But it is doubtful whether the psalm, as distinguished from the Hebrew Psalter, can be said to have any independent existence.
We hear the echoes in Jeremiah and Ezekiel and lastly in Haggai in ever feebler tones, and they were destined to reawaken in the Psalter (Pss.
The earliest remains near the site go ' For a discussion of this question see Kathleen Schlesinger, The Instruments of the Orchestra, part ii., and especially chapters on the cithara in transition during the middle ages, and the question of the origin of the Utrecht Psalter, in which the evolution of the cithara is traced at some length.
The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
In an appendix to the Bosworth Psalter, edited by Mr Edmund Bishop and Abbot Gasquet (1908), Mr Leslie A.
His historical research was exemplified in his De antiquitate ecclesiae, and his editions of Asser, Matthew Paris, Walsingham, and the compiler known as Matthew of Westminster; his liturgical skill was shown in his version of the psalter and in the occasional prayers and thanksgivings which he was called upon to compose; and he left a priceless collection of manuscripts to his college at Cambridge.
Amongst other important codices are the Jorddnszky Codex (1516-1519), an incomplete copy of the translation of the Bible made by Ladislaus Batori, who died about 1456; and the Dobrentei or Gyulafehervdr Codex (1508), containing a version of the Psalter, Song of Solomon, and the liturgical epistles and gospels, copied by Bartholomew Halabori from an earlier translation (KSrnyei, A Magyar nemzeti irodalomtortenet vdzlata, 1861, p. 30).
BOOK OF PSALMS, or Psalter, the first book of the Hagiographa in the Hebrew Bible.
13 Ta Tou Aavtt means the Psalter, and the title of the apocryphal " Psalter of Solomon " implies that the previously existing Psalter was ascribed to David.
heb.) and other Christian writers that the collector of the Psalter.
Whatever may be the value of the titles to individual psalms, there can be no question that the tradition that the Psalter was collected by David is not historical; 1 Hippol., ed.
When we thus understand its origin, the tradition becomes really instructive, and may be translated into a statement which throws light on a number of points connected with the book, namely, that the Psalter was (finally, at least) collected with a liturgical purpose.
The question now arises: Was the collection a single act or is the Psalter made up of several older collections ?
And here we have first to observe that in the Hebrew text the Psalter is divided into five books, each of which closes with a doxology.
The division into five books was known to Hippolytus, but a closer examination of the doxologies shows that it does not represent the original scheme of the Psalter; for, while the doxologies to the first three books are no part of the psalms to which they are attached, but really mark the end of a book in a pious fashion not uncommon in Eastern literature, that to book IV., with its rubric addressed to the people, plainly belongs to the psalm, or rather to its liturgical execution, and does not therefore really mark the close of a collection once separate.
The Elohim psalms, then, have undergone a common editorial treatment, distinguishing them from the rest of the Psalter.
5-12) in the Elohistic form, though the last two books of the Psalter are generally ' This must be understood of the whole collection as completed, not of all its component parts.
And finally the anonymous psalms i., ii., which as anonymous were hardly an original part of book I., may have been prefixed after the whole Psalter was completed.
But this translation was not written all at once, and its history is obscure; we only know from the prologue to Ecclesiasticus that the Hagiographa, and doubtless therefore the Psalter, were read in Greek in Egypt about 130 B.C. or somewhat later.'
And the Greek Psalter, though it contains one apocryphal psalm at the close, is essentially the same as the Hebrew; there is nothing to suggest that the Greek was first translated from a less complete Psalter and afterwards extended to agree with the extant Hebrew.
It is therefore reasonable to hold that the Hebrew Psalter was completed and recognized as an authoritative collection long enough before 130 B.C. to allow of its passing to the Greek-speaking Jews in Alexandria.
S.) But there is absolutely no necessity for supposing that when the grandson of Ben Sira reached Egypt the Psalter had been translated into Greek.
A friend has written to the author that for we ought perhaps to read already existed in their place in our Psalter, or that Ps.
