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pyrenees

pyrenees

pyrenees Sentence Examples

  • Upper Poitou and the zone of south-western France to the north of the Pyrenees are the chief regions for the breeding of mules.

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  • by a mountain range of medium height, which unites the Pyrenees with the southern Cevennes; and its northern frontier is occupied by the Montagne Noire, the most westerly portion of the Cevennes.

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  • She turned to greet the Great Pyrenees dog that had guarded the goat heard so faithfully.

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  • Ed snorted and side-stepped as the Great Pyrenees guard dog slid to a stop beside them.

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  • The Great Pyrenees dog had adopted the buffalo calves shortly after they were born.

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  • We had a Great Pyrenees, but he died about a month ago.

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  • The peace of the Pyrenees was a decisive event in his personal history as well as in that of France, for one of its most important stipulations referred to his marriage, He had already been strongly attracted to one of the nieces of Mazarin, but reasons of state triumphed over personal impulse; and it was agreed that the new friendship with Spain should be cemented by the marriage of Louis to his cousin, the Infanta Maria Theresa.

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  • Outside the southern circle lie on the west the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the basin of the Garonne, with the Pyrenees beyond, and on the east the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the valley of the Rhne, with the Alps beyond.

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  • Outside the southern circle lie on the west the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the basin of the Garonne, with the Pyrenees beyond, and on the east the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the valley of the Rhne, with the Alps beyond.

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  • He'd like to get a stock dog like the Great Pyrenees Carmen had.

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  • The coast, constantly encroaching on the sea by reason of the alluvium washed down by the rivers of the Pyrenees and Cvennes, is without important harbours saving that of Cette, itself continually invaded by the sand.

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  • m., and extends from the Pyrenees to the uplands of Saintonge, Prigord and Limousin.

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  • The Garonne rises in the valley of Aran (Spanish Pyrenees), enters France near Bagnres-de-Luchon, has first a north-west course, then bends to the north-east, and soon resumes its first direction.

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  • at the western extremity of the Pyrenees), and nearly as much in the Vosges, Morvan, Cvennes and parts of the central plateau.

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  • The chestnut covers considerable areas in Prigord, Limousin and Beam; resinotis trees (firs, pines, larches, &c.) form fine forests in the Vosges and The indigenous fauna include the bear, now very rare but still found in the Alps and Pyrenees, the wolf, harbouring chiefly in the Cvennes and Vosges, but in continually decreasing areas; the fox, marten, badger, weasel, otter, the beaver in the extreme south of the Rhne valley, and in the Alps the marmot; the red deer and roe deer are preserved in many of the forests, and the wild boar is found in several districts; the chamois and wild goat survive in the Pyrenees and Alps.

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  • Jurassic Oeuonian Volcanic Rock, country was free from outbursts, except in the regions of the Alps and Pyrenees.

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  • The Bretons, who most nearly represent the Celts, and the Basques, who inhabit parts of the western versant of the Pyrenees, have preserved their distinctive languages and customs, and are ethnically the most interesting sections of the nation; the Flemings of French Flanders where Flemish is still spoken are also racially distinct.

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  • The poorer grazing lands on the upper levels of the Alps, Pyrenees, Jura and Vosges, the Landes, the more outlying regions of the central plateau, southern Brittany, Sologne, Berry, ChampagnePouilleuse, the Crau and the Carnargue, these districts being given over for the most part to sheep-raising.

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  • the Percheron (light and heavy draught), the Anglo-Norman (light draught and heavy cavalry)and the Tarbais of the weStern Pyrenees (saddle horses and light cavalry).

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  • The Alps and Pyrenees are in large part deforested, but reafforestation with a view to minimizing the effects of avalanches and sudden floods is continually in progress.

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  • From Bordeaux there is also a direct line to Bayonne and Irun (for Madrid), and at the other end of the Pyrenees a line leads from Narbonne to Perpignan and Barcelona.

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  • The defences, of the Spanish frontier consist of the entrenched camps of Bayonne and Perpignan and the various small forts darrt of the Pyrenees.

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  • She was early regarded as a useful medium for contracting an alliance with England, more necessary than ever to Portugal after the treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 whereby Portugal was ostensibly abandoned by France.

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  • He was forced to pawn Rousillon, his possession on the north-east of the Pyrenees, to Louis XI., who refused to part with it.

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  • c. 736), king, or duke, of Aquitaine, obtained this dignity about 715, and his territory included the southwestern part of Gaul from the Loire to the Pyrenees.

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  • The great tropical family of the Gesneraceae has left behind a few outliers: Ramondia in the Pyrenees, Haberlea in the Balkans, and Jankaea in Thessaly; the Pyrenees also possess a minute Dioscorea, sole European survivor of the yams of the tropics.

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  • Comparing the Alps with the Pyrenees, according to Ball, each has about half its flora common to the other:

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  • Lofty lines of fold mountains form the " backbones " of North America in the Rocky of Mountains and the west coast systems, of South America in the Cordillera of the Andes, of Europe in the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians and Caucasus, and of Asia in the mountains of Asia Minor, converging on the Pamirs and diverging thence in the Himalaya and the vast mountain systems of central and eastern Asia.

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  • north Italy between Alps and Apennines and (b) the far more important Gallia Transalpina (or Ulterior, " Further"), usually called Gallia (Gaul) simply, the land bounded by the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees, the Atlantic, the Rhine, i.e.

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  • The first of these extended from the Pyrenees to the Garumna (Garonne); the second, from that river to the Sequana (Seine) and its chief tributary the Matrona (Marne), reaching eastward presumably as far as the Rhenus (Rhine); and the third, from this bounding Iline to the mouth of the last-named river, thus bordering on the Germans.

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  • The three provinces were: Aquitania, reaching from the Pyrenees almost to the Loire; Lugudunensis, the land between Loire and Seine, reaching from Brittany in the west to Lyons in the south-east; and Belgica in the north.

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  • He was born at his mother's castle of Xavier or Xavero, at the foot of the Pyrenees and close to the little town of Sanguesa, on the 7th of April 1506, according to a family register, though his earlier biographers fix his birth in 1497.

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  • Pyrenees >>

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  • Extensive woods of this fir exist on the southern Alps, where the tree grows up to nearly 4000 ft.; in the Rhine countries it forms great part of the extensive forest of the Hochwald, and occurs in the Black Forest and in the Vosges; it is plentiful likewise on the Pyrenees and Apennines.

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  • He controlled all the lands from the Elbe to the Pyrenees, and had Spain and Italy at his beck and call.

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  • The claimants, each not knowing of the movements of the other, crossed the Pyrenees, and Ferdinand on his arrival at Bayonne found himself to be virtually a prisoner in the hands of the emperor.

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  • After spending a short time in Paris in order to supervise the transfer of his forces from Germany to the Pyrenees, he journeyed swiftly southwards, burst upon the Spaniards, and on the 3rd of December received the surrender of Madrid.

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  • This now stretched from Lubeck to the Pyrenees, from Brest to Rome; while another arm (only nominally severed from the empire by the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy) extended down the eastern shore of the Adriatic to Ragusa and Cattaro, threatening the Turkish empire with schemes of partition always imminent but never achieved.

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  • Metternich persuaded the tsar and the king of Prussia to make a declaration that the allies would leave to Napoleon the "natural boundaries" of France - the Rhine, Alps, Pyrenees and Ocean.

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  • After the Treaty of the Pyrenees, he was sent to direct the conference which had been formed to fix the limits of Roussillon, which had just been ceded to France (1660).

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  • At first he ruled that part of the Visigothic kingdom which lay to the south of the Pyrenees, his brother Liuva or Leova governing the small part to the north of these mountains; but in 572 Liuva died and Leovigild became sole king.

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  • a few days Madrid was evacuated, and all the French forces, with the exception of the garrisons of San Sebastian (3000), Pampeluna (3000), Santona (1500), and the troops under Suchet holding posts in Catalonia and Valencia, had retired across the Pyrenees into France.

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  • Thence his line stretched along the Pyrenees by the passes of Vera, Echallar, Maya and Roncesvalles, to Altobiscar; his immediate object now being to reduce the fortresses of San Sebastian and Pampeluna.

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  • 2) beyond the Pyrenees.

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  • 2 "Gave" in the Pyrenees means a mountain stream or torrent.

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  • 7); the French posts of Lerida, Mequinenza and Monzon had also been yielded up, and Suchet, on the 2nd of March, had crossed the Pyrenees into France.

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  • Butler, Wellington's Operations in the Peninsula, 1808-14 (London, 1904); Batty, Campaign of the Left Wing of the Allied Army in the Western Pyrenees and South of France, 1813-14 (London, 1823); Foy, Histoire de la guerre de la Peninsule, F&c., sous Napoleon (Paris and London, 1827); Lord Londonderry, Narrative of the Peninsular War, 1808-13 (London, 1829); R.

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  • By the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) it came into the possession of the French, and was fortified by Vauban.

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  • by the Pyrenees.

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  • The Corbieres, a branch of the Pyrenees, run in a south-west and north-east direction along the southern district.

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  • At the end of the Thirty Years' War Artois was again conquered by the French, and the conquest was ratified in the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) by Spain, to whom the province had fallen in 1634.

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  • The survival of the non-Aryan language among the Basques around the west Pyrenees has suggested the attempt to interpret by its means a large class of similarsounding place-names of ancient Spain, some of which are authenticated by their occurrence on the inscribed coins, and to link it with other traces of non-Aryan speech round the shores of the Western Mediterranean and on the Atlantic seaboard of Europe.

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  • d'Arbois de Jubainville, for example (Les Premiers habitants de l'Europe, Paris, 1877), maintained that besides possessing Spain, Gaul, Italy and the British Isles, " Iberian " peoples penetrated into the Balkan peninsula, and occupied a part of northern Africa, Corsica and Sardinia; and it is now generally accepted that a race with fairly uniform characteristics was at one time in possession of the south of France (or at least of Aquitania), the whole of Spain from the Pyrenees to the straits, the Canary Islands (the Guanches) a part of northern Africa and Corsica.

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  • Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardeche), on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific papers, he wrote Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843); Norway and its Glaciers (1853); Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (1859); A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa (1855).

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  • The fossils show many notable affinities with those in the Lower Cretaceous of the Pyrenees.

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  • From Campania Paulinus returned to his native place and came into correspondence or personal intimacy with men like Martin of Tours and Ambrose of Milan, and ultimately (about 389) he was formally received into the church by bishop Delphinus of Bordeaux, whence shortly afterwards he withdrew with his wife beyond the Pyrenees.

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  • moschatus, a native of the Pyrenees and the Spanish peninsula, is a cream-coloured subspecies of great beauty with several forms. N.

