(in the Bible only in titles of psalms), which is applicable to any piece designed to be sung to a musical accompaniment.
As yet our authorities do not permit us to follow them to Egypt with any certainty, but the Psalms of Solomon express the mind of one who survived to see Pompey the Great brought low.
This is the argument in Psalms xvi.
His extant commentaries (those on Canticles, on the Prophets, on the book of Psalms and on the Pauline epistles - the last the most valuable) are among the best performances of the fathers of the church.
To the same period belong the book of Micah, the earlier parts of the books of Samuel, of Isaiah and of Proverbs, and perhaps some Psalms. In 722 B.C. Samaria was taken and the Northern kingdom ceased to exist.
With regard to the date of the Psalms, internal evidence, from the nature of the case, leads to few results which are convincing.
There are also Midrashim on the Canticle, Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Esther and the Psalms, belonging to this later period, the Pirge R.
Very important for the study of Midrashic literature are the Yalgut (gleaning) Shim`oni, on the whole Bible, the Yalqut Mekhiri, on the Prophets, Psalms, Proverbs and Job, and the Midrash ha-gadhol, 2 all of which are of uncertain but late date and preserve earlier material.
and lxxii.), in the psalms of Solomon and in the days of Christ.
4, &c.) and the anonymous blessings commonly called Shemoneh 'Esreh (the Eighteen), together with certain Psalms. (Readings from the Law and the Prophets [Haphtarah] also formed part of the service.) To this framework were fitted, from time to time, various prayers, and, for festivals especially, numerous hymns.
It is probable that he was the author of the greater portion of the Compendious Book of Psalms and Spiritual Songs which contains a large number of hymns from the German.
The earliest known edition of the Compendious Book of Psalms and Spiritual Songs (of which an unique copy is extant) dates back to 1567, though the contents were probably published in broad sheets during John Wedderburn's lifetime.
It consists of a calendar and almanac, a catechism, hymns, many of them translations from the German, metrical versions of the Psalms, and a collection of ballads and satirical poems against the Catholic church and clergy.
- The Psalms of Solomon and the synoptic Gospels (70 B.C. - A.D.
titles of psalms, dates and headings of prophecies) involves a criticism of the historical traditions themselves, and thus the two major classes of material must be constantly examined both separately and in their bearing on one another.
" Prophetic Literature," " Psalms," and his recent studies).
It cannot be doubted that the three types of David, represented by the books of Samuel, of Chronicles, and the superscriptions of the Psalms, are irreconcilable, and that they represent successive developments of the original traditions.
The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
See further Chronicles, Psalms.
w6n ava (3a9,uwv, see Psalms, Book Of.
They also contributed to sacred literature themselves in the composition of new psalms. Attendance to the ordinary needs of nature was entirely relegated to the hours of darkness.
Nevertheless, he was opposed to Colenso's criticism of the Bible, and replied to it in The Pentateuch and the Elohistic Psalms (1863), written from a conservative standpoint.
These additions are identical in object and closely related in character and diction with the Psalms of Solomon.
At the same time he was accused of "introducing into the church and service at the altar compositions of psalms and hymns not inspected or authorized by any proper judicature."
His first Collection of Psalms and Hymns (Charlestown, 1737) contains five of his incomparable translations from the German, and on his return to England he published another Collection in 1738, with five more translations.
Hippolytus tells us that in his time most Christians said " the Psalms of David," and believed the whole book to be his; but this title and belief are both of Jewish origin, for in 2 Macc. ii.
Jewish tradition does not make David the author of all the psalms; but as he was regarded as the founder and legislator of the Temple psalmody (1 Chron., ut supra; Ezra iii.
With this it agrees that the titles of the psalms name no one later than Solomon, and even he is not recognized as a psalmodist by the most ancient tradition, that of the LXX., which omits him from the title of Ps.
Origen's rule accounts for all the psalms except i.
Whatever may be the value of the titles to individual psalms, there can be no question that the tradition that the Psalter was collected by David is not historical; 1 Hippol., ed.
The passages are collected in Kimhi's preface to his commentary on the Psalms, ed.
for no one doubts that some of the psalms date from after the Babylonian exile.
Thus, though the psalms represent a great range of individual religious experience, they avoid such situations and expressions as are too unique to be used in acts of public devotion.
Many of the psalms are doxologies or the like, expressly written for the Temple; others are made up of extracts from older poems in a way perfectly natural in a hymn-book, but otherwise hardly intelligible.
i sqq., are not included in the collection, though motives from them are embodied in more modern psalms: the interest of the collector, we see, was not historical but liturgical.
varies considerably from the Hebrew as to the psalms to be ascribed to David; the book closes with a group of doxological psalms.
