Psychology Sentence Examples
An investigator, pledging himself to no beliefs - even perhaps one who definitely disbelieves and rejects theism - may yet interest himself in tracking out the psychology of religion.
I got here early and was reading the highlighted portions of one of your psychology books.
He wrote both on psychology and on metaphysics, but is known especially as a historian of philosophy.
Her psychology is not subtle or profound, but her leading characters are clearly conceived and drawn in broad, bold outlines.
Sensations, he argued, thus being representable by numbers, psychology may become an "exact" science, susceptible of mathematical treatment.Advertisement
Still, the idea of the exact measurement of sensation has been a fruitful one, and mainly through his influence on Wundt, Fechner was the father of that "new" psychology of laboratories which investigates human faculties with the aid of exact scientific apparatus.
In 1870-71 he lectured on psychology at Harvard.
Subject area - In which area of psychology would you like to specialize?
In psychology, his view of the intimate union of soul and body is remarkable.
Psychology recognizes two uses of the term.Advertisement
The degree offerings range from nursing to business to education to counseling, religion and psychology.
Cultivating an understanding of other people's communication styles and personalities is essential, so classes in psychology may be part of some school's curricula.
Many psychology students who want to further their education skip the master's step entirely and go straight into Ph.D. programs.
Curriculum - The core classes and study progression are arguably the most important part of a graduate program in psychology.
In the psychology of Descartes there are two fundamental 2 Ib.Advertisement
He was much influenced by Lotze, whose Outlines of Philosophy he translated (6 vols., 1877), and was one of the first to introduce (1879) the study of experi mental psychology into America, the Yale psychological laboratory being founded by him.
Not long ago, in England at all events, metaphysics was merged in psychology.
In his Principles of Psychology he twice quotes his point that " what we are conscious of as properties of matter, even down to its weight and resistance, are but subjective affections produced by objective agencies which are unknown and unknowable."
We have here, in this sceptical idealism, the source of the characteristically English form of idealism still to be read in the writings of Mill and Spencer, and still the starting-point of more recent works, such as Pearson's Grammar of Science and James's Principles of Psychology.
The physical basis of Stoic psychology deserves the closest attention.Advertisement
Unfortunately counseling psychology is not yet a funded training.
The psychology class will encompass many mental illnesses and common behaviors.
At the graduate level, Dr. Markman teaches courses in Couples Intervention, Advanced Issues in Marital Therapy, and Community Psychology.
A psychologist has a doctoral degree in psychology.
He's interested in religions, spirituality, philosophy and psychology.Advertisement
Your background is in psychology and religion - how did you discover yoga?
PsycInfo References to and summaries of journal articles, books and book chapters from 1974 onwards, covering psychology and related fields including psycholinguistics.
In the early 1970's this background presented problems for local psychologists who wanted to apply psychology to the conflict in Northern Ireland.
How people actually reason is usually studied under other headings, including cognitive psychology.
Commonsense psychology is false, and the states (and representations) it postulates simply don't exist.
In what sense, if any, is ` folk psychology ' a theory?
The dissertation is an empirical research project in the area of developmental psychopathology or developmental psychology that is carried out throughout the year.
He conducts research in the area of parenting, family psychology and the treatment and prevention of childhood psychopathology.
Her favorite themes were marriage breakdowns, unusual psychology and sexual relationships.
The man who tames them with his unique blend of safari, sport and psychology also turns novice riders into skilled ranchers.
Reed's chapter on Gibson's brief sally into social psychology makes interesting but tantalizing reading.
Broadcasting a drama serial which deals with issues of psychology and paranormal in primetime Saturday night deserves brownie points.
As he teaches a particular routine, he also teaches each sleight, each move, the psychology, the proper attitude to take.
He is also assisting in the delivery of sport psychology on talented athlete programs for a number of sport psychology on talented athlete programs for a number of Sports Colleges.
In the eighties I studied astrology and transpersonal psychology and researched into Jungian approaches to reading tarot and I Ching.
Please consult any good undergraduate psychology textbook on how to deal with these people.
For what it's worth, I'm no psychology expert or eminent theologian on the subject of worries.
To find out, Alan Brown (Southern Methodist University, USA) and colleagues surveyed 218 first-year psychology undergraduates.
Phoenix Rising yoga Therapy Phoenix Rising Yoga Therapy is a combination of classical yoga and elements of contemporary client-centered and body-mind psychology.
A BSc degree in zoology or applied zoology, such as agricultural zoology or animal psychology is also needed.
In many passages of his works on pathology, physiology, and psychology Lotze had distinctly stated that the method of research which he advocated there did not give an explanation of the phenomena of life and mind, but only the means of observing and connecting them together; that the meaning of all phenomena, and the reason of their peculiar connexions, was a philosophical problem which required to be attacked from a different point of view; and that the significance especially which lay in the phenomena of life and mind would only unfold itself if by an exhaustive survey of the entire life of man, individually, socially, and historically, we gain the necessary data for deciding what meaning attaches to the existence of this microcosm, or small world of human life, in the macrocosm of the universe.
A small pamphlet on psychology, containing the last form in which he had begun to treat the subject in his lectures (abruptly terminated through his death on the 1st of July 1881) during the summer session of 1881, has been published by his son.
The investigations will then naturally divide themselves into three parts, the first of which deals with those to our mind inevitable forms in which we are obliged to think about things, if we think at all (metaphysics), the second being devoted to the great region of facts, trying to apply the results of metaphysics to these, specially the two great regions of external and mental phenomena (cosmology and psychology), the third dealing with those standards of value from which we pronounce our aesthetical or ethical approval or disapproval.
The result was the reduction of punishment both in quantity and in severity, the improvement of the prison system, and the first attempts to study the psychology of crime and to distinguish between classes of criminals with a view to their improvement (see Crime; Prison; Children'S Courts; Juvenile Offenders).
This is the line of argument developed by Professor Hugo Miinsterberg in his lecture on The Eternal Life (1905), although he states it in the terms peculiar to his psychology, in which personality is conceived as primarily will.