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  • In 415 Ataulphus crossed the Pyrenees into Spain and died at Barcelona, being assassinated by a groom.

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  • In the summer of 1830 Tennyson and Hallam volunteered in the army of the Spanish insurgent Torrijos, and marched about a little in the Pyrenees, without meeting with an enemy.

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  • In 1861 he travelled in Auvergne and the Pyrenees, with Clough, who was to die a few months later; to this year belong "Helen's Tower" and the "Dedication" of the Idylls to the prince consort, "These to his Memory."

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  • Littre defines them as "a people of the Pyrenees affected with a kind of cretinism."

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  • By the treaty of the Pyrenees (1669) the war came to an end and Savoy regained most of the towns occupied by France.

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  • From Miranda it winds south-eastward through the wide basin enclosed on the right by the highlands of Old Castile and western Aragon, and on the left by the Pyrenees.

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  • He was an adviser to Mazarin in the negotiations which terminated in the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) He amassed a considerable fortune, and was unpopular, even in court circles.

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  • As the Frankish forces were defiling through the passes of the Pyrenees they were attacked by the Wascones (probably Basques), and the rearguard of the army was almost annihilated.

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  • In 798 he had concluded an alliance with Alphonso II., king of the Asturias, and a series of campaigns mainly under the leadership of King Louis resulted in the establishment of the " Spanish march," a district between the Pyrenees and the Ebro stretching from Pampeluna to Barcelona, as a defence against the Saracens.

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  • The Fronde was at an end by 1653; the peace of Westphalia (1648) and the peace of the Pyrenees (16J9) marked the success of the arms and of the diplomacy of France.

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  • On the south, east and west, these ranges, though wild and rugged, are of no great elevation, but on the north the Pyrenees attain their greatest altitude in the peaks of Aneto (11,168 ft.) and Monte Perdido (10,998 ft.) - also known as Las Tres Sorores, and, in French, as Mont Perdu.

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  • The central pass over the Pyrenees is the Port de Canfranc, on the line between Saragossa and Pau.

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  • The treuga or treva Dei, the prohibition of every act of private warfare during certain days, goes back at least to the Synod of Elne, held in the Pyrenees in 1027, which suspended all warfare from noon on Saturday till prime on Monday.

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  • France is rich in mineral phosphates, the chief deposits being the departments of the Pas-de-Calais, Somme, Aisne, Oise in and Meuse, in the north-east, and another group in the departments of Lot, Tarn-et-Garonne and Aveyron, in the south-west: phosphates occur also in the Pyrenees.

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  • Figueras is built at the foot of the Pyrenees, and on the northern edge of El Ampurdan, a fertile and well-irrigated plain,which produces wine, olives and rice,and derives its name from the seaport of Ampurias,.

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  • Under it Jourdain became absolute master of the regions lying between the Pyrenees and the Alps, Auvergne and the sea.

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  • He had represented the Convention in the armies of Brest and of the Eastern Pyrenees in 1793, and in 1 795 he was sent to the armies of the Moselle and the Rhine.

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  • In 720 they crossed the Pyrenees, seized Narbonensis, a dependency of the kingdom of the Visigoths, and advanced on Gaul.

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  • Garumna), a river of south-western France, rising in the Maladetta group of the Pyrenees, and flowing in a wide curve to the Atlantic Ocean.

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  • It is joined on the right by various streams fed by the snows of the Pyrenees.

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  • From Irazu (11,200), the culminating point of the range, both oceans and the whole of Costa Rica are visible; its altitude exceeds that of Aneto, the highest point in the Pyrenees, but so gradual is its acclivity that the summit can easily be reached by a man on horseback.

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  • by the Pyrenees, W.

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  • The surface is much broken by spurs of the Pyrenees, the direction of which is generally south.

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  • Running south-west to north-east, and united on the north with one of the offsets of the Pyrenees, is the range of the Sierra Llena, which bisects Catalonia, and forms its central watershed.

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  • In each of the years immediately following his arrival in Paris he collected and published a volume of his articles, the first on the salon of 1822, the second on a tour in the Pyrenees.

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  • Manresa is probably the Munorisa of the Romans, which was the capital of the Jacetani or Jaccetani, an important tribe of the south-eastern Pyrenees.

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  • A form of sea-letter (literae salvi conductus) is appended to the Treaty of the Pyrenees, 1659.

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  • LOURDES, a town of south-western France in the department of Hautes-Pyrenees, at the foot of the Pyrenees, 12 m.

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  • By such measures Spain was induced to sue for peace, which was finally signed in the Isle of Pheasants on the Bidassoa, and is known as the Treaty of the Pyrenees.

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  • ADOUR (anc. Aturrus or Adurus, from Celtic dour, water), a river of south-west France, rising in the department of Hautes Pyrenees, and flowing in a wide curve to the Bay of Biscay.

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  • the plain of Tarbes, and for the remainder of its course in the department of Hautes Pyrenees is of much less importance as a waterway than as a means of feeding the numerous irrigation canals which cover the plains on each side.

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  • chain, or the Pyrenees, and in the wild state is unknown in the Spanish peninsula.

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  • Its southern border is occupied by the snow-clad peaks of the eastern Pyrenees, the highest of which within the department is the Pic de Montcalm (10,512 ft.).

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  • Soult's combats in the Pyrenees, and the desperate resistance of St Sebastian, prolonged the struggle through the autumn, and cost the English thousands of men.

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  • But his double position as ruler both north and south of the eastern Pyrenees distracted his policy.

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  • The Bogomil propaganda follows the mountain chains of central Europe, starting from the Balkans and continuing along the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps and the Pyrenees, with' ramifications north and south (Germany, England and Spain).

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  • When orthodox Christianity had Pyrenees, the episcopate of those countries grouped sovereigns.

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  • So vigorously did she enter into this policy that, when the French forces advanced to the Pyrenees, she placed herself at the head of one division of the Spanish army.

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  • The Alps, however, do not present so continuous a barrier as the Himalayas, the Andes or even the Pyrenees.

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  • Its closest relationship is with the flora of the Pyrenees; but an alpine flora is characteristic of all the lofty mountains of central Europe.

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  • The former - the sole representative, in western Europe, of the antelopes - is found elsewhere only in the Pyrenees, Carpathians, Caucasus and the mountains of eastern Turkey; the latter survives only in the eastern Graian Alps.

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  • As sovereign of lands on both sides of the Pyrenees, he was affected by very different influences.

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  • But his lands to the north of the Pyrenees brought him into close relations with the Albigenses.

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  • By the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) Artois (except St Omer and Aire) and a number of towns in Flanders, Hainaut, and Luxemburg were ceded to France.

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  • took immediate steps to support his grandson's claims, in spite of his formal renunciation of such claims under the treaty of the Pyrenees.

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  • In the Pyrenees the species is represented by a small race locally known as the izard; a very brightly-coloured form, R.

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  • Having during his stay in Gaul defeated and concluded an alliance with Theodoric the Visigoth, at the beginning of 460 he crossed the Pyrenees for the purpose of joining the powerful fleet which he had collected at Carthagena.

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  • Taken in this year by the French, this capture was ratified by the peace of the Pyrenees in 1659, and henceforward it remained part of France.

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  • de Medecine; subsequently he joined the army of the Pyrenees as pharmacies; but having committed some slight political offence, he was thrown into prison and detained there for some time.

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  • La Salette in Dauphine (1846), and more particularly Lourdes (1858) in the department of Hautes Pyrenees - but the numbers once more attained a height which enables them to compete with the medieval figures.

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  • It can be grown in the tropics from the level of the sea to a height equal to that of the Pyrenees and in the south and middle of Europe, but it cannot be grown in England with any chance of profit, except perhaps as fodder.

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  • His policy had won the line of the Pyrenees for France.

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  • He endeavoured to form a southern state on both sides of the Pyrenees, which should counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire.

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  • Abdallah, even crossed the Pyrenees and took possession of Narbonne; but he was beaten and killed at Toulouse in July 720.

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  • In Spain the attention of the Moslems was principally turned to avenge the defeat of Samh beyond the Pyrenees.

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  • As early as the second year of the reign of Hisham, `Anbasa, the governor of Spain, crossed the Pyrenees, and pushed on military operations vigorously.

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  • The swords are leaf-shaped, with blunt points intended for cutting, not for thrusting; the hilts differ essentially from those of the Bronze Age, being shaped like a crescent to grasp the blade, with large pommels, or sometimes with antennae (the latter found also in Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Baden, Switzerland, the Pyrenees, Spain, north Italy): only six arrowheads (bronze) were found.

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  • The northern half of Lerida belongs entirely to the Mediterranean or eastern section of the Pyrenees, and comprises some of the finest scenery in the whole chain, including the valleys of Aran and La Cerdana, and large tracts of forest.

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  • In 1904 the Spanish government agreed with France to carry another line to the mouth of an international tunnel through the Pyrenees.

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  • of England was feudal lord of the greater part of France, practically all west of a line which began at Dieppe and ended at the foot of the Pyrenees more than half-way across to the Mediterranean, while at one point it nearly touched the Rhone.

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  • France had its traditions of the destruction of serpents by the early missionaries (Deane, 283 seq.), and the memory possibly survived at Luchon in the Pyrenees, where the clergy and people celebrated the eve of St John by burning live serpents.

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  • Patches of Cambrian rocks are found in the Pyrenees.

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  • But all attempts to remove the accused from the civil prison in Saragossa to that of the Inquisition raised popular tumults, which in the end led to Perez's escape across the Pyrenees, but unfortunately also furnished Philip with a pretext for sending an army into Aragon and suppressing the ancient.

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  • Exports include timber, mine-props, turpentine, resinous material from the Pyrenees and Landes and zinc ore; leading imports are the coal and Spanish minerals which supply the large metallurgical works of Le Boucau at the mouth of the river, the raw material necessary for the chemical works of the same town, wine, and the cereals destined for the flour mills of Pau, Peyrehorade and Orthez.

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  • South of the Pyrenees, P. Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, and Poppaea's former 4 Suet.

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  • In Asia it abounds in Siberia and on the mountains of the Amur region; on the European Alps it occurs at a height of 5600 ft., and on the Pyrenees it is found at still higher elevations; on the northern side of Etna it is said to grow at above 7000 ft.

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  • In 409 his son Gunderic led them across the Pyrenees.

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  • The most important are Aix-les-Bains, and a number of springs in the Pyrenees in France, Aachen in Germany, Harrogate in England, Strathpeffer and Moffat in Scotland.

