How to use Pulp in a sentence
Varieties occur with yellow and reddish pulp; and there are also pear-shaped varieties.
He hacked him apart until there was nothing but pulp.
The pulp is much esteemed in the West Indies and is eaten as a salad, usually with the addition of pepper, salt and vinegar.
The pulp is of the nature of an aril, that is, an additional seed-coat.
Among manufactures are iron and steel, tin and terne plate, glass, paper and wood pulp, and pottery.Advertisement
Dover led in the manufacture of woollens; Laconia in the manufacture of hosiery and knit goods; and Berlin, the chief manufacturing centre north of the White Mountains, in the manufacture of paper and wood pulp.
Menasha had good water power and among its manufactures are paper and sulphite pulp, lumber, wooden-ware and cooperage products, woollen and knit goods, leather, boats and bricks.
At the south-eastern end St Mary's river carries its waters to Lake Huron, with a fall of 602 to 581 ft., most of which takes place at Sault Sainte Marie, where the largest locks in the world permit vessels of 10,000 tons to pass from one lake to the other, and where water-power has been greatly developed for use in the rolling mills and wood pulp industry.
All trees were long little thought of in comparison with the pine, but of late years poplar and spruce have proved of great value in the making of paper pulp, and hard-wood (oak, beech, ash, elm, certain varieties of maple) is becoming increasingly valuable for use in flooring and the making of furniture.
For water-vessels, &c., they employ gourds and large coco-nut shells, in preparing which they pour in water and allow the pulp or the kernel to decay, so that it may be removed without breaking the rind or shell.Advertisement
The seeds must be from ripe fruit, and if fresh gathered should be freed from pulp by maceration in water.
They ripen in September, when they are gathered and preserved by storing in a dry place; after a time the pulp becomes much softer and sweeter than when fresh.
As seen in commerce jujube fruits are about the size of a small filbert, having a reddish-brown, shining, somewhat wrinkled exterior, and a yellow or gingerbread coloured pulp enclosing a hard elongated stone.
Among the manufactures are glass, stoves, iron bedsteads, foundry and machine-shop products, steel, planing-mill products, paper and pulp, and leather.
One of the most important of his investigations had to do with the manufacture of guncotton, and he developed a process, consisting essentially of reducing the nitrated cotton to fine pulp, which enabled it to be prepared with practically no danger and at the same time yielded the product in a form that increased its usefulness.Advertisement
Strips are also woven into cages, chairs, beds and other articles of furniture, Oriental wicker-work in bamboo being unequalled for beauty and neatness of workmanship. In China the interior portions of the stem are beaten into a pulp and used for the manufacture of the finer varieties of paper.
Various other adulterants are sometimes used, such as the inspissated juice of the prickly pear, extracts from tobacco, stramonium and hemp, pulp of the tamarind and bael fruit, mahwah flowers and gums of different kinds.
They are crushed to egg-size in a rock-breaker, and pulverized to pass a 40-mesh sieve in a California stamp-mill, which treats in 24 hours about 3 tons per stamp. A 10-stamp mill is fed by one rock-breaker, and discharges the liquid pulp into 10-15 wooden settling tanks, 9 by 5 by 8 ft., the settled contents of which are shovelled out and charged into the pans.
To the bottom and muller are attached grinding plates (shoes and dies), which are replaced when worn; and to the sides three wings to deflect the moving pulp towards the centre, and thus establish the necessary pulp current.
In settling, the pulp is diluted by a small stream of water, and the thinned pulp drawn off, first through the top dischargehole and then through the other two, the bottom one being about 8 in.Advertisement
P. Boss has modified the ordinary plant by making the pulp flowing from the stamps pass through a grinding pan, then through a series of amalgamating pans followed by a row of settlers.
The steam-chest is not used to such an extent, as the bottom would be prematurely corroded; less water is used, as the pulp would become too thin on account of the soluble salts (sodium chloride, sulphate, &c.) going into solution; and the roasted ore is not ground, as the hot brine readily dissolves the silver chloride from the porous ore, and thus brings it into intimate contact with iron and quicksilver.
The tendency is for this area to increase, for the establishment between 1890 and 1900 of large paper and pulp mills on some of the principal rivers of the south slope greatly increased the value of forests, especially those of spruce and poplar.
