Public Sentence Examples
It's all public record.
I'm beginning to despise public officials.
If she possessed a smile, she never presented it for public display.
She had it coming, but did he have to make it so public?
And the Woggle-Bug shall be the Public Accuser, because he is so learned that no one can deceive him.Advertisement
Public opinion is ever more in the peace camp because the vast majority of the economy doesn't benefit financially in times of war.
A few minutes later in Uncle Sally's Galley on Butler Street, Fred was hiding behind his menu, embarrassed to be out in public before shaving.
I ought to get a public service medal.
His chief benefaction, however, was a bequest of $400,000 for the foundation and endowment of a public library in New York City, since known as the Astor library, and since 1895 part of the New York public library.
A bronze statue, erected by public subscription, in the Kerepes cemetery,.Advertisement
The impossibility of reconciling the financial requirements of the national party with the demands of the British and French controllers of the public debt, compelled him to resign in the following February.
And before 1725, readings, both public and private, were given from Cartesian texts in some of the Parisian colleges.
Foreigners were frequently granted the right of public hospitality by the senate down to the end of the republic. The public hospes had a right to entertainment at the public expense, admission to sacrifices and games, the right of buying and selling on his own account, and of bringing an action at law without the intervention of a Roman patron.
And the Directory of Public Worship has shaped and coloured, perhaps too thoroughly, the ritual and atmosphere of every group of Protestant Anglo-Saxon worshippers throughout the world, except Episcopalians.
Among other public buildings are the assembly rooms, St George's hall, the volunteer drill hall, and the Crichton Institution chapel, completed at a cost of 30,000.Advertisement
The corporation owns the water supply, public baths and wash-houses and the gasworks.
In public he maintained a bearing of rigid solemnity, and was seen to laugh only three times in the course of his life.
He was appointed a member of an ecclesiastical commission for reforming the church in 1787, in which capacity he was virtually minister of public worship. In 1791-1792 he became a leading member of the financial and general committees of the riksdag.
But although in his father's lifetime he several times filled the office of consul, and after his death was nominally the partner in the empire with his brother Titus, he never took any part in public business, but lived in great retirement, devoting himself to a life of pleasure and of literary pursuits till he succeeded to the throne.
As chief pontiff he inquired rigorously into the character of the vestal virgins, three of whom were buried alive; he enforced the laws against adultery, mutilation, and the grosser forms of immorality, and forbade the public acting of mimes.Advertisement
He erected many temples and public buildings (amongst them the Odeum, a kind of theatre for musical performances) and restored the temple of the Capitol.
She was almost tense enough to attack him, public mall or not.
Geneva has a public library, a city hospital and hygienic institute.
This treaty, however, was kept from public knowledge, and Ashley helped Charles to hoodwink parliament by signing a similar treaty on the 2nd of February 1672, which was laid before them as the only one in existence.
Restored to Prussia in 1816 it was again fortified, but in 1862 the fortifications were converted into a public park.Advertisement
Among the public buildings are the city hall, the court house, the Federal building, the public library and an auditorium.
Court formed the design of writing a history of Protestantism, and made large collections for the purpose, which have been preserved in the Public Library of Geneva; but this he did not live to carry out.
The other public buildings include two churches, a town hall and a hospital.
This treachery and the harsh treatment by Patterson created a strong public opinion in favour of the Yankees, and the government was compelled to adopt a milder policy.
In 1 457 King Ladislas died suddenly, and public opinion from an early period accused Podébrad of having poisoned him.
The story became public property, and protest was aroused in nearly every European country.
Some reforms were adopted, the public peace was proclaimed without any limitation of time and a general tax was levied.
But he was known as a humorist, and the public, which had learned to expect jokes from him, rejected this little book almost entirely.
Nine years after a monument, raised by public subscription, in the cemetery of Kensal Green, was inaugurated by Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton) with a concourse of spectators that showed how well the memory of the poet stood the test of time.
He acted with good sense and moderation, and, although by no means a believer in democratic ideas, he saw the necessity of satisfying public opinion and frankly gave his support to larger measures of reform.
The first public teacher of Cartesian views was Henri Renery, a Belgian, who at Deventer and afterwards at Utrecht had introduced the new philosophy which he had learned Spread of from personal intercourse with Descartes.
This year may be taken as the beginning of his literary activity and public life.
In 1268 he was lecturing now in Rome and now in Bologna, all the while engaged in the public business of the church.
There are a few handsome public buildings, such as the hospital, town-hall and theatre.
His chief innovation was the introduction of payment from the public treasury for state service.
The church of St James dates from 1763, and the other numerous places of worship and public buildings are all modern.
In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns, the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
In Scotland the public greens are selfsupporting, from a charge, which includes the use of bowls, of one penny an hour for each player; in London the upkeep of the greens falls on the rates, but players must provide their own bowls.
Among public buildings, the Stephenson memorial hall (1879), containing a free library, art and science class-rooms, a theatre and the rooms of the Chesterfield Institute, commemorates George Stephenson, the engineer, who resided at Tapton House, close to Chesterfield, in his later life; he died here in 1848, and was buried in Trinity church.
The method in Great Britain is almost entirely confined to places of public assembly, but in Warm air FIG.
For large public buildings, factories, &c., heating by steam is generally adopted on account of the rapidity with which heat is available, and the great distance from the boiler at which warming is effected.
These officials, at the command of the senate, consulted the Sibylline books in order to discover, not exact predictions of definite future events, but the religious observances necessary to avert extraordinary calamities (pestilence, earthquake) and to expiate prodigies in cases where the national deities were unable, or unwilling, to help. Only the interpretation of the oracle which was considered suitable to the emergency was made known to the public, not the oracle itself.
As curule aedile in 58, Scaurus celebrated the public games on a scale of magnificence never seen before.
The second edition in English appeared at Edinburgh in 1611, and in the preface to it Napier states he intended to have published an edition in Latin soon after the original publication in 1593, but that, as the work had now been made public by the French and Dutch translations, besides the English editions, and as he was "advertised that our papistical adversaries wer to write larglie against the said editions that are alreadie set out," he defers the Latin edition "till having first seene the adversaries objections, I may insert in the Latin edition an apologie of that which is rightly done, and an amends of whatsoever is amisse."