But against this explanation of the heading ry;p' 2 there is an almost insuperable objection; for, since both the first and second books contain psalms with this heading, it is clear that the " Chief Musician's - or Director's - Psalter " must have been in existence before either of these books; in which case, apart from the difficulty of the antiquity which we should be compelled to assign to this earliest Psalter, it is impossible to understand on what principle the first book of Psalms was formed.
If the compiler of the first book aimed simply at making a collection of Davidic psalms from a major Psalter compiled by the " Director," why should he have deliberately rejected a number of Davidic psalm* (Ps.
sqq.) which, ex hypothesi, lay before him in this Psalter?
It is surely as difficult to suppose that the Davidic psalms of the first book are a selection made from a greater collection of such psalms contained in the " Director's Psalter " as it is to imagine that St Mark's Gospel is an abridgment of St, Matthew's.
21 - the my will be that part of the orchestra which played the melody to be sung, virtually corresponding, mutatis mutandis, to what we now call the choir organ, and we need not complicate the compilation of the Psalter by postulating an altogether unnecessary " Director's Psalter."
Since, then, the existence of separate books of psalms anterior to the present divisions of the Psalter is very doubtful, we must look for other evidences of date.
and III., so that the collection of the last part of the Psalter must, if our argument up to this point is sound, fall within the second half of the 2nd century B.C. And here it is to be noted that though no part of the Psalter shows clearer marks of a liturgical purpose, we find that in books IV.
The course of the subsequent history makes it very intelligible that the Psalter was finally closed, as we have seen from the date of the Greek version that it must have been, within a few years at most after this great event.'
From the time of Hyrcanus downwards the ideal of the princely high priests became more and more divergent from the ideal of the pious in Israel, and in the Psalter of Solomon we see religious poetry turned against the lords of the Temple and its worship.
cxlix., as well as from its place, be almost if not quite the latest thing in the Psalter.
For the later stages of the history of the Psalter we have, as we have seen, a fair amount of evidence pointing to conclusions of a pretty definite kind.
And it is not too much to say that that view - which to some extent appears in the historical psalms of the Ehohistic Psalter - implies absolute incapacity to understand the difference between old Israel and later Judaism, and makes almost anything possible in the way of the ascription of comparatively modern pieces to ancient authors.
The second collection of " Davidic " psalms, as well as the Korahite and Asaphic psalms, have been subjected to an Elohistic redaction, for which we must find a reason if the history of the Psalter is to be written.
It is also remarkable that hymns such as Exodus xv., which would be specially suitable to the Temple, find no place in the Psalter.
We have already noticed the difficulty of supposing that the Elohistic Psalter was compiled in a place where a Jehovistic Psalter was already in use.
On this hypothesis we are able to explain the presence of certain poetical pieces both in the book of Chronicles and in the Psalter.
We need not suppose that the Chronicler quotes from the Psalter or vice versa, the matter which they have in common being probably derived from certain traditional songs current among the Levitical singers.
For details on the liturgical use of the Psalter in Christendom the reader may refer to Smith's Diet.
The Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater conformity with the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek versions, was further the mother (d) of the Psalterium gallicanum - that is, of Jerome's second revision of the Psalter (385) by the aid of the Hexaplar text; this edition became current in Gaul and ultimately was taken into the Vulgate; (e) of the SyroHexaplar version (published by Bugati, 1820, and in facsimile from the famous Ambrosian MS. by Ceriani, Milan, 1874).
As regards the dates and historical interpretation of the Psalms, all older discussions, even those of Ewald, are in great measure antiquated by recent progress in Pentateuch criticism and the history of the canon, and an entirely fresh treatment of the Psalter by a sober critical commentator is urgently needed.
Origin of the Psalter, Bampton Lectures (1891), and the article Psalms (in Ency.
Bib., 1902); Bickell, Die Dichtungen der Hebraer (3 der Psalter, 1883), from a revised and metrically arranged text; Baethgen, in Nowack's Hand-Komm.
Bible (1902); Driver, The Parallel Psalter (1904); C. A.
Lagarde, Psalter juxta Hebraeos, 154.
The communal library has some MSS., including a psalter with miniatures, that once belonged to Sir Thomas More.
The Quicumque occurs in a collection of materials forming an introduction to the psalter.