Good spruce, which is by far the most valuable timber in the state and is used most largely for the manufacture of paper and pulp, stands in large quantities in the St John, Penobscot, Androscoggin and Kennebec basins.
The first cotton mill was built at Brunswick on the Androscoggin about 1809, and from 1830 the development of cotton manufacturing was rapid; woollen mills followed, and late in the 19th century were erected some of the largest paper and pulp mills in the country, which are run by water power from the rivers, and use the spruce and poplar timber in the river basins.Advertisement
The total value of the manufactures of the state increased from $95,689,500 in 1890 to $127,361,485 in 1900; and in 1905 the value of factory-made products alone was $144,020,197, or 2 7.5% greater than their value in 1900.1 Measured by the value of the output, paper and wood pulp rose from fifth among the state's manufactures in 1890 to third in 1900 and to first in 1905; from $3,281,051 in 1890 to $13,223,275 in 1900, an increase of 303% within the decade, and to $22,951,124 in 1905, a further increase of 73.6% in this period.
In the fresh state they are filled with a sweet white pulp which envelops a large brown seed, but in the dried condition the pulp forms a blackish fleshy substance.
The rivers furnish good water power, which is used in the manufacture of a variety of commodities, including foundry products, paper and pulp, woollen goods, hosiery, saws, needles and knitting machines.
The value of the product of planing mills was $11,210,205 in 1905; and other important manufactures based on raw materials from forests were paper and wood pulp ($17,844,174) and furniture (11,569,591).
Next to white pine (used largely in shipbuilding) in value in 1908 were red or Norway pine (used in house building), hemlock (used for lumber and wood pulp) and white spruce, a very valuable lumber tree.Advertisement
Among its manufactures are lumber (especially yellow-pine), wood-alcohol, turpentine, paper and pulp, fertilizers, wagons, mattresses and machine-shop products.
Some use is also made of the forest resources of the state in the manufacture of veneer, paper pulp, turpentine and other chemicals.
The fruits are expressed, and after the edible qualities and best class of oils for technical purposes have been taken off by expression, the remaining pulp is extracted by means of solvents.
Sometimes he imagined meeting Rob in a secluded spot and beating him to a pulp.
Never use a wooden backboard as it is acidic, nor gray pulp board.Advertisement
How it is done X-rays are taken to establish the length of the pulp cavity.
The bird was in a mesh fronted cage and no longer had a cere, just a bloody lump of pulp.
Mash the peppers and eggplant pulp together to form a slightly chunky mass.
A pulp and paper mill in northern Saskatchewan has biomass cogeneration.
This novel is essentially a ripping yarn yet it somehow stands apart from typical pulp detective writing.Advertisement
In the copper-plate engraving, the pulp is kept warm in a wooden tub.
Fast growing eucalyptus have been successfully cultivated in Northern Spain, Portugal and Brazil and provide the papermaker with very high quality pulp.
Other customers in the past have included eurythmics, Status Quo, Pulp and Squarepusher, as well as local studios and clubs.
Double Pressed Apple Pulp This makes a good silage extender or replacer at 30% dry matter and 10.8 (MJ/kg DM ).
You will have to imagine scenes from pulp fiction or ' adult ' comics.Advertisement
It also concentrates heat in one area with possibly lethal consequences for the pulp.
For every Pulp Fiction, Gattaca and dangerous liaisons there is a Batman & Robin or Avengers that drags her back to square one.
Extensive efforts have been made to genetically modify trees so that they have reduced lignin to facilitate pulp production.
In Goa, India, the cashew apple is the source of juicy pulp used to prepare fenny, a locally popular distilled liquor.
These allowed him space to hold forth about his favorite topics - the Kray twins, forgotten pulp masterpieces, pit-bull terriers.Advertisement
Filling the central cavity is a yellowish aromatic pulp, surrounding numerous hard black seeds attached to small peg-like outgrowths on the fruit wall.
Making one ton of bleached chemical pulp requires 120,000 or more liters of water.
Skin irritation has also been noted following contact with fresh plant material and dried fruit pulp.
Ayr also exports virgin log pulp to Finland, with regular shipment sizes in excess of 3,000 tons.
