How to use Ptolemy in a sentence
Theocritus (Idyll 17) hails Ptolemy Philadelphus as a demigod, and speaks of his father as seated among the gods along with Alexander.
In the time of Ptolemy their territory is limited to the district between the Ciabrus (Tzibritza) and Utus (Vid), in the modern Bulgaria, their chief town being Oescus (OtvKos Tpc aXX6 v).
Ptolemy used the word geography to signify the description of the whole oekumene on mathematical principles, while chorography signified the fuller description of a particular region, and topography the very detailed description of a smaller locality.
The geography of Ptolemy was also known and is constantly referred to by Arab writers.
But his successors did not act with similar leniency; when the city was captured by Ptolemy I., king of Egypt, twelve years later, the fortifications were partially demolished and apparently not again restored until the period of the high priest Simon II., who repaired the defences and also the Temple buildings.Advertisement
The next event we hear of in the history of the city is its conquest by Alexander the Great (331 B.C.), and later by Ptolemy Lagi and Demetrius Poliorcetes.
The work contains nothing that cannot be learned from Ptolemy, whom he follows in calling the promontory of the Novantae (Mull of Galloway) the most northern point of Britain.
In that war the young king perished and a still younger brother, Ptolemy XiII.
The ancient Roman city Naissus was mentioned as an important place by Ptolemy of Alexandria.
In the Tabula Peutingeriana it appears as Prisca, in the Antonine Itinerary as Serantaprista, in the Notitia as Seragintaprista and in Ptolemy as Priste Polis.Advertisement
Lake Chad is supposed to have been known by report to Ptolemy, and is identified by some writers with the Kura lake of the middle ages.
It is uncertain whether any of the names of the islands given by Ptolemy ought to be attached to the Andamans; yet it is probable that his name itself is traceable in the Alexandrian geographer.
The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
Basing his work on the principles of Ptolemy, he brings together illustrations from the most recent travellers, and does not hesitate to take as illustrative examples the familiar city of Oxford and his native county of Devon.Advertisement
Ptolemy Euergetes (247-222 B.C.) rendered the greatest service to geography by the protection and encouragement of Eratosthenes, whose labours gave the first ap proximate knowledge of the true size of the spherical The .
On the Mesopotamian side there would seem, from the accounts of Xenophon and Ptolemy, to have been an affluent which joined the Euphrates between Deir and `Ana, called Araxes by the former, Saocoras by the latter; but no trace of such a stream has been found by modern explorers and the country in general has always been uninhabited.
Improving on Ptolemy, he makes the island of Taprobane (Ceylon) twenty times as large as it is in reality.
It is usually regarded as the Chretes or Chremetes of Hanno, and the Nachyris and Bambotus of the Greeks and Romans, but it is not possible definitely to identify it with any of the rivers on Ptolemy's map. Idrisi and other medieval Arabian geographers undoubtedly refer to it.
Ptolemy's account presents us with the last stage, in which the name Idumaea is entirely restricted to the cis-Jordanic district, and the old trans-Jordanic region is absorbed in Arabia.Advertisement
During his absence in Egypt, whither he had been sent by Pompey, without the consent of the senate, to restore Ptolemy Auletes to his kingdom, Syria had been devastated by robbers, and Alexander, son of Aristobulus, had again taken up arms with the object of depriving Hyrcanus of the high-priesthood.
In this they were much hindered by the lack of correct translations of Ptolemy's works; and in 1462 Regiomontanus accompanied Cardinal Bessarion to Italy in search of authentic manuscripts.
These serve to fix the chronology, which is here as everywhere quite in accordance with the dates of the canon of Ptolemy.
No material advance was made on Ptolemy's instrument until Tycho Brahe, whose elaborate armillary spheres passing into astrolabes are figured in his Astronjmiae Instauratae Mechanica.
At the end of 275 the question of Palestine, which had been open between the houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy since the partition of 301, led to hostilities (the "First Syrian War").Advertisement
About 250 peace was concluded between Antiochus and Ptolemy II., Antiochus repudiating his wife Laodice and marrying Ptolemy's daughter Berenice, but by 246 Antiochus had left Berenice and her infant son in Antioch to live again with Laodice in Asia Minor.
Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III., who had just succeeded to the Egyptian throne, at once invaded the Seleucid realm and marched victoriously to the Tigris or beyond, receiving the submission of the eastern provinces, whilst his fleets swept the coasts of Asia Minor.
In the interior of Asia Minor Seleucus maintained himself, and when Ptolemy returned to Egypt he recovered Northern Syria and the nearer provinces of Iran.
The campaigns of 219 and 218 carried the Seleucid arms almost to the confines of Egypt, but in 217 Ptolemy IV.
It was, however, recovered for Ptolemy by the Aetolian Scopas.Advertisement
In 197 Antiochus moved to Asia Minor to secure the coast towns which had acknowledged Ptolemy and the independent Greek cities.
In 170 Egypt, governed by regents for the boy Ptolemy Philometor, attempted to reconquer Palestine; Antiochus not only defeated this attempt but invaded and occupied Egypt.
He failed to take Alexandria, where the people set up the younger brother of Philometor, Ptolemy Eurgetes, as king, but he left Philometor as his ally installed at Memphis.
An impostor, who claimed to be a son of Antiochus Epiphanes, Alexander Balas (reigned 150-145), was installed as king by Ptolemy Philometor and given Ptolemy's daughter Cleopatra to wife, but Alexander proved to be dissolute and incapable, and when Demetrius, the son of Demetrius I., was brought back to Syria by Cretan condottieri, Ptolemy transferred his support and Cleopatra to the rightful heir.
Alexander was defeated by Ptolemy at the battle of the Oenoparas near Antioch and murdered during his flight.Advertisement
Ptolemy himself died of the wound he had received in the battle.
It is also a constellation, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.e.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.), and catalogued by Ptolemy, 25 stars, Tycho Brahe 25, and Hevelius 38.38.
But Strabo, Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as the y better Moslem geographers, drew the eastern only under the Graeco-Roman administration that we find a definite district known as Syria, and that was at first restricted to the Orontes basin.
Vianen is supposed to be the Fanum Dianae of Ptolemy, and was the seat of an independent lordship which passed to the family of Brederode in 1418, and later to the princes of Lippe-Detmold, from whom it was bought by the states in 1725.
Among the first of these benefactions was the great gymnasium of Ptolemy, built in the neighbourhood of the Agora about 250 B.C. Successive princes of the dynasty of Pergamum interested themselves in the adorn western entrance being the well-known Doric portico of Athena Archegetis with an inscription recording its erection from donations of Julius Caesar and Augustus.Advertisement
Though apparently not mentioned by Ptolemy, they were perhaps Roman.