This is not due to the authors of the individual psalms, but to an editor; for Ps.
The Elohim psalms, then, have undergone a common editorial treatment, distinguishing them from the rest of the Psalter.
But when we look at the Elohim psalms more nearly, we see that they contain two distinct elements, Davidic psalms and psalms ascribed to the Levitical choirs (sons of Korah, Asaph).
The Davidic collection as we have it splits the Levitical psalms into two groups and actually divides the Asaphic Ps.
This order can hardly be original, especially as the Davidic Elohim psalms have a separate subscription (Ps.
But if we remove them we get a continuous body of Levitical Elohim psalms, or rather two collections, the first Korahitic and the second Asaphic, to which there have been added by way of appendix by a non-Elohistic editor a supplementary group of Korahite psalms and one psalm (certainly late) ascribed to David.
is made up of two Elohim psalms (lvii.
And finally the anonymous psalms i., ii., which as anonymous were hardly an original part of book I., may have been prefixed after the whole Psalter was completed.
41, 42, that various psalms belonging to books IV.
Other evidence of date is to be found in the Levitical psalms of the Elohistic collection.
But against this explanation of the heading ry;p' 2 there is an almost insuperable objection; for, since both the first and second books contain psalms with this heading, it is clear that the " Chief Musician's - or Director's - Psalter " must have been in existence before either of these books; in which case, apart from the difficulty of the antiquity which we should be compelled to assign to this earliest Psalter, it is impossible to understand on what principle the first book of Psalms was formed.
If the compiler of the first book aimed simply at making a collection of Davidic psalms from a major Psalter compiled by the " Director," why should he have deliberately rejected a number of Davidic psalm* (Ps.
It is surely as difficult to suppose that the Davidic psalms of the first book are a selection made from a greater collection of such psalms contained in the " Director's Psalter " as it is to imagine that St Mark's Gospel is an abridgment of St, Matthew's.
1, but it certainly has a much wider meaning; and indeed in some cases the idea of authorship is out of the question, for the psalms ascribed to the Korahites can scarcely have been supposed to be the joint composition of that body.
Now we have seen that the 5 prefixed to n-'p 'p cannot refer to authorship; we seem therefore shut up to one of two alternatives, either the psalms inscribed 's?
however, a confusion would easily arise between the composer of the tune and the author; and when once the idea had arisen that David was the author of psalms, it would be natural to endeavour to discover in the story of his life suitable occasions for their composition.
The interpretation of the titles here suggested removes an objection brought against the assumption of a Maccabaean date for certain psalms, which lays stress on the fact that some of them, e.g.
xliv., are written in a time of the deepest dejection, and yet are psalms of the Temple choirs; whereas, when the Temple was re-opened for worship, after its profanation by Antiochus, the Jews were victorious, and a much more joyful tone was appropriate.
t ?, 99x L 1, &c., do not denote that the psalms so inscribed were collected by the Temple choirs, there is no evidence that these psahns were originally sung in the Temple.
The earlier collections of psalms may well have been used first in synagogues,.
It is noteworthy that the psalms. quoted by the Chronicler belong to the last collection, books IV.
Since, then, the existence of separate books of psalms anterior to the present divisions of the Psalter is very doubtful, we must look for other evidences of date.
Now, both the Korahite and Asaphic groups of psalms are remarkable that they hardly contain any recognition of present sin on the part of the community of Jewish faith - though they do confess the sin of Israel in the past - but are exercised with the observation that prosperity does not follow righteousness either in the case of the individual (xlix., lxxiii.) or in that of the nation, which suffers notwithstanding its loyalty to God, or even on account thereof (xliv., lxxix.).
Again, a considerable number of these psalms (xliv., lxxiv., lxxix., lxxx.) point to an historical situation which can be very definitely realized.
Robertson Smith, are opposed to the dating of any psalms of the second collection in the Maccabaean period, that, since they are post-exilic, there is one and only one time in the Persian period to which they can be referred, viz.
22: " Yea, for thy sake are we killed all the day long," &c. On the other hand, not only is the atmosphere of the second collection of psalms as a whole the atmosphere of godly Judaism in the 2nd century B.C., but it may fairly be claimed that this collection contains many psalms which may naturally be interpreted in the light of the history of that period, of which no satisfactory explanation (in their details) can be given if they are assigned to any other time.
- xiv., which may plausibly be assigned to it, make it almost certain that the second collection of psalms was made not earlier than the time of Jonathan or even of Simon.
On the other hand, in a collection intended for synagogue use - and the second collection of psalms is as a whole far more suitable to a synagogue than to the Temple - where there would not be a large choir and orchestra of skilled musicians, it would obviously be desirable to state whether the psalm was to be sung to a Davidic, Asaphic or Korahite tone, or to give the name of a melody appropriate to it.