The diet is further supplemented with citrus pulp or beef pulp to maintain milk quality.
His skull had been smashed by repeated blows from a heavy object, his head reduced to a bloody pulp.
The dental pulp extends inside a fine canal up to the tip of the root.
Makes a fine drying support, the material has a slick surface which prevents sticking, especially useful when using wet pulp.
Feed succulent food, eg soaked sugar beet pulp, to encourage water intake.
All of the wood pulp used to make virgin fiber office paper in the UK is imported.
Extract the juice - the apple pulp has to be pressed to extract the juice.
Cheese (n) parcels of fruit pulp to be pressed are built up into a stack called a cheese.
Yep, you guessed it, by continually pummeling the rival into a metal pulp.
To get away from these we worked with a packaging company to design our own reconstituted biodegradable paper pulp punnets.
It is manufactured from cotton fiber and linen rag, which makes it tougher and more durable than the more common wood pulp paper.
Strain off all the pulp, and add other half rhubarb.
The residue from the castor bean pulp can be used in the production of the biological agent ricin " .
Add tomato paste, vegetable pulp, chopped onion, chopped celery, and cumin seeds.
The scraped pulp was applied as a stimulating plaster, and in gout, rheumatism and paralysis has been found serviceable in many instances.
Usually the pulp of a relatively unripe fruit is chosen, mashed, and placed thickly over the wound on a daily basis.
Crown fractures were identified as significant risk factors for pulp vitality.
Recycled paper can be made using less water and less than 50% of the energy of paper made from virgin wood pulp.
Recycling paper uses 67% less energy than manufacturing it from raw wood pulp.
Improves qualities of mechanical pulp when chemical wood pulp is mixed with better grade wood pulp.
The pulp contains much oil, which is used for lighting and soap-making, and the seeds yield a deep indelible black stain which is used for marking linen.
The object to be lacquered, which is generally made of thin wl?ite pine, is subjected to singularly thorough and painstaking treatment, one of the processes being to cover it with a layer of Japanese paper or thin hempen cloth, which is fixed by means of a pulp of rice-paste and lacquer.
A deep pulp cavity in the upper third of the tusk restricts the working of the ivory around the hollow cavity to shallow carving.
After entering the pulp chamber, an option is to continue preparation without water spray.
Slice round the top of tomatoes and set aside; scoop out all pulp and put in a bowl.
A 400-year-old English recipe for a pomade was made from apple pulp, swine 's grease and rosewater.
Place the tamarind pulp in a small mixing bowl, pour over the boiling water and set aside to soften for 20 minutes.
Purified wood pulp, which is almost pure cellulose, is regenerated in the form of synthetic fibers or sheets.
Disposable Paper Air Filter Pleated wood pulp bonded together.
The chemicals used to make wood chemical pulp paper today could cause us a lot of trouble tomorrow.
Also consider whether you'll choose an ingredient like Rose's sweet lime juice or whether you'll take the time and effort to squeeze out half a lime, pulp and all, for your cocktail.
Consumers can also purchase paper products made from recycled materials, often at cheaper prices than virgin wood pulp products.
Higher grade paper, like high quality office paper, can be broken down to the pulp and used to make new writing paper, or pen casings and pencils.
Because most of the berry is a large seed, typically the berries are processed first so the pulp and juice can be used in a wide variety of foods.
In Brazil the juice or pulp is frequently mixed into puddings, ice cream or juices, smoothies and other drinks.
According to the research, freeze-dried Acai berry pulp is able to inhibit the growth of leukemia cells.
The freeze-dried pulp may also help strengthen a weak immune system.
Research published in the print version of the Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry in 2006 indicates that freeze-dried acai fruit pulp inhibits Cox-1 and Cox-2 enzymes.
When you consume acai pulp, berries or juice, you are consuming as much Vitamin C as if you ate a cup of blueberries and over 1,000 IU of Vitamin A for every 100 grams of acai.
The berries are a made up of a seed which is surrounded by dark purple pulp.
This pulp is what the healthy acai juice is extracted from.
Some are pure pulp and juice while others are watered down or mixed with other fruit juices.