But now a third war began, the old associates of Antigonus, alarmed by his overgrown power, combining against him - Cassander, Ptolemy, Lysimachus, the governor of Thrace, and Seleucus, who had fled before Antigonus from his satrapy of Babylonia.
Antigonus never succeeded in reaching Macedonia, although his son Demetrius won Athens and Megara in 307 and again (304-302) wrested almost all Greece from Cassander; nor did Antigonus succeed in expelling Ptolemy from Egypt, although he led an army to its frontier in 306; and after the battle of Gaza in 312, in which Ptolemy and Seleucus defeated Demetrius, he had to see Seleucus not only recover Babylonia but bring all the eastern provinces under his authority as far as India.
Except indeed for Egypt and Palestine under Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Seleucus now divided the empire between them, with the Taurus in Asia Minor for their frontier.
Seleucus' assassination by Ptolemy Ceraunus in the same year brought back confusion.Advertisement
Ptolemy Ceraunus (the son of the first Ptolemy, and halfbrother of the reigning king of Egypt) seized the Macedonian throne, whilst Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, succeeded in holding together the Asiatic dominions of his father.
The confusion was aggravated by the incursion of the Gauls into the Balkan Peninsula in 279; Ptolemy Ceraunus perished, and a period of complete anarchy succeeded in Macedonia.
Whilst the Antigonid kingdom remained practically whole till the Roman conquest ended it in 168 B.C., and the house of Ptolemy ruled in Egypt till the death of Cleopatra in 30 B.C., the Seleucid Empire perished by a slow process of disruption.
In southern Syria, which had been won by the house of Seleucus from the house of Ptolemy in 198, the independent Jewish principality was set up in 143.
Sometimes the joint-king is merely titular, an infant of tender years, as for instance Antiochus Eupator, the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, or Ptolemy Eupator, the son of Ptolemy Philometor.Advertisement
The custom of marriages between brothers and sisters, agreeable to old Persian as to old Egyptian ethics, was instituted in Egypt by the second Ptolemy when he married his full sister Arsinoe Philadelphus.
The Ptolemaic court, with the museum attached to it, is so prominent in the literary and scientific history of the age that it is unnecessary to give a list of the philosophers, the men of letters and science, who at one time or other ate at King Ptolemy's table.
One may notice that the first Ptolemy himself made a contribution of some value to historical literature in his account of Alexander's campaigns; the fourth Ptolemy not only instituted a cult of Homer but himself published tragedies; and even Ptolemy Euergetes II.
This step was taken in Egypt after the death of Arsinoe Philadelphus (271) when she and her still-living brother-husband, Ptolemy II., began to be worshipped together as Oe01 a&Xq 01.
The experiment of arming the native Egyptians on a large scale does not seem to have been made before the campaign of 217, when Ptolemy IV.
Those in the Rudimentum novitiarum published at Lubeck in 1475 are from woodcuts, while the maps in the first two editions of Ptolemy published in Italy in 1472 are from copper plates.
Ptolemy, who had access to the treasures of the famous library of Alexandria was able, no doubt, to utilize these cadastral plans when compiling his geography.
Among the travellers of whose information he was thus able to avail himself were Pytheas of Massilia, Patroclus, who had visited the Caspian (285-282 B.C.), Megasthenes, who visited Palibothra on the Ganges, as ambassador of Seleucus Nicator (302-291 B.C.), Timosthenus of Rhodes, the commander of the fleet of Ptolemy Philadelphus (284-246 B.C.) who wrote a treatise " On harbours," and Philo, who visited Meroe on the upper Nile.
Masudi (loth century) saw a copy of it and declared it to be superior to Ptolemy's map.
The map of Marinus and the descriptive accounts which accompanied it have perished, but we learn sufficient concerning them from Ptolemy to be able to appreciate their merits and demerits.
They contain about 8000 names, with their 1 The oldest MS. of Ptolemy's Geography is found in the Vatopedi monastery of Mt Athos.
Ptolemy's great merit consists in having accepted the views of Hipparchus with respect to a projection suited for a map of the world.
As a map compiler Ptolemy does not take a high rank.
An even graver source of error was Ptolemy's acceptance of a degree of Soo instead of 700 stadia.
But in spite of his errors the scientific method pursued by Ptolemy was correct, and though he was neglected by the Romans and during the middle ages, once he had become known, in the 15th century, he became the teacher of the modern world.
A copy of it may possibly have been utilized by Marinus and Ptolemy in their compilations.
Ptolemy were translated into Arabic, and in 827, in the reign of the caliph Abdullah al Mamun, an arc of the meridian was measured in the plain of Mesopotamia.
Masudi, who saw the maps in the Horismos or Rasm el Ard, a description of which was engraved for King Roger of Sicily upon a silver plate, or the rectangular map in 70 sheets which accompanies his geography (Nushat-ul Mushtat) take rank with Ptolemy's work.
It may have been a map of this kind which accounts for Ptolemy's moderate exaggerations of the size of Taprobana (Ceylon).
A first meridian, separating a leeward from a windward region, passed through Ras Kumhari (Comorin) and was thus nearly identical with the first meridian of the Indian astronomers which passed through the sacred city of Ujjain (Ozere of Ptolemy) or the meridian of Azin of the Arabs.
None of these maps was graduated, which is all the Mediterranean they embody materials available even in the days before Ptolemy, while the correct delineation of the west seems to be of a later date, and may have been due to Catalan seamen.
Jerusalem occupies the centre of these maps, Arab sources of information are largely drawn upon, while Ptolemy is neglected and contemporary travellers are ignored.
Very different in character is the Catalan map of 1375, for its author, discarding Ptolemy, shows India as a peninsula.
They led firstly to the addition of degree lines to maps, and secondly to the compilation of new maps of those countries which had been inadequately represented by Ptolemy.
Nicolaus Germanus, a monk of Reichenbach, in 1466 prepared a set of Ptolemy's maps on a new projection with converging meridians; and Paolo del Pozzo Toscanelli in 1474 compiled a new chart on a rectangular projection, which was to guide the explorer across the western ocean to Cathay and India.
Of the seven editions of Ptolemy which were published up to the close of the 15th century, all except that of Vicenza (1475) contained Ptolemy's 27 maps, while Francesco Berlinghieri's version (Florence 1478), and two editions published at Ulm (1482 and 1486), contained four or five modern maps in addition, those of Ulm being by Nicolaus Germanus.
The author followed Ptolemy not only in Asia, but also in the Mediterranean.
The Strassburg Ptolemy of 1513 has a supplement of as many as 20 modern maps by Martin Waldseemiiller or Ilacomilus, several among which are copied from Portuguese originals.
In 1511 Waldseemuller published a large map of Europe, in 1513 he prepared his maps for the Strassburg edition of Ptolemy, and in 1516 he engraved a copy of Canerio's map of the world.
