It's all public record.
I'm beginning to despise public officials.
The rise of public opinion as the most powerful political force in the world.
If she possessed a smile, she never presented it for public display.
Thanks to the burgeoning of technology and social media, public opinion is the most powerful political force in the world today.
Even Quinn seemed to have forgotten his desire to go public in the tension of our impromptu to act.
The mob, the traitor... the public welfare, thought he.
It was the joyous weekend my future wife and I made public our marriage plans, with no one listening.
All these are profound shifts in public opinion.
"That was the public health people," Cynthia answered.
Unknown to the police and the public, her prominent father was molesting her while her mother looked away.
Nothing. Maybe turn it over to some public trust so it remains unspoiled.
Dean figured Fred was making a last ditch effort for a dispensation from his public duty.
However, if it were stigmatized, and public opinion dramatically and pervasively changed, that would force policy change.
We no longer have public executions as a form of entertainment.
And the Woggle-Bug shall be the Public Accuser, because he is so learned that no one can deceive him.
Public opinion is ever more in the peace camp because the vast majority of the economy doesn't benefit financially in times of war.
She insisted on meeting at a public place, so Jackson suggested a bar near Elisabeth's house.
Having waited there for Rostopchin who did not turn up, they became convinced that Moscow would be surrendered, and then dispersed all about the town to the public houses and cookshops.
Republics consist of codified laws that apply to everyone, regardless of public sentiment.
Motel personnel conducted a search and a motel employee later found the Parkside man's clothing and room key on the public beach across the road.
Yeah; that's public information, but something tells me that only works if he actually registers; you think?
When he finished the chores, he swallowed three aspirins and went outside to shovel the accumulating snow, hoping further activity might dissipate the anger he felt, not only at Shipton, but at himself for losing it in so public and childish manner.
One need only admit that public tranquillity is in danger and any action finds a justification.
I can't even picture the bedlam making this public would cause.
True to his word, they drove less than two blocks before he entered a public parking garage and drove to the bottommost floor and parked in a dark corner with yellow no- parking lines.
This is a public lodging place, remember?
"If I make this bone public there'll be a bushel of paper work," Jake said in his usual keep-it-simple fashion.
His mood too good to be snubbed by a mere public servant.
It was a huge shift in public opinion in which no group benefited financially; if anything, financial interests were aligned against this change, just as with tobacco.
But next day no news arrived from the army and the public mood grew anxious.
Granted, we have to plan how to best make it public but.
We may not have made his name public but that doesn't mean no one is looking for him and his motor home.
Before Dean could remember what Shanghai offered for public transportation, Fred set about taking care of the needs and concerns of the returning guests.
During his campaign and his time in office, the extent of the effect of his polio was kept from the public, but the fact he had the disease was commonly known.
My mother and several of my friends said they would help me with the establishment of a public library.
It is true, we are such poor navigators that our thoughts, for the most part, stand off and on upon a harborless coast, are conversant only with the bights of the bays of poesy, or steer for the public ports of entry, and go into the dry docks of science, where they merely refit for this world, and no natural currents concur to individualize them.
After explaining the situation and giving her address, she turned down the road toward the nearest public area – a service station 2 miles away.
They'll keep the pressure on the authorities when any of these cases get out of the public eye.
Did he think I was the tipster, solely because the public consensus appointed the psychic a female?
You could have the libertarian state, the green state, the clothing-optional state, the state with free public housing for all, the state where puns are outlawed, the state with a two-drink minimum, the fiercely pro-business state—even a state that guarantees free speech but requires that you sing your speech like a show tune.
Next, entire cities banned smoking in all indoor public places, contending a private business's right to allow smoking was trumped by the dangers of exposing patrons to secondhand smoke.
Public opinion is a powerful force, and if it is generally a force for peace, then the web magnifies it.
Can you imagine the public reaction to that today: A quarter of a million people killed or wounded in a single day?
Public knowledge noted the arrest resulted from yet another unidentified tip.
The public loves it.
The headlines of the local newspaper proudly announced, "Under Sheriff Solves Fifty-Year-Old Murder," which Lydia neither confirmed nor denied, nor did the Deans offer public comment.
A delicate balance of local easements, public involvement and volunteer labor was slowly assembled.
Now all he'd accomplished was to piss off the woman he loved and make a public fool of himself!
Parents kept their children at home, especially in the summer, and certainly away from public swimming areas.
They are regarded generally as far more appropriate in books and in public discourses than in the parlor or at the table.
If they pay the tax from a mistaken interest in the individual taxed, to save his property, or prevent his going to jail, it is because they have not considered wisely how far they let their private feelings interfere with the public good.
While we refrained from tracking our results, when we learned through public media of a success, we celebrated.
Fortunately, after a week or two, the public grew bored with the subject and it slipped away like a bear in winter.
When asked why he now went public with his so-called gift, he replied he was establishing a business to locate missing children.
Many of our houses, both public and private, with their almost innumerable apartments, their huge halls and their cellars for the storage of wines and other munitions of peace, appear to be extravagantly large for their inhabitants.
At the present time it is difficult to know the real state of French public opinion.
And I will knock the nonsense out of anybody"-- but probably realizing that he was shouting at Bezukhov who so far was not guilty of anything, he added, taking Pierre's hand in a friendly manner, "We are on the eve of a public disaster and I haven't time to be polite to everybody who has business with me.
At Martha's suggestion over coffee the next morning we decided on the public library in nearby Lynn as our destination.
This ought to help the credibility issue; there's more to some tips than the police know, but haven't made public because it would enforce credence in a psychic connection for the tip.
While the entire program was new to him, Dean realized that if he was running for public office, certain obligations were mandatory.
Please respect the private and public ownership of this property and act in a safe and reasonable manner.
Public opinion is a weak tyrant compared with our own private opinion.
The conversations all dealt with public questions.
"No. Too much time elapsed before the killing was known and made public," I answered.
Who are we to make it public now?
By and by we shall take a little walk in the Public Gardens.
Her face wore the proud expression of a surgeon who has just performed a difficult operation and admits the public to appreciate his skill.
And they themselves sit there nearly naked, like the signboards at our Public Baths if I may say so.
But what it was, no one could tell: it might be some caprice of a sick and half-crazy man, or it might relate to public affairs, or possibly to family concerns.
She reached a stairwell and descended to a floor with wider, taller corridors, as if she'd gone from the wing with private chambers to a more public area.
I assumed we'd discuss our latest findings but Howie, ever hyper in the secrecy department, disallowed any mention our activities in public.
Someone claiming to be 'the illusive psychic' has gone public.
Why else would he go public?
There's no question he'll walk away from what he's doing if it becomes public.
How do we get protection without going public?
I knew one way or another the bones would be made public.
