with such pyrites; in both it is frequently associated with selenium.

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  • The flue-dust from the pyrites of Theux, near Spa (Belgium), according to BSttcher, contains o 5 to o 75 per cent.

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  • of thallium; that of the pyrites of Meggen, according to Carstanjen, as much as 3.5 per cent.; while that of the pyrites of Ruhrort yielded 1 per cent.

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  • Red ochre, for which there is only a limited market, is mined on Ormuz, Abu Musa and other islands in the Gulf; salt, as deposits, on Ormuz and Qishm I., and by evaporation, near Mohammerah, Fao and elsewhere on both sides of the Gulf; gypsum is widely distributed throughout the Gulf; iron, as haematite and pyrites, widely found through the Ormuz series.

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  • - For many years all the sulphur used in the Leblanc process in the shape of sodium sulphate, and originally imported into the manufacture in the shape of brimstone or pyrites, was wasted in the crude calcium sulphide remaining from the lixiviation of black-ash.

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  • It is mixed with fresh air containing sufficient oxygen for the combustion of the hydrogen, and the mixture is passed through red-hot iron oxide (burnt pyrites) which by its catalytic action causes the reaction H2S+O= H 2 O+S to take place.

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  • It should be noted that this " recovered sulphur," which is equal in purity to the " refined brimstone " of commerce, has a far higher value than the sulphur contained in the originally employed pyrites, so that the recovery is a paying process, in spite of the somewhat considerable cost of the plant and of the working operations.

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  • Agricola; chalcopyrite (from XaXK6s, " copper," and pyrites) was proposed by J.

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  • By the ancients copper-pyrites was included with other minerals under the term pyrites, though the copper-ore from Cyprus referred to by Aristotle as chalcites may possibly have been identical with this mineral.

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  • Chalcopyrite or copper-pyrites may be readily distinguished from iron-pyrites (or pyrites), which it somewhat resembles in appearance, by its deeper colour and lower degree of hardness: the former is easily scratched by a knife, whilst the latter can only be scratched with difficulty or not at all.

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  • Copper pyrites, or chalcopyrite, contains 34.6% of copper when pure; but many of the ores, such as those worked specially by wet processes on account of the presence of a large proportion of iron sulphide, contain less than 5% of copper.

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  • Erubescite, bornite, or horseflesh ore is much richer in copper than the ordinary pyrites, and contains 56 or 57% of copper.

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  • Shaft calcining furnaces like the Gerstenhoffer, Hasenclever, and others designed for burning pyrites fines have not found favour in modern copper works.

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  • The heat generated by the oxidation of iron and sulphur has always been used to maintain combustion in the kilns or stalls for roasting pyrites.

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  • The ore is a compact iron pyrites containing copper 2.5%, silver 3.83 oz., gold 0.139 oz.

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  • Calcination is only advisable for ores which contain relatively much iron pyrites and little copper pyrites.

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  • If it contains more than 55% of copper it is directly refined, while if it contains a lower percentage it is smelted with matte or calcined copper pyrites.

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  • The principal fluctuations in production were as follows: It should be noted also that from imported cupreous iron pyrites, copper, gold and silver are extracted at some fifteen metal extraction works in Great Britain.

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  • Copper pyrites occur at Falun in mica-schists, surrounded by halleflinta.

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  • The nickel ore of Sweden is magnetic pyrites, containing only a very small percentage of nickel, and generally occurs in diorite and greenstones.

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  • Metalliferous products containing silver arise in many operations; the chief products which may yield silver economically are copper and lead mattes, burnt argentiferous pyrites and certain drosses and scums. Argentiferous ores consist of silver-bearing base-metal minerals and gangue.

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  • cupriferous pyrites roasted to convert the copper into soluble sulphate, which is the active agent, are worked into the wet pulp spread out on the floor.

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  • It is also found as a constituent of various pyrites and galenas, and in some specimens of native sulphur.

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  • The element is usually obtained from the flue dust or chamber deposits of sulphuric-acid works in which a seleniferous pyrites is burned.

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  • Iron pyrites, which occurs widely and abundantly, has become of value as material for the preparation of sulphuric acid.

