AMRITSAR, or Umritsar, a city and district of British India, in the Lahore division of the Punjab.
It was the first mission station of the church of England in the Punjab.
LOHARU, a native state of India, in the south-east corner of the Punjab, between Hissar district and Rajputana.
Meantime Perdiccas and Hephaestion had built a bridge over the Indus, and by this in the spring of 326 Alexander passed into the Punjab (at Ohind, 16 m.
The United Presbyterian Church has a board of foreign missions (reorganized in 1859) with missions in Egypt (1853), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1909, 71 congregations, 70 ministers and 10,341 members), in the Punjab (1854), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1 909, 35 congregations, 51 ministers and 17,321 members), and in the Sudan (1901); and boards of home missions (reorganized, 1859), church extension (1859), publication (1859), education (1859), ministerial relief (1862), and missions to the freedmen (1863).
Frontier Province, called after its founder, Sir James Abbott, who settled this wild district after the annexation of the Punjab.
It is bounded on the west by Sind, and on the north-west by the Punjab state of Bahawalpur.
Thence its northern and northeastern frontier marches with the Punjab and the United Provinces until it touches the river Chambal, where it turns south-eastward for about 200 m., dividing the states of Dholpur, Karauli, Jaipur and Kotah from Gwalior.
The names Punjab, Doab, &c., show the root in a clearer shape.
ALIWAL, a village of British India, in the Ludhiana district of the Punjab, situated on the left bank of the Sutlej, and famous as the scene of one of the great battles of the 1st Sikh War.
The great plain extends, with an almost unbroken surface, from the most western to the most eastern extremity of British India, and is composed of deposits so finely comminuted, that it is no exaggeration to say that it is possible to go from the Bay of Bengal up the Ganges, through the Punjab, and down the Indus again to the sea, over a distance of 2000 m.
The very small and irregular rainfall in Sind and along the Indus is to be accounted for by the want of any obstacle in the path of the vapour-bearing winds, which, therefore, carry the uncondensed rain up to the Punjab, where it falls on the outer ranges of the western Himalaya and of Afghanistan.
being the fall in the southern portion of the Punjab.
on the east in Sikkim, and gradually diminishes on the west, where north of the Punjab it is about 70 or 80 in.
The sal, Shorea robusta, a very durable wood, is most abundant along the skirts of the Himalaya from Assam to the Punjab, and is found in central India, to which the teak also extends.
along the Indus and the southern parts of the Punjab.
The language of the Punjab does not differ very materially from that of Upper India.
By the Kabul valley route, which includes at its head the group of passes across the Hindu Kush which extend from the Khawak to the Kaoshan, all those central Asian hordes, be they Sacae, Yue-chi, Jats, Goths or Huns, who were driven towards the rich plains of the south, entered the Punjab.
In 326 B.C. Alexander invaded the Punjab.
Though not powerful physically as compared with the northern races of the Punjab and Oudh, they have much activity and an unsurpassed endurance.
The village community has always existed as the social unit in the Mahratta territories, though with less cohesion among its members than in the village communities of Hindustan and the Punjab.
The nascent Sikh power prevented Mahratta incursions from being permanently successful in the Punjab.
Seleucus entered the Punjab, but felt himself obliged in 302 to conclude a peace with Chandragupta, by which he ceded large districts of Afghanistan in return for 500 elephants.
His son Mihiragula (c. 510-540) made Sakala in the Punjab his Indian capital, but the cruelty of his rule provoked the Indian princes to form a confederation and revolt against him about 528.
Our knowledge of the Indian Hunas is chiefly derived from coins, from a few inscriptions distributed from the Punjab to central India, and from the account of the Chinese pilgrim Hsuan Tsang, who visited the country just a century after the death of Mihiragula.
The railway from Jodhpur has been extended towards Bhatinda in the Punjab; on the northern border, the Ghaggar canal in the Punjab irrigates about 5000 acres.
Bhawalpur, a native state of India, within the Punjab, stretching for more than 300 m.
by Sind and the Punjab, and on the S.
It is the principal Mahommedan state in the Punjab, ranking second only to Patiala.
The territory is traversed throughout its length by the North-Western and Southern Punjab railways.
In his boyhood he was taken to Canada, but in 1843 he returned to Scotland; then studied at Calcutta in the military academy, entered the army, and after distinguishing himself in the Punjab campaign, returned to Canada, whence in 1857 he removed to Vinton, Iowa.
DERA GHAZI KHAN, a town and district of British India, in the Punjab.
A few small vessels have been found in the " topes," as in that at Manikiala in the Punjab, which probably dates from about the Christian era; but they exhibit no remarkable character, and fragments found at Brahmanabad are hardly distinguishable from Roman glass of the imperial period.
SIKHISM, a religion of India, whose followers (Sikhs) are principally found in the Punjab, United Provinces, Sind, Jammu and Kashmir.
After the guru's death the gradual rise of the Sikhs into the ruling power of northern India until they came in collision with the British arms belongs to the secular history of the Punjab (q.v.).
