Pulmonary sentence examples

pulmonary
  • There are likewise two pulmonary veins, entering the left atrium by one orifice.

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  • Respiratory organs present in the form of pulmonary sacs.

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  • The hypophosphites have been recommended in pulmonary affections, being said to act as free phosphorus without being irritant, and the glycero-phosphates are certainly useful to stimulate metabolism.

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  • The springs, the Arminius Quelle and the Liborius Quelle, for which it is famous, are saline waters of a temperature of 70° F., and are utilized both for bathing and drinking in cases of pulmonary consumption and chronic diseases of the respiratory organs.

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  • There are five pairs of larger sacs belonging to the pulmonary system: - (1) prebronchial or cervical, extending sometimes far up the neck, even into the cranial cavities; the throat-bags of the prairie fowls (Cupidonia and Pedioecetes) are a further development; (2) subbronchial or interclavicular; (3 and 4) anterior and posterior thoracic or intermediate; (5) abdominal sacs.

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  • The Karroo is admirably adapted to sufferers from pulmonary complaints.

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  • In 1910 the state charitable institutions were as follows: State Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, Bath; State School for the Blind, Batavia; the Thomas Indian School, Iroquois; State Woman's Relief Corps Home, Oxford; State Hospital for the care of Crippled and Deformed Children, West Haverstraw; Syracuse State Institution for Feeble-Minded Children, Syracuse; State Hospital for the treatment of Incipient Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Ray Brook; Craig Colony for Epileptics, Sonyea; State Custodial Asylum for Feeble-Minded Women, Newark; Rome State Custodial Asylum for Unteachable Idiots, Rome; State Agricultural and Industrial School, Industry; State Training School for Girls, Hudson; Western House of Refuge, Albion; New York State Reformatory for Women, Bedford; the State Training School for Boys; and Letchworth Village, a custodial asylum for epileptics and feeble-minded.

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  • - Opisthosoma without trace of separate terga and sterna, the segmentation merely represented posteriorly by slight integumental folds and the sterna of the 1st and 2nd somites by the opercular plates of the pulmonary sacs.

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  • The climate has a beneficial effect on pulmonary diseases, especially in their earlier stages, and is remarkable in arresting the decay of vital power consequent upon old age.

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  • He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, at the age of sixteen, but took no degree, his course being interrupted by severe pulmonary attacks which compelled a long residence abroad.

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  • stig 4, Fourth pulmonary aperture.

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  • The posterior pulmonary sacs (except in Hypochilus) replaced by tracheal tubes; the anterior and posterior pairs replaced by tracheal tubes in the Caponiidae.

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  • No ctenidium, but a pulmonary cavity; operculum with an npophysis.

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  • The malady causing the greatest number of deaths is that of pulmonary consumption; but better housing accommodation has of late years reduced the mortality from this disease very considerably.

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  • To the left of the ctenidium a pulmonary sac, separated from it by an incomplete septum, am phibious.

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  • Gainesville is well known as a winter resort, and its climate is especially beneficial to persons affected by pulmonary troubles.

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  • The often-cited description of the pulmonary circulation (which occurs in the 1546 draft) begins p. 169; it has escaped even Sigmond that Servetus had an idea of the composition of water and of air; the hint for his researches was the dual form of the Hebrew words for blood, water, &c. Two treatises, Desiderius (ante 1542) and De tribus impostoribus (1598) have been wrongly ascribed to Servetus.

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  • The climate is beneficial for those afflicted with bronchial and pulmonary troubles; the average mean annual temperature for eleven years ending with 1907 was 51° F.

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  • The dry and unusually equable temperature (mean for winter 50° F., for spring 57° F., and for autumn 64° F.) and the balmy air laden with the fragrance of the pine forests have combined to make Aiken a health and pleasure resort; its climate is said to be especially beneficial for those afflicted with pulmonary diseases.

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  • Garlic may also be prescribed as an extract consisting of the inspissated juice, in doses of 5-io grains, and as the syrupus allii aceticus, in doses of 1-4 drachms. This last preparation has recently been much extolled in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis or phthisis.

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  • Louis, by his researches on pulmonary consumption and typhoid fever, had the chief merit of refuting the doctrines of Broussais.

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  • Individuals suffering from pulmonary phthisis are encouraged to live night and day in the open, and with the best results.

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  • The days are usually hot and the nights cold, the variations in temperature being a fruitful cause of bronchial and pulmonary diseases.