She squeezed her eyes closed, not caring what he said and suspecting he was lecturing her on how not to behave in public.
She'd never thought to open the supply points for the general public.
The Ice Lady, Linda Segal, was going full bore at the Sentinel, trying to convince her reading public that the poor lad might have been saved had the local police properly conducted the search for the missing boy in a timely fashion.
Winston would have my job if I blew his mob case on unfounded speculation and if I went public in any way, the news is sure to get out.
Just telephone stuff— nothing public unless there's proof.
A few minutes later in Uncle Sally's Galley on Butler Street, Fred was hiding behind his menu, embarrassed to be out in public before shaving.
Better to be sure before going public.
He located a public telephone and, with a pocketful of coins, he commenced dialing.
I ought to get a public service medal.
Some things, like not eating too fast or taking large bites, not talking with the mouth full, might be assumed, but it was surprising how many people did them – in public, even.
I did tell her to go someplace public if he did it again.
The orchards stretched from the palace to the city and had been open to the public for immortals all over to visit and enjoy.
She had it coming, but did he have to make it so public?
She was almost tense enough to attack him, public mall or not.
The two books mentioned remained unnoticed by the reading public, and Lotze first became known to a larger circle through a series of works which aimed at establishing in the study of the physical and mental phenomena of the human organism in its normal and diseased states the same general principles which had been adopted in the investigation of inorganic phenomena.
Warham, who was chancellor of Oxford University from 1506 until his death, was munificent in his public, and moderate in his private life.
His chief benefaction, however, was a bequest of $400,000 for the foundation and endowment of a public library in New York City, since known as the Astor library, and since 1895 part of the New York public library.
A bronze statue, erected by public subscription, in the Kerepes cemetery,.
The impossibility of reconciling the financial requirements of the national party with the demands of the British and French controllers of the public debt, compelled him to resign in the following February.
He was himself fined for possessing a larger share of the public land than his own law allowed.
He became a notary and a person of some importance in the city, and was sent in 1343 on a public errand to Pope Clement VI.
In July 1865, when politics had shifted from the basis of the 1861 Constitution, he laid down office, and retired from public affairs.
On the 30th of November 1411 Chicheley, with two other bishops and three earls and the -4 prince of Wales, knelt to the king to receive public thanks for their administration.
He died at Harpurhey on the 13th of April 1872, and was accorded a public funeral, attended by thousands.
Its houses are usually one-storeyed, built of adobe and roofed with red tiles; its public buildings are among the finest in Central America.
In 1907 he retired from public life.
He permitted laymen to hold certain public offices, under surveillance of the prelates, organized a guard from among the Roman nobility, decreed a plan for redeeming the base coinage, permitted the communes a certain degree of municipal liberty, and promised the liquidation of the public debt.
The Vallee Noire, so it seemed to me, was part and parcel of myself, the framework in which my life was set, the native costume that I had always worn - what worlds away from the silks and satins that are suited for the public stage.
In the Goblet ministry of1886-1887he was minister of public instruction, and in the Bourgeois cabinet of1895-1896he held the portfolio for foreign affairs.
Paeans were sung at the festivals of Apollo (especially the Hyacinthia), at banquets, and later even at public funerals.
He remained, however, loyal in sentiment to the house of Savoy, and, after the restoration of the king of Sardinia in 1814, he continued in the public service.
Among the public buildings are the town hall, classic in style; the market house, and literary and scientific institution, with a museum containing a fossil collection from the limestone of the locality.
He appears to have retired from public life shortly after the death of Richelieu in 1643.
Its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a council of tradearbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
A large public park, opened in 1866, was laid out as a relief work for unemployed operatives during the cotton famine of the earlier part of the decade.
On the moors to the north-west, and including Rivington Pike (1192 ft.), is another public park, and there are various smaller pleasure grounds.
After the disaster at Flodden he was completely absorbed in public business.
He no longer pressed him to attend public functions.
To the west of the town is the grammar school of Giggleswick, one of the principal public schools in the north of England, founded in 15.12.
The principal structures include the municipal buildings, corn exchange, library, public hall, and the market cross.
arranged in columns according to party is provided at public expense.
The Senate elects a president, confirms or rejects the nominations of the governor, and acts as a court of impeachment for the trial of public officers, besides sharing in legislative functions.
A law enacted in 1908 requires that children between eight and fifteen years of age shall attend school twenty-four weeks each year, provided the public school in their district is in session that length of time.
The county supervision of public schools is vested in a county superintendent, who is elected for a term of four years.
Positive law, at least in progressive societies, is constantly tending to fall behind public opinion, and the expedients adopted for bringing it into harmony therewith are three, viz, legal fictions, equity and statutory legislation.
In June 1781 Tarleton raided Charlottesville and the vicinity, nearly captured Thomas Jefferson, and destroyed the public records and some arms and ammunition.
The hills give the town a beautiful appearance, as the forest was allowed to remain closely embracing it, being preserved in the public ground named the Town Belt.
There are several fine public buildings, as the governor's palace, the new opera-house, the public library and museum of Maltese antiquities, and the auberges or lodges of the Knights of Malta (especially the Auberge de Castile) which are now used for military offices, club-rooms, and other purposes.
Hastings recorded in an official minute that he had found Francis's private and public conduct to be "void of truth and honour."
By the public he was always regarded as reserved, but within his own inner circle he gave and received perfect confidence.
Hastings's public career will probably never cease to be a subject of controversy.
It is more pleasing to point out certain of his public measures upon which no difference of opinion can arise.
These are subdivided into twenty provinces, each administered by an administrator of native affairs by whose side is the provincial council consisting of natives and occupied with the discussion of ways and means and questions of public works.
Norfolk is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishopric. The city has a public park of 110 acres and various smaller ones, and in the vicinity are several summer resorts, notably Virginia Beach, Ocean View, Old Point Comfort, Pine Beach and Willoughby Beach.
In 1832 he was knighted, and after serving as one of the municipal corporations commissioners, became deputykeeper of the public records in 1838, holding this office until his death at Hampstead on the 6th of July 1861.
on foot and 20,000 in other ways, visited nineteen states of the Union, and held more than 200 public meetings."
Public attention, however, was chiefly concentrated on foreign policy.
He had no artistic appreciation of the subject he discussed, and he mistook cause for effect in asserting that the decline in public morality was due to the flagrant indecency of the stage.
Among the public buildings are the Federal building, the city hall and the public library.
Public security is considerably improved, and regular brigandage (as distinct from casual robbery) hardly exists.
Institutions possessing a special character are the monti frumentarii, public grain deposits, founded for the purpose of supplying peasant proprietors with seed corn, debts being paid in kind with interest after harvest.