In some of the following psalms there are still references to deeds of oppression and violence, but more generally Israel appears as happy under the law.
But some of the psalms refer to a time of struggle and victory.
In later times the psalms for the encaenia or feast of dedication embraced Ps.
and III., for the composition of a poem and its acceptance as part of the Levitical liturgy are not necessarily coincident in date, except in psalms written with a direct liturgical purpose.
5) and other Jewish traditions, these psalms were sung by the Levites at the Feast of Tabernacles on the fifteen steps or degrees that led from the women's to the men's court.
But when we look at the psalms themselves we see that they must originally have been a hymn-book, not for the Levites, but for the laity who carne up to Jerusalem at the great pilgrimage feasts, and who themselves remembered, or their fathers had told them, the days when, as we see in Ps.
The titles which ascribe four of the pilgrimage songs to David and one to Solomon are lacking in the true LXX., and inconsistent with the contents of the psalms. Better attested, because found in the LXX.
But where did the last collectors of the psalms find such very ancient pieces which had 1 Possibly under Simon; compare the other hallel (Ps.
The only possible question for the critic is whether the ascription of these psalms to David was due to the idea that he was the psalmist par excellence, to whom any poem of unknown origin was naturally ascribed, or whether we have in some at least of these titles an example of the habit so common in later Jewish literature of writing in the name of ancient worthies.
We have still to consider the two great groups of psalms ascribed to David in books I.
lxxii., which may well be a later note, there is no necessity to suppose an original collection of Davidic psalms from which excerpts were made.
It is, however, probable that the title soon came to be understood of David's authorship, with the result that further notes were added indicating the situation in David's life to which the psalms appeared to be appropriate.
It is certainly not impossible that the two groups of " Davidic " psalms once formed separate collections independently compiled, and that the subscription to Ps.
- lxxii., though it contains a few anonymous pieces and one psalm which is either " of," or rather, according to the oldest tradition, " for Solomon," is composed of " Davidic " psalms. It would seem also that the collectors of books I.
know of no Davidic psalms outside of these two collections, for Ps.
xviii., for example, but there is no evidence that in early times David was regarded as the author of any of the psalms. Even the Chronicler, though he regarded David as the great founder of the Temple music, does not quote any psalm as composed by him, and the Chronicler's omission of 2 Sam.
It may fairly be contended therefore that the tradition that David is the author of the psalms which are assigned to him in books I.
And it is not too much to say that that view - which to some extent appears in the historical psalms of the Ehohistic Psalter - implies absolute incapacity to understand the difference between old Israel and later Judaism, and makes almost anything possible in the way of the ascription of comparatively modern pieces to ancient authors.
The second collection of " Davidic " psalms, as well as the Korahite and Asaphic psalms, have been subjected to an Elohistic redaction, for which we must find a reason if the history of the Psalter is to be written.
Both include psalms which are most naturally understood as referring to the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes and to the Maccabaean victories, and cannot therefore be separated by a long interval of time.
And further, if the Elohistic redaction was due merely to a desire to avoid pronouncing the divine name, why was not the presumably earlier collection of psalms in book I.
Now it must be frankly admitted that the earlier books of psalms exhibit no particular suitability for the Temple services.
and V., that we find any number of psalms appropriate to such a ritual as that of the Temple, and it is difficult to resist the conviction that the earlier collections were made for use, not in the Temple at Jerusalem but in some synagogue or synagogues.
Thus, for example, the numerous psalms in which the poets, though speaking perhaps, not as individuals but as members of a class, describe themselves as poor and afflicted at the hands of certain ungodly men, who appear to be Jews, can hardly have been originally collected by the Temple choirs.
On the other hand, the first collection of " Davidic " psalms taken as a whole would be perfectly appropriate in the worship of a Judaean community of Hasidim in the Maccabaean period.
In thus assigning the first collection of psalms to some Judaean community of Hasidim in the earlier Maccabaean period we need not conclude that all the psalms contained in this collection were first composed at this time.
It must, however, be admitted that as a whole the psalms of the first collection are more suitable to a later date.
It is therefore probable that the second collection of psalms (books II.
It is possible that these last-mentioned psalms were originally an appendix to the Judaean collection and have been removed from their original place to after the other Levitical psalms.
The synagogue collections, since they contained psalms which at this time were probably considered to be the work of David, were placed first, and the Temple collection added to them.
The musical notes found in the titles of the psalms and occasionally also in the text (Selah, 1 Higgaion) are so obscure that it seems unnecessary to enter here upon the various conjectures that have been made about them.
The clearest point is that a number of the psalms were originally at least set to melodies named after songs,' and that one of these songs beginning m=1-'7:I (Al-tashith in E.