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  • It is said that pulmonary tuberculosis is unknown in these altitudes, though it is common in the coast districts.

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  • Having a dry healthy climate, it is a favourite residential town and a resort for invalids, being recommended especially for pulmonary disease.

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  • 1, 1, Position of the two pulmonary sacs of the right side.

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  • As regards pulmonary disease, pneumonia has passed more and more definitely into the category of the infections: the modes of invasion of the lungs and pleura by tuberculosis has been more and more accurately followed; and the treatment of these diseases, in the spheres both of prevention and of cure, has undergone a radical change.

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  • This may occur suddenly, as when the resistance is increased in the arterial system by a e on f sudden exertion or strain, and more slowly when the resistance is increased in the pulmonary circulation of the by inflammation of the respiratory passages.

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  • The low humidity, high altitudes and southern latitude all combine to make the climate salubrious and especially beneficial to persons suffering with pulmonary disorders.

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  • Typhoid and pulmonary diseases are common.

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  • In addition to his labours on neurological and even physiological problems he made many contributions to other branches of medicine, his published works dealing, among other topics, with liver and kidney diseases, gout and pulmonary phthisis.

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  • Welch produced oedema of the lungs experimentally by increasing the pressure in the pulmonary vessels by ligature of the aorta and its branches, but this raised the blood pressure only about one-tenth of an atmosphere, while in some of Loeb's experiments the osmotic pressure, due to retained metabolic products, was equal to over thirty atmospheres.

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  • The meeting of the coxae of all the prosomatic limbs in front of the pentagonal sternum; the space for a genital operculum; the pair of pectens, and the absence of any evidence of pulmonary stigmata are noticeable in this specimen.

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  • - it is beneficial to persons suffering from pulmonary troubles, and a number of sanitariums have been established.

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  • In specialized forms these pulmonary sacs are wholly or partly replaced by tracheal tubes.

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  • The dryness of the air proves very beneficial to persons suffering from pulmonary complaints.

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  • IXstg to XlIstg, the four pulmonary somites.

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  • The passage on the pulmonary circulation, first noticed by W.

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  • A is the condition of insinking of the sternal surface and consequent enclosure of the lamelligerous surface of the appendage in a chamber with narrow orifice - the pulmonary air - holding chamber.

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  • (Original as above.) pulmonary sacs, the sternal plates from the 6th to the 11th somites represented by integumental ridges, weakly chitinized in the middle.

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  • Six or seven species of mosquitoes are also the intermediate hosts of Filaria immitis, which infests the right auricle and pulmonary artery of the dog, and occurs throughout the tropics, in southern Europe, the United States of America, and elsewhere.

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  • In 1876 Clifford, a man of high-strung and athletic, but not robust, physique, began to fall into ill-health, and after two voyages to the South, died during the third of pulmonary consumption at Madeira, on the 3rd of March 1879, leaving his widow with two daughters.

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  • stig', First pulmonary aperture.

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  • pi, Pulmonary lamellae.

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  • In the north, however, the hot lowlands are malarial and unsuited to north European settlement, while the dry, elevated plateaus are celebrated for their healthiness, those of Catamarca having an excellent reputation as a sanatorium for sufferers from pulmonary and bronchial diseases.

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  • In higher specialized forms these branchial processes become first of all limited to five segments of the mesosoma, then sunk beneath the surface as pulmonary organs, and finally atrophied, their place being taken by a well-developed tracheal system.

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  • The anhidrotic action of atropine is largely employed in controlling the night-sweats so characteristic of pulmonary tuberculosis, small doses of the solution of the sulphate being given at night.

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  • The glaciated rocks of the glen are clothed with vegetation of peculiar luxuriance, flourishing in the mild climate which has given Glengarriff its high reputation as a health resort for those suffering from pulmonary complaints.

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  • This article describes cutaneous manifestations of selected pulmonary conditions and other associations between the skin and lung.

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  • Certain types of exercise may also induce pulmonary hypertension.

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  • Pulmonary hypertension is a serious disorder, and can lead to many complications including blood clots, heart failure, and even death.

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  • If you have been diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension, medical intervention is necessary.

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  • Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may include cyanosis (blueish tint to skin and lips), palpitations, ankle and stomach swelling, fatigue, and shortness of breath, especially while exercising.

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  • Before pursuing any exercise with pulmonary hypertension, it is essential that you talk with your doctor to determine the appropriate types of exercise, as well as how intensely you can exercise and the appropriate duration.