He had already demonstrated in his prefaces the possibility of a psychology apart from physiology, of the science of the phenomena of consciousness distinct from the perceptions of sense.
In the volume on Empirical Psychology, Wolff discusses free will.
Flint that while materialism requires sensationalist psychology, yet the psychology in question allows no valid inference to matter, and therefore destroys materialism.
We must content ourselves by referring to the progress of physical (including chemical) theory, which has led to the great generalization of the conservation of energy; to the discovery of the fundamental chemical identity of the matter of our planet and of other celestial bodies, and of the chemical relations of organic and inorganic bodies; to the advance of astronomical speculation respecting the origin of the solar system, &c.; to the growth of the science of geology which has necessitated the conception of vast and unimaginable periods of time in the past history of our globe, and to the rapid march of the biological sciences which has made us familiar with the simplest types and elements of organism; finally, to the development of the science of anthropology (including comparative psychology, philology, &c.), and to the vast extension and improvement of all branches of historical study.
In a third class must be placed the cure of disease by healing mediums. This belongs to medical psychology, and cannot well be studied apart from hypnotic treatment of disease, from the now well-recognized power of suggestion (q.v.), from "faith cures," "mind cures," "Christian Science" and cures connected with other forms of religious belief (see Faith-Healing).
His original work is eclectic, combining the psychology of his teachers, Jules Simon, Saisset and Mamiani, with the idealism of Rosmini and Gioberti.
The psychology of the Scholastic writers is ably dealt with in Siebeck's Die Psychologie von Aristoteles bis zu Thomas von Aquino (1885).
It is thus contrasted with metaphysics, which considers the nature of reality, and with psychology, which deals with the objective part of cognition, and, as Prof. James Ward said, "is essentially genetic in its method" (Mind, April 1883, pp. 166-167).
No philosophy founded on this assumption is likely to maintain itself against the twofold evidence of modern psychology and modern logic. According to the first the world, whether looked at from the side of our perception or from the side of the object perceived, can be made intelligible only when we accept it for what it is as a real continuity.
The psychologist finds among the earliest of his problems the question as to the process from the perception of things seen and heard to mental conceptions, which are ultimately distinct from immediate perception (see Psychology).
See Joseph Tracy, The Great Awakening (Boston, 1842); Samuel P. Hayes, "An Historical Study of the Edwardean Revivals," in The American Journal of Psychology, vol.
We, on the contrary, mainly through the influence of Descartes, rather ask what are the things we know, and therefore, some more and some less, come to connect ontology with epistemology, and in consequence come to treat metaphysics in relation to psychology and logic, from which epistemology is an offshoot.
But to make such a conversion from phenomenalism plausible, it is necessary to be silent about his whole psychology, logic, and epistemology, and the consequent limitation of knowledge to experience, and of reason to ideas and " ideals," without any power of inferring corresponding things.
Spencer widens the empirical theory of the origin of knowledge by his brilliant hypothesis of inherited organized tendencies, which has influenced all later psychology and epistemology, and tends to a kind of compromise between Hume and Kant.
Pragmatism has very distinctly a connexion with religion, because it explains, and to some extent justifies, the faithattitude or will to believe, and those who study the psychology of religion cannot but be impressed with the pragmatic nature of this attitude.
He created their formal logic and contributed much that was of value to their psychology and epistemology; but in the main his work was to new-label and new-arrange in every department, and to lavish most care and attention on the least important parts - the logical terminology and the refutation of fallacies, or, as his opponents declared, the excogitation of fallacies which even he could not refute.
Modern psychology has strengthened the contention for a fixed connexion between motive and act by reference to subconscious and unconscious processes of which Edwards, who thought that nothing could affect the mind which was unperceived, little dreamed; at the same time, at least in some of its developments, especially in its freer use of genetic and organic conceptions, it has rendered much in the older forms of statement obsolete, and has given a new meaning to the idea of self-determination, which, as applied to an abstract power, Edwards rightly rejected as absurd.
The order in which, for clearness of exposition, it will be most convenient to consider these disciplines will be psychology, epistemology or theory of knowledge, and metaphysics, then logic, aesthetics and ethics.
Or, if 1 It is true that he afterwards modifies this misleading identification by introducing the distinction between empirical psychology or the phenomenology of mind and inferential psychology' or ontology, i.e.
Logic, therefore, agrees with epistemology (and differs from psychology) in treating thought not as mental fact but as knowledge, as idea, as having meaning in relation to an objective world.
Aesthetics (q.v.) may be treated as a department of psychology or physiology, and in England this is the mode of treatment that has been most general.
Here also psychology, by its elucidation of the important part which instinctive appetites and animal impulses play in the development of intelligence, still more perhaps by arguments (based largely upon the examination of hypnotic subjects or the phenomena of fixed ideas) which show the permanent influence of irrational or semi-rational suggestions or habits upon human conduct, has done much to aid and abet idealists in their contentions.
It would be difficult to decide how much of the dispute between the advocates of pleasure theories and their opponents turns upon vexed questions of psychology, and how much is p ho strictly relevant to ethics.
But we are most of all indebted to Herbart for the enormous advance psychology has been enabled to make, thanks to his fruitful treatment of it, albeit as yet but few among the many who have appropriated and improved his materials have ventured to adopt his metaphysical and mathematical foundations.
Reed 's chapter on Gibson 's brief sally into social psychology makes interesting but tantalizing reading.
Laura Spinney is a freelance science writer specializing mainly in psychology and neuroscience.
The influence of social support on the lived experiences of spinal cord injured athletes, XI European Congress of Sport Psychology.
He is also assisting in the delivery of sport psychology on talented athlete programs for a number of Sports Colleges.
The emerging picture fits into one of the most stylized facts of citizen psychology.
For what it 's worth, I 'm no psychology expert or eminent theologian on the subject of worries.
Her work has been studied and validated by experts in the fields of both psychology and color physics.