The original music of the psalms was therefore apparently based on popular melodies.
It did not, however, obtain ecclesiastical currency - the old versions holding their ground, just as English churchmen still read the Psalms in the version of the " Great Bible " printed in their Prayer Book.
While some works of patristic writers are still of value for text criticism and for the history of early exegetical tradition, the treatment of the Psalms by ancient and medieval Christian writers is as a whole such as to throw light on the ideas of the commentators and their times rather than on the sense of a text which most of them knew only through translations.
For the Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages.
In the latter class Kimhi stands pre-eminent; to the editions of his commentary on the Psalms enumerated in the article Kimhi must now be added the admirable edition of Dr Schiller-Szinessy (Cambridge, 1883), containing, unfortunately, only the first book of his longer commentary.
Geier (1668, 1681 et saepius) may still be consulted with advantage, but for most purposes Rosenmtiller's Scholia in Psalms (2nd ed., 1831-1822) supersedes the necessity of frequent reference to the predecessors of that industrious compiler.
The question of the text was first properly raised by Olshausen, and has since received special attention from, among others, Lagarde (Prophetae chald., 1872, p. 46 seq.), Dyserinck (in the " scholia " to his Dutch translation of the Psalms, Theol.
The mass of literature on the Psalms is so enormous that no full list even of recent commentaries can be here attempted, much less an enumeration of treatises on individual psalms and special critical questions.
As regards the dates and historical interpretation of the Psalms, all older discussions, even those of Ewald, are in great measure antiquated by recent progress in Pentateuch criticism and the history of the canon, and an entirely fresh treatment of the Psalter by a sober critical commentator is urgently needed.
The bibliography up to this point is taken from the article PSALMS by the late Professor W.
It was the belief of Professor Robertson Smith that the second (Elohistic) collection of psalms originated in a time of persecution earlier than the time of Antiochus Epiphanes which he referred to the reign of Artaxerxes III.
Of the works on the Psalms which have appeared since the first publication of Professor W.
Robertson Smith's article the following may be specially noticed: Cheyne, The Book of Psalms (1888), The 1 It contains, however, elements which are as early as the time of the New Testament.
Origin of the Psalter, Bampton Lectures (1891), and the article Psalms (in Ency.
i is (like those of the Psalms) the work of one or more of the Sopherim (or students and editors of Scripture) in post-exilic times, apparently the same writer (or company of writers) who prefixed the headings of Hosea and Micah, and perhaps of some of the other books.
403), on the Psalms, on the Song of Solomon; Lives of SS.
The Notes on Job, the Psalms, Isaiah and Daniel, found scarcely less acceptance.
6, Psalms of Solomon.
Like the Pentateuch, the Psalms, the Megilloth and the Pirke Aboth, this work was divided into five parts, which, as we shall notice presently, spring from five different sources.
and the Psalms of Solomon, constitute an unmeasured attack on every office - prophetic, priestly and kingly - administered by the Maccabees.
Patriarchs.) Psalms of Solomon.
- These psalms, in all eighteen, enjoyed but small consideration in early times, for only six direct references to them are found in early literature.
Their ascription to Solomon is due solely to the copyists or translators, for no such claim is made in any of the psalms. On the whole, Ryle and James are no doubt right in assigning 70-40 B.C. as the limits within which the psalms were written.
Since the Psalms were written in Hebrew, and intended for public worship in the synagogues, it is most probable that they were composed in Palestine.
(See Solomon, The Psalms Of.) The Assumption of Moses.
in terms that recall the anti-Sadducean Psalms of Solomon.
Some of the later writers in the Old Testament employ the appellative Elohim, God, prevailingly or exclusively; a collection of Psalms (Ps.
The extant writings of Paulinus consist of some fifty Epistolae, addressed to Sulpicius Severus, Delphinus, Augustine, Jerome and others; thirty-two Carmina in a great variety of metre, including a series of hexameter "natales," begun about 393 and continued annually in honour of the festival of St Felix, metrical epistles to Ausonius and Gestidius, and paraphrases of three psalms; and a Passio S.
So long as writing materials were allowed him he employed himself in making a commentary on the Psalms, in which he restated all his doctrines.
About this time he read Bucer's commentaries on the Gospels and the Psalms and also Zwingli's De vera et falsa religione; and his Biblical studies began to affect his views.
(c) A commentary on the Psalms and short notes (complexiones) on the Pauline epistles, the Acts, and the Apocalypse.
At Rome were published the Gospels (with a dedication to Pope Damasus, an explanatory introduction, and the canons of Eusebius), the rest of the New Testament and the version of the Psalms from the Septuagint known as the Psalterium romanum, which was followed (c. 388) by the Psalterium gallicanum, based on the Hexaplar Greek text.