Macdonald at Edinburgh in 1889, and that there is appended to this edition a complete catalogue of all Napier's writings, and their various editions and translations, English and foreign, all the works being carefully collated, and references being added to the various public libraries in which they are to be found.
The parks are a fine feature of the city; by its charter a fixed percentage of all expenditures for public improvements must be used to purchase park land.
The kirk-session has oversight of the congregation in regard to such matters as the hours of public worship, the arrangements for administration of the sacraments, the admission of new Members and the exercise of church discipline.
On the whole, the preponderating preference has always been in favour of so-called extemporaneous, or free prayer; and the Westminster Directory of Public Worship has to a large extent stereotyped the form and order of the service in most Presbyterian churches.
It used to be customary among Presbyterians to stand during public prayer, and to remain seated during the acts of praise, but this peculiarity is no longer maintained.
The psalms rendered into metre were formerly the only vehicle of the Church's public praise, but hymns are now also used in most Presbyterian churches.'
The public praise used to be led by an individual called the "precentor," who occupied a box in front of, and a little lower than, the pulpit.
Deacons, in addition to having charge of the poor and sick, might catechize, and occasionally offer public prayer or read a written sermon.
It was not, however, till 1682 that they again lost the privilege of public ministry, and suffered severe oppression.
The public school system is excellent, and the city has a Carnegie library (1903), with more than 22,000 volumes in 1907.
He died on the 4th of November 1771, and was accorded a public funeral.
He contested the constitutionality of the Civil Rights Bill, opposed the resumption of specie payments, advocated the payment of the public debt in silver and supported the Bland-Allison Act.
Mendelssohn owed his first introduction to the public to Lessing's admiration.
In the public gardens there is a statue of General Jean Marie Valhubert, killed at Austerlitz.
Those of Buenos Aires, Rosario and La Plata are owned by public companies.
In 1881 President Roca offered for public purchase by auction the lands in the southwest of the province of Buenos Aires, the Pampa Central, and the Neuquen district, these lands having been rendered habitable after the campaign of 1878 against the Indians.
The cabinet is composed of eight ministers - the heads of the government departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war, marine, justice, agriculture, and public works.
All the public acts and judicial decisions of one province have full legal effect and authority in all the others.
The revenue of the republic is derived mainly from customs and excise, and the largest item of expenditure is the service of the public debt.
In 1835, with the title of governor and captain general, he acquired dictatorial powers, and all public authority passed into his hands.
No sooner had President Juarez Celman come into power towards the close of 1886, than the respectable portion of the community began to feel alarmed at the methods practised by the new president in his conduct of public affairs.
Celman, acting upon the advice of General Roca, who recognized the strength of public opinion in the outbreak, placed his resignation in the hands of congress on the 31st of.
Much satisfaction was shown in Europe at the fall of President Celman, for investors had suffered heavily by the way in which the resources of Argentina had been dissipated by that the uprising of public opinion against his financial methods signified a more honest conduct of the national affairs in the future.
Obstruction met his well-meant efforts to promote the general good, and before twelve months of the presidential term had run public affairs were at a deadlock.
His knowledge of foreign affairs was, however, peculiarly useful at a juncture when boundary ques tions were the subjects that chiefly attracted public attention.
Public opinion, excited by the prospect of a war with Chile, naturally supported the candidature of General Roca, and he elected without opposition (12th October 1898).
By the law of 1905 all the churches ceased to be recognized or supported by the state and became entirely separated therefrom, while the adherents of all creeds were permitted to form associations for public worship (associations cultuelles), upon which the expenses of maintenance were from that time to devolve.
The routes nationales and the routes dpartementales come under the category of la grande voirie and are under the supervision of the Ministry of Public Works.
Led to the ministry of commerce and industry or to that of public artment was chiefly formed.
The prefect supervises the execution of the laws; has wide authority in regard to policing, public hygiene and relief of pauper children; has the nomination of various subordinate officials; and is in correspondence with the subordinate functionaries in his department, to whom he transmits the orders and instructions of the government.
The meetings of the council are open to the public.
A procureur, or public prosecutor, is also attached to each court.
First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.
In each department an official collector (Trsorier payeur genral) receives the taxes and public revenue collected therein and accounts for them to the central authority in Paris.
All these are nominated for life by the president of the republic. Besides the accounts of the state and of the communes, those of charitable institutionsi and training collegesi and a great variety of other public establishments are scrutinized by the Cour des Comptes.
Public Debt.The national debt of France is the heaviest of any country in the world., Its foundation was laid early in the 15th century, and the continuous wars of succeeding centuries, combined with the extravagance of the monarchs, as well as deliberate disregard of financial and economic conditions, increased it at an alarming rate.
Liabilities on behalf of communes and public establishments, including departmental services 17,366,520
The repairing of highways, the upkeep of public buildings,the support of public education, the remuneration of numerous officials connected with the collection of state taxes, the keeping of the cadastre, &c., constitute the principal objects of communal expenditure.
At the head of the whole organization is the minister of public instruction.
He is assisted and advised by the superior council of public instruction, over which he presides.
Primary Inslruction.All primary public instruction is free and compulsory for children of both sexes between the ages of six and thirteen, but if a child can gain a certificate of primary studies at the age of eleven or after, he may be excused the rest of the period demanded by law.
If educated at home, the child (after two years of the compulsory period has expired) must undergo a yearly examination, and if it is unsatisfactory the parents will be compelled to send him to a public or private school.
Each commune is in theory obliged to maintain at least one public primary school, but with the approval of the niinister, the departmental council may authorize a commune to combine with other communes in the upkeep of a school.