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  • A much larger percentage of the sulphuric acid is made from pyrites, i.e.

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  • Most of the pyrites consumed in the United Kingdom come from Spain; this Spanish pyrites generally (not always) contains enough copper (say 3 or 4%) to make its extraction from the residues ("cinders) a paying process, and this of course cheapens the price of the sulphur to the acid manufacturer.

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  • Spain also supplies much pyrites to Germany, France and America, all of which countries are themselves producers of this ore.

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  • Good pyrites contains from 48 to 50%, exceptionally up to 52% of sulphur, of which all but from i to 4% is utilized when burning the ore.

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  • Blende contains only about half as much sulphur as good pyrites, and this cannot be burned off as easily as from pyrites, but this" roasting "has to be done somehow in any case in order to prepare the ore for the extraction of the zinc.

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  • The roasting of pyrites always takes place without using any extraneous fuel, the heat given off by the oxidation of the sulphur and the iron being quite sufficient to carry on the process.

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  • The roasting of blende is nothing like so easy as that of pyrites, since the heat developed by the oxidation of the zinc sulphide itself is not sufficient for carrying on the process, and external heat must be applied.

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  • This operation is both more costly and more delicate than the roasting of pyrites, but it is now perfectly well understood, and gas is obtained from blende furnaces hardly inferior in quality to that yielded by pyrites kilns.

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  • To begin with, in the burners pyrites (or, as the case may be, brimstone or blende) is made to yield hot burner-gas containing about 7% (in the case of brimstone 10 or 11%) of SO 2.

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  • The supply of the nitric acid required to make up this loss is obtained in England by "potting" that is, by decomposing solid nitrate of soda by sulphuric acid in a flue between the pyrites burners and the chambers.

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  • A, Pyrites burners.

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  • pyrites.

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  • It was soon found that the production of a mixture of SO 2 and 0 from sulphuric acid, as above described, was both too troublesome and costly, and after a number of experiments in other directions inventors went back to the use of ordinary burner-gas from pyrites and sulphur burners.

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  • It should be noted that these are not the results of a few years' working with an experimental plant, but of many years' work with large plant, now equal to a capacity of 120,000 tons of pyrites per annum.

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  • Magnetic pyrites or pyrrhotite has a composition varying between Fe7S8 and Fe8S9, i.e.

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  • Iron disulphide, FeS2, constitutes the minerals pyrite and marcasite; copper pyrites is (Cu, Fe)S2.

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  • It is manufactured by piling pyrites in heaps and exposing to atmospheric oxidation, the ferrous sulphate thus formed being dissolved in water, and the solution run into tanks, where any sulphuric acid which may be formed is decomposed by adding scrap iron.

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  • Arsenides, Arsenites, &c. - Several iron arsenides occur as minerals; lolingite, FeAs 2, forms silvery rhombic prisms; mispickel or arsenical pyrites, Fe2AsS2, is an important commercial source of arsenic. A basic ferric arsenite, 4Fe2O3 As2O3.5H 2 O, is obtained as a flocculent brown precipitate by adding an arsenite to ferric acetate, or by shaking freshly prepared ferric hydrate with a solution of arsenious oxide.

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  • Minerals which were not mined commercially in 1902 include asbestos, which occurs in Spartanburg and Pickens counties; fullers'-earth; graphite in Spartanburg and Greenville counties; iron ores in the north and north-west portions of the state; iron pyrites in Spartanburg and York counties; talc, bismuth, ochre, pyrites, ' galena, brown coal, malachite, phosphate of lead and barytes.

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  • Arsenic is a constituent of the minerals arsenical iron, arsenical pyrites or mispickel, tin-white cobalt or smaltite, arsenical nickel, realgar, orpiment, pharmacolite and cobalt bloom, whilst it is also met with in small quantities in nearly all specimens of iron pyrites.

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  • The ordinary commercial arsenic is either the naturally occurring form, which is, however, more or less contaminated with other metals, or is the product obtained by heating arsenical pyrites, out of contact with air, in earthenware retorts which are fitted with a roll of sheet iron at the mouth, and an earthenware receiver.