The population was at that time a little over 300,000; public security and education were alike lacking, and there were considerable animosities between different parts of the island.
He retired from public life in 1848, and died at Hornau on the 22nd of October 1852.
Sometimes the Catholic religion is declared to be the state religion, and at least the free and public exercise of its worship is guaranteed.
It contains some fine carvings, many interesting old tombs, and a monument of Jan Nieuwenhuizen, the founder of the Society for Public Welfare (Tot Nut van het Algemeen) in 1785.
Geneva has a public library, a city hospital and hygienic institute.
This treaty, however, was kept from public knowledge, and Ashley helped Charles to hoodwink parliament by signing a similar treaty on the 2nd of February 1672, which was laid before them as the only one in existence.
Restored to Prussia in 1816 it was again fortified, but in 1862 the fortifications were converted into a public park.
Among the public buildings are the city hall, the court house, the Federal building, the public library and an auditorium.
Court formed the design of writing a history of Protestantism, and made large collections for the purpose, which have been preserved in the Public Library of Geneva; but this he did not live to carry out.
The other public buildings include two churches, a town hall and a hospital.
This treachery and the harsh treatment by Patterson created a strong public opinion in favour of the Yankees, and the government was compelled to adopt a milder policy.
In 1 457 King Ladislas died suddenly, and public opinion from an early period accused Podébrad of having poisoned him.
The story became public property, and protest was aroused in nearly every European country.
The large and beautiful gardens at the back form the public park of the town.
Some reforms were adopted, the public peace was proclaimed without any limitation of time and a general tax was levied.
But he was known as a humorist, and the public, which had learned to expect jokes from him, rejected this little book almost entirely.
Nine years after a monument, raised by public subscription, in the cemetery of Kensal Green, was inaugurated by Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton) with a concourse of spectators that showed how well the memory of the poet stood the test of time.
He acted with good sense and moderation, and, although by no means a believer in democratic ideas, he saw the necessity of satisfying public opinion and frankly gave his support to larger measures of reform.
The first public teacher of Cartesian views was Henri Renery, a Belgian, who at Deventer and afterwards at Utrecht had introduced the new philosophy which he had learned Spread of from personal intercourse with Descartes.
And before 1725, readings, both public and private, were given from Cartesian texts in some of the Parisian colleges.
This year may be taken as the beginning of his literary activity and public life.
In 1268 he was lecturing now in Rome and now in Bologna, all the while engaged in the public business of the church.
There are a few handsome public buildings, such as the hospital, town-hall and theatre.
His chief innovation was the introduction of payment from the public treasury for state service.
The church of St James dates from 1763, and the other numerous places of worship and public buildings are all modern.
In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns, the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
In Scotland the public greens are selfsupporting, from a charge, which includes the use of bowls, of one penny an hour for each player; in London the upkeep of the greens falls on the rates, but players must provide their own bowls.
Foreigners were frequently granted the right of public hospitality by the senate down to the end of the republic. The public hospes had a right to entertainment at the public expense, admission to sacrifices and games, the right of buying and selling on his own account, and of bringing an action at law without the intervention of a Roman patron.
Among public buildings, the Stephenson memorial hall (1879), containing a free library, art and science class-rooms, a theatre and the rooms of the Chesterfield Institute, commemorates George Stephenson, the engineer, who resided at Tapton House, close to Chesterfield, in his later life; he died here in 1848, and was buried in Trinity church.
2) with descending smoke flue suitable for hospitals and public rooms, where it might be fixed in the middle of the apartment.
The method in Great Britain is almost entirely confined to places of public assembly, but in Warm air FIG.
For large public buildings, factories, &c., heating by steam is generally adopted on account of the rapidity with which heat is available, and the great distance from the boiler at which warming is effected.
These officials, at the command of the senate, consulted the Sibylline books in order to discover, not exact predictions of definite future events, but the religious observances necessary to avert extraordinary calamities (pestilence, earthquake) and to expiate prodigies in cases where the national deities were unable, or unwilling, to help. Only the interpretation of the oracle which was considered suitable to the emergency was made known to the public, not the oracle itself.
As curule aedile in 58, Scaurus celebrated the public games on a scale of magnificence never seen before.
The second edition in English appeared at Edinburgh in 1611, and in the preface to it Napier states he intended to have published an edition in Latin soon after the original publication in 1593, but that, as the work had now been made public by the French and Dutch translations, besides the English editions, and as he was "advertised that our papistical adversaries wer to write larglie against the said editions that are alreadie set out," he defers the Latin edition "till having first seene the adversaries objections, I may insert in the Latin edition an apologie of that which is rightly done, and an amends of whatsoever is amisse."
Macdonald at Edinburgh in 1889, and that there is appended to this edition a complete catalogue of all Napier's writings, and their various editions and translations, English and foreign, all the works being carefully collated, and references being added to the various public libraries in which they are to be found.
The parks are a fine feature of the city; by its charter a fixed percentage of all expenditures for public improvements must be used to purchase park land.
The kirk-session has oversight of the congregation in regard to such matters as the hours of public worship, the arrangements for administration of the sacraments, the admission of new Members and the exercise of church discipline.
On the whole, the preponderating preference has always been in favour of so-called extemporaneous, or free prayer; and the Westminster Directory of Public Worship has to a large extent stereotyped the form and order of the service in most Presbyterian churches.
It used to be customary among Presbyterians to stand during public prayer, and to remain seated during the acts of praise, but this peculiarity is no longer maintained.
The psalms rendered into metre were formerly the only vehicle of the Church's public praise, but hymns are now also used in most Presbyterian churches.'
The public praise used to be led by an individual called the "precentor," who occupied a box in front of, and a little lower than, the pulpit.
Deacons, in addition to having charge of the poor and sick, might catechize, and occasionally offer public prayer or read a written sermon.
And the Directory of Public Worship has shaped and coloured, perhaps too thoroughly, the ritual and atmosphere of every group of Protestant Anglo-Saxon worshippers throughout the world, except Episcopalians.
It was not, however, till 1682 that they again lost the privilege of public ministry, and suffered severe oppression.
The public school system is excellent, and the city has a Carnegie library (1903), with more than 22,000 volumes in 1907.
He died on the 4th of November 1771, and was accorded a public funeral.
He contested the constitutionality of the Civil Rights Bill, opposed the resumption of specie payments, advocated the payment of the public debt in silver and supported the Bland-Allison Act.
Mendelssohn owed his first introduction to the public to Lessing's admiration.
In the public gardens there is a statue of General Jean Marie Valhubert, killed at Austerlitz.
Those of Buenos Aires, Rosario and La Plata are owned by public companies.