Phoenix Rising Yoga Therapy Phoenix Rising Yoga Therapy is a combination of classical yoga and elements of contemporary client-centered and body-mind psychology.
If you're into psychology, you might say that naming a child provides a celebrity with an opportunity for unscripted personal expression.
As a graduate with a degree in psychology from the University of Tennessee, Kelly worked as a research assistant in a psychology lab at Emory University on the Emory Family Togetherness Project.
To find a therapist in your area, check out the Psychology Today online directory.
He is professor of psychology and codirector of the Center for Marital and Family Studies at the University of Denver.
As a professor, Dr. Markman teaches undergraduate courses in Marital and Family Interaction and Therapy and the Psychology of Love.
The humors pop up again in psychology and even in educational circles as advocated by the scholar Rudolf Steiner.
This will help once you start shooting, as a large part of being a great photographer is understanding a bit of human psychology.
She has a doctorate in clinical psychology and is a licensed clinical professional counselor and certified alcohol and drug counselor.
They offer help in Math, Algebra, Calculus, Statistics, Economics, Finance, Accounting, Physics, Programming, Biology, Chemistry, and Psychology.
Dr. Alvera Vayzer Milberg has a PhD in Clinical and School Psychology from Hofstra University.
Is addiction counseling a program on its own, or is it a subfield within psychology or sociology?
Within the history of developmental psychology, the work of Jean Piaget (1896-1980), the Swiss psychologist, has had the greatest impact on the study of cognitive development.
Play is a critical part of developing creativity, according to Mary Mindess, a child psychology professor at Lesley University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Studying the lives of the great masters is a lesson in history, psychology and sociology.
Just as attorneys and paralegals consult experts in psychology, they often require professional insight and guidance with health and medical issues.
Criminologists may have a degree in criminal justice, psychology or sociology, and may even have master's degrees or Ph.D.'s before receiving this distinction.
You typically need a four year degree in either criminal justice or psychology to become a penologist.
If you hold a Ph.D. in psychology, you could work at a wilderness or recreational therapy practice.
He also holds a degree in psychology from the University of Illinois.
Credentials. If the article discusses psychology, is the writer a certified therapist or psychologist?
A natural correlation between love and relationship compatibility and quizzes is apparent to anyone who has studied psychology or spent much time dating.
Whether you've ever studied psychology or not, logic will tell you, people with things in common are more likely to find happiness in a long-term relationship.
The more experienced the creator is in psychology and the social interaction of people, the more credible the results, but even the most credible results are no guarantee that you will find happiness.
Human psychology is rooted in humanity's earliest existence many centuries ago.
According to Psychology Today online dating is an established and legitimate way to meet and begin a relationship.
Some of the books that mention using rules with dating are based on psychology and what men want versus what women want.
Factor in the age difference between you and your intended audience, and writing jokes for kids becomes an exercise in applied child psychology.
A clear cut definition of the Pisces persona can be useful for drawing out and seeking to explain certain behaviors that seem prominent within a person's psychology.
Their psychology is driven by intuition and emotion more than heady logic.
In popular psychology, the authoritative parenting style is accepted as the "gold standard" for parenting.
Jose Silva, the creator of the Silva Mind Control training techniques, had no formal training related to psychology or brain sciences.
The psychiatric evaluation that he received upon entering the army sparked his interest in the field of psychology.
Upon leaving military service in 1946, he returned to his electronics business, but also began his new hobby involving hypnosis and psychology.
The literal, dictionary definition of the noun "myth" is a story, sometimes based on true events, that serves as a lesson about people, customs, ideals and even the overall psychology of a particular society.
Pratt, a psychology graduate student acting as the assistant, J.B.
Rhine published an article in the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology outlining the results of his research.
While regression therapists don't need to have a degree in psychology, you do want to go to someone who has been properly trained and certified in hypnosis.
There are others who are not trained in psychology, but are trained hypnotists who specialize in past life regression.
The psychology involved is probably the hardest part of saving money.
As he juggled his schoolwork and earned his psychology degree, he also attended acting workshops and completed high-profile modeling assignments all over the world.
Dr. Burton could have had his own private psychology practice, but chose to follow his wife, Lieutenant Colonel Joan Burton, in the Army.
She is also actively pursuing her doctorate degree in somatic psychology.
I also found that yoga brought together my interest in psychology and spirituality.
Before I got seriously into yoga, I found myself fusing my studies in psychology as well as my own personal spirituality into my fitness classes.
My studies in psychology and energetic healing created a natural foundation for my yoga teaching as well.
Hitlan, PhD, both of the Department of Psychology, University of Northern Iowa, this study finds that a different prominent study that showed no link between mercury and autism used a flawed data set to reach that conclusion.
Each speaker has a unique perspective to offer, whether in the realm of psychology, medicine or real-life experiences.
Dr. Bernard Rimland introduced the term in a 1978 Psychology Today article.Savant abilities include many different types of skills that range from exceptional memory ability to brilliance in a certain subject.
The Shangri-La Diet was created by Seth Roberts, an associate professor of Psychology at the University of California Berkley.
This is because it contains an amino acid called L-theanine, which was shown in a 2006 Nagoya University Department of Psychology study to reduce physiological stress responses "via the inhibition of cortical neuron excitation."
Ratey cites a study performed by kinesiology and neuroscience professor Charles Hillman, which was published in the Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology.
Bedingfield left The DNA Algorithm to go to the University of Greenwich to study psychology.
According to Psychology Today, the reason so many people find it so difficult to turn away from reality television is a little less sinister.
Using shows that deal with the disease of addiction, such as Sober House and Intervention, Psychology Today suggests that viewers' compassion makes them invested in the characters and human struggles they see on the screen.
Psychology Today does not address the pull of these shows.
She earned a B.A. in psychology from Baylor University and returned to California, where she became a real estate agent representing high end properties in the Newport Beach area.
Science fiction studies in genetics and cloning appeals to its real life counterparts in genetic engineering, medicine and psychology.
The bottom line is that it seems to just be a quirk of our psychology that we identify a given moment in time as "now" - as the barrier between that which is fixed, and that which is changeable.