The Strassburg Ptolemy of 1522 contains Waldseemiiller's maps,' edited on a reduced scale by Laurentius Frisius, together with three additional ones.
The new maps of the Basel edition of 1540, twenty-one in number, are by Sebastian Munster; Jacob Gastaldo supplied the Venice edition of 1548 with 34 modern maps, and these with a few additions are repeated in Girolamo Ruscelli's Italian translation of Ptolemy published at Venice in 1561.
The cylindrical and modified conical projections of Marinus and Ptolemy were still widely used, the stereographical projection of Hipparchus, was for the first time employed for terrestrial maps in the 16th century, but new projections were introduced in addition to these.
Gastaldo (1548) presents us with a map of Italy, which, except as to nomenclature, differs but little from that of Ptolemy, although on the Portolano charts the peninsula had long since assumed its correct shape.
Among these may be mentioned Konrad Miller's Die ¢ltesten Weltkarten (Stuttgart, 1895-1897), which only deals with maps not influenced by the ideas of Ptolemy.
It figured in astronomical tables until the time of Copernicus, but is now known to have no foundation in fact, being based on an error in Ptolemy's determination of precession.
The first Ptolemy began it, and the second completed it, at a total cost of Boo talents.
From this division arose much of the later turbulence which began to manifest itself under Ptolemy Philopater.
The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 B.C., according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander; but it had been under Roman influence for more than a hundred years previously.
The central part of the building, begun by Ptolemy III.
Euergetes in 237 B.C., was finished by his successor in 212; the portico, court, pylons and surrounding wall were added by Ptolemy Euergetes II., Soter II.
In the tribal division of Roman Britain given by Ptolemy their land included Camulodunum (Colchester), but nothing more is known of them.
He wrote An Astronomical Description of the late Comet (1619); Canicularia (1648); and translated Proclus' De Sphaera, and Ptolemy's De Planetarum Hypothesibus (1620).
The much more detailed list of Ptolemy enumerates 39 indigenous tribes in the province of Africa and 25 in Mauretania Caesariensis.
The confusion has arisen through a textual error in an early edition of Ptolemy's Geography.
Ptolemy catalogued 38 stars, Tycho Brahe 42 and Hevelius 62.62.
As Chalybon, the town is called by Ptolemy head of a district, Chalybonitis; but we continue to hear of it as Beroea up to the Arab conquest, e.g.
Ptolemy's Almagest, the works of Apollonius, Archimedes, Diophantus and portions of the Brahmasiddhanta, were also translated.
With the disappearance of the Scythae as an ethnic and political entity, the name of Scythia gives place in its original seat to that of Sarmatia, and is artificially applied by geographers, on the one hand, to the Dobrudzha, the lesser Scythia of Strabo, where it remained in official use until Byzantine times; on the other, to the unknown regions of northern Asia, the Eastern Scythia of Strabo, the "Scythia intra et extra Imaum" of Ptolemy; but throughout classical literature Scythia generally meant all regions to the north and north-east of the Black Sea, and a Scythian (Scythes) any barbarian coming from those parts.
Claudius Ptolemy (130) rectified this error, and in the so-called syntonous or intense diatonic scale reduced the proportions of his tetrachord to s, iii, f, -i.
Ptolemy, following the invariable Greek method, placed them thus---1, s, .ib.
Martin, Hultsch and Cantor took this Ctesibius to be a barber of that name who lived in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes II.
But this identification is far from certain, as a Ctesibius mechanicus is mentioned by Athenaeus as having lived under Ptolemy II.
Under the Roman administration the term Pamphylia was extended so as to include Pisidia and the whole tract up to the frontiers of Phrygia and Lycaonia, and in this wider sense it is employed by Ptolemy.
It is probable that Burma is the Chryse Regio of Ptolemy, a name parallel in meaning to Sonaparanta, the classic Pali title assigned to the country round the capital in Burmese documents.
Had the native history of Berossus survived, this would not have been the case; all that is known of the Chaldaean historian's work, however, is derived from quotations in Josephus, Ptolemy, Eusebius and the Syncellus.
After the over throw of Samas - sum - yukin, Kandalanu, the Chineladanos of Ptolemy's canon, had been appointed viceroy.
According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona (Raab) in the north to Servitium (Gradiska) in the south; later, the boundary was placed farther east.
The name of Amber is first mentioned by Ptolemy.
An hour's march to the east he discovered at the village of Medinat el Mahud the ruins of the Nagra metropolis of Ptolemy.
The study of Ptolemy's geography led to a wider outlook, and the writing of works on geography (q.v.) in general.
Not being able to answer on the spur of the moment, he was nicknamed 6 Kpovos (the God, equivalent to "slowcoach") by Ptolemy.
Even Ptolemy had a vague conception of a force tending toward the centre of the earth which not only kept bodies upon its surface, but in some way upheld the order of the universe.
Arrian's chief authorities were, as he tells us, Aristobulus of Cassandreia and Ptolemy, son of Lagus (afterwards king of Egypt), who both accompanied Alexander on his campaigns.
There is more than one meaning of Ptolemy discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
His murderer, Ptolemy of Alorus, ruled as regent for the young Perdiccas, Amyntas's second son.
When he returned to Macedonia (364) Perdiccas had succeeded in getting rid of Ptolemy; but he fell in 360-359 before an onset of the hill tribes instigated by the queen-mother Eurydice, leaving only an infant son.
This era is famous in astronomy, having been generally followed by Hipparchus and Ptolemy.
It is the basis of the famous Canon of kings, also called Mathematical Canon, preserved to us in the works of Ptolemy, which, before the astonishing discoveries at Nineveh, was the sole authentic monument of Assyrian and Babylonian history known to us.
The same form of the name (probably pronounced Uvasu) occurs in the Syrian version of the canon of Ptolemy by Elias of Nisibis (Amos).
Ptolemy catalogued fourteen stars, Tycho Brahe twenty-seven, and Hevelius forty in this constellation.
When Antigonus Gonatas, the son of the latter, besieged and captured Athens (261), Philochorus was put to death for having supported Ptolemy Philadelphus, who had encouraged the Athenians in their resistance to Macedonia.
Lentulus played a prominent part in the recall of Cicero from exile, and although a temporary coolness seems to have arisen between them, Cicero speaks of him in most grateful terms. From 56-53 Lentulus was governor of the province of Cilicia (with Cyprus) and during that time was commissioned by the senate to restore Ptolemy XI.
He landed at Pelusium the day after the murder of Pompey, was immediately seized by Ptolemy, imprisoned, and put to death.
Having been summoned to the royal presence to stand his trial for disobedience, Antigonus fled to Europe and entered into alliance with Antipater, Craterus and Ptolemy, the son of Lagus.