After the British conquest of the Punjab the military spirit of the Sikhs remained for some time in abeyance.
- Tobacco is grown for local use in many parts of India, but the principal centres of its cultivation on a commercial scale are Bombay, Madras and the Punjab.
From the Pir-Panjal range of Kashmir the markhor extends westwards into Baltistan, Astor, Hunza, Afghanistan and the trans-Indus ranges of the Punjab.
Among game birds the bustard, guinea fowl, sand grouse (kata), blue rock, green pigeon, partridge, including a large chikor (akb) and a small species similar to the Punjab sisi; quail and several kinds of duck and snipe are met with.
MUSA KHEL, a Pathan tribe on the Dera Ghazi Khan border of the Punjab province of India.
GONDOPHARES, or Gondop' 1ernes, an Indo-Parthian king who ruled over the Kabul valley and the Punjab.
The great bulk of the Indo-Aryan or Hindu population consists of Uriyas, with a residue of immigrant Bengalis, Lala Kayets from Behar and northern India, Telingas from the Madras coast, Mahrattas from central and western India, a few Sikhs from the Punjab and Marwaris from Rajputana.
As this species has been obtained in Surat and the Punjab, it is believed to be the northern type.
The cis-Indus portions of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan now comprises the new Punjab district of Mianwali.
After the annexation of the Punjab the valley was administered by Herbert Edwardes so thoroughly that it became a source of strength instead of weakness during the Mutiny.
Towards the end of the century the heretical Sikh Guru, Ram Rai, expelled from the Punjab, sought refuge in the Dun and gathered round him a crowd of devotees.
Until the year 1889 this pass was almost unknown to the AngloIndian official; but in that year the government of India decided that, in order to maintain the safety of the railway as well as to perfect communication between Quetta and the Punjab, the Zhob valley should, like the Bori valley, be brought under British protection and control, and the Gomal pass should be opened.
BATALA, a town of British India, in the Gurdaspur district of the Punjab, with a station on a branch of the North-Western railway, 2 4 m.
BHIWANI, a town of British India, in the Hissar district of the Punjab, 38 m.
In the temperate parts of the Old World this species is perhaps the most abundant of the plovers, Charadriidae, breeding in almost every suitable place from Ireland to Japan - the majority migrating towards winter to southern countries, as the Punjab, Egypt and Barbary - though in the British Islands some are always found at that season.
They ranged from such problems as the land settlement of the Punjab, or the introduction of civil marriage to provide for the needs of unorthodox Hindus, to the question how far the study of Persian should be required or encouraged among European civil servants.
This Mahommedan soldier-adventurer, who, followed by his son Tippoo, became the most formidable Asiatic rival the British ever encountered in India, was the great-grandson of a fakir or wandering ascetic of Islam, who had found his way from the Punjab to Gulburga in the Deccan, and the second son of a naik or chief constable at Budikota, near Kolar in Mysore.
The so-called Dard races are referred to by Pliny and Ptolemy, and are supposed to be a people of Aryan origin who ascended the Indus valley from the plains of the Punjab, reaching as far north as Chitral, where they dispossessed the Khos.
Before he had reached the age of fourteen he encountered in two expeditions under his father the Indian forces of Jaipal, raja of Lahore, whom Sabuktagin defeated on the Punjab frontier.
When he was in the Punjab at this time, he heard of the invasion of Khorasan by the Ilek Khan Nasr I.
Mahmud again entered the Punjab in 1008, this time for the express purpose of chastising Sewah Pal, who, having become a Mussulman, and been left by Mahmud in charge of Multan, had relapsed to Hinduism.
Mahmud, after this victory, pushed on through the Punjab to Nagar-kot (Kangra), and carried off much spoil from the Hindu temples to enrich his treasury at Ghazni.
In Doi I Mahmud, after a short campaign against the Afghans under Mahommed ibn Stir in the hill country of Ghur, marched again into the Punjab.
Having now found his way across all the Punjab rivers, he was induced on two subsequent occasionsto go still farther.
But first he designed an invasion of Kashmir (Tors), which was not carried out, as his progress was checked at Loh-kot, a strong hill fort in the north-west of the Punjab.
he crossed the Indus once more into the Punjab.
of two successive rajas of Lahore, the conqueror assumed the right of nominating the governors of the Punjab as a dependency of Ghazni, a right which continued to be exercised by seven of his successors.
The other section occupied the Punjab and possessed themselves of the territory which the Graeco-Bactrian kings had acquired in India, that is Sind, Gujarat and Malwa.
The rulers of these provinces bore the title of Satrap (Kshatrapa or Chhatrapa) and were apparently subordinate to a king who ruled over the valley of Kabul and the Punjab.
He was given the degree of Doctor of Letters in the university of Calcutta and accepted a knighthood in 1915, but addressed a letter to the Viceroy in 1919, resigning the title as a protest against the methods adopted for the repression of disturbances in the Punjab.
