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punic

punic

punic Sentence Examples

  • It was the first town to surrender to the Romans in the First Punic War, and was granted freedom and immunity from tithe.

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  • It remained in the hands of the Romans during both the Punic and the Social Wars, and was a fortress of importance to them.

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  • Radermacher assigns the Asinaria to a date as early as 212 B.C. Of the extant plays the Cistellaria and the Stichus must be associated with the Miles as comparatively early works; for the former was clearly produced before (though not long before) the conclusion of the Second Punic War, see 1.201 seq.; and the Stichus is proved by its didascalia to have been produced in 200 B.C. The Pseudolus and the Truculentus fall within the last seven years of his life.

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  • His great work, entitled `PwµaiK?) apxawo)oyia (Roman Antiquities), embraced the history of Rome from the mythical period to the beginning of the first Punic War.

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  • In 210 B.C. this important place, the headquarters and treasure city of the Punic army, was stormed and taken with great slaughter by P. Scipio.

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  • Cassius Hemina (about 146), in the fourth book of his Annals, wrote on the Second Punic War.

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  • Hanoi is 1 For others of the name see Carthage; Hannibal; Punic Wars.

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  • Hence he attacked Motya and Panormus and the rest of Punic Sicily.

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  • The people were for the most part prosperous and contented, but under Verres the island experienced more misery and desolation than during the time of the first Punic or the recent servile wars.

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  • It is mentioned in 354 B.C. as a trading port, and became important as a naval harbour during the Punic Wars.

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  • annus, year; hence annales, sc. libri, annual records), the name given to a class of writers on Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla.

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  • CAELIUS ANTIPATER (about 120) limited himself to the Second Punic War.

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  • There were salt-works in Sardinia too as early as about 150 B.C., as is attested by an inscription assigned to this date in Latin, Greek and Punic, being a dedication by one Cleon salari(us) soc(iorum) s(ervus) (Corp. Inscr.

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  • In 240, the year after the end of the first Punic War, he produced at the ludi Romani a translation of a Greek play (it is uncertain whether a comedy or tragedy or both), and this representation marks the beginning of Roman literature (Livy vii.

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  • The later part treated of the events of the first Punic war in the style of a metrical chronicle.

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  • In Latin literature it was employed for the first time by the poet Ennius, who wrote in the interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (Ann.

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  • Still more important service was rendered by him in his long Saturnian poem on the first Punic war, in which he not only told the story of contemporary events but gave shape to the legend of the settlement of Aeneas in Latium, - the theme ultimately adopted for the great national epic of Rome.

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  • But the interval between the death of Ennius (169) and the beginning of Cicero's career, while one of progressive advance in the appreciation of literary form and style, was much less distinguished by original force than the time immediately before and after the end of the second Punic war.

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  • There are signs of trade with Etruria as early as the 7th century B.C. The Carthaginians made it into an important grainproducing centre; and the Romans set foot in the island more than once during the First Punic War.

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  • It passed into Carthaginian hands by the treaty of 405 B.C., was won back by Dionysius in his first Punic war, but recovered by Carthage in 383.

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  • The Poetelian law (326 B.C.) restricted the creditor's lien (by virtue of a nexum) to the goods of his debtor, and enacted that for the future no debtor should be put in chains; but we hear of debtors addicti to their creditors by the tribunals long after - even in the time of the Punic Wars.

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  • In the Second Punic War it thrice bade defiance to Hannibal; but in the Social War it was betrayed into the hands of the Samnites, who kept possession till Marius, with whom they had sided, was defeated by Sulla, who in 80 B.C. subjected it with the rest of Samnium.

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  • He served either in the Roman army or among the socii in the first Punic War, and thus must have reached manhood before 241.

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  • It may have been during his exile, when withdrawn from his active career as a dramatist, that he composed or completed his poem on the first Punic war.

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  • A strong spirit of partisanship is recognized in more than one of the fragments; and this spirit is thoroughly popular and adverse to the senatorial ascendancy which became more and more confirmed with the progress of the second Punic war.

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  • Often mentioned during the Punic Wars, it was captured by Agathocles in 310, and was the refuge of Hannibal and the remnants of his army after the battle of Zama in 202.

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  • During the last Punic War it gave assistance to the Romans; after the fall of Carthage in 146 it received an accession of territory and the title of civitas libera (Appian, Punica, xciv.; C.I.L.

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  • The Arabic invasion at the end of the 7th century destroyed the Byzantine towns, and the place became the haunt of pirates, protected by the Kasbah (citadel); it was built on the substructions of the Punic, Roman and Byzantine acropolis, and is used by the French for military purposes.

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  • Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).

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  • We can recognize also the Punic and Pagan-Roman cemeteries (C. R.

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  • The town had no Punic coins, but under the Roman domination there were coins from the time of the Republic. These are of bronze and bear the name of the city in abbreviations, Hadr or HadrVM accompanying the head of Neptune or the Sun.

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  • At the time of the Third Punic War the Africa of the Carthaginians was but a fragment of their ancient native empire.

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  • The importance of the discoveries lies in the fact that the ditch which in later times divided the provinces of Africa vetus and Africa nova was at the time of the Third Punic War the boundary of Carthaginian territory (R.

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  • During the Roman period the ancient Carthaginians of Phoenician origin and the bastard population termed by ancient authors Libyo-Phoenicians, like the modern Maltese, invariably formed the predominant population of the towns on the littoral, and retained the Punic language until the 6th century of the Christian era.