Rather, it's going to require much more applied psychology in order to stay in the lead.
Experimental psychology may in course of time have an important bearing on economics, but the older science cannot be said to be of much significance except in its historical aspects.
For metaphysics, properly so called, and even psychology, except so far as it afforded a basis for ethics, he evidently had no taste.
At the time of his death he was writing a History of Psychology, and had promised a work on Kant and the Modern Naturalists.
Wide as Bain's influence has been as a logician, a grammarian and a writer on rhetoric, his reputation rests on his psychology.
In line with this, too, is his demand that psychology shall be cleared of metaphysics; and to his lead is no doubt due in great measure the position that psychology has now acquired as a distinct positive science.
James calls his work the "last word" of the earlier stage of psychology, but he was in reality the pioneer of the new.
Subsequent psycho-physical investigations have all been in the spirit of his work; and although he consistently advocated the introspective method in psychological investigation, he was among the first to appreciate the help that may be given to it by animal and social and infant psychology.
It had its roots in New a literature and in forms of thought remote from the common track; it had been formulated before the Prag- great advances in psychology which marked the course matism.
On the other hand the theory has been attacked in the interest of the subject on the ground that in the statuesque world of ideas into which it introduces us it leaves no room for the element of movement and process which recent psychology and metaphysic alike have taught us underlies all life.
The Letters contain a discussion of many of the principal problems in psychology and ethics.
Originally a follower of Hegel, he turned to Fichte and Beneke (q.v.), with whose insistence on psychology as the basis of all philosophy he fully agreed.
If the phenomena of dreams were, as suggested above, of great importance for the development of animism, the belief, which must originally have been a doctrine of human psychology, cannot have failed to expand speedily into a general philosophy of nature.
Not only human beings but animals and objects are seen in dreams; and the conclusion would be that they too have souls; the same conclusion may have been reached by another line of argument; primitive psychology posited a spirit in a man to account, amongst other things, for his actions; a natural explanation of the changes in the external world would be that they are due to the operations and volitions of spirits.
Apelleiacos (lost), De paradiso (lost), De fato (lost), De anima (the first book on Christian psychology), De carne Christi, De resurrectione carnis, and De spe fidelium (lost), were all written after Tertullian had recognized the prophetic claims of the Montanists, but before he had left the church.
Thus we find that at first, under the influence of his master, Aristotle held somewhat ascetic views on soul and body and on goods of body and estate, entirely opposed both in psychology and in ethics to the moderate doctrines of his later writings.
How otherwise, we wonder, could one man writing alone and with so few predecessors compose the first systematic treatises on the psychology of the mental powers and on the logic of reasoning, the first natural history of animals, and the first civil history of one hundred and fifty-eight constitutions, in addition to authoritative treatises on metaphysics, biology, ethics, politics, rhetoric and poetry; in all penetrating to the very essence of the subject, and, what is most wonderful, describing more facts than any other man has ever done on so many subjects ?
As he neither put them together, nor on any one definite plan, we are left to convenience; and the most convenient place is with the psychology of the De Anima.
In 1874 he was elected regular professor of philosophy at Zurich, and in the following year was called to the corresponding chair at Leipzig, where he founded an Institute for Experimental Psychology, the precursor of many similar institutes.
The list of Wundt's works is long and comprehensive, including physiology, psychology, logic and ethics.
We must look for ethics to supply the corner-stone of metaphysics, and psychology is a necessary propaedeutic. The System der Philosophie (1899; 3rd ed., 1907) contained the results of Wundt's work up to that date, both in the domain of science and in the more strictly philosophic field.
The metaphysical or ontological part of psychology is in Wundt's view the actual part, and with this the science of nature and the science of mind are to be brought into relation, and thus constituted as far as possible philosophical sciences.
He began with psychology, which he made the study of his life.
Similarly, both in First Principles and in the Principles of Psychology, he assigns to us, in addition to our definite consciousness of our subjective affections, an indefinite consciousness of something out of consciousness, of something which resists, of objective existence.
His theory of the nature of will was his own, and arrived at from a voluntaristic psychology leading to a voluntaristic metaphysics of his own.
Finally, Schopenhauer's voluntarism has had a profound effect on psychology inside and outside Germany, and to a less degree produced attempts to deduce from voluntaristic psychology new systems of voluntaristic metaphysics, such as those of Paulsen and Wundt.
As with his master, his reasons for this view are derived, not from a direct proof that unconscious Nature has the mental attributes supposed, but from human psychology and epistemology.
In 1860 appeared Fechner's Elemente der Psychophysik, a work which deeply affected subsequent psychology, and almost revolutionized metaphysics of body and soul, and of physical and psychical relations generally.
With these four positions in hand, Wundt's philosophy consecutively follows, beginning with his psychology.
So far his psychology is a further development of Hume's.
Thirdly, on the grounds that logical thinking adds the notion of substance, as substrate, to experience of the physical, but not of the psychical, and that the most proper being of mind is will, he concludes that wills are not active substances, but substance-generating activities (" nicht thatige Substanzen sondern substanzerzeugende Thdtigkeiten," System, 429) What kind of metaphysics, then, follows from this compound of psychology and epistemology?
The conclusion that reason in transcending experience can show no more than the necessity of " ideals " is the only conclusion which could follow from Wundt's phenomenalism in psychology, logic, and epistemology.
Wundt, starting from a psychology of unitary experience, deduces a consistent metaphysics of no inference of things transcending experience throughout - or rather until he came to the very last sentence of his System der Philosophie (1889), where he suddenly passes from a necessity of " ideals " (Ideen), to a necessity of " faith " (Glauben), without " knowledge " (Wissen).
He forgets apparently that faith is a belief in things beyond ideas and ideals, which is impossible in his psychology of judgment and logic of inference.
What a pity it is that Wundt had committed himself by his psychology to phenomenalism, to unitary experience, and to the limitation of judgment and reason to ideas and ideals!
To understand Wundt is to discover what a mess modern psychology has made to metaphysics.
