How to use Ptolemaic in a sentence
With the earth as centre such a sphere is known as Ptolemaic; with the sun as centre, as Copernican.
Nearly in the centre of the town is the Ptolemaic and Roman temple of the ram-headed Khnum, almost buried in rubbish and houses.
It had been continuously in Ptolemaic occupation, but the house of Seleucus maintained its claim.
Epiphanes succeeded to the Egyptian throne, and Antiochus concluded a secret pact with Philip of Macedonia for the partition of the Ptolemaic possessions.
Paphos was believed to have been founded either by the Arcadian Agapenor, returning from the Trojan War (c. 1180 B.C.), or by his reputed contemporary Cinyras, whose clan retained royal privileges down to the Ptolemaic conquest of Cyprus in 295 B.C., and held the Paphian priesthood till the Roman occupation in 58 B.C. The town certainly dates back to the close of the Mycenaean Bronze age, and had a king Eteandros among the allies of Assur-bani-pal of Assyria in 668 B.C.'Advertisement
After the foundation of New Paphos and the extinction of the Cinyrad and Ptolemaic dynasties, the importance of the Old Town declined rapidly.
New Paphos became the administrative capital of the whole island in Ptolemaic and Roman days, as well as the head of one of the four Roman districts; it was also a flourishing commercial city in the time of Strabo, and famous for its oil, and for "diamonds" of medicinal power.
They date from the Persian rule down to the Ptolemaic period and are evidently modelled by Greek workmen.
If he said so, he was speaking of the Ptolemaic cosmogony as known to him through the Arabs, and his vaunt was a humorous proof of his scientific instinct.
This was the route controlled and developed by the Ptolemaic kings.Advertisement
An alternative route went from the Indian ports to the Persian Gulf, and thence found the Mediterranean by caravan across Arabia from the country of Gerrha to Gaza; and to control it was no doubt a motive in the long struggle of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid houses for Palestine, as well as in the attempt of Antiochus III.
Whatever the financial system 1 For Ptolemaic Egypt, see Ptolemies and Egypt.
With the exception of Ptolemaic Egypt, the Macedonian kingdoms followed in their coinage that of Alexander.
Corinth, however, was allowed to go on striking staters under Antigonus Gonatas; Ephesus, Cos and the greater cities of Phoenicia retained their right of coinage under Seleucid or Ptolemaic supremacy.
The Friends (at any rate under the later Seleucid and Ptolemaic reigns) were distinguished by a special dress and badge of gold analogous to the stars and crosses of modern orders.Advertisement
The Ptolemaic court, with the museum attached to it, is so prominent in the literary and scientific history of the age that it is unnecessary to give a list of the philosophers, the men of letters and science, who at one time or other ate at King Ptolemy's table.
The Pergamene court was in no degree behind the Ptolemaic in its literary and artistic zeal.
To their native subjects the Seleucid and Ptolemaic kings were always foreigners.
No reasonable fault can be found with the marine surveyors of this period, but the scientific cartographers allowed themselves too frequently to be influenced by Ptolemaic traditions.
The Heptastadium, however, and the mainland quarters seem to have been mainly Ptolemaic work.Advertisement
The Germans found remains of a Ptolemaic colonnade and streets in the north-east of the city, but little else.
The very large number of classical and other Greek papyri, of the Ptolemaic and later periods, which have been recovered in Egypt, are noticed in the article on Palaeography.
His dissatisfaction with Ptolemaic doctrines was of early date; and he returned from Italy, where so-called Pythagorean opinions were then freely discussed, in strong and irrevocable possession of the heliocentric theory.
The origin of its application must be sought in a time when Egypt was regarded as hostile to the people of the Lord - that is to say, during the Ptolemaic rule over Palestine.
After Alexander's death it was long a battle ground of rival marshals and kings, and for a time fell under Ptolemaic dominion, but finally under that of the Seleucids, who, however, never held effectually more than the eastern half.Advertisement
This omission is much to be regretted, since Nabonassar was the last king but two of this dynasty, and, had we known its duration, we could have combined the information on the earlier periods furnished by the Kings' List with the evidence of the Ptolemaic Canon.
He belongs, probably, to the Ptolemaic age.
The first, extending from about 306 to 30, includes the time from the foundation of the Ptolemaic dynasty to its final subjugation by the Romans; the second extends from 30 to A.D.
The founder of the mathematical school was the celebrated Euclid (Eucleides); among its scholars were Archimedes; Apollonius of Perga, author of a treatise on Conic Sections; Eratosthenes, to whom we owe the first measurement of the earth; and Hipparchus, the founder of the epicyclical theory of the heavens, afterwards called the Ptolemaic system, from its most famous expositor, Claudius Ptolemaeus.
The wholesale theory of Revillout (35) that all Hebrew and Syrian measures were doubled by the Ptolemaic revision, while retaining the same names, rests entirely on the resemblance of the names apet and epha, and of log to the Coptic and late measure lok.Advertisement
The tema is the same name as the large wheat measure (35), which was worth 30,000 to 19,000 grains of copper, according to Ptolemaic receipts and accounts (Rev. Eg., 1881, 150), and therefore very likely worth to utens of copper in earlier times when metals were scarcer.