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  • According to the American Heart Association (AHA), patients with pulmonary hypertension benefit from remaining as "active as physically possible."

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  • The symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may restrict activity, and pursuing activities that don't increase symptoms or performing mild exercise while utilizing oxygen may be helpful if your doctor tells you that you can.

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  • The organization also suggests that strenuous activity may increase pulmonary pressure.

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  • Engaging in moderately intense cardiovascular activity, such as walking or aerobics, is unlikely to increase pulmonary arterial pressure.

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  • Learning to recognize when you are pushing your body too hard may help manage pulmonary hypertension as you exercise.

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  • Many hospitals and medical facilities offer medically supervised pulmonary hypertension rehabilitation programs to teach you how to exercise with the condition while heeding your body's signals.

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  • If you have led a sedentary lifestyle prior to a diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension, these programs provide the supervision to help you gradually increase your activity levels.

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  • Appropriate amounts of exercise, performed at a frequency which doesn't overtax you may help you to improve your quality of life with pulmonary hypertension.

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  • No tracheate Crustacea are known, but some terrestrial Isopoda develop pulmonary in-sinkings of the integument.

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  • No ctenidium, but a pulmonary cavity; heart with a single auricle, not traversed by the rectum.

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  • Two pairs of pulmonary sacs.

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  • Its alkalo-saline springs, especially efficacious in pulmonary and urinary complaints, were known as early as 1316, but fell into disuse until rediscovered early in the 19th century.

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  • Limaciform, with internal rounded shell; mantle very small and triangular; pulmonary chamber with tracheae; no anterior tentacles.

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  • A, View of the heart of a dog infested with Filaria immitis Leidy; the right ventricle and base of the pulmonary artery have been opened: a, aorta; b, pulmonary artery; c, vena cava; d, right ventricle; e, appendix of left auricle; f, appendix of right auricle.

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  • abp 4 to abp', Rudiments of the four appendages which carry the pulmonary lamellae.

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  • Lewis has a history of health problems, including the chronic lung ailment, pulmonary fibrosis.

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  • Pulmonary System Limited numbers of gland in upper airways.

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  • In more serious disease states, such as severe asthma or moderate pulmonary embolism, respiratory alkalosis may occur.

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  • alveoluslmonary arteries form pulmonary capillaries, which surround alveoli.

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  • Clinical experience with oblique views in pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy in normal and pathological anatomy.

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  • None were visible on main pulmonary artery angiography due to reversal of flow in the affected pulmonary artery branches.

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  • pulmonary anthrax starts like the ' flu ' with fever, muscle aches and cough.

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  • arterial tumor embolization in two cats with pulmonary carcinoma.

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  • Radioactive microspheres are subsequently injected into a vein so they lodge within the pulmonary arterioles and a second picture is taken.

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  • The following figure shows the pressure in the main pulmonary artery in the dog during a period of hypoxia.

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  • large volume ascites also increases the risk of pulmonary aspiration.

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  • Critical volume for pulmonary acid aspiration: reappraisal in a primate model.

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  • The Kocher's incision often promotes pulmonary atelectasis and had a significant dehiscence rates.

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  • Percutaneous fetal balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum New NICE guideline.

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  • Rarer causes of poor response include the presence of congenital anomalies such as choanal atresia, diaphragmatic hernia or pulmonary hypoplasia.

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  • The blood arrives back to the left atrium of the heart via the pulmonary veins.

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  • atrium of the heart via the pulmonary veins.

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  • pulmonary blastoma: a case report and literature review.

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  • Right heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension may precipitate bradycardia and systemic hypotension, when the organic iodine solution is injected.

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  • This process is normally complete by the time the blood has passed about one third of the way along the pulmonary capillary.

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  • Pulmonary artery catheter â a tiny tube inserted into the artery connecting the heart to the lungs.

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  • Hypotension is the more common feature associated with obstruction of the pulmonary circulation.

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  • Treatment Successful surgery will usually prevent the continuance of pulmonary hypertension, and the development of Pulmonary Vascular Disease.

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  • It is always associated with significant pulmonary contusion resulting in hypoxia.

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  • cyanosis of the mucosae; pulmonary edema.

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  • The " dup " sound is caused by the closing of the aortic and pulmonary valves at the beginning of ventricular diastole.

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  • Pulmonary problems include both obstructive and restrictive lung disease, with symptoms of exertional dyspnea, sleep apnea, and reduced pulmonary endurance.