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  • Thenceforward its position was dependent, and in the Second Punic War, after several vicissitudes, it was depopulated and plundered by Hannibal.

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  • For a time it was the headquarters of Timoleon, and it was the first town taken by the Romans in the First Punic War (263 B.C.).

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  • Of his many works, the earliest, published in 1810, entitled Versuch 'fiber die maltesische Sprache, was a successful refutation of the widely current opinion that the modern Maltese was of Punic origin.

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  • They are inscribed in an alphabet which has many points of similarity with the western Greek alphabets, and some with the Punic alphabet; but which seems to retain a few characters from an older script akin to those of Minoan Crete and Roman Libya.

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  • The types show late Greek and perhaps also late Punic influence, but approximate later to Roman models.

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  • The Punic settlers semitized the coast, but left the Berbers of the interior almost untouched.

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  • The Romans entered into the heritage of the Carthaginians and the vassal kings of Numidia, and Punic speech and civilization The gave way to Latin, a change which from the time Province of of Caesar was helped on by Italian colonization; to "Africa."

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  • The town must have become a part of the Carthaginian dominion in 405 B.C. It was seized by Pyrrhus in 278 B.C., and was ceded to Rome at the end of the First Punic War.

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  • of Syracuse and appealed for help to Rome, which was granted, and this led to a collision between Rome and Carthage, which ended in the First Punic War.

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  • While hardly mentioned in connexion with the Punic or Civil Wars, Reate is described by Strabo as exhausted by these long contests.

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  • During these constant wars the Greek cities had been steadily decaying; and in the second Punic war, when most of them seized the opportunity of revolting from Rome, their very existence was in some cases annihilated.

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  • Soon after came the first Punic war, the principal scene of which was Sicily, where, from common hostility to the Carthaginian, Greek and Roman were brought into friendly relations, and the Roman armies must have become familiar with the spectacles and performances of the Greek theatre.

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  • c. 200 B.C.), was not, like Livius, a Greek, but either a Roman citizen or, more probably, a Campanian who enjoyed the limited citizenship of Latin and who had served in the Roman army in the first Punic war.

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  • Coelius Antipater, who wrote a narrative of the second Punic war about 120, and Sempronius Asellio, who wrote a history of his own times, have a better claim to be considered historians.

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  • The reign of Domitian, although it silenced the more independent spirits of the time, Tacitus and Juvenal, witnessed more important contributions to Roman literature than any age since the Augustan, - among them the Institutes of Quintilian, the Punic War of Silius Italicus, the epics and the Silvae of Statius, and the Epigrams of Martial.

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  • The disasters of the early part of the second Punic War revealed an unparalleled religious nervousness: portents and prodigies were announced from all quarters, it was felt that the divine anger was on the state, yet there was no belief in the efficacy of the old methods for restoring the pax deum.

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  • Punic tombs have also been discovered, and the votive terra-cottas of a small sanctuary of the Punic period were found near the north coast.

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  • In 205 B.C. in the Second Punic War we hear that they promised ship timber and corn to Scipio.

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  • For his services he received the kingdom of Syphax, and thus under Roman protection he became master of the whole of Numidia, and his dominions completely enclosed the Carthaginian territories, now straitened and reduced at the close of the Second Punic War.

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  • As soon as Carthage seemed to be recovering herself, and some of Massinissa's partisans were driven from the city into exile, his policy was to excite the fears of Rome, till at last in 149 war was declared - the Third Punic War, which ended in the final overthrow of Carthage.

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  • Tunis is probably of greater antiquity than Carthage, of which city however it became a dependency, being repeatedly mentioned in the history of the Punic Wars.

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  • Two of these bear Punic names (Nartzalus, Cintinus), but the rest Latin names.

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  • During the Punic Wars it was still a naval port, but in the latter part of the 2nd century B.C. it became the greatest commercial harbour of Italy and we find Lucilius about 125 B.C. placing it next in importance to Delos, then the greatest harbour of the ancient world.

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  • It remained a Carthaginian colony, though thoroughly Greek' in character, until it was taken by Rome in the First Punic war.

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  • In 2 4 9 he was consul and appointed to the command of the fleet in the first Punic War.

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  • But they still cherished a hatred of the Romans, and during the Second Punic War (218), irritated by the foundation of the Roman colonies of Cremona and Placentia, they rendered valuable assistance to Hannibal.

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  • - Another unit not far different, but yet distinct, is found apparently in Punic remains at Carthage (25), about 11.16 (22.32), and probably also in Sardinia as 11.07 (22.14), where it would naturally be of Punic origin.

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  • The Sicilian modius here is 16/31, or slightly under 1/3 of the bath, and so probably a Punic variant of the 1/3 bath or saton of Phoenicia.

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  • From Phoenicia this naturally became the main Punic unit; a bronze weight from Iol (18), marked 100, gives a drachma of 56 or 57 (224-228); and a Punic inscription (18) names 28 drachmae = 25 Attic, and therefore 57 to 59 grains (228-236); while a probably later series of 8 marble disks from Carthage (44) show 208, but vary from 197 to 234.

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  • He here rewrote and republished (1827-1828) the first two volumes of his Roman History, and composed a third volume, bringing the narrative down to the end of the First Punic War, which, with the help of a fragment written in 1811, was edited after his death (1832) by Johannes Classen (1805-1891).