Some experts say that using a juice that claims to use the whole fruit; seed, pulp and skin is not as healthful as a juice made with just the pulp and skin.
Acai 100 uses the seed, the pulp, and the skin of the acai berry to make the juice.
Perfect Acai is a pure juice made with just the skin and pulp of the acai berry.
In South America, people frequently use acai pulp as an antibacterial astringent, rubbing it onto minor cuts and abrasions to prevent infection.
In Brazil, for example, fresh pulp from processed acai berries is used in tapioca, mixed into ice cream and used for juice.
You can also enjoy acai as a juice or purchase it as a frozen pulp.
These farmers then turn the acai berries into a nutritious pulp.
The pulp is frozen for shipment to other parts of the world.
The berries themselves are hard to find and even hard to eat because of the amount of seeds and pulp they contain.
This paper is made of normal plant-based pulp, but the acid is removed from the pulp during the manufacturing process.
To do this, manufacturers add a weak base to the pulp, which neutralizes the naturally occurring acid.
The pulp is also tested to make sure it is free of lignin, a chemical compound that naturally occurs in plant fibers.
That way it's less likely that the seeds have been strained out and there is more pulp to consume.
He later went on to achieve acclaim in such cult favorites as Pulp Fiction, Shaft, Star Wars, and Snakes on a Plane.
When acid free paper is made, a base (to neutralize the naturally occurring acids in the wood pulp) is added to the paper in order to prevent this deterioration from happening.
Occasionally these are succeeded by large reddish-purple oval fruits, filled with soft juicy pulp.
The root of many problems with composites is the wood pulp used is still green.
A natural textile made from the pulp of bamboo grass, bamboo is the ultimate sustainable source for textiles.
Jams can have either crushed fruit pulp or fruit puree, but doesn't have pieces of fruit in it.
This kind of berry requires removing the seeds with a cheesecloth pressing method and throwing away the best part of the blackberry, the pulp.
The University of Connecticut School of Medicine, in conjunction with the University of Milan, has been studying the skin and pulp of both red and white grapes to determine the levels of resveratrol present in each.
Originally established as a wood pulp mill in 1865, Nokia went on to become the world's largest cell phone manufacturer, beating out hefty competition from Motorola, Samsung, and LG Electronics.
If the pulp of the tooth is damaged, root canal therapy is needed.
The dentist or a specialist called an endodontist removes the decayed pulp, fills the space left behind with a soothing paste, and covers the tooth with a crown to protect and seal it.
Endodontist-A dentist who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases of the pulp and other inner structures of the tooth.
Pulpitis-Inflammation of the pulp of a tooth that involves the blood vessels and nerves.
The pulp is the area of skin opposite the fingernail and is usually very vulnerable to injury.
A normal fingertip has sensation without pain, stable pulp padding, and an acceptable appearance.
Small wounds to a fingertip's skin and pulp usually close on their own with complete healing within three to five weeks.
When the decay reaches the center of the tooth (the pulp), the resulting inflammation (pulpitis) produces a toothache.
If decay has attacked the pulp, the dentist or a specialist called an endodontist may perform root canal treatment and then cover the tooth with a crown.
Primary teeth with obvious decay in the enamel that has not yet progressed to the pulp need to be protected with stainless steel crowns.
When the decay has advanced to the pulp, pulling the tooth is often the treatment of choice.
If a piece of the outer tooth has chipped off, but the inner core (pulp) is undisturbed, the dentist may simply smooth the rough edges or replace the missing section with a small composite filling.
If enough tooth is missing to compromise the entire tooth structure, but the pulp is not permanently damaged, the tooth will require a protective coverage with a gold or porcelain crown.
If the pulp has been seriously damaged, the tooth will require root canal treatment before it receives a crown.
Root canal treatment-The process of removing diseased or damaged pulp from a tooth, then filling and sealing the pulp chamber and root canals.
Taurodontism, an enlargement of the pulp of the teeth with surface thinning, is very common in Klinefelter syndrome and can be diagnosed with dental x rays.
Uma Thurman rocked the cropped bang in Pulp Fiction, and Angelina Joile had many gals running for scissors in Girl Interrupted.
Pair your bob with bangs for an even more dramatic look just as Uma Thurman did in the movie Pulp Fiction.