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  • High altitude pulmonary edema triggered by vocal cord stenosis.

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  • This is called pulmonary embolism or PE and is a common cause of sudden, unexpected death.

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  • However, no tests were performed to determine whether or not he had suffered a pulmonary embolism.

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  • These drugs will help keep the clot from increasing in size and help prevent pulmonary embolism.

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  • Very rarely, severe OHSS may be complicated by pulmonary embolism, ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction.

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  • You may also have your lungs scanned to check for a pulmonary embolism.

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  • Seasonal variation in fatal pulmonary embolism has been well documented by at least 23 reports comprising nearly 11 000 cases.

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  • embolism in critically ill surgical patients: a comparison with pulmonary angiography.

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  • A large pulmonary embolus which blocks the main blood vessels to the lungs will be fatal.

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  • emboluspeople have a family tendency to develop pulmonary emboli.

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  • embolusT of the chest shows glue emboli in the pulmonary arteries.

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  • embolus>Small pulmonary emboli may cause chest pain, and sometimes coughing up of blood.

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  • embolusations of pulmonary function due to foreign body emboli are common but significant respiratory symptoms appear to be unusual.

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  • fetal balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum New NICE guideline.

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  • I suffer from pulmonary fibrosis, which affects my breathing.

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  • Long term damage to the lung tissue may lead to death from progressive pulmonary fibrosis.

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  • Effect of oxygen on pulmonary hemodynamics and incidence of atrial fibrillation after noncardiac thoracotomy.

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  • As pulmonary hemorrhage a logit model americans are uninsured.

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  • None of the patients developed pulmonary hypertension during the trial and none of the three patients with pre-existing pulmonary hypertension deteriorated.

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  • Efficacy has been shown in primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary hypertension associated with connective tissue disease.

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  • pulmonary hypertension refers to high blood pressure in the arteries taking blood from the heart to the lungs.

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  • Comment: are definitions for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension inappropriate?

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  • Patients with a recent history of pulmonary infiltrates or pneumonia may be at higher risk.

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  • Investigations Children presenting with an acute pulmonary bleed will have a reduced hemoglobin and widespread bilateral infiltrates on chest x-ray.

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  • No organisms were detected by bronchoalveolar lavage and the pulmonary function tests suggested emphysema with air trapping, hyperinflation and markedly reduced diffusion capacity.

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  • lung tissue may lead to death from progressive pulmonary fibrosis.

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  • It is occasionally malignant with local recurrence and pulmonary spread.

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  • mycobacterium vaccae in patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomized control trial.

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  • inhaled nitric oxide and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

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  • Analytical decision model for the cost-effective management of solitary pulmonary nodules.

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  • oedemacurrent medical system does not prevent the occasional diver developing pulmonary edema.

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  • patients with significant pulmonary hypertension.

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  • percutaneous fetal balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum New NICE guideline.

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  • Nevertheless, mouse models of CF clearly demonstrate a range of abnormal pulmonary phenotypes as a result of the Cftr mutation.

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  • Early use of ' open air ' treatment for ' pulmonary phthisis ' at the Dreadnought Hospital, Greenwich, 1900-1905.

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  • The pulmonary vessels form the rich plexus of capillaries around the alveoli.

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  • Inhalation of 2 to 4 mg of reactor-grade plutonium may cause death within about a month from pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary edema.

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  • This will include pneumothorax occurring as a result of positive-pressure ventilation (over-pressure pulmonary barotrauma ).

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  • A chest X-ray is more helpful in excluding other diagnoses (e.g. pneumothorax ), but may show a wedge shaped pulmonary infarct.

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  • The pre-test probability of pulmonary embolic disease should be determined.

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  • However, the only prospective clinical study shows no increased risk of crippling pulmonary disease (chronic bronchitis and emphysema ).

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  • Survival in primary pulmonary hypertension with long-term continuous intravenous prostacyclin.

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  • pulmonary embolism.

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  • pulmonary edema The build-up of fluid in the lungs caused by the heart not working properly.

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  • pulmonary embolus which blocks the main blood vessels to the lungs will be fatal.

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  • pulmonary tuberculosis.

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  • pulmonary artery.

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  • In those with carcinoid syndrome features of pellagra, tricuspid regurgitation or pulmonary stenosis may be present.

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  • salicylate excretion and may cause pulmonary edema.