In the census of 1901, the number of Sikhs in the Punjab and North-Western Provinces was returned as 2,130,987, showing an increase of 13.9% in the decade; but these figures are not altogether reliable owing to the difficulty of distinguishing the Sahijdhari from the Kesadhari Sikhs and both from the Hindus.
The Jats are agriculturists variously described as Scythian immigrants and as descendants of Rajputs who immigrated to the Punjab from central India.
Irrigation protects large tracts against famine, and has immensely increased the wheat output of the Punjab; the Irrigation Commission of 1903 recommended the addition of 62 million acres to the irrigated area of India, and that recommendation is being carried out at an annual cost of 12 millions sterling for twenty years, but at the end of that time the list of works that will return a lucrative interest on capital will be practically exhausted.
it is bounded by Baluchistan and Dera Ghazi Khan district of the Punjab, on the E.
by Kashmir and the Punjab, and on the W.
The Salt Range crosses the Indus in the Mianwali tahsil of the Punjab, and forms the boundary between Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan, merging eventually in the Waziri hills.
After leaving Hazara it flows in a southerly direction between the Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province, till it enters Mianwali district of the Punjab, from which it emerges to form again the eastern boundary of the province.
From that time until the creation of the North-West Frontier Province the settled districts formed part of the Punjab, while the independent tribes were controlled at different times by the Punjab government, and the government of India.
Punjab, Kashmir and Ladak; Telugu missions of Madras; Maori missions of N.
In the famine year1896-1897the area was 9,57 1, 779 acres, including an area of 123,087 acres irrigated on the Swat river canal in the Punjab.
Beginning with the Punjab, the province in which most progress has been made, the great Sutlej canal, which irrigates the country to the left of that river, was opened in 1882, and the Western Jumna canal (perhaps the oldest in India) was extended into the dry Hissar and Sirsa districts, and generally improved so as to increase by nearly 5 o% its area of irrigation between 1878 and 1897.
Another great canal scheme for the Punjab proposed to take off from the right bank of the Sutlej, and to irrigate about 600,000 acres in the Montgomery and Multan districts, at a cost of Rx.
In addition to these great perennial canals, much has been done since 1878 in enlarging and extending what are known as the " inundation canals " of the Punjab, which utilize the flood waters in the rivers during the monsoon season and are dry at other times.
By these canals large portions of country throughout most of the Punjab are brought under cultivation, and the area thus watered has increased from about 180,000 to 50o,000 acres since 1878.
It is not uncommon on many parts of the Himalayas, where it breeds; and on the mountains of Kumaon and the Punjab, and is the "golden eagle" of most AngloIndians.
He first crossed the Indus in 1748, when he took Lahore; and in 1751, after a feeble resistance on the part of the Mahommedan viceroy, he became master of the entire Punjab.
The shah himself added to his wives a princess of the imperial family, and bestowed another upon his son Timur Shah, whom he made governor of the Punjab and Sirhind.
In 1758 the Mahrattas obtained possession of the Punjab, but on the 6th of January 1761 they were totally routed by Ahmad in the great battle of Panipat.
Meanwhile the Sikhs again rose, and Ahmad was now forced to abandon all hope of retaining the command of the Punjab.
Shortly afterwards acute difficulties arose between him and the British as to the Cis-Sutlej portion of the Punjab.
It was Ranjit Singh's ambition to weld the whole of the Punjab into a single Sikh empire, while the British claimed the territory south of the Sutlej by right of conquest from the Mahrattas.
In 1810 he captured Multan after many assaults and a long siege, and in 1820 had consolidated the whole of the Punjab between the Sutlej and the Indus under his dominion.
Known as "The Lion of the Punjab," Ranjit Singh died of paralysis on the 27th of June 1839.
His power was military aristocracy resting on the personal qualities of its founder, and after his death the Sikh confederacy gradually crumbled and fell to pieces through sheer want of leadership; and the rule of the Sikhs in the Punjab passed away completely as soon as it incurred the hostility of the British.
Thorburn, The Punjab in Peace and War, 1904.
BHERA, a town of British India, in the Shahpur district of the Punjab, situated on the river Jhelum.
BHATTIANA, a tract of country in the Punjab province of India, covering the Ghaggar valley from Fatehabad in the district of Hissar to Bhatnair in Bikanir.
Such beds of salt are found in strata of very varied geological age; the Salt Range of the Punjab, for instance, is probably of Cambrian age, while the famous saltdeposits of Wieliczka, near Cracow, have been referred to the Pliocene period.
In India there is the great salt range of the Punjab, as well as the Sambhur Lake, and salt is obtained from sea water at many places along its extensive seaboard.
On the coins struck in India, the well-known Indian alphabet (called Brahmi by the Indians, the older form of the Devanagari) is used; on the coins struck in Afghanistan and in the Punjab the Kharoshthi alphabet, which is derived directly from the Aramaic and was in common use in the western parts of India, as is shown by one of the inscriptions of Asoka and by the recent discovery of many fragments of Indian manuscripts, written in Kharoshthi, in eastern Turkestan (formerly this alphabet has been called Arianic or Bactrian Pali; the true name is derived from Indian sources).