His aim is to remedy this defect by psychology, under the conviction that a true metaphysics is at bottom psychology, and a true psychology fundamentally metaphysics.
His psychology is founded on a proposed distinction between " attuition " and reason.
At first in his psychology he speaks of the " attuition " and the rational perception of an outside object.
He supposes first, that we falsely conclude from the sun being independent of each to being independent of all; secondly, that by " introjection " we falsely conclude that another's experience is in him and therefore one's own in oneself, while the sun remains outside; and thirdly, that by " reification " of abstractions, natural science having abstracted the object and psychology the subject, each falsely believes that its own abstract, the sun or the subject, is an independent thing.
William James (q.v.), on the other hand, in his psychological works shows that the tendency of recent psychology is to personality, interpreted idealistically; though without a very clear appreciation of what a person is, and personality means.
Fechner, Wundt and Paulsen have fixed the conclusion in psychology that soul is not substance but unity of mental life; and Wundt concludes from the modern history of the term that substance or " substrate " is only a secondary conception to that of causality, and that, while there is a physical causality distinct from that of substance, psychical causality requires no substance at all.
The contrary method is psychological metaphysics, which makes metaphysics dependent on psychology, on the ground that the origin of knowledge determines its limits.
At the same time, while the independence of metaphysics leads us to metaphysical realism, this is not to deny the value of psychology, still less of logic. Besides the duty of determining what we know, there is the duty of determining how we know it.
But in order to discharge it, a reform of psychology as well as of metaphysics is required.
Their psychology contained valuable points.
The cause Of this anachronism has been the failure of intuitive realism and the domination of idealism, which makes short-sighted men suppose that at all events they must begin with the psychology and the psychological idealism of the day, in the false hope that on the sands of psychological idealism they may build a house of metaphysical realism.
But, with these modifications he accepted the general physics of Aristotle, the metaphysical dualism of matter and form, and the psychology founded upon it.
The psychology of Aristotle and Aquinas thus became impossible; for, if the form of a body is only a mode of matter, to call one's soul the form of one's body is to reduce it to only a mode of matter, and fall into materialism.
Hence Descartes began the reform of psychology not only by the appeal to consciousness, " I think," but also by opposing body and soul, no longer as matter and form, but as different substances.
He was largely instrumental in the foundation of ecoles normales in provincial towns, and himself gave courses of lectures on psychology and practical ethics in their early days.
Of these the dissertation on the passions is a very subtle piece of psychology, containing the essence of the second book of the Treatise.
In the Treatise of Human Nature, which is in every respect the most complete exposition of Hume's philosophical conception, we have the first thorough-going attempt to apply the fundamental principles of Locke's empirical psychology to the construction of a theory of knowledge, and, as a natural consequence, the first systematic criticism of the chief metaphysical notions from this point of view.
In the first instance, then, Hume's philosophical work is to be regarded as the attempt to supply for empiricism in psychology a consistent, that is, a logically developed theory of knowledge.
Without entering into details, which it is the less necessary to do because the subject has been recently discussed with great fulness in works readily accessible, it may be said that for Locke as for Hume the problem of psychology was the exact description of the contents of the individual mind, and the determination of the conditions of the origin and development of conscious experience in the individual mind.
Hume's theory of mathematics - the only one, perhaps, which is compatible with his fundamental principle of psychology - is a practical condemnation of his empirical theory of perception.
Charron's psychology is sensationalist.
Finally, the psychology of Hobbes, though too undeveloped to guide the thoughts or even perhaps arrest the attention of Locke, when essaying the scientific analysis of knowledge, came in course of time (chiefly through James Mill) to be connected with the theory of associationism developed from within the school of Locke, in different ways, by Hartley and Hume; nor is it surprising that the later associationists, finding their principle more distinctly formulated in the earlier thinker, should sometimes have been betrayed into affiliating themselves to Hobbes rather than to Locke.
In the Epicurean physics there are two parts - a general metaphysic and psychology, and a special explanation of particular phenomena of nature.
The latter Mansel's psychology reduces to consciousness of our organism as extended; with the former is given consciousness of free will and moral obligation.
By his Analysis of the Mind and' his Fragment on Mackintosh Mill acquired a position in the history of psychology and ethics.
This practically includes most of the psychology and ethics of Buddhism.
The introduction to this translation, published under the title of Buddhist Psychology, contains the fullest account that has yet appeared of the psychological conceptions on which Buddhist ethics are throughout based.
Accordingly Fries, like the Scotch school, places psychology or analysis of consciousness at the foundation of philosophy, and called his criticism of knowledge an anthropological critique.
Those on Aesthetics, on the Philosophy of Religion, on the Philosophy of History and on the History of Philosophy, have been published by his editors, mainly from the notes of his students, under their separate heads; while those on logic, psychology and the philosophy of nature are appended in the form of illustrative and explanatory notes to the sections of his Encykloptidie.
The Phenomenology is neither mere psychology, nor logic, nor moral philosophy, nor history, but is all of these and a great deal more.
It falls under the three heads of anthropology, phenomenology and psychology proper.
This was due among other causes to the direction of attention to the rising science of psychology, partly to the reaction against the speculative method.
He was an assistant in philosophy at Columbia in 1885-1886, tutor in 1886-1889, adjunct professor of philosophy, ethics and psychology in 1889-1890, becoming full professor in 1890, and dean of the faculty of philosophy in 1890-1902.
As psychology recognizes a distinction of pleasure and pain, and metaphysics of good and evil, so morality assumes the difference between right and wrong in action, good and bad in character; but the distinction in psychology and metaphysics applies to what is, the difference in morality is based on a judgment of what is by what ought to be.
But it is most closely related to the sciences of metaphysics and psychology, which form with it a triad of sciences.
Psychology is the science of mind in general, and therefore of the mental operations, of which inference is one.