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  • It is obtained commercially by roasting arsenical pyrites in either a Brunton's or Oxland's rotatory calciner, the crude product being collected in suitable condensing chambers, and afterwards refined by resublimation, usually in reverberatory furnaces, the foreign matter being deposited in a long flue leading to the condensing chambers.

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  • They are principally finely divided quartz, epidote, zoisite, rutile, limonite, calcite, pyrites,.

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  • Others are rich in pyrites, which, on oxidation, produces sulphuric acid; this attacks the aluminous silicates of the clay and forms aluminium sulphate (alum shales).

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  • As some of these substances (for example, lead sulphide and copper pyrites) are readily fusible when first heated, but become more refractory as part of the sulphur is dissipated and oxygen takes its place, it is important that the heat should be very carefully regulated at first, otherwise the mass may become clotted or fritted together, and the oxidizing effect of the air soon ceases unless the fritted masses be broken small again.

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  • Gerstenhofer's pyrites burner is a furnace of this class.

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  • The other mineral resources include silver (one-third of the total German yield), pit-coal, pyrites, alum, plaster of Paris, sulphur, alabaster and several varieties of good building-stone.

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  • arsenical pyrites carrying, in addition to gold and silver, nickel and cobalt.

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  • Sometimes the carbonized fragments of plants have been replaced by copper pyrites.

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  • The walls are of mixed local stone and much of it is Easdale slate containing iron pyrites.

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  • The lode is a large irregular one of pure arsenical pyrites carrying, in addition to gold and silver, nickel and cobalt.

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  • Sound Of Music 7 How is iron pyrites more commonly known?

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  • Iron and copper pyrites, mixed with silt, had eroded from this burned country into the lake and turned it brown.

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  • pyrites microcrystals.

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  • pyrites grains 12.

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  • We also found some iron pyrites associated with mica schist 's, the crystals were moderately good.

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  • Their produce has gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced.

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  • Near Tokat copper pyrites, with iron and manganese, kaolin and coal are found; but most of the copper worked here comes from the mines of Keban Maden and Arghana Maden, on the upper Euphrates and Tigris.

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  • Enclosures of pyrites may give a bluish colour to amber.

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  • Sublimed sulphur also results from the spontaneous combustion of coal seams containing pyrites.

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  • Free sulphur may also result from the decomposition of pyrites, as in pyritic shales and lignites, or from the alteration of galena: thus crystals of sulphur occur, with anglesite, in cavities in galena at Monteponi near Iglesias in Sardinia; whilst the pyrites of Rio Tinto in Spain sometimes yield sulphur on weathering.

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  • copper pyrites (copper), galena (lead), blende (zinc), cinnabar (mercury), &c. Of the sulphates we notice gypsum and anhydrite (calcium), barytes (barium) and kieserite (magnesium).

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  • in some places sulphur is extracted from iron pyrites by one of two methods.

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  • The pyrites is subjected to dry distillation from out of iron or fire-clay tubular retorts at a bright red heat.

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  • Such pyrites sulphur is usually contaminated with arsenic, and conse- quently is of less value than Sicilian sulphur, which is characteristically free from this impurity.

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  • Lampadius, who obtained it by heating a mixture of charcoal and pyrites.

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  • Ruthenium sulphides are obtained when the metal is warmed with pyrites and some borax, and the fused mass treated with hydrochloric acid first in the cold and then hot.

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  • Galena occurs in veins in the Cambrian clay-slate, accompanied by copper and iron pyrites, zinc-blende, quartz, calcspar, iron-spar, &c.; also in beds or nests within sandstones and rudimentary limestones, and in a great many other geological formations.

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  • The alum schists employed in the manufacture of alum are mixtures of iron pyrites, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium and Scotland.

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  • The conglomerate bands and quartzites contain large quantities of iron pyrites deposited subsequent to their formation, that in the conglomerates containing the gold.

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  • Of minerals containing this element mention may be made of cassiterite or tinstone, Sn02, tin pyrites, Cu 4 SnS 4 + (Fe,Zn) 2 SnS 4; the metal also occurs in some epidotes, and in company with columbium, tantalum and other metals.