Public primary schools include (1) icoles maternellesinfant schools for children from two to six years old; (2) elementary primary schoolsthese are the ordinary schools for children from six to thirteen; (3) higher primary schools (coles primaires suprieures) and supplementary courses; these admit pupils who have gained the certificate of primary elementary studies (cerlificat diludes primaires), offer a more advanced course and prepare for technical instruction; (4) primary technical schools (coles manuelles dapprenlissage, coles primaires suprleures professionnelles) kept by the communes or departments.
Persons keeping private primary schools are free with regard to their methods, programmes and books employed, except that they may not use books expressly prohibited by the superior council of public instruction.
A lyce is founded in a town by decree of the president of the republic, with the advice of the superior council of public instruction.
At Paris the cole Suprieure des Mines and the cole des Fonts et Chausses are controlled by the minister of public, works, the cole des Beaux-Arts, the cole des Arts Dcoratifs and the Conservatoire National de Musique et de Dclamation by the unr,ler-secretary for fine arts.
Ten public prosecutors were appointed.
According to Suidas, Dinarchus wrote 160 speeches; and Dionysius held that, out of 85 extant speeches bearing his name, 58 were genuine,-28 relating to public, 30 to private causes.
In 1792 he entered the public service during the administration of General Dumouriez.
He then definitely resigned public employment and devoted himself to the study of Greek.
He became a fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge, in 1530, and in 1533 was appointed a public reader or professor.
During Somerset's protectorate he entered public life and was made a secretary of state, being sent on an important diplomatic mission to Brussels.
On the accession of Mary he was deprived of all his offices, but in the succeeding reign was prominently employed in public affairs.
Opposite the cathedral is the government palace, which also contains the public library.
The municipal government is housed in an ancient tobacco factory converted to public uses, and a fine old Capuchin convent now serves as a public hospital.
The Paseo, or public park, is distinguished for its fine trees and flowers.
A large number of private schools are maintained through Church influence in opposition to the public schools.
Since that year the ramparts have been levelled and their site occupied by public promenades and gardens.
Walmer Castle was for long the official residence of the lord warden, but has, since the resignation of Lord Curzon in 1903, ceased to be so used, and those portions of it which are of historic interest are now open to the public. George, prince of Wales (lord warden, 1903-1907), was the first lord warden of royal blood since the office was held by George, prince of Denmark, consort of Queen Anne.
Since its reorganization as a joint-stock company in 1890 many of the shares have been held by the crown, philanthropic institutions and other public bodies.
In 1849 it was purchased by the town for £53,000, and is devoted to various public uses, containing a museum, assembly-rooms and picture-galleries.
Preston and Queen's parks are the principal of several public recreation grounds; and the racecourse at Kemp Town is also the property of the town.
Educational establishments are numerous, and include Brighton College, which ranks high among English public schools.
There are several handsome squares and public gardens, adorned with statues, trees and shrubbery.
The principal square is the Plaza de Bolivar, the conventional centre of the city, in which stands a bronze equestrian statue of Bolivar, and on which face the cathedral, archbishop's residence, Casa Amarilla, national library, general post office and other public offices.
The Independencia Park, formerly called Calvario Park, which occupies a hill on the west side of the city, is the largest and most attractive of the public gardens.
Among the public edifices are the capitol, which occupies a whole square, the university, of nearly equal size, the cathedral, pantheon, masonic temple (built by the state in the spendthrift days of Guzman Blanco), national library, opera-house, and a number of large churches.
The city is generously provided with all the modern public services, including two street car lines, local and long distance telephone lines, electric power and light, and waterworks.
The Public Record of Horatio Seymour (New York, 1868) includes his speeches and official papers between 1856 and 1868.
On the arrival of Amadeus in Spain, Ruiz Zorilla became minister of public works for a short time, and resigned by way of protesting against Serrano and Topete entering the councils of the new king.
He was created a peer of France in 1458, and made governor of Paris during the war of the League of the Public Weal (1465).
No trace exists of the splendour of the ancient city, with its regular streets, well-ordered plan and numerous public buildings.
The principal buildings which remain are the church of St John, which is become the principal mosque; the hospital, which has been transformed into public granaries; the palace of the grand master, now the residence of the pasha; and the senate-house, which still contains some marbles and ancient columns.
Universities have been established at Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart, and are well equipped and numerously attended; they are in part supported by grants from the public funds and in part by private endowments and the fees paid by students.
The cost of public instruction ih Australia averages about I Is.
Under the Constitution Act the Commonwealth is given the control of the postal and telegraph departments, public defence and several other services, as well as the power of levying customs and excise duties; its powers of taxation are unrestricted, but so far no taxes Dave been imposed other than those just mentioned.
The federal government has no public debt, but each of the six states has contracted debts which aggregate £237,000,000, equal to about £58, 8s.
At the funeral of men there is much mourning, the female relatives cutting or tearing their hair off and plastering their faces with clay, but for women no public ceremonies took place.
During the next two or three years public attention was occupied with Captain King's maritime explorations of the north-west coast in three successive voyages, and by explorations of Western Australia in 1821.
As far as the other colonies were concerned, it was evident that the bill was safe, and public attention throughout Australia was fixed on New South Wales, where a fierce political contest was raging, which it was recognized would decide the fate of the measure for the time being.
About 42% of the forests belong to the state and about 33% to public bodies and institutions, leaving only 25% for private owners.
The government is carried on by a ministry of five, with departments for the ducal house and foreign affairs, home affairs, justice, education and public worship and finance.
The Lithgow library is a city public library.
When the Liberals returned to power in 1880 he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Sherbrooke, but from 1875 till his death at Warlingham, Surrey, on the 27th of July 1892, his health was constantly failing, and by degrees he figured less and less in public life.
Public opinion, it may be declared, designated Ferdinand de Lesseps as the head of the enterprise.
In the first Gladstone administration he held a variety of public offices, finally becoming, in 1871, the first president of the local government board.
To the public Boole was known only as the author of numerous abstruse papers on mathematical topics, and of three or four distinct publications which have become standard works.
This charter provided that no war could be declared nor marriage concluded by the sovereign, nor taxes raised without the assent of the states, that natives were alone eligible for high office, and that the national language should be used in public documents.