The Ptolemaic copper coinage is on two bases -- the uten, binarily divided, and the Ptolemaic five shekels (1050), also binarily divided.
Probably the 129 and 224 systems coexisted in the country; but on the whole it seems more likely that 129 or rather 258 grains was the Hebrew shekel before the Ptolemaic times -- especially as the 100 shekels to the mina is paralleled by the following Persian system (Hultsch) --
BÃ¶ckh decides that the "Alexandrian drachma" was 6/5ths of the Solonic 67, or = 80.5, and shows that it was not Ptolemaic, or Rhodian, or Aeginetan, being distinguished from these in inscriptions (2).
But we are now able to prove that it was an independent system -- (1) by its not ranging usually over 200 grains in Egypt before it passed to Greece; (2) by its earliest example, perhaps before the 224 unit existed, not being over 208; and (3) by there being no intermediate linking on of this to the Phoenician unit in the large number of Egyptian weights, nor in the Ptolemaic coinage, in which both standards are used.Advertisement
In later times, in Asia, however, the fuller weight, or higher Egyptian group, which we have just noticed in the coinage, was kept up (17) into the series of cistophori (196-191), as in the Ptolemaic series of 199.
In literature it is constantly referred to; but we may notice the "general mina" (Cleopatra), in Egypt, 16 unciae=6600; the Ptolemaic talent, equal to the Attic in weight and divisions (Hero, Didymus); the Antiochian talent, equal to the Attic (Hero); the treaty of the Romans with Antiochus, naming talents of 80 librae, i.e.
The cemetery of the ancient town was found on two low mounds to the north, but was mostly of Ptolemaic date.
Later, the form was reproduced by elaborate external wrappings of the different parts of the body before the final swathing; later still, in the Ptolemaic age, by coarse padding with plenty of linen and pitch.
Africa had passed to Rome, and Cyrenaica itself, bequeathed by Apion, the last Ptolemaic sovereign, was become (in combination with Crete) a Roman province (after 96 B.C.), this competition told more severely than ever, and the Greek colonists, grown weaker, found themselves less able to hold their own against the Libyan population.Advertisement
The name was introduced into the Ptolemaic dynasty by the mother of Ptolemy I.
For a short period in the reign of Epiphanes, when Upper Egypt was in rebellion against the Ptolemaic rule, Thebes was the capital of independent native.
Northward and far back in the foot-hills is the Ptolemaic temple of Deir el Medina, and beyond under the cliffs of Deir el Bahri the terrace temple of Queen Hatshepsut, the walls of which are adorned with scenes from her expedition to Puoni (Somaliland) in search of incense trees, and many other subjects.
From the Ptolemaic kingdom Hellenism early travelled up the Nile into Ethiopia.
In temples of Ptolemaic and Roman age the full series is figured presenting their tribute to the god, and this series approximately agrees with the scattered data of early monuments.Advertisement
Two wills exist on papyrus of the XIIth Dynasty, but they are isolated, and such are not again found among native documents, though they occur in Greek in the Ptolemaic age.
The zodiacal signs were not introduced till the Ptolemaic period.
Others are highly imaginative or with miraculous incidents, like the story of the Predestined Prince and the story of the Two Brothers, which begins with a pleasing picture of the industrious farmer, and, in demotic of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods, two stories of the learned Sethon Khamois, sonofRameses II.
His cult was revived and became popular in Ptolemaic times.
Unlike most cosmic deities, she was worshipped in many localities, chief among which was Dendera, where her magnificent temple, of Ptolemaic date, still stands.Advertisement
Such are found from the 6th century n.c. in the inscription of Abu Simbel, from the 5th in Herodotus, &c., and abound in Ptolemaic and later documents from the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. onwards.
At first sight they may seem inaccurate, but on closer examination the Graecizing is seen to follow definite rules, especially in the Ptolemaic period.
Fanciful writing abotmnds on the temples of the Ptolemaic and Roman periods.
Glass amulets were also commonly placed upon Ptolemaic mummies.
In Ptolemaic times not only were Macedonian dates sometimes given in Greek documents, but there were certainly two native modes of dating current; down to the reign of Euergetes there was a fiscal dating in papyri, according to which the yotr began in Paophi, besides a civil dating probably from Thoth; later, all the dates in papyri start from Thoth.
The Macedonian year is found in early Ptolemaic documents.
The conquest by Alexander ushers in the Hellenistic age, comprising the periods of Ptolemaic and Roman rule.
No serious effort was made to extend the Ptolemaic rule into Ethiopia, and Ergamenes, the Hellenizing king of Ethiopia, was evidently in alliance with Philopator; in the next reign two native kings, probably supported by Ethiopia, reigned in succession at Thebes.
In the main lines the Ptolemaic organization was preserved, but Romans were gradually introduced into the highest offices.
There was a large Jewish colony in Ptolemaic and early Roman times, and a Christian community founded by Paul and Barnabas in A.D.