Perdiccas, leaving the war in Asia Minor to Eumenes, marched to attack Ptolemy in Egypt.
Ptolemy Soter (reigned 323-285 B.C.), to whom, in the general distribution of Alexander's conquests, this kingdom had fallen, began to draw around him from various parts of Greece a circle of men eminent in literature and philosophy.
Under the inspiration of his friend Demetrius of Phalerum, the Athenian orator, statesman and philosopher, this Ptolemy laid the foundations of the great Alexandrian library and originated the keen search for all written works, which resulted in the formation of a collection such as the world has seldom seen.
The work thus begun by Ptolemy Soter was carried on vigorously by his descendants, in particular by his two immediate successors, Ptolemy Philadelphus and Ptolemy Euergetes.
Berenice was founded by Ptolemy II.
This Lysanias was the son of Ptolemy Mennaeus, the ruler of an independent state, of which Abilene formed only a small portion.
Thais subsequently became the wife of Ptolemy Lagus, king of Egypt.
The name Albion was taken by medieval writers from Pliny and Ptolemy.
In a letter to Ptolemy Euergetes he narrates the history of the problem.
Naval expeditions from Berenice and Myoshormus to the Arabian ports brought back the information on which Claudius Ptolemy constructed his map, which still surprises us by its wealth of geographical names.
It was known to Ptolemy and the Arabian geographers, and was at one time supposed to be a mouth of the Nile, and, later (18th century), a branch of the Niger.
Ptolemy, who himself chiefly used the " Claws " (XnXai), speaks of it as a distinctively Chaldaean sign; 2 and it occurs as an extrazodiacal asterism in the Chinese sphere.
This happened in 76 B.C. Kashgar does not appear to have been known in the West at this time but Ptolemy speaks of Scythia beyond the Imaus, which is in a Kasia Regio, possibly exhibiting the name whence Kashgar and Kashgaria (often applied to the district) are formed.
Under the rule of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.), learning found a home in the Alexandrian Museum and in the great Alexandrian Library.
Ptolemy catalogued 8 stars, Tycho 7 and Hevelius Of these, the seven brightest (a of the 1st magnitude, 0, y, of the 2nd magnitude, and b of the 3rd magnitude) constitute one of the most characteristic figures in the northern sky; they have received various names - Septentriones, the wagon, plough, dipper and Charles's wain (a corruption of " churl's wain," or peasant's cart).
The third volume includes, however, some theological treatises, and the first part of it is occupied with editions of treatises on harmonics and other works of Greek geometers, some of them first editions from the MSS., and in general with Latin versions and notes (Ptolemy, Porphyrius, Briennius, Archimedes, Eutocius, Aristarchus and Pappus).
It was the Kollops Magnus of Ptolemy.
Alexander's general, Ptolemy Lagi, becomes Satrap of Egypt.
Ptolemy Lagi gains possession of Palestine, which, with short interruptions, continues in the hands of the Ptolemies till 198.
Ptolemy Lagi assumes the title of king.
It may be explained here that the dates of the Assyrian and Babylonian kings can be reduced to years B.C. by means of the socalled " Canon of Ptolemy," which is a list of the Babylonian and Persian kings, with the lengths of their reigns, extending from Nabonassar, 747 B.C., to Alexander the Great, drawn up in the 2nd century A.D.
The lengths of the reigns of Nebuchadrezzar and his successors on the throne of Babylon, and also, after the conquest of Babylon, of Cyrus and the following Persian kings, are known from the " Canon of Ptolemy," referred to above, the particulars in which, for the earlier part of this period, are also confirmed by the testimony of the monuments.
The so-called Dard races are referred to by Pliny and Ptolemy, and are supposed to be a people of Aryan origin who ascended the Indus valley from the plains of the Punjab, reaching as far north as Chitral, where they dispossessed the Khos.
According to Vitruvius (vii., preface) he lived during the age of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.), by whom he was crucified as the punishment of his criticisms on the king.
Pompey was satisfied by the ratification of his acts in Asia, and by the assignment of the Campanian state domains to his veterans, the capitalists (with whose interests Crassus was identified) had their bargain for the farming of the Asiatic revenues cancelled, Ptolemy Auletes received the confirmation of his title to the throne of Egypt (for a consideration amounting to i,50o,000), and a fresh act was passed for preventing extortion by provincial governors.
Shemakha was the capital of the khanate of Shirvan, and was known to the Roman geographer Ptolemy as Kamachia.
Not long afterwards we find the citizens receiving the present of a gymnasium from Ptolemy, and building in his honour a stoa or portico; but the city never recovered altogether from the disasters of the siege, and Cicero describes it as almost deserted.
The Hebrides are mentioned by Ptolemy under the name of "E330uSat and by Pliny under that of Hebudes, the modern spelling having, it is said, originated in a misprint.
He is said to have written before Euclid and Ptolemy; and Cassiodorus arranges his Introduction to Music between those of Nicomachus and Gaudentius.
On the other hand, there are the curious and puzzling catalogues of Aristotelian books, one given by Diogenes Laertius, another by an anonymous commentator (perhaps Hesychius of Miletus) quoted in the notes of Gilles Menage on Diogenes Laertius, and known as " Anonymus Menagii," and a third copied by two Arabian writers from Ptolemy, perhaps King Ptolemy Philadelphus, son of the founder of the library at Alexandria.
Astronomers, after the example of Ptolemy, regard the day as commencing with the sun's culmination, or noon, and find it most convenient for the purposes of computation to reckon through the whole twentyfour hours.
The Calippic Period Is Frequently Referred To As A Date By Ptolemy.
Ilkley has been identified with the Olicana of Ptolemy, one of the towns of the British tribe of the Brigantes.
According to Plutarch, Ptolemy Soter stole it from Sinope, having been bidden by the unknown god in a dream to bring him to Alexandria.
Its earliest name was Ledra, but Leucos, son of Ptolemy Soter (280 B.C.), is said to have restored it and changed its name to Leuteon, Leucotheon or Levcosia.
On the assassination of his father and two elder brothers by Ptolemy, governor of Jericho, his brother-in-law, in February 135, he succeeded to the high priesthood and the supreme authority in Judaea.
While still engaged in the struggle with Ptolemy, he was attacked by Antiochus with a large army (134), and compelled to shut himself up in Jerusalem; after a severe siege peace was at last secured only on condition of a Jewish disarmament, and the payment of an indemnity and an annual tribute, for which hostages were taken.
If we had no other information than can be derived from his work, we should only know that he was later than Claudius Ptolemy whom he often quotes.
Suidas states that he was of the same age as Theon of Alexandria, who wrote commentaries on Ptolemy's great work, the Syntaxis mathematica, and flourished in the reign of Theodosius I.