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  • Throughout the world, primary deposits of tinstone are in or closely connected with granite or acid eruptive rocks of the same type, its mineral associates being tourmaline, fluorspar, topaz, wolfram and arsenical pyrites, and the invariable gangue being quartz: the only exception to this mode of occurrence is to be found in Bolivia, where the tin ore occurs intimately associated with silver ores, bismuth ores and various sulphides, whilst the gangue includes barytes and certain carbonates.

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  • in diameter, leaves the stamps in suspension in water, and passes through a series of troughs in which the heavier mineral is collected; this then passes through a series of washing operations, which leaves a mixture consisting chiefly of tinstone and arsenical pyrites, which is calcined and washed again, until finally black tin containing about 60 to 65% of metal is left.

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  • The outcrop of a metalliferous vein frequently manifests itself as a line of rocks stained with oxide of iron, often honeycombed and porous, the " gossan " or " eisen-hut," the iron oxide of which results from the decomposition of the pyrites, usually present as a constituent of such veins.

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  • As the coal and the associated rocks usually contain pyrites, these springs are often chalybeate.

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  • It may also be accompanied by pyrites, galena, arsenides and antimonides, quartz, calcite, dolomite, &c. It is widely distributed, and is particularly abundant in Germany (the Harz, Silesia), Austro-Hungary, Belgium, the United States and in England (Cumberland, Derbyshire, Cornwall, North Wales).

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  • The difficulty in separating zinc blende from iron pyrites is well known, and probably the most elaborate ore-dressing works ever built have been designed with this end in view.

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  • Neither mechanical nor magnetic concentration can effect much in the way of separation when, as in many complex ores, carbonates of iron, calcium and magnesium replace the isomorphous zinc carbonate, when some iron sulphide containing less sulphur than pyrites replaces zinc sulphide, and when gold and silver are contained in the zinc ore itself.

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  • Old schists, free from fossils and rich in quartz, overlie it in parallel chains through the whole length of the peninsula, especially in the central and highest ridges, and bear the ores of Chu-goku (the central provinces), principally copper pyrites and magnetic pyrites.

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  • Lebanon has thick deposits of lignite coal, but of inferior quality owing to the presence of iron pyrites.

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  • These are the only certain examples of natural combinations of the metal, the minute, though economically valuable, quantity often found in pyrites and other sulphides being probably only present in mechanical suspension.

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  • Prominent among these are galena and iron pyrites, the former being almost invariably gold-bearing.

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  • Iron pyrites, however, is of greater practical importance, being in some districts exceedingly rich, and, next to the native metal, is the most prolific source of gold.

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  • Magnetic pyrites, copper pyrites, zinc blende and arsenical pyrites are other and less important examples, the last constituting the gold ore formerly worked in Silesia.

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  • Four distinct types of reef gold deposits may be distinguished: (I) Gold may occur disseminated through metalliferous veins, generally with sulphides and more particularly with pyrites.

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  • At Schemnitz, Kerpenyes, Kreuzberg and other localities in Hungary, quartz vein stuff containing a little gold, partly free and partly associated with pyrites and galena, is, after stamping in mills, similar to those described above, but without rotating stamps, passed through the so-called " Hungarian gold mill " or " quick-mill."

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  • One of the greatest difficulties in the treatment of gold by amalgamation, and more particularly in the treatment of pyrites, arises from the so-called " sickening " or " flouring " of the mercury; that is, the particles, losing their bright metallic surfaces, are no longer capable of coalescing with or taking up other metals.

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  • The process was introduced in 1858 by Deetken at Grass Valley, California, where the waste minerals, principally pyrites from tailings, had been worked for a considerable time by amalgamation.

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  • The conversion of silver into the sulphide may be effected by heating with antimony sulphide, litharge and sulphur, pyrites, or with sulphur alone.

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  • Of the rarer bismuth minerals we may notice the following: - the complex sulphides, copper bismuth glance or wittichenite, BiCu 3 S 3, silver bismuth glance, bismuth cobalt pyrites, bismuth nickel pyrites or saynite, needle ore (patrinite or aikinite), BiCuPbS 3, emplectite, CuBiS 2, and kobellite, BiAsPb 3 S 6; the sulphotelluride tetradymite; the selenide guanajuatite, B12Se3, Iv.