The real point is their interdependence, which is so intimate that one sign of great philosophy is a consistent metaphysics, psychology and logic. If the world of things is known to be partly material and partly mental, then the mind must have powers of sense and inference enabling it to know these things, and there must be processes of inference carrying us from and beyond the sensible to the insensible world of matter and mind.
It is clear then that a man's metaphysics and psychology must colour his logic. It is accordingly necessary to the logician to know beforehand the general distinctions and principles of things in metaphysics, and the mental operations of sense, conception, memory and experience in psychology, so as to discover the processes of inference from experience about things in logic.
This attempt is connected with the psychological turn given to recent philosophy by Wundt and others, and is dangerous only so far as psychology itself is hypothetical.
Wundt's comprehensive view that logic looks backwards to psychology and forward to epistemology was hundreds of years ago one of the many discoveries of Aristotle.
Logic cannot, it is true, decide what these things are, nor what the senses know about them, without appealing to metaphysics and psychology.
Yet they must have something to develop from, and thereupon Aristotle gives an account of a process in the psychological mechanism which he illustrates by comparative psychology, wherein a Xo yos or meaning emerges, a "first" universal recognized by induction.
No scientific discipline, however, with the doubtful exception of descriptive psychology, stands to gain anything from a temper like that of Hume.
It is because of the failure of this endeavour to bring the technique of induction within the setting of his Humian psychology of belief that the separation of his contribution to the applied logic of science from his sensationism became necessary, as it happily 1 Mill, Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy, cap. 17.
Applied logic is merely psychology, and not properly to be called logic at all.
Finally, to logic as metaphysic the polar antithesis is psychology as logic. The turn of this also was to come again.
If alleged Psycho- P g Logy.ic a priori constituents of knowledge - such rubrics as substance, property, relation - come to be explained psychologically, the formal logic that has perforce to ignore all that belongs to psychology is confined within too narrow a range to be able to maintain its place as an independent discipline, and tends to be merged in psychology.
It is no accident that it was the psychology of apperception and the voluntaryist theory or practice of Herbart, whose logical theory was so closely allied to that of the formal logicians proper, that contributed most spring from a common stock, though to us unknown - namely sense and understanding."
Reference has been made above to the effect upon the rise of the later psychological logic produced by Herbart's psychology of apperception, when disengaged from the background of his metaphysic taken in conjunction with his treatment in his practical philosophy of the judgment of value or what he calls the aesthetic judgment.
Finally we have a logic of a type fundamentally psychological, if it be not more properly characterized as a psychology which claims to cover the whole field of philosophy, including the logical field.
It has been chiefly indebted to writers, who were not, or were not primarily, logicians, to Avenarius, for example, for the law of the economy of thought, to Wundt, whose system, and therewith his logic,' is a pendant to his psychology, for the volitional character of judgment, to Herbert Spencer and others.
Here may be noted a fundamental difference in the psychology of religion, since in the Roman Church the chief appeal is to the emotions, while in the Reformed it is to the intelligence.
Christianity is dependent upon the understanding of the universe; hence it is the duty of believers to put it into the new setting, so that it adopts and adapts astronomy, geology, biology and psychology.
While ethnography was gathering up the facts from every part of the globe, psychology began to analyse the forms of belief, of action and emotion, to discover if possible the key to the multitudinous variety which history revealed.
The origin of religion, however, can never be determined archaeologically or historically; it must be sought conjecturally through psychology.
This fundamental homogeneity of primitive culture, however, must not be made the excuse for a treatment at the hands of psychology and sociology that dispenses with the study of details and trusts to an a priori method.
Of the three divisions logic is the least important; ethics is the outcome of the whole, and historically the all-important vital element; but the foundations of the whole system are best discerned in the science of nature, which deals pre-eminently with the macrocosm and the microcosm, the universe and man, including natural theology and an anthropology or psychology, the latter forming the direct introduction to ethics.
With this psychology is intimately connected the Stoic theory of knowledge.
The ethical theory of the Stoics stands in the closest connexion with their physics, psychology and cosmology.
Yet problems of interest bearing upon psychology and natural theology continued to be discussed.
The heterodox phrase with which this definition ends points to innovations in psychology which were undoubtedly real and important, suggested by the difficulty of maintaining the essential unity of the soul.
Psychology has been drawn upon to interpret the movements of revolutions or religions, anthropology and ethnology furnish a clue to problems to which the key of documents has been lost.
Thus anatomy and physiology display the structure and functions of the human body, while psychology investigates the operations of the human mind.
The results of his intensest meditations on the psychology and the human and divine significance of the event (on which he has left some pregnant hints in written words of his own) are perfectly fused with those of his subtlest technical calculations on the rhythmical balancing of groups and arrangement of figures in space.
Logic, ethics and physics, psychology, theory of knowledge and metaphysics are all fused together by Plato in a semi-religious synthesis.
He became the founder of logic, psychology, ethics and aesthetics as separate sciences; while he prefixed to all such (comparatively) special inquiries the investigation of the ultimate nature of existence as such, or of those first principles which are common to, and presupposed in, every narrower field of knowledge.
These would embrace, according to the Wolffian scheme long current in philosophical textbooks, ontology proper, or the science of being as such, with its three-branch sciences of (rational) psychology, cosmology and (rational or natural) theology, dealing with the three chief forms of being - the soul, the world and God.
This is not unnatural, seeing that it is only so far as they bear on the one central question of the nature of existence that philosophy spreads its mantle over psychology, logic or ethics.
The particular organic conditions of perception and the associative laws to which the mind, as a part of nature, is subjected, are facts in themselves indifferent to the philosopher; and therefore the development of psychology into an independent science, which took place during the latter half of the 10th century and may now be said to be complete, represents an entirely natural evolution.
Now that psychology, or the observational and experimental study of mind, may be said to have been definitively included among the positive sciences, there is not even the apparent ground which once existed for such an idea.
The last abstraction which it becomes the duty of philosophy to remove is the abstraction from the knowing subject which is made by all the sciences, including, as we shall see, the science of psychology.
A special relation has always existed between psychology and systematic philosophy, but the closeness of the connexion has been characteristic of modern and more particularly of English thought.