The raj was founded in 1657 by Abu Ra Kapur, of the Kapur Khatri family of Kotli in Lahore, Punjab, whose descendants served in turn the Mogul emperors and the British government.
ATTOCK, a town and fort of previous British India (now Pakistan), was in the Rawalpindi district of the Punjab, 47 m.
Bats believed to be Phyllorhinus cineraceus (Punjab species), Scotophilus Bellii (W.
The ancient architecture of Kashmir, the tope of Manikyala in the Punjab, and many sculptures found in the Peshawar valley, show unmistakable Greek influence.
Having long suffered from a terrible disease, he died in 1773, bequeathing to his son Timur a dominion which embraced not only Afghanistan to its utmost limits, but the Punjab, Kashmir and Turkestan to the Oxus, with Sind, Baluchistan and Khorasan as tributary governments.
The last Afghan hold of the Punjab had been lost long before - Kashmir in 181 9; Sind had cast off all allegiance since 1808; the Turkestan provinces had been practically independent since the death of Timur Shah.
After 1849, when the annexation of the Punjab had carried the Indian northwestern frontier up to the skirts of the Afghan highlands, the corresponding advance of the Russians south-eastward along the Oxus river became of closer interest to the British, particularly when, in 1856, the Persians again attempted to take possession of Herat.
The general position and prospect of political affairs in Afghanistan bore, indeed, an instructive resemblance to the situation just forty years earlier, in 1840, with the important differences that the Punjab and Sind had since become British, and that communications between Kabul and India were this time secure.
At the opposite or northwestern angle, the Indus in like manner pierces the Himalayas, and turns southwards on its course through the Punjab.
Ancient and well-known trade routes exist, by means of which merchandise from the Punjab finds its way over heights of 18,000 ft.
About 167 millions of people now live on and around these river plains, in the provinces known as the lieutenant-governorship of Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces, the Punjab, Sind, Rajputana and other native states.
The vast level tract which thus covers northern India is watered by three distinct river systems. One of these systems takes its rise in the hollow trough beyond the Himalayas, and issues River, through their western ranges upon the Punjab as the systems Sutlej and Indus.
It rises very gradually from the sea at either end; the lowest point of the watershed between the Punjab rivers and the Ganges is about 924 ft.
On its eastern margin, however, in the neighbourhood of the Aravalli hills, and again in the northern Punjab, rain is more frequent, occurring both in the south-west monsoon and also at the opposite season in the cold weather.
The alluvial plain of the Punjab passes into that of the Gangetic valley without visible interruption.
In the cold season the mean temperature averages about 30° lower in the Punjab than in southern India.
In the Punjab, the United Provinces, and northern India generally the climate resembles that of the Riviera, with a brilliant cloudless sky and cool dry weather.
The hot season begins officially in the Punjab on the 15th of March, and from that date there is a steady rise in the temperature, induced by the fiery rays of the sun upon the baking earth, until the break of the rains in June.
The greater part of the Deccan and the Central Provinces are included within the hottest area, though in May the highest temperatures are found in Upper Sind, north-west Rajputana, and south-west Punjab.
A branch of the Bombay current blows pretty steadily through Rajputana to the Punjab, carrying some rain to the latter province.
The north-western area is best marked in Sind and the Punjab, where the climate is very dry (the rainfall averaging less than 15 in.), and where the soil, though fertile, is wholly dependent on irrigation for its cultivation.
uncommon within historical times in Hindustan proper and the Punjab.
The Himalayan or Tibetan sun bear (Ursus torquatus) is found along the north, from the Punjab to Assam.
From the angler's point of view, by far the finest fish is the mahseer (Barbustor), found in all hill streams, whether in Assam, the Punjab or the South.
The pure Mahommedans may again be subdivided into f our sections: Moguls, or the descendants of the last conquering race, including Persians; Afghans or Pathans, who from their proximity to the frontier are much more strongly represented, chiefly in the Punjab and in the Rohilkhand division of the United Provinces; Sayads, who claim to be lineally descended from the Prophet; and Sheikhs, which is a name often adopted by converts.
In the Punjab, besides the Pathan immigrants from across the frontier, Islam has taken a strong hold of the native population.
In proportion to the total population Islam is most strongly represented in the NorthWest Frontier Province, where it is the religion of 92% of the inhabitants; then follow Kashmir and Sind with about 75 each, Eastern Bengal and Assam with 58%, the Punjab with 49%, Bengal with 18%, and the United Provinces with 14%.
The Sikh religion is almost entirely confined to the Punjab.
Of the total number of 2,195,339 Sikhs all but 64,352 are found in the Punjab, and two-thirds of the remainder are in the United Provinces and Kashmir which adjoin it.