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  • AB - A patient with essential thrombocythemia was diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis after interferon alpha therapy.

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  • However when dealing with patients who have decompression illness or migraine, large pulmonary shunts are numerically more important.

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  • In the MIST Trial 60.2% of migraine patients had a right-to-left shunt (16.7% small shunts, 5.1% large pulmonary shunts.

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  • solitary pulmonary nodules.

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  • Pulmonary tuberculosis is usually diagnosed by chest X-ray and/or sputum analysis (microscopy and culture ); serological tests are increasingly available.

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  • streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: a Medical Research Council investigation.

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  • The surface activity of pulmonary surfactant from diving mammals.

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  • survival after complete resection of pulmonary and hollow viscus gastrointestinal metastases.

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  • Atrial tachycardia is focal in origin, commonly from muscle sleeves within the pulmonary veins.

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  • pulmonary thromboembolism is a commonly recognized disorder in human medicine.

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  • tricuspid regurgitation or pulmonary stenosis may be present.

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  • Regrettably, toward the end of his service, he contracted pulmonary tuberculosis.

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  • pulmonary vasodilators These are used to reduce the lung artery pressure, to treat pulmonary hypertension.

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  • Simple PAVMs have a single feeding artery leading to single draining pulmonary vein.

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  • ventilatory control despite haemodynamic and pulmonary abnormalities.

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  • Pulmonary valve A valve at the junction of the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.

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  • The right anterior corner of the right ventricle passes into the short stem, guarded by three semi-lunar valves, which divides into the two pulmonary arteries.

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  • in Palaeophonus) sinking below the surface during growth in connexion with the formation of the four pairs of pulmonary sacs (see fig.

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  • The air-bladder of this fish furnishes isinglass, little, if at all, inferior to that obtained from the sturgeon, while from the liver is obtained cod-liver oil, largely used in medicine as a remedy in scrofulous complaints and pulmonary consumption (see CODLIVER OIL).

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  • A law enacted in 1909 forbids a marriage in which either of the parties is a common drunkard, habitual criminal, epileptic, imbecile, feeble-minded person, idiot or insane person, a person who has been afflicted with hereditary insanity, a person who is afflicted with pulmonary tuberculosis in its advanced stages, or a person who is afflicted with any contagious venereal disease, unless the woman is at least forty-five years of age.

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  • Cod-liver oil may be given in all wasting diseases, and is occasionally valuable in cases of chronic rheumatoid arthritis; but its great therapeutic value is in cases of tuberculosis of whatever kind, and notably in pulmonary tuberculosis or consumption.

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  • The climate is beneficial for those afflicted with bronchial and pulmonary troubles; the average mean annual temperature for eleven years ending with 1907 was 51° F.

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  • The dry and unusually equable temperature (mean for winter 50° F., for spring 57° F., and for autumn 64° F.) and the balmy air laden with the fragrance of the pine forests have combined to make Aiken a health and pleasure resort; its climate is said to be especially beneficial for those afflicted with pulmonary diseases.

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  • The springs, the Arminius Quelle and the Liborius Quelle, for which it is famous, are saline waters of a temperature of 70° F., and are utilized both for bathing and drinking in cases of pulmonary consumption and chronic diseases of the respiratory organs.

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  • The only thing doctors had to do was balloon the stent in his pulmonary artery.

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  • Forced diuresis should not be used since it does not enhance salicylate excretion and may cause pulmonary edema.

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  • Pulmonary tuberculosis is usually diagnosed by chest X-ray and/or sputum analysis (microscopy and culture); serological tests are increasingly available.

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  • Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: a Medical Research Council investigation.

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  • Previous studies have demonstrated improved survival after complete resection of pulmonary and hollow viscus gastrointestinal metastases.

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  • Pulmonary thromboembolism is a commonly recognized disorder in human medicine.

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  • Pulmonary vasodilators These are used to reduce the lung artery pressure, to treat pulmonary hypertension.

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  • An alternative, to prevent recurrence of pulmonary embolus, is an inferior vena caval filter.

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  • Increased exercise ventilatory control despite haemodynamic and pulmonary abnormalities.

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  • This burning can be a cause for lung cancer and other pulmonary diseases.

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  • In women, cigarette smoking is a direct cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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  • Robert Goulet - singer and actor, passed away from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis on October 30 at age 73.

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  • Supplementary treatment may also be necessary to help repair the parasite's damage to the heart and lungs, and the animal may be susceptible to pulmonary infections for some time afterwards.