In 1881 President Roca offered for public purchase by auction the lands in the southwest of the province of Buenos Aires, the Pampa Central, and the Neuquen district, these lands having been rendered habitable after the campaign of 1878 against the Indians.
The cabinet is composed of eight ministers - the heads of the government departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war, marine, justice, agriculture, and public works.
All the public acts and judicial decisions of one province have full legal effect and authority in all the others.
The revenue of the republic is derived mainly from customs and excise, and the largest item of expenditure is the service of the public debt.
In 1889 the public debt of the republic amounted to about £24,000,000, but the financial difficulties which immediately followed that year, and the continuance of excessive expenditures, forced the debt up to approximately £128,000,000 during the next ten years.
In 1835, with the title of governor and captain general, he acquired dictatorial powers, and all public authority passed into his hands.
No sooner had President Juarez Celman come into power towards the close of 1886, than the respectable portion of the community began to feel alarmed at the methods practised by the new president in his conduct of public affairs.
Celman, acting upon the advice of General Roca, who recognized the strength of public opinion in the outbreak, placed his resignation in the hands of congress on the 31st of.
Much satisfaction was shown in Europe at the fall of President Celman, for investors had suffered heavily by the way in which the resources of Argentina had been dissipated by that the uprising of public opinion against his financial methods signified a more honest conduct of the national affairs in the future.
Obstruction met his well-meant efforts to promote the general good, and before twelve months of the presidential term had run public affairs were at a deadlock.
His knowledge of foreign affairs was, however, peculiarly useful at a juncture when boundary ques tions were the subjects that chiefly attracted public attention.
Public opinion, excited by the prospect of a war with Chile, naturally supported the candidature of General Roca, and he elected without opposition (12th October 1898).
By the law of 1905 all the churches ceased to be recognized or supported by the state and became entirely separated therefrom, while the adherents of all creeds were permitted to form associations for public worship (associations cultuelles), upon which the expenses of maintenance were from that time to devolve.
Of the forests of the country approximately one-third belongs to the state, communes and public institutions.
The routes nationales and the routes dpartementales come under the category of la grande voirie and are under the supervision of the Ministry of Public Works.
Led to the ministry of commerce and industry or to that of public artment was chiefly formed.
The prefect supervises the execution of the laws; has wide authority in regard to policing, public hygiene and relief of pauper children; has the nomination of various subordinate officials; and is in correspondence with the subordinate functionaries in his department, to whom he transmits the orders and instructions of the government.
The meetings of the council are open to the public.
A procureur, or public prosecutor, is also attached to each court.
First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.
In each department an official collector (Trsorier payeur genral) receives the taxes and public revenue collected therein and accounts for them to the central authority in Paris.
All these are nominated for life by the president of the republic. Besides the accounts of the state and of the communes, those of charitable institutionsi and training collegesi and a great variety of other public establishments are scrutinized by the Cour des Comptes.
The chief item of expenditure (which totalled 148 million pounds in 1905) is the service of the public debt, which in 1905 cost 483/4 million pounds sterling.
The other ministries with the largest outgoings were the ministry of war (the expenditure of which rose from 254 millions in 1895 to over 30 millions in 1995), the ministry of marine (103/4 millions in 1895, over 123/4 millionsin 1905), the ministry of public works (with an expenditure in 1905 of over 20 millions, 10 millions of which was assigned to posts, telegraphs and telephones) and the ministry of public instruction, fine arts and public worship, the expenditure on education having risen from 73/4 millions in 1895 to 93/4 millions in 1905.
Public Debt.The national debt of France is the heaviest of any country in the world., Its foundation was laid early in the 15th century, and the continuous wars of succeeding centuries, combined with the extravagance of the monarchs, as well as deliberate disregard of financial and economic conditions, increased it at an alarming rate.
Bastable, Public Finance (1903).
Liabilities on behalf of communes and public establishments, including departmental services 17,366,520
The repairing of highways, the upkeep of public buildings,the support of public education, the remuneration of numerous officials connected with the collection of state taxes, the keeping of the cadastre, &c., constitute the principal objects of communal expenditure.
Both the departments and the communes have considerable public debts.
The burden of public instructIon in France is shared by the communes, departments and state, while side by side with the public schools of all grades ~re private schools subjected to a state supervision and certain restrictions.
At the head of the whole organization is the minister of public instruction.
He is assisted and advised by the superior council of public instruction, over which he presides.
Primary Inslruction.All primary public instruction is free and compulsory for children of both sexes between the ages of six and thirteen, but if a child can gain a certificate of primary studies at the age of eleven or after, he may be excused the rest of the period demanded by law.
A child may receive instruction in a public or private school or at home.
If educated at home, the child (after two years of the compulsory period has expired) must undergo a yearly examination, and if it is unsatisfactory the parents will be compelled to send him to a public or private school.
Each commune is in theory obliged to maintain at least one public primary school, but with the approval of the niinister, the departmental council may authorize a commune to combine with other communes in the upkeep of a school.
Public primary schools include (1) icoles maternellesinfant schools for children from two to six years old; (2) elementary primary schoolsthese are the ordinary schools for children from six to thirteen; (3) higher primary schools (coles primaires suprieures) and supplementary courses; these admit pupils who have gained the certificate of primary elementary studies (cerlificat diludes primaires), offer a more advanced course and prepare for technical instruction; (4) primary technical schools (coles manuelles dapprenlissage, coles primaires suprleures professionnelles) kept by the communes or departments.
Persons keeping private primary schools are free with regard to their methods, programmes and books employed, except that they may not use books expressly prohibited by the superior council of public instruction.
A lyce is founded in a town by decree of the president of the republic, with the advice of the superior council of public instruction.
At Paris the cole Suprieure des Mines and the cole des Fonts et Chausses are controlled by the minister of public, works, the cole des Beaux-Arts, the cole des Arts Dcoratifs and the Conservatoire National de Musique et de Dclamation by the unr,ler-secretary for fine arts.
A 10% surtax on the fees of admission to places of public amusement.
Ten public prosecutors were appointed.
According to Suidas, Dinarchus wrote 160 speeches; and Dionysius held that, out of 85 extant speeches bearing his name, 58 were genuine,-28 relating to public, 30 to private causes.
His remains were brought to Sofia, where they received a public funeral, and were eventually deposited in a mausoleum erected in his memory.
In 1792 he entered the public service during the administration of General Dumouriez.
He then definitely resigned public employment and devoted himself to the study of Greek.
He became a fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge, in 1530, and in 1533 was appointed a public reader or professor.
During Somerset's protectorate he entered public life and was made a secretary of state, being sent on an important diplomatic mission to Brussels.
On the accession of Mary he was deprived of all his offices, but in the succeeding reign was prominently employed in public affairs.
Opposite the cathedral is the government palace, which also contains the public library.