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  • DOMINIQUE FRANCCOIS JEAN ARAGO (1786-1853), French physicist, was born on the 26th of February 1786, at Estagel, a small village near Perpignan, in the department of the eastern Pyrenees.

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  • In the summer of 1853 he was advised by his physicians to try the effect of his native air, and he accordingly set out for the eastern Pyrenees.

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  • The premature royalist rising, however, in August 1659 was defeated, and Charles, who had awaited the result on the coast of Brittany, proceeded to Fuenterrabia on the Spanish frontier, where Mazarin and Luis de Haro were negotiating the treaty of the Pyrenees, to induce both powers to support his cause; but the failure of the attempt in England ensured the rejection of his request, and he returned to Brussels in December, visiting his mother at Paris on the way.

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  • Having been obliged to withdraw to Africa in consequence of the advance of the forces of Sulla over the Pyrenees, he carried on a campaign in Mauretania, in which he defeated one of Sulla's generals and captured Tingis (Tangier).

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  • In March 1659, however, the war between France and Spain was ended by the treaty of the Pyrenees; and D.

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  • In its general character and conformation the Caucasus presents a closer analogy with the Pyrenees than with the Alps.

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  • The range of the Caucasus, like that of the Pyrenees, maintains for considerable distances a high average elevation, and is not cleft by deep trenches, forming natural passes across the range, such as are common in the Alps.

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  • In both ranges, too, some of the highest summits stand on spurs of the main range, not on the main range itself; as Mont Perdu and Maladetta lie south of the main backbone of the Pyrenees, so Mount Elbruz and Kasbek, Dykh-tau, Koshtan-tau, Janga-tau and Shkara - all amongst the loftiest peaks of the Caucasus - stand on a subsidiary range north of the principal range or on spurs connecting the two.

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  • ANDORRA, or Andorre, a small, neutral, autonomous, and semi-independent state, on the Franco-Spanish frontier, and chiefly on the peninsular side of the eastern Pyrenees.

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  • AUDE, a river of south-western France, rising in the eastern Pyrenees and flowing into the Golfe du Lion.

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  • (1553-1610), king of France, the son of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome, head of the younger branch of the Bourbons, descendant of Robert of Clermont, sixth son of St Louis and of Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre, was born at Pau (Basses Pyrenees) on the 14th of December 1553..

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  • of France, brought to her second husband the whole of the lands from Pojtou to the Pyrenees, the accumulated gains of many warlike ancestors: In wealth and fighting strength the duchy of Aquitaine was a full third of France.

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  • The younger Edward ended by losing his health and his wealth in an unnecessary war beyond the Pyrenees.

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  • It was the beginning of the Peninsular War, which was destined not to end until, in 1814, the British troops crossed the Pyrenees into France, while the Allies were pressing over the Rhine.

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  • His reminiscences of "Things Seen" in the course of a strangely varied experience, and his notes of travel among the Alps and Pyrenees, in the north of France and in Belgium, in the south of France and in Burgundy, are all recorded by such a pen and registered by such a memory as no other man ever had at the service of his impressions or his thoughts.

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  • It grows at considerable elevations in southern Europe, in the Alps, Apennines, Pyrenees and Sierra Nevada (4000 to 8000 ft.).

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  • The whole of the south of the department is occupied by the western and lower summits of the Pyrenees.

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  • The Bidassoa, which is only important as forming part of the frontier, contains the Ile des Faisans, where the treaty of the Pyrenees was concluded (1659), and debouches between Hendaye (France) and Fuenterrabia (Spain).

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  • These ranges are outliers of the Pyrenees, which extend along the northern frontier, forming there the lofty Sierra del Cadi with the peak of Tosa (8317 ft.).

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  • of Saragossa, on the left bank of the river Aragon, and among the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, 2380 ft.

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  • In August 1904 the French and Spanish governments agreed to supplement this trade-route by building a railway from Oloron in the Basses Pyrenees to Jaca.

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  • by France (Basses Pyrenees) and Guipuzcoa, E.

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  • It is traversed from east to west by the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains, and almost the whole of the province is overrun by the ramifications of these ranges.

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  • exports both by rail and by the passes in the Pyrenees consist of live stock, oil, wine, wool, leather and paper.

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  • the Basques and Gascons, who occupied the southern slope of the western Pyrenees and part of the shore of the Bay of Biscay.

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  • In the course of the 6th century there was a considerable emigration of Basques to the north of the Pyrenees.

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  • When the kingdom was at its height it included all the modern province of the name; the northern slope of the western Pyrenees called by the Spaniards the "Ultra-puertos" or country beyond the passes, and now known as French Navarre; the Basque provinces; the Bureba, the valley between the Basque Mountains and the Montes de Oca to the north of Burgos; the Rioja and Tarazona in the upper valley of the Ebro.

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  • Whilst for ten years Alarics Goths and Stilichos Vandals were drenching Italy with blood, the Vandals and the Alani from the steppes of the Black Sea, dragging in their wake the The reluctant German tribes who had been allies of Rome ~ and who had already settled down to the cultivation of theirlands, invaded the now abandoned Gaul, and having come as far as the Pyrenees, crossed over them.

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  • The Merovingian monarchy thus attained the utmost limits of its territorial expansion, bounded as it was by the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Rhine; it exercised influence over the whole of Germany, which it threw open to the Christian missionaries, and its conquests formed the first beginnings of German history.

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  • When Odo, brought to bay, appealed for help to the Arab troops of Abd-arRahman, who after conquering Spain had crossed the Pyrenees, Charles, like a second Clovis, saved Catholic Christendom in its peril by crushing the Arabs at Tours (732).

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  • the Pyrenees.

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  • of Aquitaine, Louiss own domains had been increased by the greater part of the country between the Loire and the Pyrenees; while his fathers minister, the monk Suger, continued to assist him with his moderation and prudence.

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  • and a princess of Savoy decided Spain, now brought to bay, to accord him the hand of Maria Theresa as a chief condition of the peace pyrenees.

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  • of the Pyrenees (November 1659).

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  • Habitual privation during one year in every three drove the peasants to revolt: in Boulonnais, the Pyrenees, Vivarais, in Guyenne from 1670 onwards and in Brittany in 1675.

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  • This was another natural and glorious result of the treaty of the Pyrenees.

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  • PYRENEES [Span.

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  • Pyrenees], a range of mountains in south-west Europe, separating the Iberian Peninsula from France, and extending for about 240 m., from the Bay of Biscay to Cape Creus, or, if only the main crest of the range be considered, to Cape Cerbere, on the Mediterranean Sea.

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  • The Pyrenees are conventionally divided into three sections, the central, the Atlantic or western, and the eastern.

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  • The central Pyrenees extend eastward from the Port de Canfranc to the valley of Aran, and include the highest summits of the whole chain, Aneto or Pic de Nethou (11,168 ft.), in the Maladetta ridge, Posets (11,047 ft.), and Mont Perdu or Monte Perdido (10,997 ft.).

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  • In the Atlantic Pyrenees the average altitude gradually diminishes westward; while in the eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrenees Ariegeoises, the mean elevation is maintained with remarkable uniformity, till at last a rather; sudden decline occurs in the portion of the chain known as the Alberes.

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  • Other less pronounced wrinkles run from southwest to north-east and intersect the former series at certain points, so that it is by alternate digressions from one to the other series that the irregular crest of the Pyrenees acquires its general direction.

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  • The Pyrenees are divided by E.

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  • On the French side the central zone is followed by (1) the zone of Ariege, consisting of Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic beds, together with granitic masses; (2) the zone of the Petites Pyrenees, Upper Cretaceous and Eocene; and (3) the zone of the Corbieres, consisting of Eocene and Primary rocks.

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  • The zone of the Petites Pyrenees, however, is clearly homologous with that of the Sierras.

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  • Since the publication of the maps by de Margerie and Schrader it has been shown that the phenomena of "recouvrement" play almost as large a part in the Pyrenees as in the Alps themselves.

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  • The earth movements which raised the Pyrenees appear to have begun in the Eocene period, but it was in Oligocene times that the principal folding took place.

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  • The Pyrenees are therefore contemporaneous with the Alps; but they appear to have escaped the Miocene disturbances which affected the latter.

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  • The arrangement of the Pyrenees in chains gently inclined near the centre but longitudinal everywhere else, is illustrated by the courses of the streams which flow down towards Spain.

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  • The importance shown to attach to the Spanish versant has greatly modified the values formerly assigned to the area and mean elevation of the Pyrenees.

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  • The metallic ores of the Pyrenees are not in general of much importance, though there are considerable iron mines at Vic de Sos in Ariege and at the foot of Canigou in Pyrenees-Orientales.

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  • The amount of the precipitation, including rain and snow, is much greater in the western than in the eastern Pyrenees, which leads to a marked contrast between these sections of the chain in more than one respect.

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  • In the first place, the eastern Pyrenees are without glaciers, the quantity of snow falling there being insufficient to lead to their development.

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  • The glaciers are confined to the northern slopes of the central Pyrenees, and do not descend, like those of the Alps, far down in the valleys, but have their greatest length in the direction of the mountainchain.

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  • The snow-line varies in different parts of the Pyrenees from 8800 to 9200 ft.

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  • The lower mountains in the extreme west are very well wooded, but the extent of forest declines eastwards, and the eastern Pyrenees are peculiarly wild and naked, all the more since it is in this part of the chain that granitic masses prevail.

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  • The Pyrenees are relatively as rich in endemic species as the Alps, and among the most remarkable instances of that endemism is the occurrence of the sole European species of Dioscorea (yam), the D.

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  • pyrenaica, on a single high station in the central Pyrenees, and that of the monotypic genus Xatardia, only on a high alpine pass between the Val d'Eynes and Catalonia.

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  • In their fauna also the Pyrenees.

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  • Beraldi, Cent ans aux Pyrenees (1901), Les Sierras, cent ans acres Ramond (1902), Aprks cent ans.

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  • Les Pics d'Europe (1903), and Les Pyrenees orientales et l'Ariege 0904); P. Joanne, Pyrenees (1905); H.

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  • Belloc, The Pyrenees (1909),; for geology, in addition to the papers cited above, A.

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  • Carez, La Geologie des Pyrenees francaises (Paris, Min.

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  • Roussel, Tableau stratigraphique des Pyrenees (Paris, Min.

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  • Handbook to the Health Resorts on the Pyrenees, &c. (1905), and J.

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  • Bentham, Catalogue des plantes indigenes des Pyrenees et de Bas Languedoc (1826).

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  • On all sides except that of Portugal the boundaries of continental Spain are natural, the Peninsula being separated from France by the Pyrenees and on every other side being surrounded by the sea.