The connexion is not difficult to explain, seeing that in psychology, or the science of mind, we study the fact of intelligence (and moral action), and have, so far, in our hands the fact to which all other facts are relative.
This study gives us the science of empirical psychology, or, as it is now termed, psychology sans phrase.
In order to give an adequate account of its subject-matter, psychology may require higher or more complex categories than are employed in the other sciences, just as biology, for example, cannot work with mechanical categories alone, but introduces the conception of development or growth.
But the affinities of such a study are manifestly with the sciences as such rather than with philosophy; and the definitive establishment of psychology as an independent science has already been alluded to.
Since it has been taken up by specialists, psychology is being established on a broader basis of induction, and with the advantage, in some departments, of the employment of experimental methods of measurement.
We may then say that psychology is occupied with the natural function of Intellection, seeking to discover its laws and distinguishing its various modes (perception, representative imagination, conception, &c.) according to the various circumstances in which the laws are found at work.
It is hardly an exaggeration to say that, in the English school since Hume, psychology superseded properly philosophical inquiry.
Hamilton encouraging the confusion by speaking of "psychology or metaphysics," 1 while his lectures on metaphysics are mainly taken up with what belongs in the strictest sense to psychology proper, with an occasional excursus (as in the theory of perception) into epistemology.
The distinction between psychology and theory of knowledge was first clearly made by Kant, who repeatedly insisted that the Critique of Pure Reason was not to be taken as a psychological inquiry.
The introduction of the term "regulative" or "normative" is intended to differentiate the science from psychology as the science of mental processes or events.
They are subjects for a scientific psychology employing the historical method with the conceptions of heredity and development, and calling to its aid, as such a psychology will do, the investigations of all the sociological sciences.
To such a psychology must be relegated all questions as to the origin and development of moral ideas.
Similarly, the question debated at such length by English moralists as to the nature of the moral faculty (moral sense, conscience, &c.) and the controversy concerning the freedom of the will belong entirely to psychology.
His cosmology, which is drawn almost entirely from the Timaeus, and, as he intimated, is not to be regarded as a cosmogony, should be studied in connexion with his psychology.
His principal work, Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, consists in part of memoirs, read in 1796 and 1 797 to the Institute, and is a sketch of physiological psychology.
Psychology is with Cabanis directly linked on to biology, for sensibility, the fundamental fact, is the highest grade of life and the lowest of intelligence.
This again was followed by a psychology, which made thought [as well as sensation, which was conceived to differ from thought only in respect of its object] depend upon the excess of the one or the other of the two constituent elements, fire and night.
They become in practice Psychology, Ontology and Eclecticism in history.
The observational method applied to consciousness gives us the science of psychology.
Hamilton, both of which in the view of Cousin are limited to psychology, and merely relative or phenomenal knowledge, and issue in scepticism so far as the great realities of ontology are concerned.
The recognition of universal and necessary principles in knowledge is the essential point in psychology; it ought to be put first and emphasized to the last that these Imperson= ex i st, and that they are wholly impersonal or absolute.
These principles of reason, cause and substance, given thus psychologically, enable us to pass beyond the limits of the relative and subjective to objective and absolute reality, - enable us, in a word, to pass from psychology, or the science of knowledge, to ontology or the science of being.
If it does, it comes within the sphere of psychology; and the objections to it as thus a relative, made by Schelling himself, are to be dealt with.
This led Cousin, still holding by essential knowledge of being, to ground it in an analysis of consciousness, - in psychology.
Cousin made no reply to Hamilton's criticism beyond alleging that Hamilton's doctrine necessarily restricted human knowledge and certainty to psychology and logic, and destroyed metaphysics by introducing nescience and uncertainty into its highest sphere - theodicy.
Often the theologians in question look to psychology as the permanent basis of religion; who is to deny that religion is a psychological fact, and the natural expression of something in man's constitution?
It is, however, from the development of the scientific study of psychology more than from any other region of thought that light has been thrown upon the problem of freedom.
But the contribution made by psychology to the solution of the problem has taken the form not so much of a direct reinforcement of the arguments of either of the opponent systems, as of a searching criticism of the false assumptions concerning conative processes and the phenomena of choice common alike to determinists and libertarians.
There are still many traces to be found in modern psychology of a similar unreal identification of desire with will.
And no account of the psychology of human action which regards conduct as due to self-determination, but leaves open the question whether the self is free to choose is, so it is argued, capable of providing an adequate theory of the admitted facts of moral consciousness.
Hedonistic psychology denied the libertarian hypothesis, but it denied also the absoluteness and intuitive character of moral obligation, and attached no validity to the ordinary interpretation of terms like "ought" and duty.
But such a line of argument is certain to make necessary an inquiry into the nature of the objects of psychological study which may produce quite unforeseen results for psychology.
The stress that their psychology laid on the essential unity of the rational self that is the source of voluntary action prevented them from accepting Plato's analysis of the soul into a regulative element and elements needing regulation.
Hobbes's psychology is in the first place materialistic; he holds, that is, that in any of the psychophysical phenomena of human nature the reality is a material process of which the mental feeling is a mere " appearance."
There is no logical connexion between this theory and the doctrine that appetite of desire has always pleasure (or the absence of pain) for its object; but a materialist, framing a system of psychology, will naturally direct his attention to the impulses arising out of bodily wants, whose obvious end is the preservation of the agent's organism; and this, together with a philosophic wish to simplify, may lead him to the conclusion that all human impulses are similarly self-regarding.
This, at any rate, is Hobbes's cardinal doctrine in moral psychology, that each man's appetites or desires are naturally directed either to the preservation of his life, or to that heightening of it which he feels as pleasure.2 Hobbes does not distinguish instinctive from deliberate pleasureseeking; and he confidently resolves the most apparently unselfish emotions into phases of self-regard.
This empirical psychology had not indeed been neglected by previous writers.
Hobbist, although Butler fairly treats it as having a philosophical basis in Hobbes's psychology.