After a short residence at Lambeth he was appointed, through the influence of Cromwell, then chancellor of the university, to lecture on theology at Cambridge; but when he had delivered a few expositions of the Hebrew psalms, he was compelled by the opposition of the papal party to desist.
A few verses from the Psalms, the shrunken remainder of a whole Psalm.
A verse or verses from the Psalms sung at the offering of the elements.
The first book with his imprint is The Psalms of David Imitated in For the prevention of counterfeiting continental paper money Franklin long afterwards suggested the use on the different denominations of different leaves, having noted the infinite variety of leaf venation.
He had earlier opened a correspondence with Augustine, along with his friends Tyro and Hilarius, and although he did not meet him personally his enthusiasm for the great theologian led him to make an abridgment of his commentary on the Psalms, as well as a collection of sentences from his works - probably the first dogmatic compilation of that class in which Peter Lombard's Liber sententiarum is the best-known example.
3, and which has had a place in the worship of the Christian church since the 2nd century; to the Hallelujah of several of the Psalms and of Rev. xix.; to such passages of glorification as Rom.
little collection of psalms and hymns entitled The Spirit of the Psalms. After his death, a volume of Remains with a memoir was published, and the poems contained in this, with those in Poems, chiefly Religious, were afterwards issued in one volume (1868).
Auslegung des Propheten Jesajas), which he dedicated to Heinrich Ewald, and which Hermann Hupfeld (1796-1866), well known as a commentator on the Psalms (1855-1861), pronounced to be his best exegetical work.
At Zurich he laboured for a period of twenty-eight years, during which, besides commentaries on The Psalms (1835-1836; 2nd ed..
Nevertheless, the concentration of all ritual at a single point, and the practical exclusion of laymen from active participation in it - for the old sacrificial feast had now shrunk into entire insignificance in comparison with the stated priestly holocausts and atoning rites2 - lent powerful assistance to the growth of a new and higher type of personal religion, the religion which found its social expression not in material acts of oblation, but in the language of the Psalms. In the best times of the old kingdom the priests had shared the place of the prophets as the religious leaders of the nation; under the second Temple they represented the unprogressive traditional side of religion, and the leaders of thought were the psalmists and the scribes, who spoke much more directly to the piety of the nation.
He was a Protestant, and among other religious works translated the Psalms. His best work was Zwierciadio albo zywot poczciwego czlowieka (The Mirror or Life of an Honourable Man) - a somewhat tedious didactic piece.
He also executed a translation of the Psalms. He wrote a play - a piece of one act, with twelve scenes - The Despatch of the Greek Ambassadors.
Among his latest productions are his "Psalms of the Future" (Psalmy przyszlosci), which were attacked by the democratic party as a defence of aristocratic views which had already ruined Poland..
The " Writings," also sometimes the " Sacred Writings," i.e., as we call them, the " Hagiographa," consisting of three groups, containing in all eleven books: (a) The poetical books, Psalms, Proverbs, Job.
Another allusion to the tripartite division is also no doubt to be found in the expression " the law, the prophets, and the psalms," in Luke xxiv.
- cl.); and in many parts it is manifestly based upon independent smaller collections; for it contains groups of psalms headed " David," the " sons of Korah," " Asaph," " Songs of Ascents."
Each of the five books of which it is composed contains psalms which show that its compilation cannot have been completed till after the return from the Captivity; and indeed, when the individual psalms are studied carefully it becomes apparent that in the great majority of cases they presuppose the historical conditions, or the religious experiences, of the ages that followed Jeremiah.
Thus, though it is going too far to say that there are no pre-exilic psalms, the Psalter, as a whole, is the expression of the deeper spiritual feeling which marked the later stages of Israel's history.
Its compilation can hardly have been finally completed before the 3rd century B.C.; if it is true, as many scholars think, that there are psalms dating from the time of the Maccabee struggle (Ps.
The Psalms were written mostly by David, but " some of them after the return from the captivity, as the 137th 1 In what follows the actual quotations are from his English work; some of the summaries take account of the brief expansions in his later Latin version.
xl.-lxvi.; (3) the book of Daniel was written in the 2nd century s.c.; (4) the Priestly Code is post-exilic; (5) most of the Psalms are post-exilic. Now I, 2, 3 are absolutely independent - if 1 were proved false, 2 and 3 would still stand; and so with 2 and 3; so also 2 and 3 could be proved false without in any way affecting the validity of 4.
On the other hand, if 1 were disproved, 4 would immediately fall through, and the strength of 5 would be weakened (as it would also by the disproof of 2), because the argument for the date of many Psalms is derived from religious ideas and the significance of these varies greatly according as the Priestly Code is held to be early or late.