It is more probable that Leidrad was interested in the growing use of the creed as a canticle, and was consulted in the preparation of the famous Golden Psalter, now at Vienna, which contains the same collection of documents as an introduction.
In the Russian service books it appears at the beginning of the psalter.
He was a famous preacher, and many of his homilies, including a series of lenten lectures on the Hexaemeron, and an exposition of the psalter, have been preserved.
23 Occasional references to " angels " occur in the Psalter"; they appear as ministers of God.
52), but does not make much use of the Prophets or the Psalter.
(c) Final Amen, with no change of speaker, as in the subscription to the first three divisions of the Psalter and in the frequent doxologies of the New Testament Epistles.
On the illustrative value of Gaokerena see Cheyne, Origin of the Psalter, pp. 400 - 439.
Returning to his cell he continued a labour in which he had been engaged, the transcription of the Psalter.
The earliest specimen of the Polish language is the so-called Psalter of Queen Margaret, discovered in 1826 at the convent of St Florian.
His Latin, like that of Gallus, is far from classical, but he writes with spirit and throws a good deal of light upon 1 The Psalter is called after Margaret, the first wife of King Louis, who died in 1349, by a mere conjecture.
In Ireland we find Greek characters used in the Book of Armagh (c. 807); and, in the same century, a Greek psalter was copied by an Irish monk of Liege, named Sedulius (fl.
to being possibly the books of Samuel and Kings and some of the Prophets, a part of the Psalter, and documents such as those excerpted in the book of Ezra, respecting edicts issued by Persian kings in favour of the Temple.
The Psalter, it is clear from many indications, is not the work of a single compiler, but was formed gradually.
5-12); in the Hebrew canon the Psalter is composed of five books (i.
Thus, though it is going too far to say that there are no pre-exilic psalms, the Psalter, as a whole, is the expression of the deeper spiritual feeling which marked the later stages of Israel's history.
His original intention was to revise the Old Latin, and his two revisions of the Psalter, the Roman and the Gallican, the latter modelled on the Hexapla, still survive.
and 126th, whereby it is manifest that the psalter was compiled and put into the form it now hath, after the return of the Jews from Babylon."
with " extreme self-suppression " and " willingness to concede to tradition all that could with any plausibility be conceded " (Cheyne, Origin of the Psalter, p. 15); more especially is his influence observable after 1890, when he published his Bampton Lectures, the Origin of the Psalter, a work of vast learning and keen penetration, without restraint on the freedom of his judgment - always stimulating to students and fellow-workers, though by no means always carrying large numbers with him.
The change in the former period with regard to a single point, which is however typical of many, is briefly summed up by Dr Cheyne: " In 1880 it was still a heresy to accept with all its consequences the plurality of authorship of the Book of Isaiah; in 1890 to a growing school of churchstudents this has become an indubitable fact " (Origin of the Psalter, xv.).
From the time of Jeremiah downwards the perennial interest of Old-Testament thought lies in the working out of the problems of personal religion and of the idea of a spiritual fellowship of faith transcending all national limitation; and these are the motives not only of the lyrics of the Psalter but of the greater theodiceas of Isa.
In 1701 at Frankfort-on-Main there appeared a quarto edition of the Ethiopic Psalter, whose editor, H.
The Roman Psalter is glossed in the following MSS.: (I) Cotton Vesp. A.
I (Vespasian Psalter); (2) Bodl.
I (Eadwine's Psalter); (6) Brit.
The Gallican Psalter in the following: (I) Brit.
is the so-called Vespasian Psalter, which was written in Mercia in the first half of the 9th century.
This is the famous Paris Psalter,' a rendering of the first fifty Psalms (Vulg.
Sweet, The Vespasian Psalter in " Oldest English Texts " (E.E.T.S., No.
Harsle, Eadwine's Canterbury Psalter (E.E.T.S., No.
Regius Psalter (Reg.
known as the Paris Psalter (Baltimore, 1894).
Of these pre-Wycliffite versions possibly the earliest is the West Midland Psalter, once erroneously ascribed to William of Shoreham.
Biilbring, The Earliest Complete English Prose Psalter (E.E.T.S., No.