Suidas says also that Pappus wrote a commentary upon the same work of Ptolemy.
He also wrote commentaries on Euclid's Elements (of which fragments are preserved in Proclus and the Scholia, while that on the tenth Book has been found in an Arabic MS.), and on Ptolemy's `Ap/20vcKfi.
His commentaries on Plato and Ptolemy are lost.
This procedure - which was first employed by the great Greek astronomer Hipparchus (2nd century B.C.), and developed by Ptolemy three centuries later - did not afford any law connecting the motions of different bodies.
It was invaded and temporarily annexed in 245 by Ptolemy III.
The country inland belonged in the middle ages to the Beja, but the trading places seem to have been always in the hands of foreigners since Ptolemais Theron was established by Ptolemy Philadelphus for intercourse with the elephant hunters.
Thus in 312 Tyre was captured from Antigonus by Ptolemy I., the ally of Seleucus; in 287 it passed into the dominion of Seleucus; in 275 again it was captured by Ptolemy II.
These columns, as the inscriptions show, once supported statues of Ptolemy and Berenice.
Sistova is identified with the Roman colony Novae mentioned by Ptolemy.
By enrolling it in the Achaean League he secured it against Macedonia, and with funds received from Ptolemy Philadelphus he pacified the returned exiles.
It is the Dunum of Ptolemy, and was a residence of the kings of Ulster.
The name was introduced into the Ptolemaic dynasty by the mother of Ptolemy I.
Her son Ptolemy was afterwards king under the title of Euergetes.
Magas before his death had betrothed his daughter Berenice to the son of his brother Ptolemy II.
Seleucus, who had seized Lysimachus's kingdom, was murdered in 281 by Ptolemy Ceraunus (half-brother of Arsinoe), who thus became master of Thrace and Macedonia.
Escaping to Egypt, she became the wife of her full brother Ptolemy II., the first instance of the practice (afterwards common) of the Greek kings of Egypt marrying their .sisters.
During the siege of Alexandria by Julius Caesar (48) she was recognized as queen by the inhabitants, her brother, the young Ptolemy, being then held captive by Caesar.
In a later rebellion, Thebes was captured after a three years' siege and severely punished by Lathyrus (Ptolemy X., Soter II.).
It was translated by a person who says that he "came into Egypt in the 38th year of Euergetes the king" (Ptolemy VII.), i.e.
He flourished at Alexandria in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.).
He was entrusted by Ptolemy with the task of arranging the comedies in the Alexandrian library, and as the result of his labours composed a treatise On Comedy.
Had the natives of Egypt been asked to choose between the preservation of Ptolemy's famed temple and the benefit to be derived from a considerable additional depth of water storage, there can be no question that they would have preferred the latter; but they were not consulted, and the classical sentiment and artistic beauty of the place, skilfully pleaded by archaeologists and artists, prevailed.
The Geography is a meagre sketch, based mainly on the Chorography of Pappus of Alexandria (in the end of the 4th century), and indirectly on the work of Ptolemy.
Farther to the south and west Ptolemy mentions a number of place-names which are certainly Celtic, e.g.
Agathocles in his old age took a wife of the house of Ptolemy; he gave his daughter Lanassa to Pyrrhus, and established his power east of Hadria, as the first Sicilian ruler of Corcyra.
The poet, himself of Syracuse, went to and fro between the courts of Hiero and Ptolemy Philadelphus; but his poetry is essentially Sicilian.
Along the southern coast, where the houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy strove for predominance, we find the names of Berenice, Arsinoe and Ptolemais confronting those of Antioch and Seleucia.
One Greek city they found existing, Naucratis; Alexander had called Alexandria into being; the first Ptolemy added Ptolemais as a Greek centre for Upper Egypt.
Enlarged by Ptolemy Philadelphus I.
They comprise fragments of the native historian Manetho, the descriptions of Egypt in Herodotus and Diodorus, the geographical accounts of Strabo and Ptolemy, the treatise of Plutarch on Isis and Osiris and other monographs or scattered notices of less importance.
The non-literary Greek remains in papyri and inscriptions which are being found in great abundance throw a flood of light on life in Egypt and the administration of the country from the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus to the Arab conquest.
In each temple the priests were divided into four orders (until Ptolemy Euergetes added a fifth), each of which served in turn.
Serapis was a god imported by the first Ptolemy from Sinope on the Black Sea, who soon lost his own identity by assimilation with Osiris-Apis, the bull revered in Memphis.
This tablet was inscribed with three versions, in hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek, of a long decree of the Egyptian priests in honor of Ptolemy V., Epiphanes and his wife Cleopatra.
In the Fayum the capital was dedicated to Queen Arsinoe, and doubtless Ptolemy rebuilt the temple, now destroyed.
At Sharona are remains of a temple of Ptolemy I.
The body of the temple is of Ptolemy XIII., and was carved as late as the XVIth (Caesarion), and the great portico was in building from Augustus to Nero.
At Coptos was a screen of the temple of Ptolemy I.
Karnak was largely decorated; a granite celia was built under Philip Arrhidaeus, covered with elaborate carving; a great pylon was added to the temple of Khonsu by Ptolemy III.; the inner pylon of the Ammon-temple was carved by Ptolemy VI.
The great temple of Edffl, which has its enclosure walls and pylon complete, and is the most perfect example remaining, was gradually built during a century and a half from Ptolemy III.
Farther south, in Nubia, the temples of DabOd and Dakka were built by the Ethiopian Ergamenes, contemporary of Ptolemy IV.; and the temple of Dendur is of Augustus.
By the decree of Canopus, Ptolemy III.Euergetes introduced through the assembly of priests an extra day every fourth year, but this reform had no acceptation until it was reimposed by Augustus with the Julian calendar.
Intermarriages, however, gradually had their effect; after the revolt of the natives in the reign of Ptolemy V., we find the Greek and Egyptian elements closely intermingled.
It is remarkable that, while the building and decoration of temples continued in the reigns of Ptolemy Auletes and the later Ptolemies and Cleopatra, papyri of those times whether Greek or Egyptian are scarcely to be found.
Under Vespasian the Jewish temple at Leontopolis in the Delta, which Onias had founded in the reign of Ptolemy Philometor, was closed; worse still, a great Jewish revolt and massacre of the Greeks in the reign of Trajan resulted, after a stubborn conflict of many months with the Roman army under Marcius Livianus Turbo, in the virtual extermination of the Jews in Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges.
Limerick is said to have been the Regia of Ptolemy and the Rosse-de-Nailleagh of the Annals of Multifernan.
It was discovered by Ptolemy.
In 306 Demetrius Poliorcetes won a great naval victory here over Ptolemy I.