In 61 Gabinius, then praetor, endeavoured to win the public favour by providing games on a scale of unusual splendour, and in 58 managed to secure the consulship, not without suspicion of bribery.
He proclaimed a crusade against Louis and the French, and, after the peace of Lambeth, he forced Louis to make a public and humiliating profession of penitence (1217).
The family of Thun-Hohenstein, one of the wealthiest of the Austrian nobility, which has for more than 200 years settled at Tetschen, in Bohemia, has given several distinguished members to the Austrian public service.
After his retirement from the public service in 1863 he supported in the Bohemian Landtag and the Austrian Reichsrat the federal policy of his brother Leo.
The public buildings of chief interest are the kasbah, the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the palaces of the governor-general and the archbishop - all these are fine Moorish houses; the "Grand" and the "New" Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Philippe, the church of the Holy Trinity (Church of England), and the Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger - a Turkish palace built in 1799-1800.
As governor, Seward favoured a continuance of works of internal improvement at public expense, although this policy had already plunged the state into financial embarrassment.
There is a public library, which was opened in 1871, and in 1909 had more than 20,000 volumes.
Hutchinson Field, another public park, is a part of the estate of the last royal governor, Thomas Hutchinson; Governor Jonathan Belcher also lived in Milton for a time.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
The Long Parliament had ordered a strict observance of Sunday, punished swearing severely, and made adultery a capital crime; Cromwell issued further ordinances against duelling, swearing, racemeetings and cock-fights - the last as tending to the disturbance of the public peace and the encouragement of "dissolute practices to the dishonour of God."
He appointed visitors for the universities and great public schools, and defended the universities from the attacks of the extreme sectaries who clamoured for their abolition, even Clarendon allowing that Oxford "yielded a harvest of extraordinary good and sound knowledge in all parts of learning."
On the 31st of August he seemed to rally, and one who slept in his bedchamber and who heard him praying, declared, "a public spirit to God's cause did breathe in him to the very last."
The public buildings are mostly constructed of broken stone and mortar, plastered outside and covered with red tiles, but the common dwellings are generally constructed of tapiarough trellis-work walls filled in with mud.
A public park was opened in 1889.
An English clergyman named William Jackson, a man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to nogotiate between the French committee of public safety and the United Irishmen.
The city has a public library (1905), and is the seat of an Institute of Telegraphy (founded in 1874; chartered in 1900) and of Valparaiso University (1873; formerly known as the Valparaiso Normal Training School).
He served as chairman of many commissions dealing with public health, prohibition, and labour.
The cicisbeo was the professed gallant of a married woman, who attended her at all public entertainments, it being considered unfashionable for the husband to be escort.
The public buildings include the town hall, court house and orphan hospital; and the industries are mainly connected with the cattle trade and the distilling of whisky.
There seems no good reason why in modern performances the pianoforte should not be used for the purpose; if only accompanists can be trained to acquire the necessary delicacy of touch, and can be made to understand that, if they cannot extemporize the necessary polyphony, and so have to play something definitely written for them, it is not a mass of interesting detail which they are to bring to the public ear.
The procession of the Host on Corpus Christi day became, as it were, a public demonstration of Catholic orthodoxy against Protestantism and later against religious Liberalism.
An attempt to hold a public procession of the Host in connexion with the Eucharistic Congress at Westminster in 1908, however, was the signal for the outburst of a considerable amount of opposition, and was eventually abandoned owing to the personal intervention of the prime minister.
Their deed of agreement was drawn up in the temple by a notary public, and confirmed by an oath " by god and the king."
Custom or public opinion doubtless secured that the parties would not agree to wrong.
The earliest practical trial of electrical telegraphy was made in 1837 on the London and North Western Railway, and the first public line under the patent of Wheatstone and Cooke was laid from Paddington to Slough on the Great Western Railway in 1843.
It cannot justly be said that the companies made large profits while neglecting to develop the services adequately, but it is true that they were not able commercially to comply with many of the demands made upon them by the public. Until speculation took place in anticipation of government purchase, the market prices of the telegraph securities were mostly below par.
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
Probably no more arduous task was ever thrown upon a public department than that imposed on the Post Office by the transfer.
The reforms which it was to bring about were eagerly and impatiently demanded by the public. This great operation had to be effected without interrupting the public service, and the department had immediately to reduce and to simplify the charges for transmission throughout the kingdom.
Closely analogous to the action of the state in the cases referred to is the action taken by municipal authorities with the authority of the legislature in competing with or superseding private companies for the supply of electric light, gas, water, tramways and other public services..
The system was put into practical operation in 1887 on the Lehigh Valley railroad in the United States, and worked well, but was abandoned because it apparently fulfilled no real public want.
Marconi's success in bridging the English Channel at Easter in 1899 with electric waves and establishing practical wireless telegraphy between ships and the shore by this means drew public attention to the value of the new means of communication.
The station was opened shortly afterwards for public service, the rates being greatly below that then current for the cable service.
The licensee was precluded from opening public call offices and from laying trunk lines from one town to another.
The licences within restricted areas having proved unsuitable for the growing business, public opinion appealed to the Post Office to issue new licences applicable to the whole country.
The National Telephone Company again applied to parliament for powers to lay wires underground; public discontent with inadequate telephone services was expressed, and at the same time the competition of the telephone with the Post Office telegraph became more manifest.
In February the Postmaster-General applied for an injunction to restrain the company from opening any street or public road within the county of London without the consent of the Postmaster - General and the London County Council, which injunction was granted in July.
The fee charged for the use of public telephone call offices is 2d.
It was found possible to exchange speech when the conditions were exceptionally favourable; but in spite of the partial success of the experiment, a public service between the two capitals is not at present practicable.
He was a leader of those who contended for reform in municipal government, was conspicuous for his public spirit, and exerted a great influence for good not only in New York City but in the state and nation.
The serious poems in which he celebrated the public events of his later years are dull and lifeless.
There are several public assay offices in Italy for silk; the first in the world was established in Turin in 1750.
The rate of increase in the public state-supported schools has been much greater than in the private schools.