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  • Small quantities are occasionally met with in iron pyrites, and hence tellurium is found with selenium in the flue dust, or chamber deposits of sulphuric acid works.

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  • The bottom of the Black Sea is covered by a stiff blue mud in which Sir John Murray found much sulphide of iron,' grains or needles of pyrites making up nearly 50% of the deposit, and there are also grains of amorphous calcium carbonate evidently precipitated from the water.

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  • The divisional planes often contain small films of other minerals, the commonest being calcite, gypsum and iron pyrites, but in some cases zeolitic minerals and galena have been observed.

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  • pyrites, which yields sulphates by combustion.

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  • An indication of the character of the ash of a coal is afforded by its colour, white ash coals being generally freer from sulphur than those containing iron pyrites, which yield a red ash.

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  • It is known also as arsenopyrite or arsenical pyrites (Ger.

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  • MARCASITE, a mineral with the same chemical composition as pyrites, being iron disulphide FeS2, but crystallizing in the orthorhombic instead of in the cubic system.

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  • The name is of Arabic origin and was long applied to crystallized pyrites (q.v.); it was restricted to the present species by W.

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  • Agricola in 1546 under the names Wasserkies or Weisserkies and Leberkies, and it has been variously known as white pyrites, hepatic pyrites, lamellar pyrites, radiated pyrites (German Strahlkies) and prismatic pyrites.

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  • The orthorhombic form of the crystals, as distinct from the cubic form of pyrites, was recognized by Rome de 1'Isle in 1772, though later R.

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  • This frequent twinning gives rise to characteristic forms, with many re-entrant angles, to which the names "spear pyrites" and "cockscomb pyrites" are applied.

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  • Apart from crystalline form, the external characters of marcasite are very similar to those of pyrites, and when distinct crystals are not available the two species cannot always be easily distinguished.

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  • The colour is usually pale bronze-yellow, often rather lighter than that of pyrites; on freshly fractured surfaces of pure marcasite the colour is tin-white, but this rapidly tarnishes on exposure to air.

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  • The hardness (6-62) is the same as that of pyrites, and the specific gravity (4.8-4.9) as a rule rather less.

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  • Many experiments have been made with a view to determining the difference in chemical constitution of marcasite and pyrites, but with no very definite results.

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  • It is a noteworthy fact that whilst pyrites has been prepared artificially, marcasite has not.

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  • Marcasite occurs under the same conditions as pyrites, but is much less common.

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  • Whilst pyrites is found abundantly in the older crystalline rocks and slates, marcasite is more abundant in clays, and has often been formed as a concretion around organic remains.

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  • In the Chalk of the south-east of England nodules of marcasite with a fibrous radiated structure are abundant, and in the Chalk Marl between Dover and Folkestone fine twinned groups of "spear pyrites" are common.

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  • The mineral is also met with in metalliferous veins, though much less frequently than pyrites; for example the "cockscomb pyrites" of the lead mines of Derbyshire and Cumberland.

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  • Minute rods or needles of rutile are also common in slates, and well-formed cubes of pyrites are often visible on the splitting faces.

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  • It is often associated with blende and pyrites, and with calcite, fluorspar, quartz, barytes, chalybite and pearlspar as gangue minerals; in the upper oxidized parts of the deposits, cerussite and anglesite occur as alteration products.

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  • After coal and iron the most valuable minerals are zinc, lead, pyrites and copper.

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  • Iron is found in eastern Tibet in the form of pyrites, and is rudely smelted locally.

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  • In many cases it has been formed from other iron oxides, like haematite and magnetite, or by the alteration of pyrites or chalybite.

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  • By the operation of meteoric agencies, iron pyrites readily pass into limonite often with retention of external form; and the masses of "gozzan" or "gossan" on the outcrop of certain mineral-veins consist of rusty iron ore formed in this way, and associated with cellular quartz.

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  • PYRITES, a term applied to iron disulphide when crystallized in the cubic system, but used also in a general sense to designate a group of metallic sulphides of which this mineral is the most characteristic example.