Pytheas certainly had one merit which distinguished him from almost all his contemporaries - he was a good astronomer, and was one of the first who made observations for the determination of latitudes, among others that of his native place Massilia, which he fixed with remarkable accuracy; his result, which was within a few miles of the truth, was adopted by Ptolemy, and became the basis of the Ptolemaic map of the western Mediterranean.
This moment marks the zenith of the Ptolemaic power.
Towards the close of the 2nd century B.C., when the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms were equally depressed, the Nabataean kingdom came to the front; under Aretas III.
The tradition of the old world was too heavily weighted with the Ptolemaic astronomy and the like to be regarded as other than a bar to progress.
Philopator (reigned 221-204), son of the preceding, was a wretched debauchee under whom the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began.
These are, briefly speaking, the decay of those great fabrics, church and empire, which ruled the middle ages both as ideas and as realities; the development of nationalities and languages; the enfeeblement of the feudal system throughout Europe; the invention and application of paper, the mariner's compass, gunpowder, and printing; the exploration of continents beyond the ocean; and the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy.
Ptolemy, however, recovered it in 295 B.C. Under Ptolemaic rule Cyprus has little history.
The chronology is exactly verified by the Ptolemaic canon, bI numerous Babylonian and a few Egyptian documents, and by thi evidence of the Greeks.
The other members of the coalition had assigned Palestine to Seleucus after what they regarded as Ptolemy's desertion, and for the next hundred years the question of its ownership becomes the standing ground of enmity between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties.
Her death was followed by a rupture between the Ptolemaic and Seleucid courts, on the old question of Palestine.
The old Ptolemaic realm was never again a unity after the death of Euergetes II.
Callimachus, made keeper of the library, Theocritus, and a host of lesser poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family.
The Ptolemaic system was, in a geometrical sense, defensible; it harmonized fairly well with appearances, and physical reasonings had not then been extended to the heavens.
In Germany, during the 15th century, a brilliant attempt was made to patch up the flaws in Ptolemaic doctrine.
It is admitted that Greeks, Romans, Aryans of India in the age of the Sanskrit commentators, Egyptians of the Ptolemaic and earlier ages, were as much puzzled as we are by the mythical adventures of their gods.
The reverence and authority which was accorded the famous compilation of the Alexandrian astronomer is well evidenced by the catalogue of the Tatar Ulugh Beg, the Arabian names thane adopted being equivalent to the Ptolemaic names in nearly every case; this is also shown in the Latin translations given below.
Significantly, the same objections underlie Nicolaus Copernicus ' reformation of Ptolemaic astronomy.
He was at once killed by the enraged people and with him the Ptolemaic family in the legitimate male line became extinct.
The salt monopoly is mentioned in I Macc. 30, 29; I I, 35, a suspected source, but supported in this detail by the analogy of Ptolemaic Egypt and Rome.
It was especially used to represent geometrically the periodic apparent retrograde motion of the outer planets, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, which we now know to be due to the annual revolution of the earth around the sun, but which in the Ptolemaic astronomy were taken to be real.
In Ptolemaic times the artaba (2336.), modified from the Persian, was general in Egypt, a working equivalent to the Attic metretes -- value 2 apet or 1/2 tama; medimnus=tama or 2 artabas, and fractions down to 1/400 artaba (35).
BÃƒ¶ckh decides that the "Alexandrian drachma" was 6/5ths of the Solonic 67, or = 80.5, and shows that it was not Ptolemaic, or Rhodian, or Aeginetan, being distinguished from these in inscriptions (2).
It was, therefore, assumed by the Macedonians that the Ptolemaic house was really descended from Philip (see Ptolemies).
The Plolemaic Period.On the division of Alexanders dominions in 32!3 B.C., Egypt fell to Ptolemy the son of Lagus, the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty (see PTOLEMIES).
Under Egyptian and Roman administration Salamis flourished greatly, though under the Ptolemaic priest-kings and under Rome the seat of government was at New Paphos (see Paphos).
In astronomy, the term is used in connexion with the Ptolemaic theory to denote the angular distance on the epicycle of a planet from the true apogee of the epicycle; and the "equation to the argument" is the angle subtended at the earth by the distance of a planet from the centre of the epicycle.
The appearance, in September 1604, of a new star in the constellation Serpentarius afforded him indeed an opportunity, of which he eagerly availed himself, for making an onslaught upon the Aristotelian axiom of the incorruptibility of the heavens; but he continued to conform his public teachings in the main to Ptolemaic principles, until the discovery of a novel and potent implement of research in the shape of the telescope placed at his command startling and hitherto unsuspected evidence as to the constitution and mutual relations of the heavenly bodies.
But even after the discovery of the law of Copernicus the Ptolemaic worlds were still studied for a long time.
During the Hellenistic period, the city came under the rule of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid Kingdoms and the Kingdom of Pergamum.
The Ptolemaic and Seleucid kings appointed local officers, who had Greek secretaries.
Top of page 311 B.C. to 32 B.C. Ptolemaic Ptolemy I Soter self-proclaimed king of all Egypt, recaptured Syria and the Aegean islands.
Two Seleucid princes, children of Soter's sister Selene, appeared in Rome in 73 to urge their claim to the Ptolemaic throne.