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  • While, again, continuous mountain ranges and broad plains and table-lands give the prevailing character to the scenery, there are, on the one hand, lofty isolated peaks, such as Monseny, Montserrat and Mont Sant in Catalonia, the Pea Golosa in Valencia, Moncayo on the borders of Aragon and Old Castile, and, on the other hand, small secluded valleys, such as those of Vich and Olot among the Catalonian Pyrenees.

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  • Even more important than the mountains bounding or crossing the table-land are those which are connected with it only at their extremities; viz, the Pyrenees (q.v.) in the north-east, the Sierra Nevada and the coast ranges in the south.

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  • Although not comparable in altitude with the Pyrenees (highest summit Aneto, 11,168 ft.) or the Sierra Nevada (highest summit Mulhacen, 11,421 ft.), the coast ranges frequently attain an elevation of over 5000 ft., and in some cases of over 6000 ft.

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  • The Ebro valley occupies the angle in the north-east between the Pyrenees and the central Lo ~ d table-land, and is divided by ranges of heights proceeding ~ on the one side from the Pyrenees, on the other from the.

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  • above sea-lexel, is only about one-fourth of the size of the remaining portion, which is chiefly lowland, but is cut off froni the coast by a highland tract connecting the interior table-land with spurs from the Pyrenees.

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  • Around it the deposits of the Jurassic an Cretaceous seas were laid down: and during the Tertiary era the~ were crushed, together with the earlier Tertiary beds, against th~ ancient rocks, and thus formed the folded zones of the Cordillerr Betica on the south, the hills of southern Aragon on the east and thi Pyrenees on the north.

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  • The Permian is probably represented by some of the red sandstones, conglomerates and shales in the Pyrenees, in the Serrania de Cuenca, and in Andalusia.

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  • - These strata are overlain by members of the Jurassic series, which are especially conspicuous in the eastern part of the peninsula between Castile and Aragon, along the Mediterranean border, in Andalusia, and likewise along the flanks of the Pyrenees.

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  • Remains of the reindeer are found in caves in the Pyrenees.

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  • There occur also quartz-porphyry (Sierra Morena, Pyrenees, &c), diorite, porphyrite, diabase (well developed in the north of Andalusia, where it plays a great part in the structure of the Sierra Morena), ophite (Pyrenees, Cadiz), serpentine (forming an enormous mass in the Serrania de Ronda), trachyte, liparite, andesite, basalt.

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  • The endemic species are naturally most numerous in the mountains, and above all in the loftiest ranges, the Pyrenees and the Sierra Nevada; but it is a peculiarity of the Spanish tableland, as compared with the plains and table-lands of central Europe, tha.t it also possesses a considerable number of endemic plants and plants of extremely restricted range.

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  • Of the mammals in which Spain shows more affinity to the fauna of central and northern Europe, some of the most characteristic are the Spanish lynx (Lynx pardinus), a species confined to the Peninsula, the Spanish hare (Lepus madritenss), and the species mentioned in the article PYRENEES.

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  • The Spanish railway system at this time communicated with the French at Irun and Portbou, west and east respectively of the Pyrenees; and with the Portuguese at or near Tuy on the northern frontier of Portugal, and near La Fregeneda, Ciudad Rodrigo, Valencia de Alcntara and Badajoz on the E.

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  • For strategical reasons the Spanish gauge was made different from that of France; and military considerations long postponed the construction of any railway across the Pyrenees.

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  • The roads which wind through the Pyrenees in northern Aragon, Navarre and Catalonia had long been the channels of an important traffic, although great inconvenience was caused by the snow which blocks the passes in winter.

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  • In neither province is the soil naturally fertile, and nothing but the untiring industry of the inhabitants, favored by the rivers which traverse the province from the table-land of New Castile and the numerous small streams (nacinlientos) that issue from the base of the limestone mountains and by the numerous torrents from the Pyrenees, has converted them into two of the most productive regions in Spain.

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  • Goats are mostly bred in the mountainous districts all along the Spanish side of the Pyrenees froth Biscay to Catalonia, and in Badajoz, Cceres, Ciudad Real, Granada and Leon; swine in Badajoz, Lugo, Oviedo, Cceres and Corunna.

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  • Numerous fortresses guard the Portuguese frontier and the passes of the Pyrenees, but many of these are ill-armed and obsolete.

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  • slopes of the Pyrenees and in.

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  • The Phoenicians were here traders and not settlers; the Greeks, though they planted early colonies on the Gulf of Lyons, occupied hardly any site south of the Pyrenees, and the seeming likeness in name of Saguntum and the Greek island Zacynthus is mere coincidence.

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  • Others are probably later, and indicate that prosperity continued here, as it did on the other side of the Pyrenees in Gaul, till the later days of the 4th centuryperhaps indeed not till the fatal winters night in 406-7 when the barbarians burst the Rhine frontier and flooded Gaul and even Spain with a deluge from which there was no recovery.

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  • On his death there was an obscure interregnum of five months, which ended by the election of Liuva (567572), the governor of Narbonne, the surviving remnant of the Visigoth power to the north of the Pyrenees.

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  • The rush of the Mahommedan flood sent terror all over Europe, but the little opposition it encountered south of the Pyrenees is to be easily explained, and the victory, though genuine, was more specious than substantial.

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  • In the centre were the Basques, dwelling on both sides of the Pyrenees, who kept against the Mahommedan the independence they had vindicated against the Visigoth.

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  • On the e~ast of the Basques, along the line of the Pyrenees, were others of kindred blood, who also kept a rude freedom on the slopes and in the valleys of the mountains.

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  • On the eastern extremity of the Pyrenees the Franks found no native free population.

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  • only one event occurred which had much tendency to bring the Christians of the north-west into close relations with their neighbors of the same faith north of the Pyrenees.

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  • To the east of it, the Navarrese, having rid themselves of the Carolingian counts and marchers, had made a kingdom in their mountains, and beyond them the little free territorias of the central Pyrenees were advancing, in subordination to the Navarrese king at Pamplona.

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  • Navarre was left by Sancho to another son, Garcia, while the small Christian states of the central Pyrenees, Aragon and Sobrarbe with the Ribagorza went to his other sons, Ramiro Sanchez and Gonzalo.

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  • It was henceforth ~ of a small state lying across the Pyrenees, dependent on France, and doomed inevitably to be partitioned between its great neighbors to north and south.

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  • Aided by the disorders of the minority of Louis XIV., she struggled on till the peace of the Pyrenees in 1659, by which Roussillon was ceded to France.

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  • Instead of reducing the southern provinces of France, the Spaniards were driven from the strong fortresses that guarded the Pyrenees, and the French advanced almost to the Ebro; and at the same time the British were utilizing the war to extend their colonial power and were establishing more firmly that maritime supremacy which the Spanish government had been struggling for almost a century to overthrow.

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  • Joseph retired altogether from his kingdom, and Wellington, eager to take his part in the great European contest, fought his way through the Pyrenees into France.

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  • The Alphonsist armies, led by Marshals Campos and Jovellar, swept the Carlist bands from the right hank of the Ebro to the Pyrenees, and took their last strongholds in the eastern provinces, Cantavieja and Seo de Urgel.

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  • From the 9th century onwards Spain was slowly recaptured from the Mahommedans, and the Latin spoken by the Christians who had taken refuge on the slopes of the Pyrenees was gradually carried back to the centre and ultimately to the south of the Peninsula, whence it had been driven by the Arab invasion.

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  • As early as 1842 he entered political life, having been elected in that year as a deputy for the department of the Hautes Pyrenees.

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  • The Great Pyrenees dog had adopted the buffalo calves shortly after they were born.

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  • She turned to greet the Great Pyrenees dog that had guarded the goat heard so faithfully.

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  • Ed snorted and side-stepped as the Great Pyrenees guard dog slid to a stop beside them.

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  • We had a Great Pyrenees, but he died about a month ago.

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  • He'd like to get a stock dog like the Great Pyrenees Carmen had.

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  • In the last place I stayed there were some magazines devoted to the Pyrenees.

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  • magazines devoted to the Pyrenees.

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  • H. nobilis var. pyrenaica A compact form from the Pyrenees with beautifully marbled leaves.

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  • The countryside is equally praised, & includes lush meadowland, dense forest, & steep valleys, all flanked by the Pyrenees mountains.

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  • ordnance used by the Royal Artillery were a mountain battery formed for the crossing of the Pyrenees.

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  • We were about to take the first step on our journey across the Pyrenees.

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  • take the first step on our journey across the Pyrenees.

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  • twentyis early twenties he was invited to go to the Pyrenees to study plant life.

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  • Passing by her infantine recollections, which go back further than even those of Dickens, we find her at the age of three crossing the Pyrenees to join her father who was on Murat's staff, occupying with her parents a suite of rooms in the royal palace, adopted as the child of the regiment, nursed by rough old sergeants, and dressed in a complete suit of uniform to please the general.

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  • The coast, constantly encroaching on the sea by reason of the alluvium washed down by the rivers of the Pyrenees and Cvennes, is without important harbours saving that of Cette, itself continually invaded by the sand.

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  • m., and extends from the Pyrenees to the uplands of Saintonge, Prigord and Limousin.

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  • The Garonne rises in the valley of Aran (Spanish Pyrenees), enters France near Bagnres-de-Luchon, has first a north-west course, then bends to the north-east, and soon resumes its first direction.

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  • at the western extremity of the Pyrenees), and nearly as much in the Vosges, Morvan, Cvennes and parts of the central plateau.

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  • The chestnut covers considerable areas in Prigord, Limousin and Beam; resinotis trees (firs, pines, larches, &c.) form fine forests in the Vosges and The indigenous fauna include the bear, now very rare but still found in the Alps and Pyrenees, the wolf, harbouring chiefly in the Cvennes and Vosges, but in continually decreasing areas; the fox, marten, badger, weasel, otter, the beaver in the extreme south of the Rhne valley, and in the Alps the marmot; the red deer and roe deer are preserved in many of the forests, and the wild boar is found in several districts; the chamois and wild goat survive in the Pyrenees and Alps.

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  • The second great folding took place in Tertiary times, and to it was due the final elevation of the J ura and the Western Alps and of the Pyrenees.

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  • Jurassic Oeuonian Volcanic Rock, country was free from outbursts, except in the regions of the Alps and Pyrenees.

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  • The Bretons, who most nearly represent the Celts, and the Basques, who inhabit parts of the western versant of the Pyrenees, have preserved their distinctive languages and customs, and are ethnically the most interesting sections of the nation; the Flemings of French Flanders where Flemish is still spoken are also racially distinct.