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  • But after the close of the second Punic War, when Rome had become the chief power, not only in Italy, but in all the neighbouring lands round the Mediterranean, we can trace a growing tendency among the Italian cities to regard citizenship of this great state as a privilege, and to claim complete citizenship as a reward of their services in helping to build up the Roman power.

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  • Schwab, Das Schlachtfeld von Canna (Munich, 1898), and authorities under Punic Wars.

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  • Notwithstanding this they espoused the cause of Hannibal during the Second Punic War (216 B.C.), and their territory during several campaigns was ravaged by both armies.

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  • Isole Egati; anc. Aegates Insulae), a group of small mountainous islands off the western coast of Sicily, chiefly remarkable as the scene of the defeat of the Carthaginian fleet by C. Lutatius Catulus in 241 B.C., which ended the First Punic War.

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  • The Punic wars transferred the supreme power from Carthage to Rome, and Latin civilization was established firmly when, in 27 B.C., Andalusia became the Roman province of Baetica - so called after its great waterway, the Baetis (Guadalquivir).

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  • - Inscriptions, coins, topographical names preserved by Greek and Latin writers, names of persons and the Punic passages in the Poenulus of Plautus, all show conclusively that the Phoenician language belonged to the North-Semitic group, and to that subdivision of it which is called the Canaanite and includes Hebrew and the dialect of Moab.

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  • They passed through various modifications in the course of time; after leaving the mother country the script acquires a more cursive, flowing style on the stones from Cyprus and Attica; the tendency becomes more strongly marked at the Punic stage; until in the neo-Punic, from the destruction of Carthage (146 B.C.) to the 1st century A.D.; both the writing and the language reached their most degenerate form.

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  • In his sermons St Augustine frequently quotes Punic words< History.

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  • From Gadeira (Punic Gader, Lat.

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  • Sometimes the god received a distinguishing attribute which indicates an association not with any particular place, but with some special characteristic; the most common forms are Ba'al-bamman, the chief deity of Punic north Africa, perhaps " the glowing Ba'al," the god of fertilizing warmth, and Baal-shamem, " Baal of the heavens."

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  • from glosses in the Tell-el-Amarna tablets (15th century B.C.) 1 and much later from the Punic passages in the Poenulus of Plautus, differs in many respects from that of the Hebrew of the Old Testament, as also does the Septuagint transcription of proper names.

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  • MARCUS ATILIUS REGULUS, Roman general and consul (for the second time) in the ninth year of the First Punic War (256 B.C.).

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  • Broadley, The Last Punic War: Tunis Past and Present (1882) and H.

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  • He was also once more stirred up to play the part of a Hellenic champion in yet another Punic war.

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  • The Carthaginian Hamilcar won many Greek cities to the Punic alliance.

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  • Very soon came the first war between Rome and Carthage (the " First Punic War ").

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  • During the twenty-three years of the First Punic War (264241) the rest of the island suffered greatly.

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  • Gaiseric made a treaty with Odoacer almost like that which ended the First Punic War.

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  • Of his early years nothing is directly known, and we first hear of him in middle life as serving during the Second Punic War, with the rank of centurion, in Sardinia, in the year 204, where he attracted the attention of Cato the elder, and was taken by him to Rome in the same year.

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  • But except at Cyrene, the new material from Africa is Punic or Roman, and not Greek.

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  • In the First Punic War it was one of the first cities of Sicily to be taken by the Romans (263 B.C.).

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  • In the Punic Wars it sided with the Carthaginians and suffered much from the Roman arms. In its immediate neighbourhood Hanno was defeated by Scipio in 216 B.C., and it afterwards became famous as the scene of Caesar's arduous struggle with Pompey's generals Afranius and Petreius in the first year of the civil war (49 B.C.).

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  • It is certain from the symbols which they develop or drop that the people of Campania and Samnium borrowed their alphabet from the Etruscans, who held dominion in Campania from the 8th to the 5th century B.C. Previous to the Punic wars Campania had reached a higher stage of civilization than Rome.

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  • During the First Punic War it belonged to the kingdom of Hiero, and after his death it enjoyed an exceptionally favoured position with regard to Rome, being like Messana and Netum, a civitas foederata.

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  • His materials consisted of the Annales Maximi, Commentarii Consulares, and similar records; the chronicles of the great Roman families; and his own experiences in the Second Punic War.

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  • Although Polybius and Dionysius of Halicarnassus frequently find fault with him, the first uses him as his chief authority for the Second Punic War.

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  • In the First Punic War, Caere furnished Rome with corn and provisions, but otherwise, up till the end of the Republic, we only hear of prodigies being observed at Caere and reported at Rome, the Etruscans being especially expert in augural lore.

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  • It was of Asiatic origin, traces of it having been observed in Phoenicia and in the Punic colonies, but not in Egypt or Greece.

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  • The Romans, whose supremacy was not seriously threatened for some six centuries after the Punic Wars, gave to Portugal its language and the foundation of its civilization; there is, however, no evidence that they seriously modified the physical type or character of its people.

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  • In the Second Punic War it was occupied by Fabius Cunctator in 217 B.C., taken by Hannibal after a gallant defence by troops from Praeneste and Perusia in the winter of 216-215, but recaptured in the following year, serving the Romans as their base of operations against Capua.