The greater part of the remainder are found in Bengal on the borders of Burma, on the borders of Nepal, Tibet and Bhutan, and in the Spiti, Lahul and Kanawar districts of the Punjab Himalayas, where many of the inhabitants are of Tibetan origin.
ments, is vested in the governor-general in council, commonly known as " the Government of India," which has its seat at Calcutta during the cold season from November to April, and migrates to Simla in the Punjab hills for the rest of the year.
Next follow the five lieutenantgovernorships of Bengal, the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, the Punjab, Burma, and Eastern Bengal and Assam, for each of which a council may be appointed, beginning with Bengal.
The chief nonregulation provinces are the Punjab, Central Provinces and Burma; but non-regulation districts are also to be found in Bengal, Eastern Bengal and Assam, the United Provinces and Sind.
The Of the other provinces the Punjab and Lower Burma Judici Servicale.
In the United Provinces and the Punjab the ascertainment of the actual rents paid is the Pro The other necessary preliminary to the land revenue demand.
Broadly speaking the salt consumed in India is derived from four sources: (1) importation by sea, chiefly from England and the Red Sea and Aden; (2) solar evaporation in shallow tanks along the seaboard; (3) the salt lakes in Rajputana; (4) quarrying in the salt hills of the northern Punjab.
The salt administration is in the hands of (1) the Northern India Salt Department, which is directly under the government of India, and controls the salt resources of Rajputana and the Punjab, and (2) the salt revenue authorities of Madras and Bombay.
The canal colonies of the Punjab have turned northern India into one of the great grain-fields of the British empire; and in 1904 India took the first place in supplying wheat to the United Kingdom, sending nearly 252 million cwts.
Wheat is grown chiefly in the Punjab, the United Provinces, and the Central Provinces.
In1905-1906there were 23 million acres under wheat in the whole of India, of which 82 million were in the Punjab alone.
The spiked millet, known as bajra or cumbu, which yields a poorer food, is grown on dry sandy soil in the Deccan and the Punjab.
Among pulses gram covers in ordinary years more than so millions of acres, chiefly in the United Provinces, the Punjab and Bengal.
The normal area under sugar-cane in India is generally about 3 million acres, chiefly in the United Provinces, Bengal, and the Punjab.
Throughout the whole of India, except in Sind and the western districts of the Punjab, horned cattle are the only beasts used for ploughing.
The large and handsome oxen of Gujarat in Bombay and of Hariana in the Punjab are excellently adapted for drawing heavy loads in a sandy soil.
In Gujarat and the arid plains of the south-east Punjab the renowned herds almost disappeared.
In the affected districts of the Punjab the loss of cattle averaged from 17 to 45% of the whole.
Horse-breeding is carried on chiefly in the Punjab, the United Provinces, and Baluchistan, and government keep a number of stallions in the various provinces.
But the supply of suitable animals is not good, and their cost is large; so the breeding of donkey stallions has been undertaken at the Hissar farm in the Punjab.
The chief seat of the woollen industry now is the Punjab, where a considerable number of weavers, thrown out of work by the decline of the shawl industry, have taken to carpet-making.
Artistic pottery is made at Hyderabad, Karachi, Tatta and Hala, and also at Multan and Lahore in the Punjab.
In Sind and the Punjab there are many canals which act merely as distributaries of the overflow of the great rivers at the time of inundation; but where the utility of the canals has been increased by permanent headworks the supply of water is perennial and practically inexhaustible, thus contrasting favourably with the less certain protection given by tanks.
The Rig-Veda forms the great literary memorial of the early Aryan settlements in the Punjab.
During the next two hundred years Buddhism spread over northern India, perhaps receiving a new impulse from the Greek kingdoms in the Punjab.
The monuments of the great Buddhist monarchs, Asoka and Kanishka, confronted him from the time he neared the Punjab frontier; but so also did the temples of Siva and his " dread " queen Bhima.
During his two years' campaign in the Punjab and Sind, Alexander captured no province, but he made alliances, founded cities and planted garrisons.
At Taxila (DehriShahan) and Nicaea (Mong) in the northern Punjab, at Alexandria (Uchch) in the southern Punjab, at Patala (Hyderabad) in Sind, and at other points along his route, he established military settlements of Greeks or allies.
Among the Indian adventurers who thronged Alexander's camp in the Punjab, each with his plot for winning a kingdom or crushing a rival, Chandragupta Maurya, an exile from the Gangetic valley, seems to have played a somewhat ignominious part.
In that year Seleucus, 'having recovered Babylon, proceeded to re-establish his authority in Bactria (q.v.) and the Punjab.
No sooner was he gone than the Indians rose and slew the Greek governor; the Macedonians massacred the Indians; a new governor, sent by Alexander, murdered the friendly Punjab prince, Porus, and was himself driven out of the country by the advance of Chandragupta from the Gangetic valley.