About 90% of the berry is seed, covered by a small amount of pulp.
Most grocery stores now sell acai juice, and in some cases, you may be able to find frozen acai pulp.
The juice and pulp are delicious and in small amounts affordable.
While the acai berry is not readily available in grocery stores, it is available in juice and sometimes as a frozen pulp.
Both the juice and the pulp are delicious, tasting like a combination of berries and chocolate, and can be affordable in small amounts.
You may be better off investing in alternatives, like acai berry juice or frozen pulp.
Though most of the berry is a pit, the pulp part contains a high amount of antioxidants.
It just might be better to look at products other than the latest pill, such as juice or pulp.
Dr. Perricone recommends the unsweetened pulp of the acai berry, which is available in health food and gourmet stores.
This pulp can be incorporated into your diet in a number of ways, from juice and smoothies to toppings and desserts.
Unlike blenders and food processors, juicers actually remove the juice from the pulp of fruits and vegetables.
A centrifugal juicer chops the fruit or vegetable and then spins it in a basket made of stainless steel or plastic at a high speed, which separates the juice from the pulp.
A centrifugal juicer with a pulp ejector operates in the same way as a basic centrifugal juicer.
However, it ejects the remaining pulp through an ejector located on the side of the unit.
A key difference between Vitamix and other machines on the market is that Vitamix thoroughly blends every component of a juice or puree, whereas a juicer separates and discards rinds, pits, pulp, and other hard-to-digest substances.
The machine mimics the same motion and force as chewing the food, reducing it to pulp and juice and making the nutrients more available for digestion and absorption.
Machines such as the Champion, Vitamix or Norwalk juicers offer the added advantage and benefit of using every last bit of the fruits or vegetables juiced, including the pulp, core and seeds.
The centrifugal force separates the juice from the pulp.
Pulp collects in a strainer, while the juice is released into a glass.
This pushes the pulp out so you don't need to clean the machine as often.
The machine's last step is to squeeze the resulting pulp to extract the juice.
A conventional juicer removes the pulp from the juice of a fruit or vegetable.
As the item is juiced the pulp is cast off and the juice is released into a container.
People who like conventional juicers claim that the pulp keeps your body from absorbing the nutrients from the juice easily.Proponents of the Vitamix blender claim that the whole fruit is more nutritious than drinking just the juice.
The juice attachment can catch all the pulp from fruits and vegetables and give you just the juice.
I took the appliance apart and ran it under water to remove any leftover pulp.
The pulp collection basket was easy to remove and clean as well.
Supporting cast includes Ving Rhames (Pulp Fiction), Philip Seymore Hoffman (Capote), and Laurence Fishburne (The Matrix).
Films include Taxi Driver, Deathwatch, Falling in Love, Wise Guys, Thelma and Louise, Reservoir Dogs, Sister Act, The Piano, Pulp Fiction, City of Industry, Smoke, The Path to 9/11, One Last Dance and Inglorious Basterds.
Pulp Fiction (1994) - Several different crime storylines somehow connect in the movie, with everything from a drug overdose to sadistic torture.
The couple used recycled materials from the start, going so far as to shred newspapers, pulse them in a blender until they were pulp, then flattened and dried the pulp to make clothing labels.
The Moso bamboo tree is the source of fabric - pulp fibers from the tree are converted into fabric and yarn.
Fill the blender with warm water and blend, starting out slowly, until you have a smooth pulp.
Fill your tub about halfway with water, add three or more blenders full of pulp and stir.
The more pulp you add the thicker your paper will be.
Place the mold in the tub and level out the pulp while the frame is submerged.
Swish it around until the layer of pulp on the screen looks even.
Wring the sponge into the pulp tub as you go.
Fruit pulp and puree can add a light pastel color to soaps as well as provide cosmetic benefits.
Harvesters cut open the ripe pods from the trees and harvest the seeds and pulp within them.
There are special grinders for chocolate which help the beans exude the liqueur and the pulp.
Elastica were not only pop-punk pioneers, fitting in with the Britpop vibe of bands like Supergrass, Pulp, Cast and Ash, but they also did a lot for women in rock.