The municipal government is housed in an ancient tobacco factory converted to public uses, and a fine old Capuchin convent now serves as a public hospital.
The Paseo, or public park, is distinguished for its fine trees and flowers.
A large number of private schools are maintained through Church influence in opposition to the public schools.
Since that year the ramparts have been levelled and their site occupied by public promenades and gardens.
Walmer Castle was for long the official residence of the lord warden, but has, since the resignation of Lord Curzon in 1903, ceased to be so used, and those portions of it which are of historic interest are now open to the public. George, prince of Wales (lord warden, 1903-1907), was the first lord warden of royal blood since the office was held by George, prince of Denmark, consort of Queen Anne.
Since its reorganization as a joint-stock company in 1890 many of the shares have been held by the crown, philanthropic institutions and other public bodies.
important reign is a very mportant period in the early history of Scotland, and may almost be said to mark an epoch in every department of public life.
In 1849 it was purchased by the town for £53,000, and is devoted to various public uses, containing a museum, assembly-rooms and picture-galleries.
Preston and Queen's parks are the principal of several public recreation grounds; and the racecourse at Kemp Town is also the property of the town.
Educational establishments are numerous, and include Brighton College, which ranks high among English public schools.
There are several handsome squares and public gardens, adorned with statues, trees and shrubbery.
The principal square is the Plaza de Bolivar, the conventional centre of the city, in which stands a bronze equestrian statue of Bolivar, and on which face the cathedral, archbishop's residence, Casa Amarilla, national library, general post office and other public offices.
The Independencia Park, formerly called Calvario Park, which occupies a hill on the west side of the city, is the largest and most attractive of the public gardens.
Among the public edifices are the capitol, which occupies a whole square, the university, of nearly equal size, the cathedral, pantheon, masonic temple (built by the state in the spendthrift days of Guzman Blanco), national library, opera-house, and a number of large churches.
The city is generously provided with all the modern public services, including two street car lines, local and long distance telephone lines, electric power and light, and waterworks.
The Public Record of Horatio Seymour (New York, 1868) includes his speeches and official papers between 1856 and 1868.
On the arrival of Amadeus in Spain, Ruiz Zorilla became minister of public works for a short time, and resigned by way of protesting against Serrano and Topete entering the councils of the new king.
Strictly speaking, therefore, the Sabbath was neither a day of relief to toiling humanity nor a day appointed for public worship; the positive duties of its observance were to wear one's best clothes, eat, drink and be glad (justified from Isa.'viii.
He was created a peer of France in 1458, and made governor of Paris during the war of the League of the Public Weal (1465).
No trace exists of the splendour of the ancient city, with its regular streets, well-ordered plan and numerous public buildings.
The principal buildings which remain are the church of St John, which is become the principal mosque; the hospital, which has been transformed into public granaries; the palace of the grand master, now the residence of the pasha; and the senate-house, which still contains some marbles and ancient columns.
Universities have been established at Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart, and are well equipped and numerously attended; they are in part supported by grants from the public funds and in part by private endowments and the fees paid by students.
The cost of public instruction ih Australia averages about I Is.
- Australian public finance requires to be treated under the separate headings of Commonwealth and states finance.
Under the Constitution Act the Commonwealth is given the control of the postal and telegraph departments, public defence and several other services, as well as the power of levying customs and excise duties; its powers of taxation are unrestricted, but so far no taxes Dave been imposed other than those just mentioned.
The federal government has no public debt, but each of the six states has contracted debts which aggregate £237,000,000, equal to about £58, 8s.
At the funeral of men there is much mourning, the female relatives cutting or tearing their hair off and plastering their faces with clay, but for women no public ceremonies took place.
During the next two or three years public attention was occupied with Captain King's maritime explorations of the north-west coast in three successive voyages, and by explorations of Western Australia in 1821.
The bodies of Burke and Wills were recovered and brought to Melbourne for a solemn public funeral, and a noble monument has been erected to their honour.
As far as the other colonies were concerned, it was evident that the bill was safe, and public attention throughout Australia was fixed on New South Wales, where a fierce political contest was raging, which it was recognized would decide the fate of the measure for the time being.
About 42% of the forests belong to the state and about 33% to public bodies and institutions, leaving only 25% for private owners.
The government is carried on by a ministry of five, with departments for the ducal house and foreign affairs, home affairs, justice, education and public worship and finance.
The Lithgow library is a city public library.
When the Liberals returned to power in 1880 he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Sherbrooke, but from 1875 till his death at Warlingham, Surrey, on the 27th of July 1892, his health was constantly failing, and by degrees he figured less and less in public life.
de Lesseps then retired from the diplomatic service, and never afterwards occupied any public office.
Public opinion, it may be declared, designated Ferdinand de Lesseps as the head of the enterprise.
In the first Gladstone administration he held a variety of public offices, finally becoming, in 1871, the first president of the local government board.
To the public Boole was known only as the author of numerous abstruse papers on mathematical topics, and of three or four distinct publications which have become standard works.
This charter provided that no war could be declared nor marriage concluded by the sovereign, nor taxes raised without the assent of the states, that natives were alone eligible for high office, and that the national language should be used in public documents.
In 61 Gabinius, then praetor, endeavoured to win the public favour by providing games on a scale of unusual splendour, and in 58 managed to secure the consulship, not without suspicion of bribery.
He proclaimed a crusade against Louis and the French, and, after the peace of Lambeth, he forced Louis to make a public and humiliating profession of penitence (1217).
But his courage did not fail him, and in his last year, in a public Latin letter, he exhorted his friend John Campanus to maintain freedom of thought in face of the charge of heresy., See Hegler, in Hauck's Realencyklopildie (1899); C. A.
The family of Thun-Hohenstein, one of the wealthiest of the Austrian nobility, which has for more than 200 years settled at Tetschen, in Bohemia, has given several distinguished members to the Austrian public service.
After his retirement from the public service in 1863 he supported in the Bohemian Landtag and the Austrian Reichsrat the federal policy of his brother Leo.
The average number of weeks in the "legal schools" (about 95% of the public schools) was 32 weeks in 1907-1908.
A large part of the modern town lies south of the square de la Republique; in this quarter are the law courts, hotel de ville, post office and other public buildings.
The public buildings of chief interest are the kasbah, the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the palaces of the governor-general and the archbishop - all these are fine Moorish houses; the "Grand" and the "New" Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Philippe, the church of the Holy Trinity (Church of England), and the Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger - a Turkish palace built in 1799-1800.
Benedetto, of a building in opus quadratum, supposed to have been a public portico, under the monastery of S.
As governor, Seward favoured a continuance of works of internal improvement at public expense, although this policy had already plunged the state into financial embarrassment.