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  • The poorer grazing lands on the upper levels of the Alps, Pyrenees, Jura and Vosges, the Landes, the more outlying regions of the central plateau, southern Brittany, Sologne, Berry, ChampagnePouilleuse, the Crau and the Carnargue, these districts being given over for the most part to sheep-raising.

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  • Upper Poitou and the zone of south-western France to the north of the Pyrenees are the chief regions for the breeding of mules.

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  • the Percheron (light and heavy draught), the Anglo-Norman (light draught and heavy cavalry)and the Tarbais of the weStern Pyrenees (saddle horses and light cavalry).

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  • The Alps and Pyrenees are in large part deforested, but reafforestation with a view to minimizing the effects of avalanches and sudden floods is continually in progress.

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  • From Bordeaux there is also a direct line to Bayonne and Irun (for Madrid), and at the other end of the Pyrenees a line leads from Narbonne to Perpignan and Barcelona.

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  • The defences, of the Spanish frontier consist of the entrenched camps of Bayonne and Perpignan and the various small forts darrt of the Pyrenees.

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  • She was early regarded as a useful medium for contracting an alliance with England, more necessary than ever to Portugal after the treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 whereby Portugal was ostensibly abandoned by France.

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  • He was forced to pawn Rousillon, his possession on the north-east of the Pyrenees, to Louis XI., who refused to part with it.

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  • c. 736), king, or duke, of Aquitaine, obtained this dignity about 715, and his territory included the southwestern part of Gaul from the Loire to the Pyrenees.

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  • The great tropical family of the Gesneraceae has left behind a few outliers: Ramondia in the Pyrenees, Haberlea in the Balkans, and Jankaea in Thessaly; the Pyrenees also possess a minute Dioscorea, sole European survivor of the yams of the tropics.

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  • Comparing the Alps with the Pyrenees, according to Ball, each has about half its flora common to the other:

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  • the Alps have 172 endemic species and at least 15 genera that are not found in the Pyrenees, while the latter range counts about 100 endemic species with several (six or seven) genera not found in the Alps Drude has accordingly suggested the substitution of the term High-mountain floras for Alpine, which he regards as misleading.

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  • Lofty lines of fold mountains form the " backbones " of North America in the Rocky of Mountains and the west coast systems, of South America in the Cordillera of the Andes, of Europe in the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians and Caucasus, and of Asia in the mountains of Asia Minor, converging on the Pamirs and diverging thence in the Himalaya and the vast mountain systems of central and eastern Asia.

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  • north Italy between Alps and Apennines and (b) the far more important Gallia Transalpina (or Ulterior, " Further"), usually called Gallia (Gaul) simply, the land bounded by the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees, the Atlantic, the Rhine, i.e.

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  • Montpellier to the Pyrenees (i.e.

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  • The first of these extended from the Pyrenees to the Garumna (Garonne); the second, from that river to the Sequana (Seine) and its chief tributary the Matrona (Marne), reaching eastward presumably as far as the Rhenus (Rhine); and the third, from this bounding Iline to the mouth of the last-named river, thus bordering on the Germans.

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  • The three provinces were: Aquitania, reaching from the Pyrenees almost to the Loire; Lugudunensis, the land between Loire and Seine, reaching from Brittany in the west to Lyons in the south-east; and Belgica in the north.

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  • He was born at his mother's castle of Xavier or Xavero, at the foot of the Pyrenees and close to the little town of Sanguesa, on the 7th of April 1506, according to a family register, though his earlier biographers fix his birth in 1497.

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  • Extensive woods of this fir exist on the southern Alps, where the tree grows up to nearly 4000 ft.; in the Rhine countries it forms great part of the extensive forest of the Hochwald, and occurs in the Black Forest and in the Vosges; it is plentiful likewise on the Pyrenees and Apennines.

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  • He controlled all the lands from the Elbe to the Pyrenees, and had Spain and Italy at his beck and call.

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  • The claimants, each not knowing of the movements of the other, crossed the Pyrenees, and Ferdinand on his arrival at Bayonne found himself to be virtually a prisoner in the hands of the emperor.

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  • After spending a short time in Paris in order to supervise the transfer of his forces from Germany to the Pyrenees, he journeyed swiftly southwards, burst upon the Spaniards, and on the 3rd of December received the surrender of Madrid.

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  • This now stretched from Lubeck to the Pyrenees, from Brest to Rome; while another arm (only nominally severed from the empire by the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy) extended down the eastern shore of the Adriatic to Ragusa and Cattaro, threatening the Turkish empire with schemes of partition always imminent but never achieved.

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  • Metternich persuaded the tsar and the king of Prussia to make a declaration that the allies would leave to Napoleon the "natural boundaries" of France - the Rhine, Alps, Pyrenees and Ocean.

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  • After the Treaty of the Pyrenees, he was sent to direct the conference which had been formed to fix the limits of Roussillon, which had just been ceded to France (1660).

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  • At first he ruled that part of the Visigothic kingdom which lay to the south of the Pyrenees, his brother Liuva or Leova governing the small part to the north of these mountains; but in 572 Liuva died and Leovigild became sole king.

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  • a few days Madrid was evacuated, and all the French forces, with the exception of the garrisons of San Sebastian (3000), Pampeluna (3000), Santona (1500), and the troops under Suchet holding posts in Catalonia and Valencia, had retired across the Pyrenees into France.

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  • Thence his line stretched along the Pyrenees by the passes of Vera, Echallar, Maya and Roncesvalles, to Altobiscar; his immediate object now being to reduce the fortresses of San Sebastian and Pampeluna.

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  • 2) beyond the Pyrenees.

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  • 2 "Gave" in the Pyrenees means a mountain stream or torrent.

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  • 7); the French posts of Lerida, Mequinenza and Monzon had also been yielded up, and Suchet, on the 2nd of March, had crossed the Pyrenees into France.

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  • The British troops were partly sent to England, and partly embarked at Bordeaux for America, with which country war had broken out (see American War Of 1812-1s): the Portuguese and Spanish recrossed the Pyrenees: the French army was dispersed throughout France: Louis XVIII.

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  • Choumara, Considerations militaires sur les memoires du Marechal Suchet et sur la bataille de Toulouse (Paris, 1838); Commandant Clerc, Campagne du Marechal Soult dans les Pyrenees occidentales en 1813-14 (Paris, 1894); Memoires du Baron Marbot (Paris, 1891; Eng.

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  • Butler, Wellington's Operations in the Peninsula, 1808-14 (London, 1904); Batty, Campaign of the Left Wing of the Allied Army in the Western Pyrenees and South of France, 1813-14 (London, 1823); Foy, Histoire de la guerre de la Peninsule, F&c., sous Napoleon (Paris and London, 1827); Lord Londonderry, Narrative of the Peninsular War, 1808-13 (London, 1829); R.

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  • By the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) it came into the possession of the French, and was fortified by Vauban.

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  • by the Pyrenees.

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  • by a mountain range of medium height, which unites the Pyrenees with the southern Cevennes; and its northern frontier is occupied by the Montagne Noire, the most westerly portion of the Cevennes.

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  • The Corbieres, a branch of the Pyrenees, run in a south-west and north-east direction along the southern district.

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  • At the end of the Thirty Years' War Artois was again conquered by the French, and the conquest was ratified in the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) by Spain, to whom the province had fallen in 1634.

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  • The survival of the non-Aryan language among the Basques around the west Pyrenees has suggested the attempt to interpret by its means a large class of similarsounding place-names of ancient Spain, some of which are authenticated by their occurrence on the inscribed coins, and to link it with other traces of non-Aryan speech round the shores of the Western Mediterranean and on the Atlantic seaboard of Europe.

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  • d'Arbois de Jubainville, for example (Les Premiers habitants de l'Europe, Paris, 1877), maintained that besides possessing Spain, Gaul, Italy and the British Isles, " Iberian " peoples penetrated into the Balkan peninsula, and occupied a part of northern Africa, Corsica and Sardinia; and it is now generally accepted that a race with fairly uniform characteristics was at one time in possession of the south of France (or at least of Aquitania), the whole of Spain from the Pyrenees to the straits, the Canary Islands (the Guanches) a part of northern Africa and Corsica.

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  • Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardeche), on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific papers, he wrote Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843); Norway and its Glaciers (1853); Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (1859); A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa (1855).

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  • The fossils show many notable affinities with those in the Lower Cretaceous of the Pyrenees.

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  • From Campania Paulinus returned to his native place and came into correspondence or personal intimacy with men like Martin of Tours and Ambrose of Milan, and ultimately (about 389) he was formally received into the church by bishop Delphinus of Bordeaux, whence shortly afterwards he withdrew with his wife beyond the Pyrenees.

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  • " The Charlemagne Legends.") The most famous heroes who are associated with him are Roland, praefect of the marches of Brittany, the Orlando of Ariosto, slain at Roncevaux (Roncevalles) in the Pyrenees, and his friend and rival Oliver (Olivier); Ogier the Dane, the Holger Danske of Hans Andersen, and Huon of Bordeaux, probably both introduced from the Arthurian cycle; Renaud (Rinaldo) of Montauban, one of the four sons of Aymon, to whom the wonderful horse Bayard was presented by Charlemagne; the traitor Doon of Mayence; Ganelon, responsible for the treachery that led to the death of Roland; Archbishop Turpin, a typical specimen of muscular Christianity; William Fierabras, William au court nez, William of Toulouse, and William of Orange (all probably identical), and Vivien, the nephew of the latter and the hero of Aliscans.

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  • moschatus, a native of the Pyrenees and the Spanish peninsula, is a cream-coloured subspecies of great beauty with several forms. N.

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  • In 415 Ataulphus crossed the Pyrenees into Spain and died at Barcelona, being assassinated by a groom.

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  • In the summer of 1830 Tennyson and Hallam volunteered in the army of the Spanish insurgent Torrijos, and marched about a little in the Pyrenees, without meeting with an enemy.

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  • In 1861 he travelled in Auvergne and the Pyrenees, with Clough, who was to die a few months later; to this year belong "Helen's Tower" and the "Dedication" of the Idylls to the prince consort, "These to his Memory."

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  • Littre defines them as "a people of the Pyrenees affected with a kind of cretinism."

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  • By the treaty of the Pyrenees (1669) the war came to an end and Savoy regained most of the towns occupied by France.

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  • From Miranda it winds south-eastward through the wide basin enclosed on the right by the highlands of Old Castile and western Aragon, and on the left by the Pyrenees.

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  • He was an adviser to Mazarin in the negotiations which terminated in the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) He amassed a considerable fortune, and was unpopular, even in court circles.

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  • As the Frankish forces were defiling through the passes of the Pyrenees they were attacked by the Wascones (probably Basques), and the rearguard of the army was almost annihilated.