This track from his his first solo album (the album is entitled Jarvis) simultaneously satisfies your Pulp cravings while being different enough to keep it interesting.
Scoop out all of the seeds and pulp and allow them to dry out a bit.
Pulp Fiction - Griffin had a very small part in this Quentin Tarantino hit.
For an older clunky robot that didn't look much different than the stereotypical style of robots featured in most of the 1950s pulp fiction, this particular emotional robotic character came to life on the screen.
The field has changed significantly since the pulp novels of 1920s.
A humor site where you run a small community sharing pictures of beer can sculptures and wacky personals ads, it's probably quite all right to have a banana doing the Pulp Fiction dance as a way to break up the homepage.
Her mate, her only love, was nothing more than bloody pulp.
The first paper mill in the township was built in South Lee in 1806, and for a time more paper was made in Lee than in any other place in the United States; the Housatonic Mill in Lee was probably the first (1867) in the United States to manufacture paper from wood pulp.
The fruit-stalk is very short, bearing a subglobose fruit an inch or rather more in diameter, of an orange-yellow colour, and with a sweetish astringent pulp. It is surrounded at the base by the persistent calyxlobes, which increase in size as the fruit ripens.
Paper and wood pulp, for the manufacture of which the spruce forests of the state are so largely used, increased in value from $1,282,022 in 1890 to $7,244,733 in 1900, or 465.1%, and to $8,930,291 in 1905; and this industry rose from ninth in rank in 1890 to fifth in 1900 and to fourth in 1905.
The manufacture of lumber and timber products, one of the oldest industries of the state, ranked fifth in 1905; these products had increased in value from $5,641,445 in 1890 to $9,218,310 in 1900, or 63.4%, but decreased to $7,519,431 in 1905, the decrease being in large measure due to the great demand for spruce at the paper and pulp mills.
As compared with other states of the Union, New Hampshire in 1905 ranked fifth in the manufacture of factory-made boots and shoes, and in woollen goods, sixth in cotton goods, and seventh in paper and wood pulp, in hosiery and knit goods, and in the dyeing and finishing of textiles.
The waterfalls are utilized at a few points to work up into wood pulp the forests of spruce which cover much of Labrador, Quebec and Ontario.
Wood pulp for the manufacture of paper is exported chiefly to the United States.
There is a considerable import of coal, cotton, iron and breadstuffs, the chief exports being butter, fish, timber and wood pulp. During the period of emigration, owing to political troubles with Russia, over 12,000 Finns sailed from Hangs in a single year (1901), mostly for the United States and Canada.
There is good farming land in the vicinity and Alpena has lumber and shingle mills, pulp works, Portland cement manufactories and tanneries; in 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $2,905,263.
In the production of pyrite, which is found in Louisa county and is used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid employed in the treatment of wood pulp for paper-making and in the manufacture of superphosphates from phosphate rock, Virginia took first rank in 1902 with an output valued at $501,642, or 64.7% of the total yield of this mineral in the United States; and this rank was maintained in 1908, when the product was 116,340 long tons, valued at $435,522.
When the commerce of New England was interrupted as a consequence of the Napoleonic wars, the abundance of water power afforded by the rivers encouraged manufacturing, and the region rapidly acquired prominence in this industry, especially in the manufacture of textiles, of boots and shoes, and of paper and wood pulp; in 1905 the value of the textile products of New England (excluding flax, hemp and jute) alone was $522,821,440 (more than 45% of that of the entire country), the value of boots and shoes was $181,023,946 (more than 55% of the total for the entire country), the value of paper and wood pulp was $49,813,133 (more than one-quarter of that of the entire country), and the value of all factory products amounted to $2,025,998,437 (nearly one-seventh of the total for the entire country).
Which of the following is a good paraphrase of Every student bought a Pulp record?
By the late ' 90s Pulp were one of the most popular British groups, rising out of Sheffield to become true Britpop pioneers.
Papers produced from the pulp are highly porous, that is, they allow easy passage of water.
The pulp mass created begins to look like thick porridge.
The viscid pulp soon hardens, affording a protection to the seed; in germination the sucker-root penetrates the bark, and a connexion is established with the vascular tissue of the first plant.
In central Queensland and elsewhere, snakes, both venomous and harmless, are eaten, the head being first carefully smashed to pulp with a stone.