There is a public library, which was opened in 1871, and in 1909 had more than 20,000 volumes.
Hutchinson Field, another public park, is a part of the estate of the last royal governor, Thomas Hutchinson; Governor Jonathan Belcher also lived in Milton for a time.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
The Long Parliament had ordered a strict observance of Sunday, punished swearing severely, and made adultery a capital crime; Cromwell issued further ordinances against duelling, swearing, racemeetings and cock-fights - the last as tending to the disturbance of the public peace and the encouragement of "dissolute practices to the dishonour of God."
He appointed visitors for the universities and great public schools, and defended the universities from the attacks of the extreme sectaries who clamoured for their abolition, even Clarendon allowing that Oxford "yielded a harvest of extraordinary good and sound knowledge in all parts of learning."
in his last extant public letter before his death.
On the 31st of August he seemed to rally, and one who slept in his bedchamber and who heard him praying, declared, "a public spirit to God's cause did breathe in him to the very last."
in Westminster Abbey, the public funeral taking place on the 23rd of November, with great ceremony and on the same scale as that of Philip II.
The public buildings are mostly constructed of broken stone and mortar, plastered outside and covered with red tiles, but the common dwellings are generally constructed of tapiarough trellis-work walls filled in with mud.
public hall and a lecture hall.
A public park was opened in 1889.
An English clergyman named William Jackson, a man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to nogotiate between the French committee of public safety and the United Irishmen.
The city has a public library (1905), and is the seat of an Institute of Telegraphy (founded in 1874; chartered in 1900) and of Valparaiso University (1873; formerly known as the Valparaiso Normal Training School).
He served as chairman of many commissions dealing with public health, prohibition, and labour.
The cicisbeo was the professed gallant of a married woman, who attended her at all public entertainments, it being considered unfashionable for the husband to be escort.
The public buildings include the town hall, court house and orphan hospital; and the industries are mainly connected with the cattle trade and the distilling of whisky.
There seems no good reason why in modern performances the pianoforte should not be used for the purpose; if only accompanists can be trained to acquire the necessary delicacy of touch, and can be made to understand that, if they cannot extemporize the necessary polyphony, and so have to play something definitely written for them, it is not a mass of interesting detail which they are to bring to the public ear.
The procession of the Host on Corpus Christi day became, as it were, a public demonstration of Catholic orthodoxy against Protestantism and later against religious Liberalism.
An attempt to hold a public procession of the Host in connexion with the Eucharistic Congress at Westminster in 1908, however, was the signal for the outburst of a considerable amount of opposition, and was eventually abandoned owing to the personal intervention of the prime minister.
Their deed of agreement was drawn up in the temple by a notary public, and confirmed by an oath " by god and the king."
Custom or public opinion doubtless secured that the parties would not agree to wrong.
public convenience, with the loss of revenue and cost of repairs, must together decide the question of either making very extensive renewals or even abandoning the whole cable.
The earliest practical trial of electrical telegraphy was made in 1837 on the London and North Western Railway, and the first public line under the patent of Wheatstone and Cooke was laid from Paddington to Slough on the Great Western Railway in 1843.
It cannot justly be said that the companies made large profits while neglecting to develop the services adequately, but it is true that they were not able commercially to comply with many of the demands made upon them by the public. Until speculation took place in anticipation of government purchase, the market prices of the telegraph securities were mostly below par.
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
Probably no more arduous task was ever thrown upon a public department than that imposed on the Post Office by the transfer.
The reforms which it was to bring about were eagerly and impatiently demanded by the public. This great operation had to be effected without interrupting the public service, and the department had immediately to reduce and to simplify the charges for transmission throughout the kingdom.
Closely analogous to the action of the state in the cases referred to is the action taken by municipal authorities with the authority of the legislature in competing with or superseding private companies for the supply of electric light, gas, water, tramways and other public services..
The system was put into practical operation in 1887 on the Lehigh Valley railroad in the United States, and worked well, but was abandoned because it apparently fulfilled no real public want.
Marconi's success in bridging the English Channel at Easter in 1899 with electric waves and establishing practical wireless telegraphy between ships and the shore by this means drew public attention to the value of the new means of communication.
The station was opened shortly afterwards for public service, the rates being greatly below that then current for the cable service.
(ii.) For an upper limit of date, in default of definite evidence, it seems imprudent to go back beyond the 5th]century B.C., since neither in Rome nor Campania have we any evidence of public written documents of any earlier century.
The aspects which stand out most prominently in this history are: (a) The vacillation of successive governments due to the conflicting policies adopted from time to time to protect the telegraph revenues of the Post Office and to avoid the suppression of an enterprise which was becoming a public necessity and yielding substantial royalties to the PostmasterGeneral.
The licensee was precluded from opening public call offices and from laying trunk lines from one town to another.
The licences within restricted areas having proved unsuitable for the growing business, public opinion appealed to the Post Office to issue new licences applicable to the whole country.
All limitations of areas were removed and licensees were allowed to open public call offices but not to receive or deliver written messages, and they were allowed to erect trunk wires.
The National Telephone Company again applied to parliament for powers to lay wires underground; public discontent with inadequate telephone services was expressed, and at the same time the competition of the telephone with the Post Office telegraph became more manifest.
In February the Postmaster-General applied for an injunction to restrain the company from opening any street or public road within the county of London without the consent of the Postmaster - General and the London County Council, which injunction was granted in July.
The fee charged for the use of public telephone call offices is 2d.
It was found possible to exchange speech when the conditions were exceptionally favourable; but in spite of the partial success of the experiment, a public service between the two capitals is not at present practicable.
Meyer, Public Ownership and the Telephone in Great Britain (London, 1907); E.
He was a leader of those who contended for reform in municipal government, was conspicuous for his public spirit, and exerted a great influence for good not only in New York City but in the state and nation.
From the spoils of the war he constructed the first public library at Rome, in the Atrium Libertatis, also erected by him (Pliny, Nat.
The serious poems in which he celebrated the public events of his later years are dull and lifeless.
1626), who depicts Paul as a paragon of all public and private virtues; Vitorelli, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.
There are several public assay offices in Italy for silk; the first in the world was established in Turin in 1750.
Thus: Infant Asylums Daily Elementary Schools (Public and Private).
(Public and Private).
The rate of increase in the public state-supported schools has been much greater than in the private schools.
For the boarding schools, or convilli, there are only incomplete reports except f or the institutions directly dependent on the ministry of public instruction, which are comparatively few.
Statistics collected in 1893-1894 and 1896 revealed the existence of 1831 libraries, either private (but open to the public) or completely public. The public libraries have been enormously increased since 1870 by the incorporation of the treasures of suppressed monastic institutions.
Libraries and archives are under the superintendence of the Ministry of Public Instruction.