In return for five hundred elephants, he ceded the Greek settlements in the Punjab and the Kabul valley, gave his daughter to Chandragupta in marriage, and stationed an ambassador, Megasthenes, at the Gangetic court (302 B.C.).
On the west, the Seleucids diffused Greek influences, and sent forth Graeco-Bactrian expeditions to the Punjab.
The purest specimens have been found in the Northwest frontier province (the ancient Gandhara) and the Punjab, where the Greeks settled in greatest force.
As we proceed eastward from the Punjab, the Greek type begins to fade.
The Punjab is said to have been ravaged on this occasion with no permanent results.
In 977 Sabuktagin is said to have defeated Jaipal, the Hindu raja of Lahore, and to have rendered the Punjab tributary.
Mahmud won the day by the aid of his Turkish horsemen, and thenceforth the Punjab has been a Mahommedan province, except during the brief period of Sikh supremacy.
In 1321 a successful revolt was headed by Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlak, governor of the Punjab, who is said to have been of Turkish origin.
He wasted the treasure accumulated by Ala-ud-din in purchasing the retirement of the Mogul hordes, who had already made their appearance in the Punjab.
In 1526 Baber, the fifth in descent from Timur, and also the fifth Mahommedan conqueror, invaded India at the instigation of the governor of the Punjab, won the victory of Panipat over Ibrahim, the last of the Lodi dynasty, and founded the Mogul empire, which lasted, at least in name, until 1857.
When his father died he was absent in the Punjab, fighting the revolted Afghans, under the guardianship of Bairam Khan, a native of Badakshan, whose military skill largely contributed to recover the throne for the Mogul line.
His first task was to establish his authority in the Punjab, and in the country around Delhi and Agra.
In his time the Indian government first opened relations with a new set of foreign powers by sending embassies to the Punjab, to Afghanistan and to Persia.
But in 1815 General Ochterlony, who commanded the army operating by way of the Sutlej, stormed one by one the hill forts which still stud the Himalayan states now under the Punjab government, and compelled the Nepal darbar to sue for peace.
The disaster in Afghanistan was quickly followed by the conquest of Sind, the two wars in the Punjab, the second Burmese War, and last of all the Mutiny.
At this time both the Punjab and Sind were independent kingdoms. Sind was the less powerful of the two, and, therefore, a British army escorting Shah Shuja made its way by that route to enter Afghanistan through the Bolan Pass.
General Pollock, who was marching straight through the Punjab to relieve General Sale, was ordered to penetrate to Kabul, while General Nott was only too glad not to be forbidden to retire from Kandahar through Kabul.
(For the origin of the Sikh power see Punjab.) Ranjit Singh, the founder of the Sikh kingdom in the Punjab, had faithfully fulfilled all his obligations towards the British.
By the terms of peace then dictated the infant son of Ranjit, Dhuleep Singh, was recognized as raja; the Jullundur Doab, or tract between the Sutlej and the Ravi, was annexed; the Sikh army was limited to a specified number; Major Henry Lawrence was appointed to be resident at Lahore; and a British force was detailed to garrison the Punjab for a period of eight years.
Though professedly a man of peace, he was compelled to fight two wars, in the Punjab and in Burma.
The system of administration carried out in the conquered Punjab by the two Lawrences and their assistants is probably the most successful piece of difficult work ever accomplished by Englishmen.
Lower Burma prospered under their rule scarcely less than the Punjab.
The Punjab henceforth became a British province, supplying a virgin field for the administrative talents of Dalhousie and the two Lawrences.
They believed it was by their prowess that the Punjab had been conquered, and all India was held quiet.
He was succeeded by Sir John Lawrence, the saviour of the Punjab.
While the first riots occurred in the Punjab and Madras, it is only in Bengal and eastern Bengal that the unrest has been bitter and continuous.
In Rajputana, Gujarat and the southern Punjab, Mahommedan women sometimes wear a lhenga or ghagra skirt without trousers; in the Sirsa district and parts of Gujarat the ghagra is worn over the trousers.
In Delhi, Lucknow, Agra and other towns in the Punjab and the United Provinces a special wedding dress is worn by the bride, called rit-kajora, the " dress of custom."
Baden-Powell, Handbook of Manufactures and Arts of the Punjab (Lahore, 1872); W.
Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal (1875); Hughes' Dictionary of Islam (London, 1895); Sir Denzil Ibbetson, Outlines of Punjab Ethnography; E.
In India it extends from the Punjab to the northwestern frontier, ascending in the Punjab Himalaya to a height of 650o feet, and is found both in the wild and cultivated state.
by Gwalior, Rajputana and the Punjab.
A large semi-circular tract, comprising the valleys of the Gogra and the Gumti, has long been separated from the remainder of the great plain as the kingdom of Oudh; and though since 1877 it has been under the administrative charge of a lieutenantgovernor, it retains certain features of its former status as a chief-commissionership. The province includes the whole upper portion of the wide Gangetic basin, from the Himalayas and the Punjab plain to the Vindhyan plateau, and the lowlying ricefields of Behar.