Approximately to the same period as these early renderings of the Psalter belongs a version of the Apocalypse with a Commentary, the earliest MS. of which (Harleian 874) is written in the dialect of the North Midlands.
Bramley, The Psalter and Certain Canticles ...
Seventy years afterwards it assumed the form ever since known as the Authorized Version, but its Psalter is still embedded, without any alteration, in the Book of Common Prayer.
In the second edition of the Bishops' Bible, 1572, the two texts were actually printed side by side; in all later editions except one (1585) the older Psalter alone remained.
His little edition of the Paragraph Psalter (1879), arranged for the use of choirs, and his admirable lectures on the Apostles' Creed, entitled Historic Faith (1883), are reminiscences of his vacations spent at Peterborough.
The following is a bibliography of Westcott's more important writings, giving the date of the first editions: - Elements of the Gospel Harmony (1851); History of the Canon of First Four Centuries (1853); Characteristics of Gospel Miracles (1859); Introduction to the Study of the Gospels (1860); The Bible in the Church (1864); The Gospel of the Resurrection (1866); Christian Life Manifold and One (1869); Some Points in the Religious Life of the Universities (1873); Paragraph Psalter for the Use of Choirs (1879); Commentary on the Gospel of St John (1881); Commentary on the Epistles of St John (1883); Revelation of the Risen Lord (1882); Revelation of the Father (1884); Some Thoughts from the Ordinal (1884); Christus Consummator (1886); Social Aspects of Christianity (1887); The Victory of the Cross: Sermons in Holy Week (1888); Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1889); From Strength to Strength (1890); Gospel of Life (1892); The Incarnation and Common Life (1893); Some Lessons of the Revised Version of the New Testament (1897); Christian Aspects of Life (1897); Lessons from Work (1901).
When the Psalter became a liturgical book the historical kingship had gone by, and the idea alone remained, no longer as the interpretation of a present political fact but as part of Israel's religious inheritance.
With the growing weakness and corruption of the Hasmonaean princes, and the alienation of a large part of the nation from their cause, the hope of a better kingship begins to appear in Judaea also; at first darkly shadowed forth in the Book of Enoch (chap. xc.), where the white steer, the future leader of God's herd after the deliverance from the heathen, stands in a certain contrast to the actual dynasty (the horned lambs); and then much more clearly, and for the first time with use of the name Messiah, in the Psalter of Solomon, the chief document of the protest of Pharisaism against its enemies the later Hasmonaeans.
It is in this connexion that the doctrine and name of the Messiah appear in the Psalter of Solomon.
For the Messianic hopes of the Pharisees and the Psalter of Solomon see especially Wellhausen, Phariseer and Sadduccer (Greifswald, 1874).
Matzke, Paris, 1899); Oxford Psalter, c. 1150 (Fr.
Michel, Libri Psalmorum versio antiqua gallica, Oxford, 1860); Cambridge Psalter, c. 1160 (Fr.
at Paris, with Vatablus and le Mercier, attracted, among other foreigners, Giustiniani, bishop of Nebbio, the editor of the Genoa psalter of 1516.
of France sent forth from Cyprus,' while in 1274 the celebrated traveller Marco Polo, accompanied by two learned Dominicans, visited the court of Kublai-Khan, and at the commencement of the 14th century two Franciscans penetrated as far as Peking, even translating the New Testament and the Psalter into the Tatar language, and training youths for a native ministry?
Before his time four Italian towns had won the honours of Greek publications: Milan, with the grammar of Lascaris, Aesop, Theocritus, a Greek Psalter, and Isocrates, between 1476 and 1493; Venice, with the Erotemata of Chrysoloras in 1484; Vicenza, with reprints of Lascaris's grammar and the Erotemata, in 1488 and 1490; Florence, with Alopa's Homer, in 1488.
He settled there in 1490, and soon afterwards gave to the world editions of the Hero and Leander of Musaeus, the Galeomyomachia, and the Greek Psalter.
The most considerable of them are The Pricke of Conscience and his Commentary on the Psalter.
It often agrees with the English metrical Psalter preserved in three MSS.
The first edition of a Danish Reineke Fuchs, by Herman Weigere, appeared at Lubeck in 1555, and the first authorized Psalter in 1559.