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  • In 798 he had concluded an alliance with Alphonso II., king of the Asturias, and a series of campaigns mainly under the leadership of King Louis resulted in the establishment of the " Spanish march," a district between the Pyrenees and the Ebro stretching from Pampeluna to Barcelona, as a defence against the Saracens.

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  • The Fronde was at an end by 1653; the peace of Westphalia (1648) and the peace of the Pyrenees (16J9) marked the success of the arms and of the diplomacy of France.

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  • The peace of the Pyrenees was a decisive event in his personal history as well as in that of France, for one of its most important stipulations referred to his marriage, He had already been strongly attracted to one of the nieces of Mazarin, but reasons of state triumphed over personal impulse; and it was agreed that the new friendship with Spain should be cemented by the marriage of Louis to his cousin, the Infanta Maria Theresa.

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  • The surface of Alava is very mountainous, especially on the north, where a part of the Pyrenees forms its natural boundary.

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  • by the Pyrenees, which separate it from France, on the E.

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  • On the south, east and west, these ranges, though wild and rugged, are of no great elevation, but on the north the Pyrenees attain their greatest altitude in the peaks of Aneto (11,168 ft.) and Monte Perdido (10,998 ft.) - also known as Las Tres Sorores, and, in French, as Mont Perdu.

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  • The central pass over the Pyrenees is the Port de Canfranc, on the line between Saragossa and Pau.

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  • The treuga or treva Dei, the prohibition of every act of private warfare during certain days, goes back at least to the Synod of Elne, held in the Pyrenees in 1027, which suspended all warfare from noon on Saturday till prime on Monday.

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  • France is rich in mineral phosphates, the chief deposits being the departments of the Pas-de-Calais, Somme, Aisne, Oise in and Meuse, in the north-east, and another group in the departments of Lot, Tarn-et-Garonne and Aveyron, in the south-west: phosphates occur also in the Pyrenees.

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  • Figueras is built at the foot of the Pyrenees, and on the northern edge of El Ampurdan, a fertile and well-irrigated plain,which produces wine, olives and rice,and derives its name from the seaport of Ampurias,.

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  • Under it Jourdain became absolute master of the regions lying between the Pyrenees and the Alps, Auvergne and the sea.

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  • He had represented the Convention in the armies of Brest and of the Eastern Pyrenees in 1793, and in 1 795 he was sent to the armies of the Moselle and the Rhine.

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  • In 720 they crossed the Pyrenees, seized Narbonensis, a dependency of the kingdom of the Visigoths, and advanced on Gaul.

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  • Some, however, appear to have stayed behind, since, during the Second Punic War, Magalus, a Boian prince, offered to show Hannibal the way into Italy after he had crossed the Pyrenees (Livy xxi.

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  • Garumna), a river of south-western France, rising in the Maladetta group of the Pyrenees, and flowing in a wide curve to the Atlantic Ocean.

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  • It is joined on the right by various streams fed by the snows of the Pyrenees.

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  • From Irazu (11,200), the culminating point of the range, both oceans and the whole of Costa Rica are visible; its altitude exceeds that of Aneto, the highest point in the Pyrenees, but so gradual is its acclivity that the summit can easily be reached by a man on horseback.

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  • by the Pyrenees, W.

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  • The surface is much broken by spurs of the Pyrenees, the direction of which is generally south.

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  • Running south-west to north-east, and united on the north with one of the offsets of the Pyrenees, is the range of the Sierra Llena, which bisects Catalonia, and forms its central watershed.

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  • In each of the years immediately following his arrival in Paris he collected and published a volume of his articles, the first on the salon of 1822, the second on a tour in the Pyrenees.

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  • Manresa is probably the Munorisa of the Romans, which was the capital of the Jacetani or Jaccetani, an important tribe of the south-eastern Pyrenees.

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  • A form of sea-letter (literae salvi conductus) is appended to the Treaty of the Pyrenees, 1659.

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  • LOURDES, a town of south-western France in the department of Hautes-Pyrenees, at the foot of the Pyrenees, 12 m.

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  • By such measures Spain was induced to sue for peace, which was finally signed in the Isle of Pheasants on the Bidassoa, and is known as the Treaty of the Pyrenees.

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  • The man who could have had such success, who could have made the Treaties of Westphalia and the Pyrenees, who could have weathered the storm of the Fronde, and left France at peace with itself and with Europe to Louis XIV., must have been a great man; and historians, relying too much on the brilliant memoirs of his adversaries, like De Retz, are apt to rank him too low.

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  • ADOUR (anc. Aturrus or Adurus, from Celtic dour, water), a river of south-west France, rising in the department of Hautes Pyrenees, and flowing in a wide curve to the Bay of Biscay.

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  • the plain of Tarbes, and for the remainder of its course in the department of Hautes Pyrenees is of much less importance as a waterway than as a means of feeding the numerous irrigation canals which cover the plains on each side.

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  • chain, or the Pyrenees, and in the wild state is unknown in the Spanish peninsula.

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  • Its southern border is occupied by the snow-clad peaks of the eastern Pyrenees, the highest of which within the department is the Pic de Montcalm (10,512 ft.).

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  • Soult's combats in the Pyrenees, and the desperate resistance of St Sebastian, prolonged the struggle through the autumn, and cost the English thousands of men.

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  • But his double position as ruler both north and south of the eastern Pyrenees distracted his policy.

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  • The Bogomil propaganda follows the mountain chains of central Europe, starting from the Balkans and continuing along the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps and the Pyrenees, with' ramifications north and south (Germany, England and Spain).

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  • When orthodox Christianity had Pyrenees, the episcopate of those countries grouped sovereigns.

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  • So vigorously did she enter into this policy that, when the French forces advanced to the Pyrenees, she placed herself at the head of one division of the Spanish army.

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  • The attempts made by his father to assign him a kingdom, first Alamannia (829), then the country between the Meuse and the Pyrenees (839), at the expense of his half -brothers Lothair andLouis led to a rising on the part of these two (see Lours I., the Pious).

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  • The Alps, however, do not present so continuous a barrier as the Himalayas, the Andes or even the Pyrenees.

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  • Its closest relationship is with the flora of the Pyrenees; but an alpine flora is characteristic of all the lofty mountains of central Europe.

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  • The former - the sole representative, in western Europe, of the antelopes - is found elsewhere only in the Pyrenees, Carpathians, Caucasus and the mountains of eastern Turkey; the latter survives only in the eastern Graian Alps.

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  • As sovereign of lands on both sides of the Pyrenees, he was affected by very different influences.

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  • But his lands to the north of the Pyrenees brought him into close relations with the Albigenses.

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  • By the treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) Artois (except St Omer and Aire) and a number of towns in Flanders, Hainaut, and Luxemburg were ceded to France.

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  • took immediate steps to support his grandson's claims, in spite of his formal renunciation of such claims under the treaty of the Pyrenees.

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  • In the Pyrenees the species is represented by a small race locally known as the izard; a very brightly-coloured form, R.

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  • Having during his stay in Gaul defeated and concluded an alliance with Theodoric the Visigoth, at the beginning of 460 he crossed the Pyrenees for the purpose of joining the powerful fleet which he had collected at Carthagena.

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  • Taken in this year by the French, this capture was ratified by the peace of the Pyrenees in 1659, and henceforward it remained part of France.

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  • de Medecine; subsequently he joined the army of the Pyrenees as pharmacies; but having committed some slight political offence, he was thrown into prison and detained there for some time.

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  • La Salette in Dauphine (1846), and more particularly Lourdes (1858) in the department of Hautes Pyrenees - but the numbers once more attained a height which enables them to compete with the medieval figures.

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  • It can be grown in the tropics from the level of the sea to a height equal to that of the Pyrenees and in the south and middle of Europe, but it cannot be grown in England with any chance of profit, except perhaps as fodder.

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  • His policy had won the line of the Pyrenees for France.

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  • He endeavoured to form a southern state on both sides of the Pyrenees, which should counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire.

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  • Abdallah, even crossed the Pyrenees and took possession of Narbonne; but he was beaten and killed at Toulouse in July 720.

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  • In Spain the attention of the Moslems was principally turned to avenge the defeat of Samh beyond the Pyrenees.

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  • As early as the second year of the reign of Hisham, `Anbasa, the governor of Spain, crossed the Pyrenees, and pushed on military operations vigorously.

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  • The swords are leaf-shaped, with blunt points intended for cutting, not for thrusting; the hilts differ essentially from those of the Bronze Age, being shaped like a crescent to grasp the blade, with large pommels, or sometimes with antennae (the latter found also in Bavaria, Wurttemberg, Baden, Switzerland, the Pyrenees, Spain, north Italy): only six arrowheads (bronze) were found.

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  • The northern half of Lerida belongs entirely to the Mediterranean or eastern section of the Pyrenees, and comprises some of the finest scenery in the whole chain, including the valleys of Aran and La Cerdana, and large tracts of forest.

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  • In 1904 the Spanish government agreed with France to carry another line to the mouth of an international tunnel through the Pyrenees.

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  • of England was feudal lord of the greater part of France, practically all west of a line which began at Dieppe and ended at the foot of the Pyrenees more than half-way across to the Mediterranean, while at one point it nearly touched the Rhone.

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  • France had its traditions of the destruction of serpents by the early missionaries (Deane, 283 seq.), and the memory possibly survived at Luchon in the Pyrenees, where the clergy and people celebrated the eve of St John by burning live serpents.

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  • Patches of Cambrian rocks are found in the Pyrenees.

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  • But all attempts to remove the accused from the civil prison in Saragossa to that of the Inquisition raised popular tumults, which in the end led to Perez's escape across the Pyrenees, but unfortunately also furnished Philip with a pretext for sending an army into Aragon and suppressing the ancient.

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  • Exports include timber, mine-props, turpentine, resinous material from the Pyrenees and Landes and zinc ore; leading imports are the coal and Spanish minerals which supply the large metallurgical works of Le Boucau at the mouth of the river, the raw material necessary for the chemical works of the same town, wine, and the cereals destined for the flour mills of Pau, Peyrehorade and Orthez.

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  • South of the Pyrenees, P. Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, and Poppaea's former 4 Suet.

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  • In Asia it abounds in Siberia and on the mountains of the Amur region; on the European Alps it occurs at a height of 5600 ft., and on the Pyrenees it is found at still higher elevations; on the northern side of Etna it is said to grow at above 7000 ft.

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  • In 409 his son Gunderic led them across the Pyrenees.

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  • The most important are Aix-les-Bains, and a number of springs in the Pyrenees in France, Aachen in Germany, Harrogate in England, Strathpeffer and Moffat in Scotland.