In point of humidity and temperature the province lies half-way between Bengal and the Punjab.
North of the river the Oudh & Rohilkhand system connects with Bengal and with the Punjab.
They included the Delhi territory, transferred after the Mutiny to the Punjab; and also (after 1853) the Saugor and Nerbudda territories, which in 1861 became part of the Central Provinces.
Preval- worship still prevails largely in India, and a writer e p ee in in 1896 remarks that the previous census showed in varying the North-West Provinces over 25,000 Naga (serpent) forms. worshippers, 123,000 votaries of the snake-god Gaga, and, in the Punjab, some 35,000 special votaries of the snake godlings.'
A kind of sacramental communion with a snake is found among a Punjab snake-tribe (Frazer, Golden Bough, ii.
441 seq.; Punjab Notes and Queries, ii.
Similarly, food is offered to the snake of dough in the Punjab festival already mentioned (note 2 above).
After six years of peace the Sikhs invaded British territory in 1845, but were defeated in four battles, and terms were imposed upon them at Lahore, the capital of the Punjab.
The result, however, was financial difficulty, and in 1882 he appealed to the government for assistance, making various claims based upon the alleged possession of private estates in the Punjab, and upon the surrender of the Koh-i-nor diamond to the British Crown.
But as it was deemed inadvisable to allow him to visit the Punjab, he remained for some time as a guest at the residency at Aden, and was allowed to receive some of his relatives to witness his abjuration of Christianity, which actually took place within the residency itself.
Rapson 2 has pointed out that both Kharosthi and Brahmi letters are found upon Persian silver sigloi, which were coined in the Punjab and belong to the period Oldest Saba:An Bra Hmi FfHAROSTHI kTHIOPIC tfignyarinc, ([[Arabic) Table I]].
The Beas, which was the Hyphasis of the Greeks, is one of the Five Rivers of the Punjab.
above sea-level, flows through the Kangra valley and the plains of the Punjab, and finally joins the Sutlej after a course of 290 m.
In 1897 it had already penetrated to Rajputana, the Punjab, the North West Provinces and the Central Provinces.
In the Punjab from 179 deaths in 1897 the mortality reached a maximum of 334,897 in 1905, in Agra and Oudh they rose from 72 in 1897 to 383,802 in 1905, and in Madras Presidency from 1658 in 1899 to 20,125 in 1904.
In September 1902 the standard method of manufacturing this fluid was changed by the director of the Plague Institute on his own authority, with the object of expediting the process, and thus meeting the heavy demand then being made by the Punjab government in connexion with a large scheme of inoculation.
In the extreme northwestern districts - the Punjab and Rajputana, judging from the fairly uniform physical features of the present population of these parts - they seem to have been signally successful in their endeavour to preserve their racial purity, probably by being able to clear a sufficiently extensive area of the original occupants for themselves with their wives and children to settle upon.
The greater part of the population of Central India is of the Hindu religion, but a few Mahommedan groups still exist, either traces of the days when the Mogul emperors extended their sway from the Punjab to the Deccan, or else the descendants of those northern adventurers who hired out their services to the great Mahratta generals.
Only in the auriferous and civilized frontier districts of India (the Punjab) did a system of coinage find early acceptance.
Among the kings then following, only known to us from their coins, there appears a dynasty with Iranian and sometimes peculiarly Parthian names which seems to have reigned in the Punjab and Arachosia.
CHENAB (the Greek Acesines), one of the "Five rivers" of the Punjab, India.
It rises in the snowy Himalayan ranges of Kashmir, enters British territory in the Sialkot district, and flows through the plains of the Punjab, forming the boundary between the Rechna and the Jech Doabs.
Broadwood Lyall, lieutenant-governor of the Punjab 1887-1892, which gives its name to a district created in 1904.
It extends from the Gomal river to the Arabian Sea, and from the borders of Persia and Afghanistan to those of the Punjab and Sind.
Blanford, " Geological Notes on the Hills in the neighbourhood of the Sind and Punjab Frontier between Quetta and Dera Ghazi Khan," Mem.
In 1901 the trans-Indus tract was allotted to the newly formed North-West Frontier Province, the cis-Indus tract remaining in the Punjab jurisdiction.
The cis-Indus portions of the Dera Ismail Khan and Bannu districts now comprise the new Punjab district of Mianiwali.
From the bend of the Indus southwards towards the plains of the Punjab to the bend of the Brahmaputra southwards towards the plains of Assam, through a length of 1500 m., is Himachal or Himalaya.
The northern tributaries of the Gilgit river, which joins the Indus near its south-westerly bend towards the Punjab, take their rise from a glacier system which is probably unequalled in the world for its extent and magnificent proportions.
From the commencement of his reign he found himself involved in disputes with Ranjit Singh, the Sikh ruler of the Punjab, who used the dethroned Saduzai prince, Shuja-ul-Mulk, as his instrument.
It lies in the south-east corner of the province of the Punjab, to which it was added in 1858, and abuts on the right bank of the river Jumna.