This naturally suggested to a mind like Hume's, anxious to apply the experimental method to psychology, the problem of reducing these different elements of personal merit - or rather our approval of them - to some common principle.
A reaction, in one form or another, against the tendency to dissolve ethics into psychology was inevitable; since mankind generally could not be so far absorbed by the interest of psychological hypothesis as to forget their need of establishing practical principles.
But a thorough and systematic application of the principle to ethical psychology is first found in Hartley's Observations on Man (1748).
The influence of the Darwinian theory, moreover, has extended from historical psychology to ethics, tending to substitute " preservation of the race under its conditions of existence " for " happiness " as the ultimate end and standard of virtue.
The physics and psychology of Descartes were much studied in England, and his metaphysical system was certainly the most important antecedent of Locke's; but Descartes hardly touched ethics proper.
But certainly few modern moral philosophers would be found in the present day ready to defend the crudities of hedonistic psychology as they appear in Bentham and Mill.
He accepted bodily without farther questioning the hedonistic psychology by which the Utilitarians sought to justify their theory while he rejected the theory itself.
Spencer is involved in effect in most of the confusions and contradictions of hedonistic psychology.
But further, it is becoming increasingly apparent that psychology (upon which Taylor would base morality) itself involves metaphysical assumptions; its position in fact cannot be stated except as a metaphysical position, whether that of subjective idealism or any other.
Psychology or metaphysics tend in their systems to usurp the place of authority formerly assigned to ethics proper.
He went first to University College, London; at Heidelberg he worked at German; at Berlin he studied psychology, metaphysics and also physiology under du Bois-Reymond, and heard lectures on Hegel, Kant and the history of philosophy, ancient and modern.
He lectured on logic, deductive and inductive, systematic psychology and ethical theory.
While he preached every Sunday, he also gradually took up in his lectures in the university almost every branch of theology and philosophy - New Testament exegesis, introduction to and interpretation of the New Testament, ethics (both philosophic and Christian), dogmatic and practical theology, church history, history of philosophy, psychology, dialectics (logic and metaphysics), politics, pedagogy and aesthetics.
Schleiermacher's psychology takes as its basis the phenomenal dualism of the ego and the non-ego, and regards the life of man as the interaction of these elements with their interpenetration as its infinite destination.
But in all this it has been assumed that we are spectators of the objective semblance; it remains to make good this assumption, or, in other words, to show the possibility of knowledge; this is the problem of what Herbart terms Eidolology, and forms the transition from metaphysic to psychology.
But to explain this modification is the business of psychology; it is enough now to see that the subject like all reals is necessarily unknown, and that, therefore, the idealist's theory of knowledge is unsound.
In his Psychology Herbart rejects altogether the doctrine of mental faculties as one refuted by his metaphysics, and tries to show that all psychical phenomena whatever result from the action and interaction of elementary ideas or presentations (Vorstellungen).
But if the progress of physical science has not prevented the rehabilitation of much of ancient alchemy by the later researches into chemical change, and if psychology now finds a place for explanations of spiritualism and witchcraft which involve the admission of the empirical facts under a new theory (as in the case of the diviningrod, &c.), it is at least conceivable that some new synthesis might once more justify part at all events of ancient and medieval astromancy, to the extent of admitting the empirical facts where provable, and substituting for the supposed influence of the stars as such, some deeper theory which would be consistent with an application to other forms of prophecy, and thus might reconcile the possibility of dipping into futurity with certain interrelations of the universe, different indeed from those assumed by astrological theory, but underlying and explaining it.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to psychology.
He wrote Rational Psychology (1848), System of Moral Science (1853), Empirical Psychology (1854), Rational Cosmology (1858), Creator and Creation, or the Knowledge in the Reason of God and His Work (1872), Humanity Immortal (1872), Logic of Reason (1874).
He mixes up the two inquiries, and in the general division of his work depends rather upon the results of previous psychology than upon the lines prescribed by his own new conception of experience.
The relation between phenomena and noumena in the Kantian system does not in the least resemble that which plays so important a part in modern psychology - between the subjective results of sense affection and the character of the objective conditions of such affection.
The three inquiries correspond to the subjects of the three ancient metaphysical sciences, rational psychology, rational cosmology, rational theology.
The latest extension of the word, proposed in the interests of philosophy or psychology, uses it of the principle according to which man is said to interpret all things (not God merely) through himself.
The list includes antiseptics, anesthetics, orthopedics and psychology.
Then he became an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Denver (Colorado ).
And now preparing for my psychology paper tomorrow, but figured I need a break from psycho-annalysis babble.
That's psychology... Backtracking A fundamental feature of regular expression matching involves the notion called backtracking A fundamental feature of regular expression matching involves the notion called backtracking.
Above all, we had broken the inflationary psychology that had so bedeviled our economy.
The multidisciplinary character of the Department directly contributes to the distinctiveness of Psychology ot Loughborough.
The psychology of testing will be discussed; detecting faults versus proving correct.
Before being appointed as academic dean he spent twenty six years in the Department of Psychology at the University of Pretoria.
Second, this emphasis on secular psychology ignores the depravity of the human heart.
However, Paul always had an interest in the areas of psychology and hypnosis, as well as a genuine desire to help people.
This work is supported by skilled teams of researchers spanning the disciplines of general practice, nursing, psychology, anthropology and epidemiology.
Hence psycho-dynamic psychology does not support the idea of a basic human nature.
This is basic playground psychology, and the media is nothing if not infantile.
Most dream interpretations are based on folklore or psychology.
The assessment tool for the Introduction to Health Psychology and Communication module is particularly laudable and innovative.
Campbell Jung lexicon Of terms A useful lexicon of terms, particularly related to the psychology of Carl Jung.
It is the goal of psychology to help people achieve maturity of the mind.
Care Co-ordinators can come from a variety of professions including medical, nursing, social work, occupational therapy and psychology.
It is not necessary for you to be studying neuroscience or experimental psychology; nor do you need expertise in statistics.
Many psychology courses have reduced their practical component to virtually nil.