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  • These internal parasites are transmitted through mosquito exposure and lodge themselves in your dog's heart and pulmonary system.

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  • Pathophysiology covers how the disease affects the pulmonary arteries and other organs.

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  • This condition enlarges the air spaces in the lungs and is responsible for causing damage to them.Cigarette smoking also causes Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

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  • They will be able to properly diagnose OHS through tests eliminating other pulmonary causes including cancer and other diseases.

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  • Dr. Frank is an internist specializing in pulmonary sleep medicine.

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  • Peninsula Pulmonary Associates is part of the Riverside Health Systems in eastern Virginia.

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  • For very young obstructive sleep apnea sufferers, Children's Specialty Group (CSG) offers pulmonary specialists for infants, young children, and adolescents.

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  • Vorona is an associate professor in the Division of Sleep Medicine, and is board certified in Sleep Disorders, Pulmonary Medicine, and Internal Medicine.

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  • He served his residency in Internal Medicine at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and completed a fellowship in Pulmonary Medicine at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill.

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  • Before visiting a sleep center, it is often necessary to have an evaluation with a primary care physician, a pulmonary specialist, a neurologist or an ENT specialist for referrals.

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  • Pulmonary problems may be linked to sleep disorders.

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  • A facility that addresses both issues in Chesapeake sleep is Regional Pulmonary and Sleep.

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  • Peninsula Pulmonary Associates offers help for people who may suffer from sleep apnea due to potential heart problems or underlying medical conditions.

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  • Many sleep specialists focus on pulmonary health as well.

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  • Each hospital has pulmonary specialists on staff who can work with sleep apnea patients as well.

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  • Some patients require treatments that include pulmonary specialists for the sleep disorder.

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  • An examination is required to determine whether a pulmonary specialist is necessary or not.

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  • Located midway between Dallas and Fort Worth, the Texas Pulmonary Sleep Center can be found in Arlington, Texas.

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  • Some doctors specialize in surgery, others in pulmonary, neurology and behavioral issues while others in alternative treatments such as dental appliances.

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  • Patent ductus arteriosus-A congenital defect in which the temporary blood vessel connecting the left pulmonary artery to the aorta in the fetus doesn't close after birth.

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  • The pulmonary vein carries the blood from the right ventricle of the heart into the lungs.

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  • Following the Heimlich maneuver, dysphagia (swallowing difficulty) and obstructive pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs) may occur and require medical treatment.

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  • Untreated atrial septal defect can lead to pulmonary hypertension, chest infection, Eisenmenger's syndrome, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, stroke, or right-sided heart failure.

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  • If the opening does not close on its own, it needs to be repaired to prevent the pulmonary arteries from becoming thickened and blocked due to increased blood flow.

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  • If this condition (pulmonary vascular obstructive disease) is left untreated, it can increase the risk of death by 25 percent.

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  • Eisenmenger's syndrome-A condition in which high pressures in the pulmonary arteries cause them to thicken.

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  • Pulmonary hypertension-A disorder in which the pressure in the blood vessels of the lungs is abnormally high.

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  • Listening to an older child or adult breathe usually enables pediatricians, family physicians, and pulmonary specialists to estimate where an airway obstruction is located.

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  • Pulmonary function tests may also be performed.

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  • Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Pulmonary Medicine.

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  • Ductus arteriosus refers to an open passageway-or temporary blood vessel (ductus)-that carries blood from the heart via the pulmonary artery to the aorta before birth.

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  • The right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary artery and blood reaches the aorta through a patent ductus arteriosus (see description in the previous section).

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  • The most common obstruction defects are pulmonary valve stenosis, aortic valve stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta.

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  • In pulmonary stenosis, the pulmonary valve does not open properly, forcing the right ventricle to work harder.

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  • Eisenmenger's complex is a ventricular septal defect coupled with pulmonary high blood pressure, an enlarged right ventricle, and sometimes an aorta that is not positioned correctly.

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  • Cyanotic defects include truncus arteriosus, total anomalous pulmonary venous return, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, tricuspid atresia, and pulmonary atresia.

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  • Truncus arteriosus is a complex malformation in which only one artery comes from the heart and forms the aorta and pulmonary artery.

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  • Total anomalous pulmonary venous return is a condition in which the pulmonary veins that bring oxygen-rich blood from the lungs back to the heart are not connected to the left atrium.

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  • Instead, the pulmonary veins drain through abnormal connections to the right atrium.