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  • Niebuhr, Lectures on the History of Rome from the first Punic War (ed.

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  • Fabius Pictor, a patrician and a senator, can scarcely have published his annals before the close of the Second Punic War, but these annals covered the whole period from the arrival of Evander in Italy down at least to the battle by Lake Trasimene (217 B.C.).

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  • In his history of the Punic wars Caelius Antipater (c. 130 B.C.) added fresh material, drawn probably from the works of the Sicilian Greek Silenus, while Licinius Macer (70 B.C.) distinguished himself by the use he made of the ancient "linen books."

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  • of Bithynia; furnished a contingent during the Third Punic War; and aided the Romans in obtaining possession of Pergamum, bequeathed to them by Attalus III., but claimed by Aristonicus, a natural son of 1 There is much difference of opinion in regard to the kings of Pontus called Mithradates to the accession of Mithradates Eupator.

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  • As a consequence of the second Punic War, Roman agriculture was at a standstill; accordingly, recourse was had to Sicily and Sardinia (the first two Roman provinces) in order to keep up the supply of corn; a tax of one-tenth was imposed on it, and its export to any country except Italy forbidden.

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  • In the Second Punic war Alba at first remained faithful, but afterwards refused to send contingents and was punished.

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  • In 280 B.C. Pyrrhus unsuccessfully attacked its walls; and in the Second Punic War Hannibal was deterred by their strength from attempting to make himself master of the town.

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  • After the Second Punic War (203 B.C.) these tribes were severely punished by the Roman generals for the assistance they had rendered to Hannibal.

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  • There is a tradition that the Delphian oracle was consulted as early as the period of the kings during the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, and in 4 3 o a temple was dedicated to Apollo on the occasion of a pestilence, and during the Second Punic War (in 212) the Ludi Apollinares were instituted in his honour.

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  • After the Roman conquest an attempt to recover the city for Carthage was made in 250 B.e., which led only to a great Roman victory (see Punic Wars).

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  • Later, in the First Punic War, Hamilcar Barca was encamped for three years on Hiercte or Pellegrino, but the Roman possession of the city was not disturbed.

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  • On its banks Hasdrubal, while marching to the aid of Hannibal in 207 B.C., was defeated and slain by the Roman army, this being the decisive battle of the Second Punic War.

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  • Punic tombs and Roman buildings also exist near the harbour.

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  • the names SsrH Svc (B e la 'ZBL), Satvr y (ShMZBL) in Punic and Phoenician ' So Clarendon Press, Hebrew Lexicon, p. 127, with LXX.

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  • After the Second Punic War Greek elements were introduced into her cult.

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  • The island of Aiolie, the home of Aiolos, lord of the winds, which Ulysses twice visited in his wanderings, has generally been identified with one of this group. A colony of 'Cnidians and Rhodians was established on Lipara in 580-577 B.0 1 The inhabitants were allied with the Syracusans, and were attacked by the Athenian fleet in 427 B.C., and by the Carthaginians in 397 B.C., while Agathocles plundered a temple on Lipara in 301 B.C. During the Punic wars the islands were a Carthaginian naval station of some importance until the Romans took possession of them in 252 B.C. Sextus Pompeius also used them as a naval base.

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  • 60), Spurius Lucretius held the comitia as interrex, and from that time down to the Second Punic War such officers were from time to time appointed.

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  • At the time of the second Punic War the eastern tribe was governed by Massinissa, who took the side of the Romans in the contest, while Syphax his rival, king of the Massaesyli, supported the Carthaginians.

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  • Early in the First Punic War, however, the inhabitants, having massacred the Carthaginian garrison and allied themselves with Rome, had to stand a severe siege from the Carthaginians.

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  • Vacancies in the body of pontifices were originally filled by co-optation; but from the second Punic War onwards the pontifex maximus was chosen by a peculiar form of popular election, and in the last age of the republic this held good for all the members.

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  • But Rome had already her eyes on the Spanish men and mines, and, in the second Punic War, drove Carthage finally and completely out of the Peninsula (201 B.C.).

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  • On the other hand, every facility was given them to Romanize themselves; there was no competing influence of Hellenic or Punic culture and the uncivilized Spaniards accepted Roman ways gladly.

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  • Its foundation is generally attributed to the Carthaginians, and Punic tombs exist in considerable numbers near the present cemetery on the east and still more on the rocky plateau to the north-west of the town.

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  • It first appears in Roman history in the Second Punic War, and probably obtained full Roman civic rights from Julius Caesar.

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  • To the east was the necropolis of Bonaria, where both Punic and Roman tombs exist, and where, on the site of the present cemetery, Christian catacombs have been discovered (F.

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  • Other tombs are also to be found on the high ground near the Punic tombs already mentioned.

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  • According to Sallust (Jugurtha, 17), he was the author of an historical work in the Punic language.

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  • such a preliminary sketch of the earlier history of Rome, of the First Punic War, and of the contemporary events in Greece and Asia, as will enable his readers more full y to understand what follows.

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  • iii.) into the origin of the Second Punic War, but the sketch of early Roman history in bk.

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  • He quotes the actual language of the treaty which ended the First Punic War (i.

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  • Thus the thrilling story of the Second Punic War is broken in upon by digressions on the contemporary affairs in Greece and Asia.

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  • During the Second Punic War the city was a useful ally to Rome.