The many difficulties against which the Seleucid kings had to fight and the attacks of Ptolemy II., gave to Diodotus, satrap of Bactria, the opportunity of making himself independent (about 255 B.C.) and of conquering Sogdiana.
There were (I) a district Caledonia, of which the southern border must have been on or near the isthmus between the Clyde and the Forth, (2) a Caledonian Forest (possibly in Perthshire), and (3) a tribe of Caledones or Calidones, named by the geographer Ptolemy as living within boundaries which are now unascertainable.
Ptolemy gives a list of tribe and place-names.
He published several works, including a copiously-annotated translation of portions of Ptolemy (1537), and a treatise in two books, De arte atque ratione navigandi (1546).
Pytheas certainly had one merit which distinguished him from almost all his contemporaries - he was a good astronomer, and was one of the first who made observations for the determination of latitudes, among others that of his native place Massilia, which he fixed with remarkable accuracy; his result, which was within a few miles of the truth, was adopted by Ptolemy, and became the basis of the Ptolemaic map of the western Mediterranean.
Both Plutarch and Ptolemy speak of the Fortunate Islands, but from their description it is not clear whether the Canaries or one of the other island groups in the western Atlantic are meant; see Isles Of The Blest.
Whenever this occupation took place, Ptolemy became master of Palestine in 312 B.C., and though, as Josephus complains, he may have disgraced his title, Soler, by momentary severity at the outset, later he created in the minds of the Jews the impression that in Palestine or in Egypt he was - in deed as well as in name - their preserver.
Abandoned by his captain and future rival, Seleucus, Ptolemy retired and left Palestine to Antigonus for ten years.
But when Seleucus came to claim Palestine as part of his share, he found his old chief Ptolemy in possession and retired under protest.
In consequence of this deficiency he failed to pay the tribute due from the people to Ptolemy, as his fathers had done, and is set down by Josephus as a miser who cared nothing for the protest of Ptolemy's special ambassador.
Perhaps Onias would not draw upon the sacred treasure in order to pay tribute to Ptolemy.
When Ptolemy died (247 B.C.), Antiochus' divorced wife Laodice was restored to favour, and Antiochus died suddenly in order that she might regain her power.
In the vain hope of protecting his sister Berenice, the new king of Egypt, Ptolemy III.
His first attempt on Palestine (221 B.C.) failed; the second succeeded by the treachery of Ptolemy's lieutenant, who had been recalled to Alexandria in consequence of his successful resistance to the earlier invasion.
Early in 217 B.C. Ptolemy Philopater led his forces towards Raphia, which with Gaza was now in the hands of Antiochus, and drove the invaders back.
When Ptolemy Philopater died in 205 B.C., Antiochus and Philip of Macedon, his nominal friends, made a secret compact for the division of his possessions outside Egypt.
The siege of Gaza was famous; but in the end the city was taken by storm, and Antiochus, secure at last of the province, which his ancestors had so long coveted, was at peace with Ptolemy, as the Roman embassy directed.
The conference was Antlochus broken off by a false report of Ptolemy's death, but and war between Rome and Antiochus was clearly inevitable - and Antiochus was joined by Hannibal.
He had made agreement with Ptolemy.
In the catalogues of Ptolemy, Tycho Brahe, and Hevelius, eight stars are mentioned; but recent uranographic surveys have greatly increased this number.
In Ptolemy's catalogue thirteen stars are described.
Ptolemy catalogues twenty-three stars, Tycho Brahe twenty-eight, Hevelius fifty-two.
The present practice being the dominant one from the time of Ptolemy until the present, it was felt that the confusion in the combination of past and present astronomical observations, and the doubts and difficulties in using the astronomical ephemerides, formed a decisive argument against any change.
Ptolemy marched triumphantly into the heart of the Seleucid realm, as far at any rate as Babylonia, and received the formal submission of the provinces of Iran, while his fleets in the Aegean recovered what his father had lost upon the seaboard, and made fresh conquests as far as Thrace.
After his final peace with Seleucus, Ptolemy no longer engaged actively in war, although his forces might occasionally mingle in the broils of Asia Minor, and he supported the enemies of Macedonia in Greece.
In the time of Darius Hystaspes (zoo B.C.) we find the region now called Afghanistan embraced in the Achaemenian satrapies, and various parts of it occupied by Sarangians (in Seistan), Arians (in Herat), Sattagydians (supposed in highlands of upper Helmund and the plateau of Ghazni), Dadicae (suggested to be Tajiks), Aparytae (mountaineers, perhaps of Safed Koh, where lay the Paryetae of Ptolemy), Gandarii (in Lower Kabul basin) and Paktyes, on or near the Indus.
They are the Emodus of Ptolemy (among other names), and extend in the shape of a scimitar, with its edge facing southwards, for a dis tance of 1500 m.
He demonstrated the rotation of the satellites of Jupiter round the planet, and gave rough predictions of their configurations, proved the rotation of the sun on its axis, established the general truth of the Copernican system as compared with that of Ptolemy, and fairly routed the fanciful dogmas of the philosophers.
With the development of observational astronomy the sidereal universe was arbitrarily divided into areas characterized by special assemblages of stars; these assemblages were named asterisms by Ptolemy, who termed the brightest stars "of the fi rst magnitude," and the progressively fainter Stars.
Ptolemy's classification has been adopted as the basis of the more exactly quantitative modern system.
Lerida is the Ilerda of the Romans, and was the capital of the people whom they called Ilerdenses (Pliny) or Ilergetes (Ptolemy).
Hypatia, according to Suidas, was the author of commentaries on the Arithmetica of Diophantus of Alexandria, on the Conics of Apollonius of Perga and on the astronomical canon (of Ptolemy).
It may even be suspected that anecdotes in praise of Peisistratus and Hipparchus were a delicate form of flattery addressed to the reigning Ptolemy.
Van occupies the site of Dhuspas, of which the native name was Biainas (Assyrian, Urardhu), the Byana of Ptolemy and the Ivan of Cedrenus, whence the modern Van.
Dhuspas, the Thospia of Ptolemy, gave its name to the district of Thospitis, the modern Thosp. The Biainian dynasty, of which Sarduris I.
In 315 he joined Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus against Antigonus, who, however, diverted his attention by stirring up Thracian and Scythian tribes against him.
In 302 when the second alliance between Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus was made, Lysimachus, reinforced by troops from Cassander, entered Asia Minor, where he met with little resistance.
Feeling that Seleucus was becoming dangerously great, he now allied himself with Ptolemy, marrying his daughter Arsin06.
In 284 Arsinoe, desirous of gaining the succession for her sons in preference to Agathocles (the eldest son of Lysimachus), intrigued against him with the help of her brother Ptolemy Ceraunus; they accused him of conspiring with Seleucus to seize the throne, and he was put to death.