Originally, the MS. contained the whole of the Old and New Testaments, including the Psalms of Solomon in the former and I and 2 Clement in the latter.
Tehillim on the Psalms (Germ.
ha-Makiri, perhaps later, covers only certain books, is useful for older sources and their criticism; portions have been edited by Spira (1894, on Isaiah); Buber (1899, on Psalms); Gri nhut (1902, on Proverbs).
Other works by Hirsch were Horeb, and commentaries on the Pentateuch and Psalms. These are marked by much originality, but their exegesis is fanciful.
The 9th century is characterized by interlinear glosses on the Book of Psalms, and towards its close by a few attempts at independent translation.
This is the famous Paris Psalter,' a rendering of the first fifty Psalms (Vulg.
Bruce, The Anglo-Saxon Version of the Book of Psalms. ..
In fact in the Northern Midlands, and in the North even before the middle of the r4th century, the book of Psalms had been twice rendered into English, and before the end of the same century, probably before the great Wycliffite versions had spread over the country, the whole of the New Testament had been translated by different hands into one or other of the dialects of this part of the country.
It contains a complete version of the book of Psalms,.
Before the middle of the century Richard Rolle, the hermit of Hampole 1349), turned into English, with certain additions and omissions, the famous Commentary on the Psalms by Peter Lombard.
Thus Richard Rolle's version of the Psalms was executed for a nun; so was in all likelihood the southern version of the epistles referred to above.
The Lollards, for instance, did not hesitate to introduce into certain copies of the pious and orthodox Commentary on the Psalms by the hermit of Hampole interpolations of their own of the most virulently controversial kind (MSS.
One thing is certain, that the book of Psalms of the new revision had fairly soon to give way before the wellknown and smooth rendering of the Great Bible.
As a poet, St Aldegonde is mainly known through his admirable metrical translation of the Psalms (1580), and the celebrated Wilhelmus van Nassauwe, one of the two officially recognized national anthems of Holland, is also ascribed to him.
xcv.) and a hymn, followed by a Nocturna or night-watch (on Sundays three) which consists of twelve psalms. After the nocturna comes a lesson divided into three parts, one biblical and two patristic, and finally the Te Deum.
It consists of four psalms, a canticle, psalms 148-150, a hymn, the Benedictus (Luke i.
Vespers or Evensong consists of five varying psalms, a hymn, the Magnificat (Luke i.
It consists of the general confession, four fixed psalms, a hymn, the Nunc dimittis (Luke ii.
The catechumens or unbaptized, together with the penitents, remained in church during the Litany, collect, three lections, two psalms and homily.
(They had no refectory, but ate their common meal, of bread and water only, when the day's labour was over, reclining on strewn grass, sometimes out of doors.) Four times in the day they joined in prayers and psalms.
In the Psalms corresponding phrases (My, Thy, His anointed) occur nine times, to which may be added the lyrical passages I Sam.
Buchanan Gray (J.Q.R., July 1895, p. 658 sqq.) draws a parallel between the" king "in the Psalms and the" servant "in Deutero-Isaiah or Yahweh's" Son "(in Hos.
It would be possible so to interpret" king "or" anointed "in some Psalms, e.g.
3 In the Psalms the ideal aspect of the kingship, its religious importance as the expression and organ of Yahweh's sovereignty, is prominent.
Thus the Psalms were necessarily viewed as prophetic; and meantime, in accordance with the common Hebrew representation of ideal things as existing in heaven, the true king remains hidden with God.
But all agree in giving the central place to the realization of a real effective kingship of Yahweh; in fact the conception of the religious subject as the nation of Israel, with a national organization under Yahweh as king, is common to the whole Old Testament, and connects prophecy proper with the so-called Messianic psalms and similar passages which speak of the religious relations of the Hebrew commonwealth, the religious meaning of national institutions, and so necessarily contain ideal elements reaching beyond the empirical present.
A Theological Question for the Times (1889); The Authority of the Holy Scripture (1891); The Bible, the Church and the Reason (1892); The Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch (1893); The Messiah of the Gospels (1894) The Messiah of the Apostles (1894); New Light on the Life of Jesus (1904); The Ethical Teaching of Jesus (1904); A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms (2 vols., 1906-1907), in which he was assisted by his daughter; and The Virgin Birth of Our Lord (1909).
The writings of Edward Irving published during his lifetime were For the Oracles of God, Four Orations (1823); For Judgment to come (1823); Babylon and Infidelity foredoomed (1826); Sermons, &c. (3 vols., 1828); Exposition of the Book of Revelation (1831); an introduction to a translation of Ben-Ezra; and an introduction to Horne's Commentary on the Psalms. His collected works were published in 5 volumes, edited by Gavin Carlyle.