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  • The Romans adopted these weapons during the Punic Wars and further developed them, before introducing the new arrow-firing ballista and stone-throwing onager.

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  • The people were for the most part prosperous and contented, but under Verres the island experienced more misery and desolation than during the time of the first Punic or the recent servile wars.

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  • In the First Punic War, however, it was sacked by the Romans (261) and the Carthaginians (255), and finally in the Second Punic War by the Romans (210).

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  • We hear of it even in the Punic Wars as a fortified post of Acragas (E.

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  • There are signs of trade with Etruria as early as the 7th century B.C. The Carthaginians made it into an important grainproducing centre; and the Romans set foot in the island more than once during the First Punic War.

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  • There were salt-works in Sardinia too as early as about 150 B.C., as is attested by an inscription assigned to this date in Latin, Greek and Punic, being a dedication by one Cleon salari(us) soc(iorum) s(ervus) (Corp. Inscr.

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  • It is mentioned in 354 B.C. as a trading port, and became important as a naval harbour during the Punic Wars.

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  • At the end of the First Punic War Lutatius Catulus erected a temple in her honour on the Campus Martius, subsequently restored by Augustus.

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  • It remained in the hands of the Romans during both the Punic and the Social Wars, and was a fortress of importance to them.

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  • Radermacher assigns the Asinaria to a date as early as 212 B.C. Of the extant plays the Cistellaria and the Stichus must be associated with the Miles as comparatively early works; for the former was clearly produced before (though not long before) the conclusion of the Second Punic War, see 1.201 seq.; and the Stichus is proved by its didascalia to have been produced in 200 B.C. The Pseudolus and the Truculentus fall within the last seven years of his life.

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  • In 210 B.C. this important place, the headquarters and treasure city of the Punic army, was stormed and taken with great slaughter by P. Scipio.

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  • annus, year; hence annales, sc. libri, annual records), the name given to a class of writers on Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla.

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  • Cassius Hemina (about 146), in the fourth book of his Annals, wrote on the Second Punic War.

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  • CAELIUS ANTIPATER (about 120) limited himself to the Second Punic War.

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  • His great work, entitled `PwµaiK?) apxawo)oyia (Roman Antiquities), embraced the history of Rome from the mythical period to the beginning of the first Punic War.

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  • Hanoi is 1 For others of the name see Carthage; Hannibal; Punic Wars.

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  • In 240, the year after the end of the first Punic War, he produced at the ludi Romani a translation of a Greek play (it is uncertain whether a comedy or tragedy or both), and this representation marks the beginning of Roman literature (Livy vii.

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  • Hence he attacked Motya and Panormus and the rest of Punic Sicily.

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  • He fell, however, in 407 in an attempt to enter Syracuse, and, as a result of the treaty of 405 B.C., Selinus became absolutely subject to Carthage, and remained so until its destruction at the close of the first Punic War, when its inhabitants were transferred to Lilybaeum.

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  • Having regard to the military importance of Arretium during the Punic wars, it is difficult to believe that no direct road existed to this point before 187 B.C.

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  • The First Punic War having exhausted the treasury, the as was reduced to 2 OZ.

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  • In the Second Punic War it was again reduced to half this weight, viz.

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  • The first dictator is said to have been created in 501 B.C.; the last of the " administrative " dictators belongs to the year 216 B.C. It was an office that was incompatible both with the growing spirit of constitutionalism and with the greater security of the city; and the epoch of the Second Punic War was marked by experiments with the office, such as the election of Q.

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  • Minucius with Fabius, which heralded its disuse (see Punic WARs).

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  • Gaius Lutatius Catulus, Roman commander during the First Punic War, consul 242 B.C. He was sent with a fleet of zoo ships to Sicilian waters, and almost without opposition occupied the harbours of Lilybaeum and Drepanum.

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  • (See Punic Wars: First, ad fin.).

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  • Of her numerous temples at Rome, the most ancient was appropriately in the forum olitorium (vegetable market), built during the first Punic war, and since that time twice burnt down and restored.

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  • It passed into Carthaginian hands by the treaty of 405 B.C., was won back by Dionysius in his first Punic war, but recovered by Carthage in 383.

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  • The Poetelian law (326 B.C.) restricted the creditor's lien (by virtue of a nexum) to the goods of his debtor, and enacted that for the future no debtor should be put in chains; but we hear of debtors addicti to their creditors by the tribunals long after - even in the time of the Punic Wars.

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  • In the Second Punic War it thrice bade defiance to Hannibal; but in the Social War it was betrayed into the hands of the Samnites, who kept possession till Marius, with whom they had sided, was defeated by Sulla, who in 80 B.C. subjected it with the rest of Samnium.

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  • He served either in the Roman army or among the socii in the first Punic War, and thus must have reached manhood before 241.

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  • It may have been during his exile, when withdrawn from his active career as a dramatist, that he composed or completed his poem on the first Punic war.

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  • A strong spirit of partisanship is recognized in more than one of the fragments; and this spirit is thoroughly popular and adverse to the senatorial ascendancy which became more and more confirmed with the progress of the second Punic war.

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  • The later part treated of the events of the first Punic war in the style of a metrical chronicle.

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  • Often mentioned during the Punic Wars, it was captured by Agathocles in 310, and was the refuge of Hannibal and the remnants of his army after the battle of Zama in 202.