Ptolemy gives maps of European and Asiatic Sarmatia.
Several early writers agree in saying that the Cimbri occupied a peninsula, and in the map of Ptolemy Jutland appears as the Cimbric Chersonese.
As Ptolemy seems to have regarded the district north of the Liimfjord (Limfjord) as a group of islands, the territory of the Cimbri, the northernmost tribe of the peninsula, would be included in the modern county (Amt) of Aalborg.
After a short time spent in attendance on the philosophers at Athens, he was summoned by Aulus Gabinius, governor of Syria, to take part in the campaigns against Aristobulus in Palestine, and in support of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt.
The Volga was not improbably known to the early Greeks, though it is not mentioned by any writer previous to Ptolemy.
After Alexander's death in 323 B.C. Cyprus, coveted still for its copper and timber, passed, after several rapid changes, to Ptolemy I., king of Egypt.
Ptolemy, however, recovered it in 295 B.C. Under Ptolemaic rule Cyprus has little history.
Usually it was governed by a viceroy of the royal line, but it gained a brief independence under Ptolemy Lathyrus (107-89 B.C.), and under a brother of Ptolemy Auletes in 58 B.C. The great sanctuaries of Paphos and Idalium, and the public buildings of Salamis, which were wholly remodelled in this period, have produced but few works of art; the sculpture from local shrines at Voni and Vitsada, and the frescoed tombstones from Amathus, only show how incapable the Cypriotes still were of utilizing Hellenistic models; a rare and beautiful class of terra-cottas like those of Myrina may be of Cypriote fabric, but their style is wholly of the Aegean.
It did not originally include Egypt, which was considered part of Asia, and first assigned to Africa by Ptolemy, who made the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between the two continents.
The early Christian Fathers recorded many a valuable observation of the Gentile faiths around them from varying points of view, sympathetic or hostile; and Eusebius and Epiphanius, in the 4th century A.D., attributed to the librarian of Ptolemy Philad.elphus the design of collecting the sacred books of the Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Elamites, Babylonians, Assyrians, Romans, Phoenicians, Syrians and Greeks.
The Greek historians name it Ake (Josephus calls it also Akre); but the name was changed to Ptolemais, probably by Ptolemy Soter, after the partition of the kingdom of Alexander.
In 56 B.C. he married Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, queen of Egypt, but his reign only lasted six months.
Towards the west it may originally have extended as far as the Danube where it runs from north to south at Waitzen (Vacz), while on the other hand Ptolemy puts its eastern boundary as far back as the Hierasus (Sereth).
Ptolemy puts the Gotar in the southern part of the country, and from the earliest historical times their name has been given to the whole region between the Cattegat and the Baltic, exclusive of the provinces of Halland and Skane which down to the 17th century always belonged to Denmark.
His next expedition was to the west to assist Lysimachus, Ptolemy and Cassandr in the overthrow of Antigonus.
Theos (264247), was being harried by Ptolemy II.
After waging an unsuccessful war with Ptolemy IV.
Whithorn has been identified with the Leukopibia of Ptolemy, but this is uncertain.
Founded by the Greeks of Cyrenaica under the name Hesperides, the town received from Ptolemy III.
Another tribe called Silingae by Ptolemy likewise appears among the Vandals at a later time.
Although its ruler Ptolemy renounced allegiance to Antiochus IV.
His most celebrated work is the Latin version by which alone Ptolemy's Almagest was known to Europe until the discovery of the original Meyan I un-a ts.
Again, proceeding down the banks of the Ganges, he diverged eastward to Kamarupa (Assam), and then passed by the great ports of Tamralipti (Tamluk, the mis placed Tamalitis of Ptolemy), and through Or.issa to Kanchipara (Conjeeveram), about 640.
In 135 he and two of his sons were murdered by Ptolemy his son-in-law, who had an eye to the supreme power.
It is usually named llprya,uov by Greek writers, but Ptolemy has the form llpyaµos.
Another town a little to the south, built by Ptolemy Philadelphus in 274 B.C., and called Arsinoe in honour of his sister, received the refugees driven from Constantia by the Arabs under Mu`awiyah, became the seat of the orthodox archbishopric, and was eventually known as Famagusta.
But Aratus, whose jealousy could not brook to see a Spartan at the head of the Achaean league called in Antigonus Doson of Macedonia, and Cleomenes, after conducting successful expeditions to Megalopolis and Argos, was finally defeated at Sellasia, to the north of Sparta, in 222 or 221 B.C. He took refuge at Alexandria with Ptolemy Euergetes, but was arrested by his successor, Ptolemy Philopator, on a charge of conspiracy.
The founder, Ptolemy (IlToXE,uc os), son of Lagus, a Macedonian nobleman of Eordaea, was one of Alexander the Great's most trusted generals, and among the seven "body-guards" attached to his person.
At the Susa marriage festival in 324 Alexander caused him to marry the Persian princess Artacama; but there is no further mention of this Asiatic bride in the history of Ptolemy.
When Alexander died in 323 the resettlement of the empire at Babylon is said to have been made at Ptolemy's instigation.
This act led to an open rupture between Ptolemy and the imperial regent Perdiccas.
In the long wars between the different Macedonian chiefs which followed, Ptolemy's first object is to hold his position in Egypt securely, and secondly to possess the Cyrenaica, Cyprus and Palestine (Coele-Syria).
When Antigonus, master of Asia in 315, showed dangerous ambitions, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him, and, on the outbreak of war, evacuated Palestine.
In 312 Ptolemy, with Seleucus, the fugitive satrap of Babylonia, invaded Palestine and beat Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, in the great battle of Gaza.
The peace did not last long, and in 309 Ptolemy commanded a fleet in person which detached the coast towns of Lycia and Caria from Antigonus and crossed to Greece, where Ptolemy took possession of Corinth, Sicyon and Megara (308).
In 3 06 a great fleet under Demetrius attacked Cyprus, and Ptolemy's brother, Menelaus, was defeated and captured in the decisive battle of Salamis.
In the winter (306-5) Antigonus tried to follow up the victory of Cyprus by invading Egypt, but here Ptolemy was strong, and held the frontier successfully against him.
Ptolemy led no further expedition against Antigonus overseas.
When the coalition was renewed against Antigonus in 302, Ptolemy joined it, and invaded Palestine a third time, whilst Antigonus was engaged with Lysimachus in Asia Minor.
But when news came that Antigonus had been defeated and slain at Ipsus (30r) by Lysimachus and Seleucus, Ptolemy occupied Palestine for the fourth time.
The other members of the coalition had assigned Palestine to Seleucus after what they regarded as Ptolemy's desertion, and for the next hundred years the question of its ownership becomes the standing ground of enmity between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties.