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  • DOMINIQUE FRANCCOIS JEAN ARAGO (1786-1853), French physicist, was born on the 26th of February 1786, at Estagel, a small village near Perpignan, in the department of the eastern Pyrenees.

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  • In the summer of 1853 he was advised by his physicians to try the effect of his native air, and he accordingly set out for the eastern Pyrenees.

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  • The premature royalist rising, however, in August 1659 was defeated, and Charles, who had awaited the result on the coast of Brittany, proceeded to Fuenterrabia on the Spanish frontier, where Mazarin and Luis de Haro were negotiating the treaty of the Pyrenees, to induce both powers to support his cause; but the failure of the attempt in England ensured the rejection of his request, and he returned to Brussels in December, visiting his mother at Paris on the way.

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  • Having been obliged to withdraw to Africa in consequence of the advance of the forces of Sulla over the Pyrenees, he carried on a campaign in Mauretania, in which he defeated one of Sulla's generals and captured Tingis (Tangier).

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  • In March 1659, however, the war between France and Spain was ended by the treaty of the Pyrenees; and D.

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  • In its general character and conformation the Caucasus presents a closer analogy with the Pyrenees than with the Alps.

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  • The range of the Caucasus, like that of the Pyrenees, maintains for considerable distances a high average elevation, and is not cleft by deep trenches, forming natural passes across the range, such as are common in the Alps.

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  • In both ranges, too, some of the highest summits stand on spurs of the main range, not on the main range itself; as Mont Perdu and Maladetta lie south of the main backbone of the Pyrenees, so Mount Elbruz and Kasbek, Dykh-tau, Koshtan-tau, Janga-tau and Shkara - all amongst the loftiest peaks of the Caucasus - stand on a subsidiary range north of the principal range or on spurs connecting the two.

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  • ANDORRA, or Andorre, a small, neutral, autonomous, and semi-independent state, on the Franco-Spanish frontier, and chiefly on the peninsular side of the eastern Pyrenees.

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  • AUDE, a river of south-western France, rising in the eastern Pyrenees and flowing into the Golfe du Lion.

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  • (1553-1610), king of France, the son of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome, head of the younger branch of the Bourbons, descendant of Robert of Clermont, sixth son of St Louis and of Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Navarre, was born at Pau (Basses Pyrenees) on the 14th of December 1553..

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  • of France, brought to her second husband the whole of the lands from Pojtou to the Pyrenees, the accumulated gains of many warlike ancestors: In wealth and fighting strength the duchy of Aquitaine was a full third of France.

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  • The younger Edward ended by losing his health and his wealth in an unnecessary war beyond the Pyrenees.

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  • It was the beginning of the Peninsular War, which was destined not to end until, in 1814, the British troops crossed the Pyrenees into France, while the Allies were pressing over the Rhine.

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  • His reminiscences of "Things Seen" in the course of a strangely varied experience, and his notes of travel among the Alps and Pyrenees, in the north of France and in Belgium, in the south of France and in Burgundy, are all recorded by such a pen and registered by such a memory as no other man ever had at the service of his impressions or his thoughts.

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  • It grows at considerable elevations in southern Europe, in the Alps, Apennines, Pyrenees and Sierra Nevada (4000 to 8000 ft.).

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  • The whole of the south of the department is occupied by the western and lower summits of the Pyrenees.

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  • The Bidassoa, which is only important as forming part of the frontier, contains the Ile des Faisans, where the treaty of the Pyrenees was concluded (1659), and debouches between Hendaye (France) and Fuenterrabia (Spain).

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  • (See French Revolutionary Wars.) In the summer of 1794 the French invaded Spain at both ends of the Pyrenees, and at the close of the year they made good their footing in Catalonia and Navarre.

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  • These ranges are outliers of the Pyrenees, which extend along the northern frontier, forming there the lofty Sierra del Cadi with the peak of Tosa (8317 ft.).

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  • of Saragossa, on the left bank of the river Aragon, and among the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, 2380 ft.

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  • In August 1904 the French and Spanish governments agreed to supplement this trade-route by building a railway from Oloron in the Basses Pyrenees to Jaca.

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  • by France (Basses Pyrenees) and Guipuzcoa, E.

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  • It is traversed from east to west by the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains, and almost the whole of the province is overrun by the ramifications of these ranges.

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  • exports both by rail and by the passes in the Pyrenees consist of live stock, oil, wine, wool, leather and paper.

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  • the Basques and Gascons, who occupied the southern slope of the western Pyrenees and part of the shore of the Bay of Biscay.

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  • In the course of the 6th century there was a considerable emigration of Basques to the north of the Pyrenees.

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  • When the kingdom was at its height it included all the modern province of the name; the northern slope of the western Pyrenees called by the Spaniards the "Ultra-puertos" or country beyond the passes, and now known as French Navarre; the Basque provinces; the Bureba, the valley between the Basque Mountains and the Montes de Oca to the north of Burgos; the Rioja and Tarazona in the upper valley of the Ebro.

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  • Whilst for ten years Alarics Goths and Stilichos Vandals were drenching Italy with blood, the Vandals and the Alani from the steppes of the Black Sea, dragging in their wake the The reluctant German tribes who had been allies of Rome ~ and who had already settled down to the cultivation of theirlands, invaded the now abandoned Gaul, and having come as far as the Pyrenees, crossed over them.

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  • The Merovingian monarchy thus attained the utmost limits of its territorial expansion, bounded as it was by the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Rhine; it exercised influence over the whole of Germany, which it threw open to the Christian missionaries, and its conquests formed the first beginnings of German history.

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  • When Odo, brought to bay, appealed for help to the Arab troops of Abd-arRahman, who after conquering Spain had crossed the Pyrenees, Charles, like a second Clovis, saved Catholic Christendom in its peril by crushing the Arabs at Tours (732).

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  • the Pyrenees.

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  • of Aquitaine, Louiss own domains had been increased by the greater part of the country between the Loire and the Pyrenees; while his fathers minister, the monk Suger, continued to assist him with his moderation and prudence.

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  • and a princess of Savoy decided Spain, now brought to bay, to accord him the hand of Maria Theresa as a chief condition of the peace pyrenees.

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  • of the Pyrenees (November 1659).

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  • Habitual privation during one year in every three drove the peasants to revolt: in Boulonnais, the Pyrenees, Vivarais, in Guyenne from 1670 onwards and in Brittany in 1675.

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  • This was another natural and glorious result of the treaty of the Pyrenees.

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  • PYRENEES [Span.

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  • Pyrenees], a range of mountains in south-west Europe, separating the Iberian Peninsula from France, and extending for about 240 m., from the Bay of Biscay to Cape Creus, or, if only the main crest of the range be considered, to Cape Cerbere, on the Mediterranean Sea.

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  • The Pyrenees are conventionally divided into three sections, the central, the Atlantic or western, and the eastern.

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  • The central Pyrenees extend eastward from the Port de Canfranc to the valley of Aran, and include the highest summits of the whole chain, Aneto or Pic de Nethou (11,168 ft.), in the Maladetta ridge, Posets (11,047 ft.), and Mont Perdu or Monte Perdido (10,997 ft.).

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  • In the Atlantic Pyrenees the average altitude gradually diminishes westward; while in the eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrenees Ariegeoises, the mean elevation is maintained with remarkable uniformity, till at last a rather; sudden decline occurs in the portion of the chain known as the Alberes.

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  • Other less pronounced wrinkles run from southwest to north-east and intersect the former series at certain points, so that it is by alternate digressions from one to the other series that the irregular crest of the Pyrenees acquires its general direction.

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  • The Pyrenees are divided by E.

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  • On the French side the central zone is followed by (1) the zone of Ariege, consisting of Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic beds, together with granitic masses; (2) the zone of the Petites Pyrenees, Upper Cretaceous and Eocene; and (3) the zone of the Corbieres, consisting of Eocene and Primary rocks.

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  • The zone of the Petites Pyrenees, however, is clearly homologous with that of the Sierras.

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  • Since the publication of the maps by de Margerie and Schrader it has been shown that the phenomena of "recouvrement" play almost as large a part in the Pyrenees as in the Alps themselves.

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  • The earth movements which raised the Pyrenees appear to have begun in the Eocene period, but it was in Oligocene times that the principal folding took place.

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  • The Pyrenees are therefore contemporaneous with the Alps; but they appear to have escaped the Miocene disturbances which affected the latter.

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  • The arrangement of the Pyrenees in chains gently inclined near the centre but longitudinal everywhere else, is illustrated by the courses of the streams which flow down towards Spain.

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  • The importance shown to attach to the Spanish versant has greatly modified the values formerly assigned to the area and mean elevation of the Pyrenees.

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  • The metallic ores of the Pyrenees are not in general of much importance, though there are considerable iron mines at Vic de Sos in Ariege and at the foot of Canigou in Pyrenees-Orientales.

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  • The amount of the precipitation, including rain and snow, is much greater in the western than in the eastern Pyrenees, which leads to a marked contrast between these sections of the chain in more than one respect.

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  • In the first place, the eastern Pyrenees are without glaciers, the quantity of snow falling there being insufficient to lead to their development.

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  • The glaciers are confined to the northern slopes of the central Pyrenees, and do not descend, like those of the Alps, far down in the valleys, but have their greatest length in the direction of the mountainchain.

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  • The snow-line varies in different parts of the Pyrenees from 8800 to 9200 ft.

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  • The lower mountains in the extreme west are very well wooded, but the extent of forest declines eastwards, and the eastern Pyrenees are peculiarly wild and naked, all the more since it is in this part of the chain that granitic masses prevail.

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  • The Pyrenees are relatively as rich in endemic species as the Alps, and among the most remarkable instances of that endemism is the occurrence of the sole European species of Dioscorea (yam), the D.

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  • pyrenaica, on a single high station in the central Pyrenees, and that of the monotypic genus Xatardia, only on a high alpine pass between the Val d'Eynes and Catalonia.

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  • In their fauna also the Pyrenees.

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  • Beraldi, Cent ans aux Pyrenees (1901), Les Sierras, cent ans acres Ramond (1902), Aprks cent ans.

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  • Les Pics d'Europe (1903), and Les Pyrenees orientales et l'Ariege 0904); P. Joanne, Pyrenees (1905); H.

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  • Belloc, The Pyrenees (1909),; for geology, in addition to the papers cited above, A.

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  • Bresson, Etudes sur les formations des Hautes et Basses Pyrenees (Paris, Ministere des Travaux Publics, 1903); L.

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  • Carez, La Geologie des Pyrenees francaises (Paris, Min.