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  • During the last Punic War it gave assistance to the Romans; after the fall of Carthage in 146 it received an accession of territory and the title of civitas libera (Appian, Punica, xciv.; C.I.L.

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  • The Arabic invasion at the end of the 7th century destroyed the Byzantine towns, and the place became the haunt of pirates, protected by the Kasbah (citadel); it was built on the substructions of the Punic, Roman and Byzantine acropolis, and is used by the French for military purposes.

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  • Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).

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  • In the ruins there have been found numerous columns of Punic inscriptions, Roman inscriptions and mosaic, among which is one representing Virgil seated, holding the Aeneid in his hand; another represents the Cretan labyrinth with Theseus and the Minotaur (Heron de Villefosse, Revue de l'Afrique francaise, v., December 1887, pp. 384 and 394; Comptes rendus de l'Acad.

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  • We can recognize also the Punic and Pagan-Roman cemeteries (C. R.

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  • The town had no Punic coins, but under the Roman domination there were coins from the time of the Republic. These are of bronze and bear the name of the city in abbreviations, Hadr or HadrVM accompanying the head of Neptune or the Sun.

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  • He hastened at once to Arretium, the termination of the western high road to the north, to protect the passes of the Apennines, but was defeated and killed at the battle of the Trasimene lake (see Punic Wars) .

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  • In Latin literature it was employed for the first time by the poet Ennius, who wrote in the interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (Ann.

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  • At the time of the Third Punic War the Africa of the Carthaginians was but a fragment of their ancient native empire.

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  • The importance of the discoveries lies in the fact that the ditch which in later times divided the provinces of Africa vetus and Africa nova was at the time of the Third Punic War the boundary of Carthaginian territory (R.

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  • P. Sextilius, pro praetor Africae, according to coins of Hadrumetum of the year 94 B.C. The towns which had fought on the side of the Romans during the Third Punic War were declared civitates liberae, and became exceedingly prosperous.

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  • During the Roman period the ancient Carthaginians of Phoenician origin and the bastard population termed by ancient authors Libyo-Phoenicians, like the modern Maltese, invariably formed the predominant population of the towns on the littoral, and retained the Punic language until the 6th century of the Christian era.

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  • These tax-farmers (see Publicani) were already in existence at the time of the Second Punic War; and their numbers and influence increased as the various provinces were added to the Roman dominions.

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  • Thenceforward its position was dependent, and in the Second Punic War, after several vicissitudes, it was depopulated and plundered by Hannibal (204).

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  • For a time it was the headquarters of Timoleon, and it was the first town taken by the Romans in the First Punic War (263 B.C.).

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  • Of his many works, the earliest, published in 1810, entitled Versuch 'fiber die maltesische Sprache, was a successful refutation of the widely current opinion that the modern Maltese was of Punic origin.

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  • They are inscribed in an alphabet which has many points of similarity with the western Greek alphabets, and some with the Punic alphabet; but which seems to retain a few characters from an older script akin to those of Minoan Crete and Roman Libya.

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  • The types show late Greek and perhaps also late Punic influence, but approximate later to Roman models.

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  • The Punic settlers semitized the coast, but left the Berbers of the interior almost untouched.

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  • The Romans entered into the heritage of the Carthaginians and the vassal kings of Numidia, and Punic speech and civilization The gave way to Latin, a change which from the time Province of of Caesar was helped on by Italian colonization; to "Africa."

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  • The town must have become a part of the Carthaginian dominion in 405 B.C. It was seized by Pyrrhus in 278 B.C., and was ceded to Rome at the end of the First Punic War.

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  • It was the first town to surrender to the Romans in the First Punic War, and was granted freedom and immunity from tithe.

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  • of Syracuse and appealed for help to Rome, which was granted, and this led to a collision between Rome and Carthage, which ended in the First Punic War.

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  • While hardly mentioned in connexion with the Punic or Civil Wars, Reate is described by Strabo as exhausted by these long contests.

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  • During these constant wars the Greek cities had been steadily decaying; and in the second Punic war, when most of them seized the opportunity of revolting from Rome, their very existence was in some cases annihilated.

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  • Soon after came the first Punic war, the principal scene of which was Sicily, where, from common hostility to the Carthaginian, Greek and Roman were brought into friendly relations, and the Roman armies must have become familiar with the spectacles and performances of the Greek theatre.

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  • c. 200 B.C.), was not, like Livius, a Greek, but either a Roman citizen or, more probably, a Campanian who enjoyed the limited citizenship of Latin and who had served in the Roman army in the first Punic war.

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  • Still more important service was rendered by him in his long Saturnian poem on the first Punic war, in which he not only told the story of contemporary events but gave shape to the legend of the settlement of Aeneas in Latium, - the theme ultimately adopted for the great national epic of Rome.

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  • But the interval between the death of Ennius (169) and the beginning of Cicero's career, while one of progressive advance in the appreciation of literary form and style, was much less distinguished by original force than the time immediately before and after the end of the second Punic war.

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  • Coelius Antipater, who wrote a narrative of the second Punic war about 120, and Sempronius Asellio, who wrote a history of his own times, have a better claim to be considered historians.

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  • The reign of Domitian, although it silenced the more independent spirits of the time, Tacitus and Juvenal, witnessed more important contributions to Roman literature than any age since the Augustan, - among them the Institutes of Quintilian, the Punic War of Silius Italicus, the epics and the Silvae of Statius, and the Epigrams of Martial.