For the boarding schools, or convilli, there are only incomplete reports except f or the institutions directly dependent on the ministry of public instruction, which are comparatively few.
Statistics collected in 1893-1894 and 1896 revealed the existence of 1831 libraries, either private (but open to the public) or completely public. The public libraries have been enormously increased since 1870 by the incorporation of the treasures of suppressed monastic institutions.
Libraries and archives are under the superintendence of the Ministry of Public Instruction.
Public charity is exercised through the permanent charitable foundations (opere pie), which are, however, very unequally distributed in the different provinces.
Public pawnshops or Monti di piet numbered 555 in 1896, with a net patrimony of 2,879,625.
The Italian parishes had in 1901 a total gross revenue, including assignments from the public worship endowment fund, of 1,280,000 or an average of 63 per parish; 51% of this gross sum consists of revenue from glebe lands.
The Cassa Ecclesiastica was abolished, and in its stead was instituted a Fondo pet Culto, or public worship fund.
The public worship endowment fund has relieved the state exchequer of the cost of public worship; has gradually furnished to the poorer parish priests an addition to their stipends, raising them to 32 per annum, with the prospect of further raising them to 40; and has contributed to the outlay incurred by the communes for religious purposes.
The monastic buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the communal and provincial authorities, while the same authorities have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects of art and historical interest have been consigned to public libraries and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was forbidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick.
The sittings of both houses are public, and an absolute majority of the members must be present to make a sitting valid.
Libels, insults, &c., resistance to public authority, offences against good customs, thefts and frauds, have increased; assaults are nearly stationary.
From 1885-1886 onwards, outlay on public works, military and colonial expenditure, and especially the commercial and financial crises, contributed to produce annual deficits; but owing to drastic reforms introduced in 1894-1895 and to careful management the year 1898-1899 marked a return of surpluses (nearly 1,306,400).
In addition to this privy council, we find a gran consiglio, consisting of the burghers who had established the right to interfere immediately in public affairs, and a still larger assembly called parlamenlo, which included the whole adult population.
The lesser people tolerated him because he extended the power of their city and made it beautiful with public buildings., The bourgeoisie, protected in their trade, found it convenient to support him.
Many of them fell into the slough of pauperism, and were saved from starvation by public doles.
He took public education out of the hands of the Jesuits, which, for the future development of manliness in his dominions, was a measure of incalculable value.
The reign of this duke was long remembered as a period of internal prosperity, wise legislation and important public enterprise.
The Corniche road was improved; and public works in various parts of Piedmont, and the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics attested the foresight and wisdom of the great organizer of industry and quickener of human energies.
The Roman territory was divided into two departmentsthe Tiber and Trasimenus; the Code Napoleon was introduced, public works were set on foot and great advance was made in the material sphere.
The Piedmontese government rightly regarded this measure as a violation of the peace treaty of 1850, and Cavour recalled the Piedmontese minister from Vienna, an action which was endorsed by Italian public opinion generally, and won the approval of France and England.
One section of public opinion desired to make Piedmonts co-operation subject to definite promises by the Powers; but the latter refused to bind, themselves, and both Victor Emmanuel and Cavour realized that, even without such promises, participation would give Piedmont a claim.
With its object he sympathized; yet he could not give official sanction to an armed attack on a friendly power, nor on the other hand could he forbid an action enthusiastically approved by public opinion.
For a few months after the occupation of Rome pressing questions incidental to a new change of capital and to the administration of a new domain distracted public attention from the real condition of Italian affairs.
As finance minister in the Rattazzi cabinet of that year he had been confronted with a public debt of nearly 120,000,000, and with an immediate deficit of nearly 18,000,000.
The serious feature of the situation lay less in the income than in the intangible expenditure, namely, the vast sums required for interest on the various forms of public debt and for pensions.
During the same period the assumption of the Venetian and Roman debts, losses on the issue of loans and the accumulation of annual deficits, had caused public indebtedness to rise from 92,000,000 to 328,000,000, no less than f 100,000,000 of the latter sum having been sacrificed in premiums and commissions to bankers and underwriters of loans.
Nicotera, minister of the interior, began his administration of home affairs by a sweeping change in the personnel of the prefects, sub-prefects and public prosecutors, but found himself obliged to incur the wrath of his supporters by prohibiting Radical meetings likely to endanger public order, and by enunciating administrative principles which would have befitted an inveterate Conservative.
In spite of the courage and presence of mind of Cairoli, who received the dagger thrust intended for the king, public and parliamentary indignation found expression in a vote which compelled the ministry to resign.
Except in regard to an increase of the army estimates, urgently demanded by public opinion, the new ministry had practically no programme.
Most of the responsibility lay with the Vatican, which had arranged the procession in the way best calculated to irritate Italian feeling, but little excuse can be offered for the failure of the Italian authorities to maintain public order.
He, indeed, was not disposed to concede to public opinion anything beyond an increase of the army, a measure insistently demanded by Garibaldi and the Left.
In Italy public opinion as a whole was favorable to the visit, especially as it was not considered an obstacle to the projected increase of the army and navy.
These mancnuvres produced their effect upon Italian public opinion.
Depretis and his colleague Genala, minister of public works, experienced great difficulty in securing parliamentary sanction for the conventions, not so much on account of their defective character, as from the opposition of local interests anxious tc extort new lines from the government.
Intimately bound up with the forced currency, the railway conventions and public works was the financial question in general.
In the spring of 1887 Genala, minister of public works, was taken to task for having sanctioned expenditure of 80,000,000 on railway construction while only 40,000,000 had been included in the estimates.
Partly to satisfy public opinion, partly in order to profit by the favorable disposition of the British government, and partly in the hope of remedying the error committed in 1882 by refusal to co-operate with Great Britain in Egypt, the Italian government in January 1885 despatched an expedition under Admiral Caimi and Colonel Saletta to occupy Massawa and Beilul.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
None of Rudinis public utterances justify the supposition that he assumed office with the intention of allowing the alliance to lapse on its expiry in May 1892; indeed, he frankly declared it to form the basis of his foreign policy.