Henceforth, Ptolemy seems to have mingled as little as possible in the broils of Asia Minor and Greece; his possessions in Greece he did not retain, but Cyprus he reconquered in 295-4.
In 285 he abdicated in favour of one of his younger sons by Berenice, who bore his father's name of Ptolemy; his eldest (legitimate) son, Ptolemy Ceraunus, whose mother, Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater, had been repudiated, fled to the court of Lysimachus.
On the death of his father (283), he assumed the title of king of Macedonia, but did not obtain possession of the throne till 276, after it had been successively in the hands of Pyrrhus, Lysimachus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy Ceraunus.
He is to be distinguished from another Alhazen who translated Ptolemy's Almagest in the 10th century.
Alhazen was, nevertheless, a diligent and successful student, being the first great discoverer in optics after the time of Ptolemy.
Though scattered notices of towns, cities and rivers in Britain are to be found in various early Roman writers, it is not till the time of Ptolemy (2nd century), who constructed a map of the island, and of the itinerary of Antonine (beginning of the 3rd century) that we have much information as to the cities and towns of Britain.
Antipater and Craterus accordingly prepared for war against Perdiccas, and allied themselves with Ptolemy, the governor of Egypt.
Twenty-three stars are catalogued by Ptolemy and Tycho Brahe; Hevelius increased this number to forty-seven, while Flamsteed gave sixty-six.
Seleucus fled to Ptolemy, and entered into a league with him (315), together with Lysimachus and Cassander.
This agreement was soon violated on the pretext that garrisons had been placed in some of the free Greek cities by Antigonus, and Ptolemy and Cassander renewed hostilities against him.
At first Ptolemy had made a successful descent upon Asia Minor and on several of the islands of the Archipelago; but he was at length totally defeated by Demetrius in a naval engagement off Salamis, in Cyprus (306).
Antigonus now prepared a large army, and a formidable fleet, the command of which he gave to Demetrius, and hastened to attack Ptolemy in his own dominions.
His invasion of Egypt, however, proved a failure; he was unable to penetrate the defences of Ptolemy, and was obliged to retire.
Berenice, daughter of Lagus, wife of an obscure Macedonian soldier and subsequently of Ptolemy Soter, with whose bride Eurydice she came to Egypt as a lady-in-waiting.
Her son, Ptolemy Philadelphus, was recognized as heir over the heads of Eurydice's children.
Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, wife of Antiochus Theos of Syria, who, according to agreement with Ptolemy (249), had divorced his wife Laodice and transferred the succession to Berenice's children.
On Ptolemy's death, Antiochus repudiated Berenice and took back Laodice, who, however, at once poisoned him and murdered.
Soon after her husband's death (221 B.C.) she was murdered at the instigation of her son Ptolemy IV., with whom she was probably associated in the government.
Berenice, also called Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemy X., married as her second husband Alexander II., grandson of Ptolemy VII.
Aeschines narrates his quarrel with his sweetheart, and is advised to go to Egypt and enlist in the army of Ptolemy Philadelphus; in xv.
The flattery heaped upon Ptolemy is somewhat nauseous.
Theocritus celebrates the incestuous marriage of Ptolemy Philadelphus with his sister Arsinoe.
This view would enable us to see a reference to Ptolemy in vii.
Herondas must have been a contemporary, as he refers to Ptolemy Philadelphus, 4 and was.
A Greek inscription at Adulis, no longer extant, but copied by Cosmas of Alexandria, and preserved in his Topographia Christiana, records that Ptolemy Euergetes, the third of the Greek dynasty in Egypt, invaded the countries on both sides of the Red Sea, and having reduced most of the provinces of Tigre to subjection, returned to the port of Adulis, and there offered sacrifices to Jupiter, Mars and Neptune.
The best known was the daughter of Ptolemy XIII.
Auletes, born 69 (or 68) B.C. At the age of seventeen she became queen of Egypt jointly with her younger brother Ptolemy Dionysus, whose wife, in accordance with Egyptian custom, she was to become.
The personal fascinations of Cleopatra induced him to undertake a war on her behalf, in which Ptolemy lost his life, and she was replaced on the throne in conjunction with a younger brother, of whom, however, she soon rid herself by poison.
A parallel case is the much quoted example of Demetrius, who placed the fall of Samaria (722 B.C.) 573 years before the succession of Ptolemy IV.
No contemporary gives the least hint of Leonardo's having travelled in the East; to the places he mentions he gives their classical and not their current Oriental names; the catastrophes he describes are unattested from any other source; he confuses the Taurus and the Caucasus; some of the phenomena he mentions are repeated from Aristotle and Ptolemy; and there seems little reason to doubt that these passages in his MSS.
At Pavia in 1494 we find him taking up literary and grammatical studies, both in Latin and the vernacular; the former, no doubt, in order the more easily to read those among the ancients who had laboured in the fields that were his own, as Euclid, Galen, Celsus, Ptolemy, Pliny, Vitruvius and, above all, Archimedes; the latter with a growing hope of some day getting into proper form and order the mass of materials he was daily accumulating for treatises on all his manifold subjects of enquiry.
His popularity was shown in the regard paid to him by Philip, Cassander and Ptolemy, and by the complete failure of a charge of impiety brought against him.
South-east of the railway station are the ruins of a temple built by Ptolemy Euergetes, and still farther south are the famous granite quarries of Syene.
His Geography is, like much of the history, founded on the works of his predecessors, and so ultimately on the work of Ptolemy.
His claims were recognized by the Roman senate, Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt and others.
Ptolemy Philometor, who was Alexander's father-in-law, went over to his side, and Alexander was defeated in a pitched battle near Antioch in Syria.
He fled for refuge to a Nabataean prince, who murdered him and sent his head to Ptolemy, who had been mortall y wounded in the engagement.
In 333 it received a Macedonian garrison from Antipater; in 308 it was freed by Ptolemy I.
Armenian tradition claims Noah as the founder of Nakhichevan (the Naxuana of Ptolemy), and a mound of earth in the city is still visited by many pilgrims as his grave.
But the actual name is perhaps also found as that of a people in this position (Ptolemy's Kabolitae), if not in the name of a city apparently identical with Ortospana, Carura, in some copies read Cabura.
The Alexandrians then put his younger brother Ptolemy Vii.
Philometor's infant son, Ptolemy Philopator Neos (?) 1, was proclaimed king in Alexandria under the regency of his mother Cleopatra.
By his will he left the Cyrenaica as a separate kingdom to his illegitimate son Ptolemy Apion (116-96), whilst Egypt and Cyprus were bequeathed to Cleopatra (Kokke) and whichever of his two sons by her,
His brother Ptolemy Ceraunus found compensation by becoming king in Macedonia in 281, and perished in the Gallic invasion of 280-79 (see Brennus).