Public charity is exercised through the permanent charitable foundations (opere pie), which are, however, very unequally distributed in the different provinces.
Public pawnshops or Monti di piet numbered 555 in 1896, with a net patrimony of 2,879,625.
The Albanians of the southern provinces still employ the Greek rite and the Greek language in their public worship, and their priests, like those of the Greek Church, are allowed to marry.
The Italian parishes had in 1901 a total gross revenue, including assignments from the public worship endowment fund, of 1,280,000 or an average of 63 per parish; 51% of this gross sum consists of revenue from glebe lands.
The Cassa Ecclesiastica was abolished, and in its stead was instituted a Fondo pet Culto, or public worship fund.
The public worship endowment fund has relieved the state exchequer of the cost of public worship; has gradually furnished to the poorer parish priests an addition to their stipends, raising them to 32 per annum, with the prospect of further raising them to 40; and has contributed to the outlay incurred by the communes for religious purposes.
The monastic buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the communal and provincial authorities, while the same authorities have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects of art and historical interest have been consigned to public libraries and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was forbidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick.
The sittings of both houses are public, and an absolute majority of the members must be present to make a sitting valid.
Libels, insults, &c., resistance to public authority, offences against good customs, thefts and frauds, have increased; assaults are nearly stationary.
From 1885-1886 onwards, outlay on public works, military and colonial expenditure, and especially the commercial and financial crises, contributed to produce annual deficits; but owing to drastic reforms introduced in 1894-1895 and to careful management the year 1898-1899 marked a return of surpluses (nearly 1,306,400).
Of the surplus 1,000,000 was allocated to the improvement of posts, telegraphs and telephones; 1,000,000 to public works (~72o,ooo for harbour improvement and 280,000 for internal navigation); 200,000 to the navy (~I32,ooo for a second dry dock at Taranto and 68,000 for coal purchase); and 200,000 as a nucleus of a fund for the purchase of valuable works of art which are in danger of exportation.
The public debt at that date was composed as follows: Part 1.Funded Debt.
services of general public interest, though not strictly indispensable.
In addition to this privy council, we find a gran consiglio, consisting of the burghers who had established the right to interfere immediately in public affairs, and a still larger assembly called parlamenlo, which included the whole adult population.
The lesser people tolerated him because he extended the power of their city and made it beautiful with public buildings., The bourgeoisie, protected in their trade, found it convenient to support him.
Many of them fell into the slough of pauperism, and were saved from starvation by public doles.
He took public education out of the hands of the Jesuits, which, for the future development of manliness in his dominions, was a measure of incalculable value.
The reign of this duke was long remembered as a period of internal prosperity, wise legislation and important public enterprise.
The Corniche road was improved; and public works in various parts of Piedmont, and the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics attested the foresight and wisdom of the great organizer of industry and quickener of human energies.
The Roman territory was divided into two departmentsthe Tiber and Trasimenus; the Code Napoleon was introduced, public works were set on foot and great advance was made in the material sphere.
One and all they underwent the influences emanating Character from Paris; and in respe& to civil administration, of Napo- law, judicial procedure, education and public works, Ieon~s they all experienced great benefits, the results of which rule, never wholly disappeared.
The Piedmontese government rightly regarded this measure as a violation of the peace treaty of 1850, and Cavour recalled the Piedmontese minister from Vienna, an action which was endorsed by Italian public opinion generally, and won the approval of France and England.
One section of public opinion desired to make Piedmonts co-operation subject to definite promises by the Powers; but the latter refused to bind, themselves, and both Victor Emmanuel and Cavour realized that, even without such promises, participation would give Piedmont a claim.
With its object he sympathized; yet he could not give official sanction to an armed attack on a friendly power, nor on the other hand could he forbid an action enthusiastically approved by public opinion.
Napoleon, .JJL.OIJLLa US 5 usa .L4)~., VYSIS..JA iIU~4QLILiCU 5Sf) ~4IC *UJLC O55iC~~4VC nents among the French clergy against his government, had ught him once more into harmony with the views of Victor manuel; but he dared not brave French public opinion by ther war with Austria, nor did Italy desire an alliance Lch would only have been bought at the price of further dons.
For a few months after the occupation of Rome pressing questions incidental to a new change of capital and to the administration of a new domain distracted public attention from the real condition of Italian affairs.
As finance minister in the Rattazzi cabinet of that year he had been confronted with a public debt of nearly 120,000,000, and with an immediate deficit of nearly 18,000,000.
The serious feature of the situation lay less in the income than in the intangible expenditure, namely, the vast sums required for interest on the various forms of public debt and for pensions.
During the same period the assumption of the Venetian and Roman debts, losses on the issue of loans and the accumulation of annual deficits, had caused public indebtedness to rise from 92,000,000 to 328,000,000, no less than f 100,000,000 of the latter sum having been sacrificed in premiums and commissions to bankers and underwriters of loans.
Besides the premiership, Depretis assumed the portfolio of finance; Nicot~a, an ex-Garibaldian of somewhat tarnished reputation, but a man of energetic ~~t~ and conservative temperament, was placed at the ministry of the interior; public works were entrusted to Zanardelli, a Radical doctrinaire of considerable juridical attainments; General Mezzacapo and Signor Brin replaced General Ricotti Magnani and Admiral Saint-B on at the war office and ministry of marine; while to Mancini and Coppino, prominent members of the Left, were allotted the portfolios of justice and public instruction.
Nicotera, minister of the interior, began his administration of home affairs by a sweeping change in the personnel of the prefects, sub-prefects and public prosecutors, but found himself obliged to incur the wrath of his supporters by prohibiting Radical meetings likely to endanger public order, and by enunciating administrative principles which would have befitted an inveterate Conservative.
In spite of the courage and presence of mind of Cairoli, who received the dagger thrust intended for the king, public and parliamentary indignation found expression in a vote which compelled the ministry to resign.
Except in regard to an increase of the army estimates, urgently demanded by public opinion, the new ministry had practically no programme.
Most of the responsibility lay with the Vatican, which had arranged the procession in the way best calculated to irritate Italian feeling, but little excuse can be offered for the failure of the Italian authorities to maintain public order.
He, indeed, was not disposed to concede to public opinion anything beyond an increase of the army, a measure insistently demanded by Garibaldi and the Left.
The principal Italian public men.
In Italy public opinion as a whole was favorable to the visit, especially as it was not considered an obstacle to the projected increase of the army and navy.
These mancnuvres produced their effect upon Italian public opinion.
Depretis and his colleague Genala, minister of public works, experienced great difficulty in securing parliamentary sanction for the conventions, not so much on account of their defective character, as from the opposition of local interests anxious tc extort new lines from the government.