By a true instinct the early Christian writers called widows and orphans the altar of God on which the sacrifices of almsgiving are offered up. 4 Such works of charity, however, represent only one of the channels by which self-sacrifice is ministered, to which all prayers and thanksgiving and instruction of psalms, prophecy and preaching contribute.
Some recommended marriage, others enlistment as a soldier in the civil wars; one "ancient priest" bade him take tobacco and sing psalms; another of the same fraternity, "in high account," advised physic and blood-letting.
Among Benedict's works are commentaries on part of the Psalms and on the Gospel of.
The old sacrificial hymns were probably obscene and certainly nonsensical, and the substitution for them of the psalms, and of lections of the prophets and New Testament, was an enormous gain.
His Commentary on the Psalms was edited by the Rev. H.
Principal works: A Short Explanation of the Nicene Creed (1852); An Explanation of the Thirty-nine Articles (2 vols., 1867 and 1868); Commentary on the Seven Penitential Psalms (1847); Commentary on the Canticles (1853).
Instead of the epistle, sundry passages from Hosea, Habakkuk, Exodus and the Psalms are read.
The first was on Chronicles, then followed one on the Psalms, and finally his exegetical masterpiece - the commentary on the prophets.
His annotations on the Psalms are especially interesting for the polemical excursuses directed against the Christian interpretation.
The popularity of his biblical exegesis is demonstrated by the fact that the first printed texts of the Hebrew Bible were accompanied by his commentary: the Psalms 1477, perhaps at Bologna; the early Prophets, 1485, Soncino; the later Prophets, ibid.
A new edition of that on the Psalms was begun by Schiller-Szinessy (First Book of Psalms, Cambridge, 1883).
John Cassian (c. 380) tells us that throughout Egypt the Psalms were divided into groups of twelve, and that after each group there followed two lessons, one from the Old, one from the New Testament (De caenob.
4), implying but not absolutely stating that there was a fixed order of such lessons just as there was of the Psalms. St Basil the Great mentions fixed lessons on certain occasions taken from Isaiah, Proverbs, St Matthew and Acts (Horn.
The Psalms of David are then to be sung.
Fula) Languages was privately printed in 1861, and his translation of the Psalms into Hausa was published by the Bible Society in 1881.
He is chiefly known as a writer of hymns and poems, including "Rock of Ages," and the collections entitled Poems on Sacred Subjects (Dublin, 1759) and Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Worship (London, 1776).
His English devotional commentary on the Psalms follows very closely his Latin Expositio Psalterii, which he based partly on Peter Lombard's Catena.
Neale's Commentary on the Psalms called it a "terse mystical paraphrase, which often comes very little short in beauty and depth of Dionysius the Carthusian himself."
1888, &c.), Psalms (4th ed.
He further translated the Psalms of David and the New Testament, printed in 1529, and finally - in conjunction with Bishop Peder Palladius - the Bible, which appeared in 1550.
He also made a translation of the Psalms.
A prose version of the first fifty Psalms has been attributed to him; and the attribution, though not proved, is perfectly possible.
Bruce, The Anglo-Saxon Version of the Book of Psalms, Baltimore, 1894.) (C. PL.)
The names occur in the titles of certain Psalms, and the writer of the Book of Chronicles makes Asaph a seer (2 Chron.
The fact that it stands in the third division of the Hebrew Canon, the Writings or Hagiographa, along with such late works as Job, Psalms, Chronicles, Daniel, Ecclesiastes and Esther, must be allowed weight; the presumption is that the arrangers of the Canonical books regarded it as being in general later than the Prophetical books.
Examination of titles in the Prophets and the Psalms (to say nothing of Ecclesiastes and Wisdom of Solomon) makes it evident that these have been added by late editors who were governed by vague traditions or fanciful associations or caprice, and there is no reason to suppose the titles in Proverbs to be .exceptions to the general rule.
The practical limits of the church service made it impossible to break them up by setting each clause to a separate movement, a method by which 16th-century music composers contrived to set psalms and other long texts to compositions lasting an hour or longer.
Besides he believed that he had been specially set apart to lecture on the Holy Scriptures, and he began by commenting on the Psalms and on the Epistles of St Paul.
" Levites," " Messiah," " Priest," " Prophet," " Psalms," &c.
Geddes was engaged on a critical translation of the Psalms (published in 1807) when he was seized with an illness of which he died on the 26th of February 1802.
His chief work was the Syntagmation, but he wrote many others, including commentaries on the Gospels, the Psalms, and Romans.