The return of Crispi to powera return imposed by public opinion as that of the only man capable of dealing with the desperate situationmarked the turning-point of the crisis.
But it was not alone in regard to public order that heroic measures were necessary.
On the 16th of June an attempt by an anarchist named Lega was made on Crispis life; on the 24th of June President Carnot was assassinated by the anarchist Caserio; and on the 3oth of June an Italian journalist was murdered at Leghorn for a newspaper attack upon anarchism a series of outrages which led the government to frame and parliament to adopt (11th July) a Public Safety Bill for the prevention of anarchist propaganda and crime.
More than ever at the mercy of the Radicals and of their revolutionary allies, Rudini continued so to administer public affairs that subversive propaganda and associations obtained unprecedented extension.
The Pelloux cabinet possessed no clear programme except in regard to the Public Safety Bill, which it had taken over from its predecessor.
In February 1900 it was, however, quashed by the supreme court on a point of procedure, and the Public Safety Bill as a whole had again to be presented to the Chamber.
At the same time it mediated between the companies and the employees, and in June a settlement was formally concluded between the ministers of public works and of the treasury and the directors of the companies concerning the grievances of the employees.
Venice was cut off from the mainland for two days and all the public services were suspended.
The agitation ceased in June with the defeat of the strikers, but not until a vast amount of damage had been done to the crops and all had suffered heavy losses, including the government, whose expenses for the maintenance of public order ran into tens of millions of lire.
Public opinion upheld the government in its attitude, for all persons of common sense realized that the suspension of the public services could not be permitted for a moment in a civilized country.
But while the majority of the deputies, were nominally in favor of the bill, the parliamentary committee reported against it, and public opinion was so hostile that an anti-divorce petition received 3,500,000 signatures, including not only those of professing Catholics, but of free-thinkers and Jews, who regarded divorce as unsuitable to Italian conditions.
For this unfortunate combination Signor Sonnino himself was not altogether to blame; having lost many of his most faithful followers, who, weary of waiting for office, had gone over to the enemy, he had been forced to seek support among men who had professed hostility to the existing order of things and thus to secure at least the neutrality of the Extreme Left and make the public realize that the reddest of Socialists, Radicals and Republicans may be tamed and rendered harmless by the offer of cabinet appointments.
Unfortunately in the case of Signor Sonnino public opinion expected too much and did not take to the idea of such a compromise.
In November Signor Gianturco died, and Signor Pietro Bertolini took his place as minister of public works; the latter proved perhaps the ablest member of the cabinet, but the acceptance of office under Giolitti of a man who had been one of the most trusted and valuable lieutenants of Signor Sonnino marked a further step in the dgringolade of that statesmans party, and was attributed to the fact that Signor Bertolini resented not having had a place in the late Sonnino ministry.
A more difficult question was that of religious education in the public elementary schools.
The Triple Alliance was maintained and renewed as far as paper documents were concerned (in June 1902 it was reconfirmed for 12 years), but public opinion was no longer so favorably disposed towards it.
Italian public opinion could not view without serious misgivings the active political propaganda which Austria was conducting in Albania.
The news caused the most widespread sensation, and public opinion in Italy was greatly agitated at what it regarded as an act of brigandage on the part of Austria, when Signor Tittoni in a speech at Carate Brianza (October 6th) declared that Italy might await events with serenity, and that these could find her neither unprepared nor isolated.
The younger generation, in view of the requirements and criticism of a reading public, cultivated the art of composition and rhetorical embellishment.
He was introduced to public life and to court by his neighbour in Yorkshire, George, 2nd duke of Buckingham, was elected M.P. for York in 1665, and gained the "first step in his future rise" by joining Buckingham in his attack on Clarendon in 1667.
He visited the king at court the same day; but took no part in public affairs for the rest of the reign.
If the offer was made, it was declined, and Cranmer continued at Cambridge filling the offices of lecturer in divinity at his own college and of public examiner in divinity to the university.
Among the public buildings are the capitol, the United States government building, a United States mint, and a state orphans' home; in the vicinity are the state prison and a United States government school for Indians.
Of a far more complicated nature than these offerings are the Soma-sacrifices, which, besides the simpler ceremonies of this class, such as the Agnishtoma or "Praise of Agni," also include great state functions, such as the Rajasuya or consecration of a king, and the Asvamedha or horse-sacrifice, which, in addition to the sacrificial rites, have a considerable amount of extraneous, often highly interesting, ceremonial connected with them, which makes them seem to partake largely of the nature of public festivals.
Constantine the Great, who generally resided here from 306 to 331, and his successors also, beautified the city with public works, and villas arose upon the hill-sides.
At the Restoration he reappeared in public, and in 1660 he was consecrated archbishop of York.
He was of good family, and after studying at the university of Naples he entered the public service, and was for many years employed in the office of the administration of finances.
They regulate matters concerning public worship and ordinances, and have appellate jurisdiction from the kirk session.
It provided for the visitation of the clergy by the bishop, and for the power of the clergy to exclude their lay folk from the Holy Communion, subject to appeal to the bishop. Both minor and major excommunication had been in use, and for a long time public penance was required.
The procedure underwent great modification in 1686; but public penance was not taken away till 1855, and then confession to and absolution by the priest in the presence of witnesses was still required.
This was the centre of the life of the medieval city, the scene of all great public functions, such as the homage of the burghers to 1 Bavo, or Allowin (c. 589-c. 653), patron saint of Ghent, was a nobleman converted by St Amandus, the apostle of Flanders.
In addition, a fine of 150,000 golden gulden was levied on the city, and used to build the "Spanish Citadel" on the site of what is now the public park.
The public buildings include the town-hall (dating from 1762 and altered in 1876), the tolbooth (1590), and the grammar school.
Loretto School, one of the foremost public schools in Scotland, occupies the site of the chapel of Our Lady of Loretto, which was founded in 1534 by Thomas Duthie, a hermit from Mt Sinai.
She published also a small volume of religious poems, and towards the end of her career gave some public readings from her writings.