The river furnishes good water-power, and the city has various manufactures, including lumber, paper, wood pulp, match blocks and boxes.
Abel, the cotton is ground into a pulp, a process which greatly facilitates the complete removal of acids, &c. This pulp is finally drained, and is then either compressed,while still moist, into slabs or blocks when required for blasting purposes, or it is dried when required for the manufacture of propellants.
Guncotton in an air-dry state, whether in the original form or after grinding to pulp and compressing, burns with very great rapidity but does not detonate unless confined.
Before beetroot had been brought to its present state of perfection, and while the factories for its manipulation were worked with hydraulic presses for squeezing the juice out of the pulp produced in the raperies, the cane sugar planter in the West Indies could easily hold his own, notwithstanding the artificial competition created and maintained by sugar bounties.
But hydraulic presses have now been abandoned, for the juice is universally obtained by diffusion, and the small slicers have gone out of use, because the large amount of pulp they produced in proportion to slices is not suitable for the diffusion process, in which evenly cut slices are required, which present a much greater surface with far less resistance to the diffusion water.
Its most distinctive manufactures are paper and wood pulp; more valuable are foundry and machine shop products; other manufactures are safes, malt liquors, flour, woollens, Corliss engines, carriages and wagons and agricultural implements.
In 1905 the total value of all factory products was $30,731,332, of which $10,620,255 (or 34.6% of the total) represented paper and wood pulp; $5,019,817, cotton goods; $1,318,409, woollen goods; $1,756,473, book binding and blank books, and $2,022,759, foundry and machine-shop products.
The manufacture of paper and wood pulp showed an increased product in 1905 19.1% greater than in 190o; and flour and grist mill products were valued in 1905 43.6% higher than in 1900.
In Sweden, where wood pulp is made in enormous quantities, the manufacture of alcohol from the waste sulphite lyes is carried on, and it was estimated that in 1920 the probable capacity was in the neighbourhood of 8,000,000 gal.; the actual production, however, amounted to about 2,750,000 gal.
The falls of the Hudson here furnish a fine water-power, which is utilized, in connexion with steam and electricity, in the manufacture of lumber, paper and wood pulp, women's clothing, shirts, collars and cuffs, &c. In 1905 the village's factory products were valued at $4,780,331.
The most valuable trees for lumber are spruce, white pine, hemlock, cedar, white birch, ash, maple and basswood; all excepting pine and hemlock and poplar in addition are ground into wood pulp for the manufacture of paper.
The tulip tree produces a good clear lumber known as white wood or poplar, and is also a source of pulp. In the south both white and yellow pine abounds.
Most of the virgin forests of the northern section were cut in the latter half of the 19th century, while abandoned farms in the south were becoming reforested, and the value of the state's lumber and timber products increased from $1,099,492 in 1850 to $4,286,142 in 1870, and to $9,218,310 in 1900 and then decreased to $7,519,431 in 1905; since 1890 large quantities of wood, chiefly spruce, have also been used in the manufacture of paper and wood pulp. In 1909 a forestry commission was established.
In 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $5,989,119, of which 7 8.5% was the value of the paper and wood pulp manufactured.
Erie is the commercial centre of a large and rich grape-growing and agricultural district, has an extensive trade with the lake ports and by rail (chiefly in coal, iron ore, lumber and grain), and is an important manufacturing centre, among its products being iron, engines, boilers, brass castings, stoves, car heaters, flour, malt liquors, lumber, planing mill products, cooperage products, paper and wood pulp, cigars and other tobacco goods, gas meters, rubber goods, pipe organs, pianos and chemicals.
The commerce of the lake consists principally of coal, wood pulp and building material, besides general merchandise.
Such machines were good enough when the juice was expelled from the small and, so to speak, chopped slices and pulp by means of hydraulic presses.
Closely connected with the manufacture of lumber is the making of paper and wood pulp, centralized at Bellows Falls, with waterpower on the Connecticut river and with the raw materials near; the product was valued in 1905 at $3,831,448.
The whole tree itself is but one leaf, and rivers are still vaster leaves whose pulp is intervening earth, and towns and cities are the ova of insects in their axils.