His Winter Psalter (1689), and the so-called Kingo's Psalter (1699), contained brilliant examples of lyrical writing, and an employment of language at once original and national.
Psalter: Thorpe (Clar.
Of his projected polyglot only the Psalter was published (Psalterium Hebraeum, Graecum, Arabicum, et, Chaldaicum, Genoa, 1616).
In the Psalter he is considered merely as a servant of Yahweh.
Keble also published A Metrical Version of the Psalter (1839), Lyra Innocentium (1846), and a volume of poems was published posthumously.
Works published in Keble's lifetime: Christian Year (1827); Psalter (1839); Praelectiones Academicae (1844); Lyra Innocentium (1846); Sermons Academical (1848); Argument against Repeal of Marriage Law, and Sequel (1857); Eucharistical Adoration (1857); Life of Bishop Wilson (1863); Sermons Occasional and Parochial (1867).
9 a a memorial cross was erected in the cathedral close of St Asaph in order to perpetuate the names and national services of the eight leading Welsh translators of the Scriptures: - Bishops Davies, Morgan and Parry; William Salesbury; Thomas Huet; Dr Davies of Mallwyd; Archdeacon Edmund Prys (1541-1624), author of a popular Welsh metrical version of the Psalter; and Gabriel Goodman, dean of Westminster (1528-1601), a native of Ruthin, who greatly assisted Bishop Morgan in his task.
1909); Sermons on Subjects connected with the Old Testament (1892); The Parallel Psalter (1904); Heb.
The first step in the evolution of the Breviary was the separation of the Psalter into a choir-book.
Gradually there were added to these psalter choir-books additions in the form of antiphons, responses, collects or short prayers, for the use of those not skilful at improvisation and metrical compositions.
Already in the 8th century Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, had in a Breviarium Psalterii made an abridgment of the Psalter for the laity, giving a few psalms for each day, and Alcuin had rendered a similar service by including a prayer for each day and some other prayers, but no lessons or homilies.
the substitution of the "Gallican" for the "Roman" version of the Psalter) the Breviary hitherto used exclusively by the Roman court, and with it gradually swept out of Europe all the earlier partial books (Legendaries, Responsories), &c., and to some extent the local Breviaries, like that of Sarum.
The services were at the same time simplified and shortened, and the use of the whole Psalter every week (which had become a mere theory in the Roman Breviary, owing to its frequent supersession by saints' day services) was made a reality.
The Breviary itself is divided into four seasonal parts - winter, spring, summer, autumn - and comprises under each part (1) the Psalter; (2) Proprium de Tempore (the special office of the season); (3) Proprium Sanctorum (special offices of saints); (4) Commune Sanctorum (general offices for saints); (5) Extra Services.
The text of this Psalter is that commonly known as the Gallican.
The psalms have already been dealt with, but it may be noted again how the multiplication of saints' festivals, with practically the same special psalms, tends in practice to constant repetition of about one-third of the Psalter, and correspondingly rare recital of the remaining two-thirds, whereas the Proprium de Tempore, could it be adhered to, would provide equal opportunities for every psalm.
but a kitchen clerk or a fancy clerk or wise in building castles or worldly doing, though he cannot well read his psalter."
Their distribution into four groups was the work of the final editor of the psalter.
and the English Monasteries (1888-9); A Short History of the Catholic Church in England (1903); Parish Life in Mediaeval England (1906) and The Bosworth Psalter (1908).
p. 501), is a Psalter said to have belonged to Saint Columba, a kinsman of the O'Donnells, which was carried by them in battle as a charm or talisman to secure victory.
Following up the list of publications of the books of the Bible in chronological order, we find Diakonus Koresi immediately afterwards - the date has not yet been definitely ascertained - printing The a Rumanian translation of the Acts of the Apostles; in 1 577 he printed at Sasz-Shebesh a Psalter in both Slavonic and Rumanian; the Rumanian follows thee Slavonic verse for verse.
A MS. Psalter more recently discovered shows close affinity to this edition, and, in spite of the opinions held by some critics, must be considered as a copy of it made about 1585; it even reproduces the printer's errors of Koresi's edition.