The pretty wood at Winschoten was laid out by the Society for Public Welfare (Tot Nut van het Algemeen) in 1826.
Outside his judicial duties he was responsible for much useful public work, particularly in the department of higher education.
The registry of the citizens, the suppression of litigation, the elevation of public morals, the care of minors, the retrenchment of public expenses, the limitation of gladiatorial games and shows, the care of roads, the restoration of senatorial privileges, the appointment of none but worthy magistrates, even the regulation of street traffic, these and numberless other duties so completely absorbed his attention that, in spite of indifferent health, they often kept him at severe labour from early morning till long after midnight.
The Meditations were written, it is evident, as occasion offered - in the midst of public business, and on the eve of battles on which the fate of the empire depended - hence their fragmentary appearance, but hence also much of their practical value and even of their charm.
The last public preparation of Theriaca took place at Nuremberg in 1754.
Any poisonous substance that is not included in the schedules can be sold by anyone, as, for instance, red lead, sulphate of copper, &c. The duty of the Pharmaceutical Society is a purely legal one, and relates only to the schedules of poisons framed by the government to protect the public by rendering it a difficult matter to obtain the poisons most frequently used for criminal purposes.
The subject of patent medicines is but little understood by the general public. Any medicine, the composition of which is kept secret, but which is advertised on the label for the cure of diseases, must in Great Britain bear a patent medicine stamp equal to about one-ninth of its face value.
Queen Street, the principal thoroughfare, leads inland from the main dock, and contains the majority of the public buildings.
A beautiful house of the 16th century belonged to one Thomas Rogers, whose daughter was mother of John Harvard, the founder of Harvard College, U.S.A. Among public buildings are the town hall, originally dated 1633, rebuilt 1767, and altered 186 3; market house, corn exchange and three hospitals.
It has a public library, which has belonged to the township since 1857; and here are the Lyman School for Boys, a state industrial institution (opened in 1886 and succeeding a state reform school opened in 1846), and the Westboro Insane Hospital (homoeopathic, 1884), which is under the general supervision of the State Board of Insanity.
Either as a concession to the senate, or perhaps with the idea of improving public morality, Decius endeavoured to revive the separate office and authority of the censor.
Papirius Carbo and the younger Marius, had massacred Sulla's supporters wholesale, confiscated his property, and declared him a public enemy.
Then came the memorable "proscription," when for the first time in Roman history a list of men declared to be outlaws and public enemies was exhibited in the forum, and a reign of terror began throughout Rome and Italy.
He was accorded a magnificent public funeral, his body being removed to Rome and buried in the Campus Martius.
But his experience was invaluable and soon he became prominent in public affairs, a visit which William III.
Consistency of conduct was not among the objects which he aimed at, nor did he shrink from thwarting in secret a policy which he supported in public. A large share of the discredit attaching to the measures of James II.
Absolution in foro externo was forbidden to be given secretly to those who made voluntary confession; they had to submit to the ignominy of the public auto-de fe.
Should the accused, after the testimony against him had been made public, continue to deny the charge, he was to be condemned as impenitent.
But in 1496, when the sovereigns again complained that the inquisitors were, without royal knowledge or consent, disposing of the property of the condemned and thus depriving the public revenues of considerable sums, Alexander VI.
Besides the university library, there is the Ohio state library occupying a room in the capitol and containing in 1908 126,000 volumes, including a "travelling library" of about 36,000 volumes, from which various organizations in different parts of the state may borrow books; the law library of the supreme court of Ohio, containing complete sets of English, Scottish, Irish, Canadian, United States and state reports, statutes and digests; the public school library of about 68,000 volumes, and the public library (of about 55,000), which is housed in a marble and granite building completed in 1906.
In 1826 he appeared before the public as the hero of a most extraordinary adventure, the abduction of Miss Ellen Turner, daughter of William Turner, of Shrigley Park, Cheshire.
In December 1854, after a fatiguing address to a public meeting, followed by prolonged exposure to a south-east gale, his constitution entirely broke down.
Excluded from parliament by the fatal error of his youth, he was compelled to resort to indirect means of working out his plans by influencing public men.
There are many fine streets and squares and some handsome public monuments, notably among the last the fountain on the market square surmounted by a statue of Charlemagne, the bronze equestrian statue of the emperor William I.
In Portland's architecture, both public and private, there is much that is excellent; and there are a number of buildings of historic interest.
The Public Library building is Romanesque and elaborately ornamented; the building was presented to the city by James P. Baxter; in the library is the statue, by Benjamin Paul Akers (1825-1861), of the dead pearl-diver, well known from Hawthorne's description in The Marble Faun.
The grammar school now occupies modern buildings, and ranks among the lesser public schools of England, having scholarships at Pembroke College, Oxford.
In the Church of England since the Reformation matins is used for the order of public morning prayer.
The logical form of the argument makes it especially valuable in public speaking, before uncritical audiences.
Public opinion was now keenly excited; he received an ovation from the Munich students, and the king, to whom he owed his appointment, supported him warmly.
It has a bridge across the Cali, and a number of religious and public edifices.
Thus the prayers of the Todas already alluded to are in all cases uttered "in the throat," although these are public prayers, each village having a form of its own.
When we come to consider the moral quality of the act of prayer, this contrast between the spirit of public and private religion is fundamental for all but the most advanced forms of cult.
In its public rites the community becomes conscious of common ends and a common edification.
We may therefore assume that, in acts of public worship at any rate, prayer and its magico-religious congeners are at all stages resorted to as a "means of grace," even though such grace do not constitute the expressed object of petition.
In one of the testimonials which accompanied his application to the trustees of Rugby, the writer stated it as his conviction that "if Mr Arnold were elected, he would change the face of education all through the public schools of England."
His interest also in public matters was incessant, especially ecclesiastical questions, and such as bore upon the social welfare and moral improvement of the masses.
These writings, mainly collections of articles and lectures intended for the general public, display enlightened views and wide information.