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  • The major defects are a large hole (ventricular septal defect) between the ventricles, which allows oxygen-poor blood to mix with oxygen-rich blood, and narrowing at or beneath the pulmonary valve.

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  • In transposition (reversal of position) of the great arteries, the positions of the pulmonary artery and the aorta are reversed, causing oxygen-rich blood to re-circulate to the lungs while oxygen-poor blood goes to the rest of the body.

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  • In pulmonary atresia, the baby lacks a pulmonary valve and blood cannot flow properly from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery and on to the lungs.

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  • Arterial switch, to correct transposition of the great arteries, involves connecting the aorta to the left ventricle and connecting the pulmonary artery to the right ventricle.

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  • Balloon valvuloplasty uses a balloon-tipped catheter to open a narrowed heart valve, improving the flow of blood in pulmonary stenosis.

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  • Transposition of the great arteries also can be corrected by the Damus-Kaye-Stansel procedure, in which the pulmonary artery is cut in two and connected to the ascending aorta and the farthest section of the right ventricle.

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  • For tricuspid atresia and pulmonary atresia, the Fontan procedure connects the right atrium to the pulmonary artery directly or with a conduit, and the atrial defect is closed.

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  • Pulmonary artery banding, narrowing the pulmonary artery with a band to reduce blood flow and pressure in the lungs, is used for ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal defect, and tricuspid atresia.

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  • To correct aortic stenosis, the Ross procedure grafts the pulmonary artery to the aorta.

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  • For tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, or pulmonary atresia, the shunt procedure creates a passage between blood vessels, sending blood into parts of the body that need it.

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  • For transposition of the great arteries, venous switch creates a tunnel inside the atria to re-direct oxygen-rich blood to the right ventricle and aorta, and venous blood to the left ventricle and pulmonary artery.

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  • Ductus-The blood vessel that joins the pulmonary artery and the aorta.

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  • Following the Heimlich maneuver, dysphagia (swallowing difficulty) and obstructive pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs) may occur.

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  • Ringold, Sarah, et al. "Postobstructive Pulmonary Edema in Children."

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  • At highest risk are boys, premature infants, infants living in urban locations, babies who have not been breastfed, and babies with chronic pulmonary, cardiac, or immune conditions.

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  • As early as three months of age, however, the SCID child begins to suffer from mouth infections (thrush), chronic diarrhea, otitis media, and pulmonary infections, including pneumocystis pneumonia.

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  • However, about 50 percent of fetuses with CDH do not survive after birth because their lungs are too small (pulmonary hypoplasia).

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  • Large CCAMs can limit lung development, causing pulmonary hypoplasia.

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  • Pulmonary hypoplasia-Incomplete or defective development of the lungs.

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  • Blood clots in the renal arteries are uncommon, but when they do occur, there is a risk of pulmonary embolism, a dangerous condition that occurs when the clot or a portion of the clot dislodges and travels to the lungs.

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  • One of the major goals of treatment is to prevent the blood clot in the renal vein from detaching and moving into the lungs (pulmonary embolism), where it can cause serious complications.

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  • Pulmonary edema can result from fluids leaking into the alveoli (air sacs) of the lung.

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  • Pulmonary function tests are a group of procedures that measure how well the lungs are functioning.

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  • Pulmonary function tests help a doctor to diagnose respiratory diseases and disorders such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and emphysema, and mechanical injury by measuring the degree of lung impairment.

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  • There are many types of pulmonary function tests.

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  • With the exception of arterial blood gas, pulse oximetry, and total lung capacity, pulmonary function tests are performed using spirometry (from the Greco-Latin term meaning "to measure breathing").

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  • Taken together, pulmonary function tests give a good picture of how much air is moving in and out of the lungs and how efficiently oxygen is moved into the blood and carbon dioxide is moved out.

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  • Except for the arterial blood gas tests and pulse oximetry, pulmonary function tests should not be given to patients who have had a recent heart attack, or who have certain other types of heart disease.

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  • Pulmonary Function Testing and Cardiopulmonary Stress Testing.

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  • Air pollutants aggravate chronic pulmonary disease in children and cause decreased pulmonary performance in exercising children and teenagers.

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  • Pulmonary hypersensitivity allergic reactions that affect the lungs and result in rashes and fever may be caused by nitrofurantoin and sulfasalazine.