Intimately bound up with the forced currency, the railway conventions and public works was the financial question in general.
In the spring of 1887 Genala, minister of public works, was taken to task for having sanctioned expenditure of 80,000,000 on railway construction while only 40,000,000 had been included in the estimates.
Partly to satisfy public opinion, partly in order to profit by the favorable disposition of the British government, and partly in the hope of remedying the error committed in 1882 by refusal to co-operate with Great Britain in Egypt, the Italian government in January 1885 despatched an expedition under Admiral Caimi and Colonel Saletta to occupy Massawa and Beilul.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
None of Rudinis public utterances justify the supposition that he assumed office with the intention of allowing the alliance to lapse on its expiry in May 1892; indeed, he frankly declared it to form the basis of his foreign policy.
The return of Crispi to powera return imposed by public opinion as that of the only man capable of dealing with the desperate situationmarked the turning-point of the crisis.
But it was not alone in regard to public order that heroic measures were necessary.
On the 16th of June an attempt by an anarchist named Lega was made on Crispis life; on the 24th of June President Carnot was assassinated by the anarchist Caserio; and on the 3oth of June an Italian journalist was murdered at Leghorn for a newspaper attack upon anarchism a series of outrages which led the government to frame and parliament to adopt (11th July) a Public Safety Bill for the prevention of anarchist propaganda and crime.
More than ever at the mercy of the Radicals and of their revolutionary allies, Rudini continued so to administer public affairs that subversive propaganda and associations obtained unprecedented extension.
The Pelloux cabinet possessed no clear programme except in regard to the Public Safety Bill, which it had taken over from its predecessor.
In February 1900 it was, however, quashed by the supreme court on a point of procedure, and the Public Safety Bill as a whole had again to be presented to the Chamber.
The strikes and other economic agitations at this time may be divided roughly into three groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, shorter hours and better labor conditions generally; strikes of agricultural laborers in northern Italy for better contracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in Apulia), and the claims of the laborers to public land occupied illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the struggle for power of the various influential families.
At the same time it mediated between the companies and the employees, and in June a settlement was formally concluded between the ministers of public works and of the treasury and the directors of the companies concerning the grievances of the employees.
Venice was cut off from the mainland for two days and all the public services were suspended.
The agitation ceased in June with the defeat of the strikers, but not until a vast amount of damage had been done to the crops and all had suffered heavy losses, including the government, whose expenses for the maintenance of public order ran into tens of millions of lire.
Public opinion upheld the government in its attitude, for all persons of common sense realized that the suspension of the public services could not be permitted for a moment in a civilized country.
But while the majority of the deputies, were nominally in favor of the bill, the parliamentary committee reported against it, and public opinion was so hostile that an anti-divorce petition received 3,500,000 signatures, including not only those of professing Catholics, but of free-thinkers and Jews, who regarded divorce as unsuitable to Italian conditions.
For this unfortunate combination Signor Sonnino himself was not altogether to blame; having lost many of his most faithful followers, who, weary of waiting for office, had gone over to the enemy, he had been forced to seek support among men who had professed hostility to the existing order of things and thus to secure at least the neutrality of the Extreme Left and make the public realize that the reddest of Socialists, Radicals and Republicans may be tamed and rendered harmless by the offer of cabinet appointments.
Unfortunately in the case of Signor Sonnino public opinion expected too much and did not take to the idea of such a compromise.
In November Signor Gianturco died, and Signor Pietro Bertolini took his place as minister of public works; the latter proved perhaps the ablest member of the cabinet, but the acceptance of office under Giolitti of a man who had been one of the most trusted and valuable lieutenants of Signor Sonnino marked a further step in the dgringolade of that statesmans party, and was attributed to the fact that Signor Bertolini resented not having had a place in the late Sonnino ministry.
A more difficult question was that of religious education in the public elementary schools.
The Triple Alliance was maintained and renewed as far as paper documents were concerned (in June 1902 it was reconfirmed for 12 years), but public opinion was no longer so favorably disposed towards it.
Italian public opinion could not view without serious misgivings the active political propaganda which Austria was conducting in Albania.
The news caused the most widespread sensation, and public opinion in Italy was greatly agitated at what it regarded as an act of brigandage on the part of Austria, when Signor Tittoni in a speech at Carate Brianza (October 6th) declared that Italy might await events with serenity, and that these could find her neither unprepared nor isolated.
The younger generation, in view of the requirements and criticism of a reading public, cultivated the art of composition and rhetorical embellishment.
He was introduced to public life and to court by his neighbour in Yorkshire, George, 2nd duke of Buckingham, was elected M.P. for York in 1665, and gained the "first step in his future rise" by joining Buckingham in his attack on Clarendon in 1667.
He visited the king at court the same day; but took no part in public affairs for the rest of the reign.
If the offer was made, it was declined, and Cranmer continued at Cambridge filling the offices of lecturer in divinity at his own college and of public examiner in divinity to the university.
Among the public buildings are the capitol, the United States government building, a United States mint, and a state orphans' home; in the vicinity are the state prison and a United States government school for Indians.
Of a far more complicated nature than these offerings are the Soma-sacrifices, which, besides the simpler ceremonies of this class, such as the Agnishtoma or "Praise of Agni," also include great state functions, such as the Rajasuya or consecration of a king, and the Asvamedha or horse-sacrifice, which, in addition to the sacrificial rites, have a considerable amount of extraneous, often highly interesting, ceremonial connected with them, which makes them seem to partake largely of the nature of public festivals.
Constantine the Great, who generally resided here from 306 to 331, and his successors also, beautified the city with public works, and villas arose upon the hill-sides.
At the Restoration he reappeared in public, and in 1660 he was consecrated archbishop of York.
He was of good family, and after studying at the university of Naples he entered the public service, and was for many years employed in the office of the administration of finances.
They regulate matters concerning public worship and ordinances, and have appellate jurisdiction from the kirk session.
It provided for the visitation of the clergy by the bishop, and for the power of the clergy to exclude their lay folk from the Holy Communion, subject to appeal to the bishop. Both minor and major excommunication had been in use, and for a long time public penance was required.
The procedure underwent great modification in 1686; but public penance was not taken away till 1855, and then confession to and absolution by the priest in the presence of witnesses was still required.
This was the centre of the life of the medieval city, the scene of all great public functions, such as the homage of the burghers to 1 Bavo, or Allowin (c. 589-c. 653), patron saint of Ghent, was a nobleman converted by St Amandus, the apostle of Flanders.
In addition, a fine of 150,000 golden gulden was levied on the city, and used to build the "Spanish Citadel" on the site of what is now the public park.
The public buildings include the town-hall (dating from 1762 and altered in 1876), the tolbooth (1590), and the grammar school.