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  • Authorities are generally agreed in recog nizing three periods: - (1) from the end of the Regal epoch to the second Punic War, when Rome was influenced by other peoples in Italy, with whom she was brought into contact by commerce or war; (2) from the second Punic War to the end of the Republic, when contact with Greek and oriental sources and the growth of literature revolutionized religious notions and led to a philosophic scepticism; (3) the Imperial epoch, opening with a revival of old religious notions and later marked by the official worship of the deified emperors and the wide influence of oriental cults.

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  • The disasters of the early part of the second Punic War revealed an unparalleled religious nervousness: portents and prodigies were announced from all quarters, it was felt that the divine anger was on the state, yet there was no belief in the efficacy of the old methods for restoring the pax deum.

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  • 255): Carthage in her struggle with Rome was at last driven to levy oppressive tribute, whereupon the Maltese gave up the Punic garrison to Titus Sempronius under circumstances described by Livy (xxi.

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  • Punic tombs have also been discovered, and the votive terra-cottas of a small sanctuary of the Punic period were found near the north coast.

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  • In 205 B.C. in the Second Punic War we hear that they promised ship timber and corn to Scipio.

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  • In the battle of Zama (202) (see Punic Wars), he commanded the cavalry on Scipio's right wing, and materially assisted the Roman victory.

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  • For his services he received the kingdom of Syphax, and thus under Roman protection he became master of the whole of Numidia, and his dominions completely enclosed the Carthaginian territories, now straitened and reduced at the close of the Second Punic War.

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  • As soon as Carthage seemed to be recovering herself, and some of Massinissa's partisans were driven from the city into exile, his policy was to excite the fears of Rome, till at last in 149 war was declared - the Third Punic War, which ended in the final overthrow of Carthage.

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  • Tunis is probably of greater antiquity than Carthage, of which city however it became a dependency, being repeatedly mentioned in the history of the Punic Wars.

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  • Two of these bear Punic names (Nartzalus, Cintinus), but the rest Latin names.

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  • During the Punic Wars it was still a naval port, but in the latter part of the 2nd century B.C. it became the greatest commercial harbour of Italy and we find Lucilius about 125 B.C. placing it next in importance to Delos, then the greatest harbour of the ancient world.

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  • It remained a Carthaginian colony, though thoroughly Greek' in character, until it was taken by Rome in the First Punic war.

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  • In 2 4 9 he was consul and appointed to the command of the fleet in the first Punic War.

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  • Some, however, appear to have stayed behind, since, during the Second Punic War, Magalus, a Boian prince, offered to show Hannibal the way into Italy after he had crossed the Pyrenees (Livy xxi.

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  • But they still cherished a hatred of the Romans, and during the Second Punic War (218), irritated by the foundation of the Roman colonies of Cremona and Placentia, they rendered valuable assistance to Hannibal.

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  • - Another unit not far different, but yet distinct, is found apparently in Punic remains at Carthage (25), about 11.16 (22.32), and probably also in Sardinia as 11.07 (22.14), where it would naturally be of Punic origin.

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  • The Sicilian modius here is 16/31, or slightly under 1/3 of the bath, and so probably a Punic variant of the 1/3 bath or saton of Phoenicia.

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  • From Phoenicia this naturally became the main Punic unit; a bronze weight from Iol (18), marked 100, gives a drachma of 56 or 57 (224-228); and a Punic inscription (18) names 28 drachmae = 25 Attic, and therefore 57 to 59 grains (228-236); while a probably later series of 8 marble disks from Carthage (44) show 208, but vary from 197 to 234.

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  • He here rewrote and republished (1827-1828) the first two volumes of his Roman History, and composed a third volume, bringing the narrative down to the end of the First Punic War, which, with the help of a fragment written in 1811, was edited after his death (1832) by Johannes Classen (1805-1891).

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  • But after the close of the second Punic War, when Rome had become the chief power, not only in Italy, but in all the neighbouring lands round the Mediterranean, we can trace a growing tendency among the Italian cities to regard citizenship of this great state as a privilege, and to claim complete citizenship as a reward of their services in helping to build up the Roman power.

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  • It is celebrated for the disastrous defeat which the Romans received there from Hannibal in 216 B.C. (see Punic Wars).

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  • Schwab, Das Schlachtfeld von Canna (Munich, 1898), and authorities under Punic Wars.

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  • Notwithstanding this they espoused the cause of Hannibal during the Second Punic War (216 B.C.), and their territory during several campaigns was ravaged by both armies.

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  • Isole Egati; anc. Aegates Insulae), a group of small mountainous islands off the western coast of Sicily, chiefly remarkable as the scene of the defeat of the Carthaginian fleet by C. Lutatius Catulus in 241 B.C., which ended the First Punic War.

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  • The Punic wars transferred the supreme power from Carthage to Rome, and Latin civilization was established firmly when, in 27 B.C., Andalusia became the Roman province of Baetica - so called after its great waterway, the Baetis (Guadalquivir).

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  • - Inscriptions, coins, topographical names preserved by Greek and Latin writers, names of persons and the Punic passages in the Poenulus of Plautus, all show conclusively that the Phoenician language belonged to the North-Semitic group, and to that subdivision of it which is called the Canaanite and includes Hebrew and the dialect of Moab.