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  • Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a birth defect causing a fatal condition in which there is a reversal, or switch, in the primary connections of the two main (great) blood vessels to the heart, the aorta and pulmonary artery.

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  • There are two great arteries that transport blood away from the heart, the pulmonary artery and the aorta.

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  • Normally, the pulmonary artery carries blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.

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  • At the same time, blood in the lungs goes to the left atrium, the left ventricle, but then back to the lungs rather than going to the body because the pulmonary artery is connected to the left ventricle.

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  • Pulmonary artery-An artery that carries blood from the heart to the lungs.

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  • The ventricle on the left side pumps blood full of oxygen through the body; the ventricle on the right side pumps the same blood through the pulmonary artery to the lungs to take up oxygen.

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  • They include: ventricular septal defect (abnormal passageway between the right and left ventricles), displaced aorta, narrowed pulmonary valve, thickened right ventricle wall.

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  • The problem starts very early in the uterus with a narrowed pulmonary valve and a hole between the ventricles.

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  • During surgery, the pulmonary valve is widened, the ventricular septal defect is closed, and any interim correction is removed.

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  • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart defect that occurs in infants when the ductus arteriosus (the temporary fetal blood vessel that connects the aorta and the pulmonary artery) does not close at birth.

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  • The ductus arteriosus is a temporary fetal blood vessel that connects the aorta and the pulmonary artery before birth.

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  • The pressure between the heart and lungs of an individual affected by PDA causes some of the oxygenated blood that should go out to the body (through the aorta) to return back through the PDA into the pulmonary artery.

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  • The pulmonary artery takes the blood immediately back to the lungs.

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  • As the heart responds to the increased demands for more oxygenated blood by pumping harder, the pulmonary artery has to change in size and shape in order to adapt to the increased amount and force of the blood.

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  • In some cases, the increase in size and shape changes the pressure in the pulmonary artery and lungs.

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  • If the pressure in the lungs is higher than that of the heart and body, blood returning to the heart will take the short cut back into the aorta from the pulmonary artery through the PDA instead of going to the lungs.

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  • Ductus arteriosus-The temporary channel or blood vessel between the aorta and pulmonary artery in the fetus.

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  • Pulmonary edema-An accumulation of fluid in the tissue of the lungs.

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  • Persistent pulmonary hypertension: A disorder in which the blood pressure in the arteries supplying the lungs is abnormally high.

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  • It is usually associated with cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or another chronic disease that progresses very slowly.

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  • Pulmonary embolism-Blockage of an artery in the lungs by foreign matter such as fat, tumor tissue, or a clot originating from a vein.

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  • A pulmonary embolism can be a very serious, and in some cases fatal, condition.

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  • Symptoms of an H type fistula include frequent pulmonary infections and bouts of abdominal bloating.

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  • Beamis, John F., et al. Interventional Pulmonary Medicine.

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  • Welsh. Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Pulmonary Medicine.

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  • In infants with pulmonary problems, tracheal intubation (an airway placed in the trachea) may be performed.

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  • Many pulmonary infections in early childhood, including those due to Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and respiratory syncytial virus, have been linked with an increased risk for wheezing and asthma.

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  • Chest x rays are too insensitive to show damage to delicate respiratory tissues but can show fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema).

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  • Other pulmonary function tests may be performed to measure how efficiently the lungs are working.

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  • Blood clots - including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

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  • Possible complications include anesthesia problems, infections, injury to the intestine, and pulmonary embolism.

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  • More severe side effects include drug dependency, severe skin disorder, and primary pulmonary hypertension.

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  • Used as an herbal treatment for pulmonary complaints and kidney and bladder infections.

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  • Doing cardiovascular exercises will not only strengthen your heart, but also strengthen your pulmonary system and allow your body's oxygen delivery system to operate optimally.

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  • There is a great deal of disagreement in medical and fitness communities about performing exercise with pulmonary hypertension.

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  • Depending on the cause of the disease, as well as the types and amounts of exercise performed, some moderate exercises may benefit pulmonary hypertension, while other types of exercise may magnify its effects.

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  • Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure affecting the arterial structures of the lungs on the right side of your body.

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  • Two types of pulmonary hypertension exist: primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), and secondary pulmonary hypertension.

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  • Secondary pulmonary hypertension exists as a result of an underlying condition.

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  • Many conditions exist that may cause secondary pulmonary hypertension, including heart failure, lung disease, drug use, pulmonary emboli, sleep disorders, altitude sickness, and systemic diseases, such as lupus.

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