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  • Roussel, Tableau stratigraphique des Pyrenees (Paris, Min.

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  • Handbook to the Health Resorts on the Pyrenees, &c. (1905), and J.

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  • Bentham, Catalogue des plantes indigenes des Pyrenees et de Bas Languedoc (1826).

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  • On all sides except that of Portugal the boundaries of continental Spain are natural, the Peninsula being separated from France by the Pyrenees and on every other side being surrounded by the sea.

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  • While, again, continuous mountain ranges and broad plains and table-lands give the prevailing character to the scenery, there are, on the one hand, lofty isolated peaks, such as Monseny, Montserrat and Mont Sant in Catalonia, the Pea Golosa in Valencia, Moncayo on the borders of Aragon and Old Castile, and, on the other hand, small secluded valleys, such as those of Vich and Olot among the Catalonian Pyrenees.

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  • Even more important than the mountains bounding or crossing the table-land are those which are connected with it only at their extremities; viz, the Pyrenees (q.v.) in the north-east, the Sierra Nevada and the coast ranges in the south.

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  • Although not comparable in altitude with the Pyrenees (highest summit Aneto, 11,168 ft.) or the Sierra Nevada (highest summit Mulhacen, 11,421 ft.), the coast ranges frequently attain an elevation of over 5000 ft., and in some cases of over 6000 ft.

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  • The Ebro valley occupies the angle in the north-east between the Pyrenees and the central Lo ~ d table-land, and is divided by ranges of heights proceeding ~ on the one side from the Pyrenees, on the other from the.

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  • above sea-lexel, is only about one-fourth of the size of the remaining portion, which is chiefly lowland, but is cut off froni the coast by a highland tract connecting the interior table-land with spurs from the Pyrenees.

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  • Around it the deposits of the Jurassic an Cretaceous seas were laid down: and during the Tertiary era the~ were crushed, together with the earlier Tertiary beds, against th~ ancient rocks, and thus formed the folded zones of the Cordillerr Betica on the south, the hills of southern Aragon on the east and thi Pyrenees on the north.

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  • The Permian is probably represented by some of the red sandstones, conglomerates and shales in the Pyrenees, in the Serrania de Cuenca, and in Andalusia.

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  • - These strata are overlain by members of the Jurassic series, which are especially conspicuous in the eastern part of the peninsula between Castile and Aragon, along the Mediterranean border, in Andalusia, and likewise along the flanks of the Pyrenees.

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  • Remains of the reindeer are found in caves in the Pyrenees.

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  • There occur also quartz-porphyry (Sierra Morena, Pyrenees, &c), diorite, porphyrite, diabase (well developed in the north of Andalusia, where it plays a great part in the structure of the Sierra Morena), ophite (Pyrenees, Cadiz), serpentine (forming an enormous mass in the Serrania de Ronda), trachyte, liparite, andesite, basalt.

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  • The endemic species are naturally most numerous in the mountains, and above all in the loftiest ranges, the Pyrenees and the Sierra Nevada; but it is a peculiarity of the Spanish tableland, as compared with the plains and table-lands of central Europe, tha.t it also possesses a considerable number of endemic plants and plants of extremely restricted range.

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  • Of the mammals in which Spain shows more affinity to the fauna of central and northern Europe, some of the most characteristic are the Spanish lynx (Lynx pardinus), a species confined to the Peninsula, the Spanish hare (Lepus madritenss), and the species mentioned in the article PYRENEES.

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  • The Spanish railway system at this time communicated with the French at Irun and Portbou, west and east respectively of the Pyrenees; and with the Portuguese at or near Tuy on the northern frontier of Portugal, and near La Fregeneda, Ciudad Rodrigo, Valencia de Alcntara and Badajoz on the E.

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  • For strategical reasons the Spanish gauge was made different from that of France; and military considerations long postponed the construction of any railway across the Pyrenees.

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  • The roads which wind through the Pyrenees in northern Aragon, Navarre and Catalonia had long been the channels of an important traffic, although great inconvenience was caused by the snow which blocks the passes in winter.

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  • In neither province is the soil naturally fertile, and nothing but the untiring industry of the inhabitants, favored by the rivers which traverse the province from the table-land of New Castile and the numerous small streams (nacinlientos) that issue from the base of the limestone mountains and by the numerous torrents from the Pyrenees, has converted them into two of the most productive regions in Spain.

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  • Goats are mostly bred in the mountainous districts all along the Spanish side of the Pyrenees froth Biscay to Catalonia, and in Badajoz, Cceres, Ciudad Real, Granada and Leon; swine in Badajoz, Lugo, Oviedo, Cceres and Corunna.

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  • Numerous fortresses guard the Portuguese frontier and the passes of the Pyrenees, but many of these are ill-armed and obsolete.

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  • slopes of the Pyrenees and in.

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  • The Phoenicians were here traders and not settlers; the Greeks, though they planted early colonies on the Gulf of Lyons, occupied hardly any site south of the Pyrenees, and the seeming likeness in name of Saguntum and the Greek island Zacynthus is mere coincidence.

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  • Others are probably later, and indicate that prosperity continued here, as it did on the other side of the Pyrenees in Gaul, till the later days of the 4th centuryperhaps indeed not till the fatal winters night in 406-7 when the barbarians burst the Rhine frontier and flooded Gaul and even Spain with a deluge from which there was no recovery.

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  • On his death there was an obscure interregnum of five months, which ended by the election of Liuva (567572), the governor of Narbonne, the surviving remnant of the Visigoth power to the north of the Pyrenees.

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  • In 718 they crossed the Pyrenees, and continued their invasions of Gaul till they met the solid power of the Austrasian Franks at Poitiers 732 (see CHARLES MARTEL and CALIPHATE, B.

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  • The rush of the Mahommedan flood sent terror all over Europe, but the little opposition it encountered south of the Pyrenees is to be easily explained, and the victory, though genuine, was more specious than substantial.

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  • In the centre were the Basques, dwelling on both sides of the Pyrenees, who kept against the Mahommedan the independence they had vindicated against the Visigoth.

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  • On the e~ast of the Basques, along the line of the Pyrenees, were others of kindred blood, who also kept a rude freedom on the slopes and in the valleys of the mountains.

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  • On the eastern extremity of the Pyrenees the Franks found no native free population.

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  • only one event occurred which had much tendency to bring the Christians of the north-west into close relations with their neighbors of the same faith north of the Pyrenees.

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  • To the east of it, the Navarrese, having rid themselves of the Carolingian counts and marchers, had made a kingdom in their mountains, and beyond them the little free territorias of the central Pyrenees were advancing, in subordination to the Navarrese king at Pamplona.

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  • Navarre was left by Sancho to another son, Garcia, while the small Christian states of the central Pyrenees, Aragon and Sobrarbe with the Ribagorza went to his other sons, Ramiro Sanchez and Gonzalo.

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  • It was henceforth ~ of a small state lying across the Pyrenees, dependent on France, and doomed inevitably to be partitioned between its great neighbors to north and south.

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  • Aided by the disorders of the minority of Louis XIV., she struggled on till the peace of the Pyrenees in 1659, by which Roussillon was ceded to France.

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  • Instead of reducing the southern provinces of France, the Spaniards were driven from the strong fortresses that guarded the Pyrenees, and the French advanced almost to the Ebro; and at the same time the British were utilizing the war to extend their colonial power and were establishing more firmly that maritime supremacy which the Spanish government had been struggling for almost a century to overthrow.

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  • Joseph retired altogether from his kingdom, and Wellington, eager to take his part in the great European contest, fought his way through the Pyrenees into France.

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  • The Alphonsist armies, led by Marshals Campos and Jovellar, swept the Carlist bands from the right hank of the Ebro to the Pyrenees, and took their last strongholds in the eastern provinces, Cantavieja and Seo de Urgel.

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  • From the 9th century onwards Spain was slowly recaptured from the Mahommedans, and the Latin spoken by the Christians who had taken refuge on the slopes of the Pyrenees was gradually carried back to the centre and ultimately to the south of the Peninsula, whence it had been driven by the Arab invasion.

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  • As early as 1842 he entered political life, having been elected in that year as a deputy for the department of the Hautes Pyrenees.

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  • We were about to take the first step on our journey across the Pyrenees.

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  • In his early twenties he was invited to go to the Pyrenees to study plant life.

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  • There are times when a Pyrenees finds itself in unforeseen circumstances and is in need of the services of a Great Pyrenees rescue organization.

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  • The Great Pyrenees, also known as the Pyrenean Mountain Dog, is an intelligent and elegant breed.

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  • Pyrenees, like most dogs that find themselves in rescue centers, arrive at shelters through no fault of their own.

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  • Other Pyrenees come to rescue organizations after being saved from local shelters where they faced possible euthanasia.

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  • When a dog finds itself at a rescue center for Great Pyrenees, it is cared for until a forever home is found.

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  • Most Great Pyrenees rescue organizations do not discriminate against dogs that are Pyrenees mixes.

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  • Adoption fees go toward helping another Pyrenees in need.

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  • Located throughout the United States, Great Pyrenees shelters form a network of safe havens for these magnificent canines.

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  • The number of Great Pyrenees in need of a home is growing.

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  • If you are aware of the personalities, traits and characteristics of this beautiful loving breed and are thinking of adding one to your family, consider contacting a Great Pyrenees rescue.

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  • If you are looking for a wonderful companion dog that is loyal and protective of its family, a reputable Great Pyrenees breeder may be just the place for you to find your new furry friend.

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  • A Great Pyrenees Mountain Dog, lovingly referred to as a Great Pry, is strikingly beautiful to behold and moves with a sense of gracefulness unexpected from a dog of its size.

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  • A wonderful gentle and affectionate companion dog for families, Great Pyrenees possess a strong love for the children that they are raised with as pups.

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  • However, a Great Pyrenees is not for everyone.

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  • Great Pyrenees rescue organizations find themselves placing these Pyrs in new forever homes because of impulsive puppy purchases.

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  • Once you have determined that a Pyrenees is the right canine companion for you, locating a reputable breeder is essential.

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  • You can obtain a list of Great Pyrenees breeders in your area that are members of the Great Pyrenees Club of America.

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  • A list of questions is located on the website of the Great Pyrenees Club of California.

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  • When you are ready to visit a Pyrenees breeder to see the puppies, you also are going to look at the conditions of the kennel itself.

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  • By doing this, you get an idea of future personality and appearance.Not everyone is within visiting distance of a Pyrenees breeder.

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  • Great Pyrenees breeders may also ask questions about what you expect from your future companion.

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  • Take the time to read the Breeding and Sales sections of the Great Pyrenees Club of America Code of Ethics.

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