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  • When employed as a group-name the constituent species are distinguished by prefixes: thus the type is called iron pyrites, whilst other species are known as copper pyrites, arsenical pyrites, &c. The original word pyrites (from Gr.

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  • The compound FeS 2 is dimorphous, and the modern practice is to distinguish the cubic forms as pyrites and the orthorhombic as marcasite (q.v.).

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  • Sometimes, however, the term pyrites is loosely applied to both species, and the cubic pyrites is then differentiated by the name "pyrite" - a form which brings the last syllable into harmony with the spelling of the names of most minerals.

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  • Iron pyrites, or pyrite, belongs crystallographically to the parallelfaced hemihedral class of the cubic system.

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  • Pyrites presents a conchoidal fracture, and a very indistinct cubic cleavage.

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  • Moreover, the colour of pyrites is pale brass-yellow, whilst that of marcasite when untarnished may be almost tin-white.

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  • On exposure to meteoric influences pyrites commonly becomes brown, by formation of ferric hydrate or limonite, whence the change is called "limonitization."

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  • Another kind of alteration which pyrites may suffer has been termed "vitriolization," since the products are ferrous sulphate, with free sulphuric acid and sometimes a basic ferric sulphate.

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  • According to the formula FeS2, pyrites contains theoretically 46.67% of iron and 53.33 of sulphur.

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  • Gold is often present, and in many gold-mining districts the precious metal is obtained mainly from auriferous pyrites.

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  • As pyrites, from its brass-yellow colour, is sometimes mistaken for gold, it has been vulgarly called "fool's gold."

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  • Traces of thallium, which are present in some pyrites, may be detected in the flues of the furnaces where the metal is roasted.

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  • Arsenic is an impurity which may be of serious consequence in some of the purposes to which pyrites is applied.

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  • Pyrites is a mineral of very wide distribution, occurring under varied conditions and probably originating in various ways.

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  • In coal it not infrequently forms bands and nodules known as "brasses," and may also be finely disseminated through the coal as "black pyrites"; but much of the so-called pyrites of coal is really marcasite.

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  • Films of pyrites sometimes coat the joint-planes of coal.

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  • It is believed that the bluish colour of many clays and limestones is referable to the presence of finely divided pyrites, and it is known that certain deposits of blue mud now forming around continental shores owe their colour, in part, to disseminated iron sulphide.

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  • Many fossils are mineralized with pyrites, which has evidently been reduced by the action of decomposing organic matter on a solution of ferrous sulphate, or perhaps less directly on ferrous carbonate dissolved in water containing carbonic acid, in the presence of certain sulphates.

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  • A similar action probably explains the origin of pyrites and marcasite in coal and lignite, in clay and shales, and in limestone like chalk.

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  • Pyrites is largely worked for sake of the sulphur which it contains, and in many cases it has displaced brimstone in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.

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  • Pyrites low in sulphur is incapable of sustaining its own combustion without the aid of an external source of heat, and 45% of sulphur is, for economic reasons, usually regarded as the lowest admissible for sulphuric acid manufacture.

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  • An extremely important variety of pyrites is that which is more or less cupriferous, and is commonly known commercially as "copper-pyrites" (q.v.), though distinct mineralogically from that mineral.

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  • Deposits of such cupriferous pyrites are widely distributed and are often of great magnitude.

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  • The largest producer is Spain, with upwards of 350,000 tons, including the cupriferous pyrites.

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  • Then follows Portugal, with its important output of cupreous pyrites.

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  • In the United States the production of pyrites now reaches more than 200,000 tons per annum.

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  • The state of Virginia is the chief producer, followed successively by Georgia, North Carolina, Colorado, Massachusetts, California, Missouri, New York, &c. From Indiana and Ohio a quantity of pyrites is obtained as a by-product in coalmining.

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  • Newfoundland yields cupreous pyrites, worked at Pilley's Island, whilst the nickeliferous pyrites of Sudbury in Ontario is partly magnetic (see Pyrrhotite).

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  • Magnetic pyrites of commercial importance occurs also in Virginia and Tennessee.

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  • The United Kingdom yields but little pyrites, the annual output being not more than about io,000 tons.

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