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  • They passed through various modifications in the course of time; after leaving the mother country the script acquires a more cursive, flowing style on the stones from Cyprus and Attica; the tendency becomes more strongly marked at the Punic stage; until in the neo-Punic, from the destruction of Carthage (146 B.C.) to the 1st century A.D.; both the writing and the language reached their most degenerate form.

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  • In his sermons St Augustine frequently quotes Punic words< History.

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  • From Gadeira (Punic Gader, Lat.

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  • Sometimes the god received a distinguishing attribute which indicates an association not with any particular place, but with some special characteristic; the most common forms are Ba'al-bamman, the chief deity of Punic north Africa, perhaps " the glowing Ba'al," the god of fertilizing warmth, and Baal-shamem, " Baal of the heavens."

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  • from glosses in the Tell-el-Amarna tablets (15th century B.C.) 1 and much later from the Punic passages in the Poenulus of Plautus, differs in many respects from that of the Hebrew of the Old Testament, as also does the Septuagint transcription of proper names.

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  • MARCUS ATILIUS REGULUS, Roman general and consul (for the second time) in the ninth year of the First Punic War (256 B.C.).

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  • He was one of the commanders in the Punic naval expedition which shattered the Carthaginian fleet at Ecnomus, and landed an army on Carthaginian territory (see Punic Wars).

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  • Broadley, The Last Punic War: Tunis Past and Present (1882) and H.

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  • In the crisis of the second Punic War (205 B.C.), when the Romans lost faith in the efficacy of their own religion to save the state, the Senate, in compliance with an oracle in the Sibylline books to the effect that the foreign foe could be driven from Italy if the Idaean Mother (Cybele) were brought from Pessinus to Rome, sent ambassadors to the town, who obtained the sacred stone which was the symbol of the goddess and brought it to Rome, where the worship of Cybele was established.

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  • He was also once more stirred up to play the part of a Hellenic champion in yet another Punic war.

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  • The Carthaginian Hamilcar won many Greek cities to the Punic alliance.

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  • Very soon came the first war between Rome and Carthage (the " First Punic War ").

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  • During the twenty-three years of the First Punic War (264241) the rest of the island suffered greatly.

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  • The war for Sicily was fought in and round Sicily, and the Sicilian cities were taken and retaken by the contending powers (see Punic Wars).

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  • Gaiseric made a treaty with Odoacer almost like that which ended the First Punic War.

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  • Of his early years nothing is directly known, and we first hear of him in middle life as serving during the Second Punic War, with the rank of centurion, in Sardinia, in the year 204, where he attracted the attention of Cato the elder, and was taken by him to Rome in the same year.

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  • But except at Cyrene, the new material from Africa is Punic or Roman, and not Greek.

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  • Savona is the ancient Savo, a town of the Ingauni (see Albenga), where, according to Livy, Mago stored his booty in the Second Punic War.

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  • In the First Punic War it was one of the first cities of Sicily to be taken by the Romans (263 B.C.).

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  • In the Punic Wars it sided with the Carthaginians and suffered much from the Roman arms. In its immediate neighbourhood Hanno was defeated by Scipio in 216 B.C., and it afterwards became famous as the scene of Caesar's arduous struggle with Pompey's generals Afranius and Petreius in the first year of the civil war (49 B.C.).

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  • It is certain from the symbols which they develop or drop that the people of Campania and Samnium borrowed their alphabet from the Etruscans, who held dominion in Campania from the 8th to the 5th century B.C. Previous to the Punic wars Campania had reached a higher stage of civilization than Rome.

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  • During the First Punic War it belonged to the kingdom of Hiero, and after his death it enjoyed an exceptionally favoured position with regard to Rome, being like Messana and Netum, a civitas foederata.

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  • His materials consisted of the Annales Maximi, Commentarii Consulares, and similar records; the chronicles of the great Roman families; and his own experiences in the Second Punic War.

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  • Although Polybius and Dionysius of Halicarnassus frequently find fault with him, the first uses him as his chief authority for the Second Punic War.

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  • In the First Punic War, Caere furnished Rome with corn and provisions, but otherwise, up till the end of the Republic, we only hear of prodigies being observed at Caere and reported at Rome, the Etruscans being especially expert in augural lore.

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  • It was of Asiatic origin, traces of it having been observed in Phoenicia and in the Punic colonies, but not in Egypt or Greece.

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  • The Romans, whose supremacy was not seriously threatened for some six centuries after the Punic Wars, gave to Portugal its language and the foundation of its civilization; there is, however, no evidence that they seriously modified the physical type or character of its people.

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  • In the Second Punic War it was occupied by Fabius Cunctator in 217 B.C., taken by Hannibal after a gallant defence by troops from Praeneste and Perusia in the winter of 216-215, but recaptured in the following year, serving the Romans as their base of operations against Capua.

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  • 1); 15 more (xvi - xxx.) cover the 63 years of the two great Punic wars.

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  • Niebuhr, Lectures on the History of Rome from the first Punic War (ed.

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  • Fabius Pictor, a patrician and a senator, can scarcely have published his annals before the close of the Second Punic War, but these annals covered the whole period from the arrival of Evander in Italy down at least to the battle by Lake Trasimene (217 B.C.).

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  • In his history of the Punic wars Caelius Antipater (c. 130 B.C.) added fresh material, drawn probably from the works of the Sicilian Greek Silenus, while Licinius Macer (70 B.C.) distinguished himself by the use he made of the ancient "linen books."

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