Sylvestre also prepared a new edition of the Psalter as part of his Bible (Belgrad, 1651), verifying the text by reference to the Hebrew and Greek originals.
No other Rumanian translation approaches it in style and diction, although the authors, as they own, utilized the older translations, and for the New Testament and the Psalter they utilized Sylvestre's work.
As far back as 1600 Dositheiu had made a new translation of the Psalter from the Slavonic and printed it in both languages (Jassy, 1680).
Upon this translation he based the rhymed Psalter at which he had worked from 1660-73, when it appeared in Uniev.
Albert Molnar had translated a French rhymed Psalter into Hungarian (1607) and this served as the basis for a literal translation made by Ianos Viski (1697).
About the same time Theodor Korbea attempted to versify the Psalter and dedicated his work to Peter the Great of Russia.
A new translation of the Psalter from Slavonic, with a commentary, the first of its kind, was made in 1697 by Alexander Dascalul (Alexander Preceptor Polonus).
In a contemporary psalter (preserved in the library of St Mark at Venice) there is a portrait of him, with a grey beard, crowned and robed in imperial costume.
of the Septuagint it is the eighth among the canticles appended to the Psalter, though in many Greek psalters, which include the canticles, it is not found at all.
McCann says " ... the central theological affirmation of the Psalter is this: The Lord reigns!
Passiontide hymn contributed by Tallis to Parker's The Whole Psalter of 1567.
Certain authorities find no Davidic psalms in the Psalter.
He managed to recite the whole Psalter every day.
The Westminster Assembly produced a new Psalter which was a revision of one by Francis Rous.
A distinct style In the course of the Reformation we gained the Genevan Psalter.
When you sell your setting of the entire Psalter for millions, maybe make a donation to site running costs.
This set presents the complete Psalter in sonic form on twelve compact disks.
We notice a tendency to use synonyms or words with a very small semantic difference from those of the Sinaitic Psalter.
Psalter illustration exerted an important influence on the West.
This method of treating the Psalter has largely vitiated modern criticism 10 A. C. Welch, op. cit., pp.
word /iaXAecv, to play the harp), the name used to designate the religious poems of the Hebrews, which are contained in the Psalter (see Psalms, Book oF).
Damiani advocated the substitution of flagellation for the recitation of the penitential psalms, and drew up a scale according to which 1000 strokes were equivalent to ten psalms, and 15,000 to the whole psalter.
- lxxxiii.) is distinguished from the rest of the Psalter by habitually avoiding the name Jehovah (the Lord) and using Elohim (God) instead, even in cases like Ps.
In the final compilation, or perhaps in a subsequent redaction, some alterations were made in the original order, some notes were added describing the circumstances in which various psalms had been composed, and lastly, in order to assimilate the outward form of the Psalter to that of the Pentateuch, the three collections were divided into five books.
The so-called Psalter of Solomon, on the other hand, a collection of Pharisee psalms written in Hebrew soon after the taking of Jerusalem by Pompey, and preserved to us only in a Greek version, has nothing to do with Solomon or the traditional conception of his person, and seems to owe its name to a transcriber who thus distinguished these newer pieces from the older "Psalms of David" (see SOLOMON, PSALMS OF).
The Psalter is that part of the Old Testament in which the devotional aspect of the religious character finds its completest expression; and in lyrics of exquisite tenderness and beauty the most varied emotions are poured forth by the psalmists to their God - despondency and distress, penitence and resignation, hope and confidence, jubilation and thankfulness, adoration and praise.
But when we look at the deeper side of the Messianic conception in the Psalter of Solomon, at the heartfelt longing for a leader in the way of righteousness and acceptance with God which underlies the aspirations after political deliverance, we see that it was in no mere spirit of accommodation to prevailing language that Jesus did not disdain the name in which all the hopes of the Old Testament were gathered up.
Michel, Le Livre des Psaumes, Paris, 1877); London Psalter, same as Oxford Psalter (cf.
From about the 4th century certain psalms began to be grouped together, a process that was furthered by the monastic practice of daily reciting the 150 psalms. This took so much time that the monks began to spread it over a week, dividing each day into hours, and allotting to each hour its portion of the Psalter.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.