Though Lahore,, the more ancient city, remains the official capital of the Punjab, Delhi is historically more famous, and is now more important as a commercial and railway centre.
The old college attained to great celebrity as an educational institution, and produced many excellent scholars, but it was abolished in 1877, in order to concentrate the grant available for higher-class education upon the Punjab University at Lahore.
The city is served by five different railways, the East Indian, the Oudh & Rohilkhand, the Rajputana-Malwa & Bombay-Baroda, the Southern Punjab, and the North-Western, and occupies a central position, being 940 m.
After the Mutiny in 1858 it was separated from the North-Western Provinces and annexed to the Punjab.
It is found also in Persia and the Punjab, but does not appear to be collected in any quantity.
BAGHAL, a small native state in the Punjab, India.
Canning in Calcutta, John Lawrence in the Punjab, were men indeed equal to any burden; and the stress of the Mutiny, ending once and for ever the bad old system of seniority, brought to the front so many subordinates of dauntless gallantry and soldierly insight that a ring of steel was rapidly drawn round the vast territory affected.
Lawrence saw that the surest way to prevent the Mutiny from spreading from the sepoy army of Bengal to the recently conquered fighting races of the Punjab was to hurl the Sikh at the Hindu; instead of taking measures for the defence of the Punjab, he acted on the old principle that the best defence is attack, and promptly organized a force for the reduction of Delhi, with the ardent co-operation of born leaders like John Nicholson, Neville Chamberlain and Herbert Edwardes.
He was succeeded by Sir Henry Barnard in command of the Delhi field force, then amounting to about 3000 British troops with 22 field guns, in addition to a few Gurkhas and Punjab native troops.
The loyalty of the independent Sikh chiefs, headed by Patiala, and the stern measures which had been taken with the sepoy regiments enabled Lawrence to reinforce this little army with every available man and gun from the Punjab, in addition to Sikh and Pathan levies.
It was to the insight of Lawrence and the splendid organization of the Punjab province - the spoilt child -of the Indian government, as it had been called in allusion to the custom of sending thither the best of the Indian officials and soldiers - that the reduction of Delhi and the limitation of the outbreak were due.
His next task was to clear his line of communications with Delhi and the Punjab, and this he accordingly undertook.
But the fighting races of the Punjab saw no reason for casting in their lot with the mutineers, and the great majority of the independent princes who had nothing of which to complain, like Patiala in the Punjab,.
SALT RANGE, a hill system in the Punjab and North-West Frontier Provinces of India, deriving its name from its extensive deposits of rock-salt.
DHARMSALA, a hill-station and sanatorium of the Punjab, India, situated on a spur of the Dhaola Dhar, 16 m.
In 1855 Dharrsala was made the headquarters of the Kangra district of the Punjab in place of Kangra, and became the centre of a European settlement and cantonment, largely occupied by Gurkha regiments.
The presidency of Bengal, in contradistinction to those of Madras and Bombay, eventually included all the British territories north of the Central Provinces, from the mouths of the Ganges and Brahmaputra to the Himalayas and the Punjab.
In 1831 the North-Western Provinces were created, which are now included with Oudh in the United Provinces; and the whole of northern India is now divided into the four lieutenantgovernorships of the Punjab, the United Provinces, Bengal, and Eastern Bengal and Assam, and the North-West Frontier Province under a commissioner.
by Baluchistan, the Punjab and Rajputana; on the E.
The Bombay Presidency consists of a long strip of land along the Indian Ocean from the south of the Punjab to the north of Mysore.
The exception is the North-Western line, which enters Sind from the Punjab and finds its natural terminus at Karachi.
Returning to Asia, we find in Ladak, Astor, Afghanistan and the Punjab ranges, a sheep whose local races are variously known as urin, urial and shapo, and whose technical name is 0.
annexation of Sind by Lord Ellenborough, the conquest of the Punjab after two desperate military campaigns under Lord Dalhousie, the conquest of Pegu, and the annexation of Oudh.
In Africa; the advance of the red line which marks the bounds of British dominion was even more rapid; while in India the Punjab, Sind, Oudh and Burma were some of the acquisitions added to the British empire while the queen was on the throne.
To the north is an intervening watershed between Bajour and the small state of Dir; and it is over this watershed and through the valley of Dir that the new road from Malakand and the Punjab runs to Chitral.
During his exile he collected a large force of the warlike clans of the north-west frontier, and on the death of Alexander attacked the Macedonian garrisons and conquered the Punjab.
The Pathans of the Indian borderland inhabit the mountainous country on the Punjab frontier, stretching northwards from a line drawn roughly across the southern border of the Dera Ismail Khan district.
They are not amicable people, " said Hussain, whose own family originate from Pakistan's central Punjab province.
They were raised as the 25th Punjab Infantry or Hazara Gurkha battalion in 1858.
draughtsmanen employed as chief draftsman in the Central Workshop Division, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.