After holding a subordinate office (1876) in the department of public works, he became successively prefect of the Tarn (1882) and the Haute-Garonne (1885), and then returned to Paris to enter the ministry of the interior.
The Bourgeois ministry appeared to consider that popular opinion would enable them to override what they claimed to be an unconstitutional action on the part of the upper house; but the public was indifferent and the senate triumphed.
As minister of public instruction in the Brisson cabinet of 1898 he organized courses for adults in primary education.
Henceforward he lived a life of unbroken seclusion at Vignay, his only subsequent public appearance being by means of a memoire which he addressed to the king in 1570 under the title Le But de la guerre et de la paix, ou discours du chancelier l'Hospital pour exhorter Charles IX.
Trade flourished; the corporations of bargemen and the like on the Rhone made money; the many towns grew rich and could afford splendid public buildings.
The chefs-lieux of the tribes became practically, though not officially, municipalities, and many of these towns reached considerable size and magnificence of public buildings.
It has three Evangelical churches, among them that of St Anne, built 1499-1525, a Roman Catholic church, several public monuments, among them those of Luther, of the famous arithmetician Adam Riese, and of Barbara Uttmann.
Annaberg has technical schools for lace-making, commerce and agriculture, in addition to high grade public schools for boys and girls.
Public morality was in peril, and in May 183 2 the halls of the new sect were closed by the government, and the father, with some of his followers, appeared before the tribunals.
The public buildings include the palace of the governor-general, situated in a spacious botanical and zoological garden, the large military hospital, the cathedral of St Joseph, the Paul Bert college, and the theatre.
The chief manufactures are paper and wire, and from the quarries near the village of Lee is obtained an excellent quality of marble; these quarries furnished the marble for the extension of the Capitol at Washington, for St Patrick's cathedral in New York City and for the Lee High School and the Lee Public Library (1908).
Though outside foreign affairs he played but a small part in the period of Liberal opposition between 1895 and 1905, he retained public confidence as one who was indispensable to a Liberal administration.
The town is the seat of a sub-prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, .a chamber of commerce and a communal college among its public institutions.
Short in stature and uncouth in appearance, his individuality first shocked and then by its earnestness impressed the House of Commons; and his sturdy independence of party ties, combined with a gift of rough but genuine eloquence (of which his speech on the Royal Title Bill of 1876 was an example), rapidly made him one of the best-known public men in the country.
Shortly afterwards, however, he retired both from parliament and from public life, professing his disgust at the party intrigues of politics, and devoted himself to conducting his newspaper, the Newcastle Daily Chronicle, and to his private business as a mine-owner.
He is assisted by a council of ministers representing the departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war and marine, industry, labour and instruction and public works.
In 1891 he was obliged to suspend the service of the public debt and make arrangements by which the bondholders accepted a reduced rate of interest.
The country was at this period conducted practically as if it were the private estate of the president, and no accounts of revenue or expenditure were vouchsafed to the public. In 1894 the Colorados nominated Senor Idiarte Borda for the presidency.
The public buildings and business blocks are built mostly of Indiana building stone.
Other noteworthy buildings are the Federal building (containing post-office, custom-house and Federal court-rooms; erected at a cost of $3,000,000); Tomlinson Hall, capable of seating 3000 persons, given to the city by Daniel Tomlinson; the Propylaeum, a club-house for women; the Commercial club; Das Deutsche Haus, belonging to a German social club; the Maennerchor club-house; the Union railway station; the traction terminal building; the city hall, and the public library.
The public library, founded in 1871, contains more than 100,000 volumes.
Indianapolis is governed under a form of government adopted originally in a special charter of 1891 and in 1905 incorporated in the new state municipal code, which was based upon it, It provides for a mayor elected every four years, a single legislative chamber, a common council, and various administrative departments - of public safety, public health, &c. The guiding principle of the charter, which is generally accepted as a model of its kind, is that of the complete separation of powers and the absolute placing of responsibility.
The whole noble order was disfranchised; to be noble was equivalent to being shut out from public office.
The principal industry is coal-mining, and the public buildings include churches, schools and a hall.
The grammar school was founded by Dr Roger Lupton, provost of Eton College, in 1528, but as it was connected with a chantry it was suppressed by Henry VIII., to be refounded in 1551 by Edward VI.; it now takes rank among the important public schools.
In 1741 he received his first public distinction in being admitted a member of the Academy of Sciences, to which he had previously presented several papers, including a Memoire sur le calcul integral (1739).
Though he was again deputy in 1827 he played no part in public affairs, and resigned in 1829.
The public buildings include the cathedral (1760), the government palace, the municipal palace, the episcopal palace, the church of Santa Ana, a national theatre, a school of arts and trades, a foreign hospital, the former administration building of the Canal Company, Santo Tomas Hospital, the pesthouse of Punta Mala and various asylums. The houses are mostly of stone, with red tile roofs, two or three storeys high, built in the Spanish style around central patios, or courts, and with balconies projecting far over the narrow streets; in such houses the lowest floor is often rented to a poorer family.
That this tragedy should have been reprinted in 1714 and acted in 1745 only shows that the public, as is often the case, had an eye to the catastrophe rather than to the development of the action.
Arneth was an indefatigable worker, and, as director of the archives, his broad-minded willingness to listen to the advice of experts, as well as his own sound sense, did much to promote the more scientific treatment and use of public records in most of the archives of Europe.
His chief public activity at Oxford was in connexion with the hebdomadal council, and with the Clarendon Press, of which he was for many years secretary.
In front of the palace is the public garden or Alexander Park.
A public park has been laid out in the eastern suburbs.
The money which he accumulated he put to good use in the construction of roads and public buildings.
Other exceptions are the " Institutions of the Empress Marie," which absorb, inter alia, the duties on playing-cards and the taxes on places of public entertainment; the imperial civil list, so far as this does not exceed the sum fixed in 1906 (16,359,595 roubles!); the expenses of the two imperial chanceries, 10,000,000 roubles per annum, which constitute in effect a secret service fund.
The zemstvos were originally given large powers in relation to the incidence of taxation, and such questions as education, public health, roads and the like.