The impetus to the purification of the old Semite religion to which the Hebrews for a long time clung in common with their fellows - the various branches of nomadic Arabs - was largely furnished by the remarkable civilization unfolded in the Euphrates valley and in many of the traditions, myths and legends embodied in the Old Testament; traces of direct borrowing from Babylonia may be discerned, while the indirect influences in the domain of the prophetical books, as also in the Psalms and in the so-called "Wisdom Literature," are even more noteworthy.
ii., which has been transferred from some other place; it is in fact an anticipatory thanksgiving for the deliverance of Israel, mostly composed of phrases from other psalms. The other is that the narrative before us is not historical but an imaginative story (such as was called a Midrash) based upon Biblical data and tending to edification.
His appeal to musicians was made in a threefold capacity, and we have, therefore, to deal with Liszt the unrivalled pianoforte virtuoso (1830 - r848); Liszt the conductor of the "music of the future " at Weimar, the teacher of Tausig, Billow and a host of lesser pianists, the eloquent writer on music and musicians, the champion of Berlioz and Wagner (1848-1861); and Liszt the prolific composer, who for some five-and-thirty years continued to put forth pianoforte pieces, songs, symphonic orchestral pieces, cantatas, masses, psalms and oratorios (1847-1882).
Masses: Missa solennis for the inauguration of the cathedral at Gran; Ungarische Kronungs-messe; Missa choralis (with organ); Missa and Requiem for male voices (with organ); Psalms, 13, 137, 23 and 18; 12 Kirchen-Chor-Gesange (with organ).
The metrical psalms also, which are still sung in Scottish churches, were adopted at this time; they are based mainly on the version, which had been approved by the Westminster Assembly, of Francis Rouse (1579-1659), a member of the English House of Commons.
Church music has been cultivated and improved in a marked degree; and hymns have been introduced to supplement the psalms and paraphrases; in 1898 a committee appointed by the Church of Scotland, the Free Church, the United Presbyterian Church and the Presbyterian Church in Ireland issued The Church Hymnary, which is authorized for use in all these churches alike.
Finally, in December 1624, he published his Apophthegms, and Translations of some of the Psalms, dedicated to George Herbert; and, in 1625, a third and enlarged edition of the Essays.
He charmed men by his sweet singing of Psalms, and children were always fascinated by him.
He is the author of a mystical and allegorical commentary on the Psalms, first published by Erasmus in 1522, and by him attributed to the elder Arnobius.
The commentary on the Psalms is lost, the preface and the titles of the chapters alone being extant.
After his death there appeared - Sermons (1810-1812) Speeches in Parliament (1813); Book of Psalms, translated with Notes (1815); Biblical Criticism (1820); Collected Theological Works (6 vols.
of the Magnalia; The Short History of New England (1694); Bonifacius, usually known as Essays To Do Good (Boston, 1710; Glasgow, 1825; Boston, 1845), one of his principal books and one which had a shaping influence on the life of Benjamin Franklin; Psalterium Americanum (1718), a blank verse translation of the Psalms from the original Hebrew; The Christian Philosopher: A Collection of the Best Discoveries in Nature, with Religious Improvements (1721); Parentator (1724), a memoir of his father; Ratio Disciplinae (1726), an account of the discipline in New England churches; Manuductio ad Ministerium: Directions for a Candidate of the Ministry (1726), one of the most readable of his books.
" Like a few of the Psalms, Lamentations i.-iv.
5; Psalms lxxx.
Psalms and didactic spiritual poems were the main products of Swedish letters in the 16th century.
He also wrote many psalms. Laurentius Andreae, 1552, had previously prepared a translation of the New Testament, which appeared in 1526.
16; Psalms xlv.
In the early days of Christian worship, when Jewish custom was followed, the Bible furnished all that was thought necessary, containing as it did the books from which the lessons were read and the psalms that were recited.
Already in the 8th century Prudentius, bishop of Troyes, had in a Breviarium Psalterii made an abridgment of the Psalter for the laity, giving a few psalms for each day, and Alcuin had rendered a similar service by including a prayer for each day and some other prayers, but no lessons or homilies.
In the Breviary the psalms are arranged according to a disposition dating from the 8th century, as follows.
Psalms i.-cviii., with some omissions, are recited at Matins, twelve each day from Monday to Saturday, and eighteen on Sunday.
The Proprium Sanctorum contains the lessons, psalms and liturgical formularies for saints' festivals, and depends on the days of the secular month.
The Commune Sanctorum comprises psalms, antiphons, lessons, &c., for feasts of various groups or classes (twelve in all); e.g.
They are: psalms (including canticles), antiphons, responsories, hymns, lessons, little chapters, versicles and collects.
The psalms have already been dealt with, but it may be noted again how the multiplication of saints' festivals, with practically the same special psalms, tends in practice to constant repetition of about one-third of the Psalter, and correspondingly rare recital of the remaining two-thirds, whereas the Proprium de Tempore, could it be adhered to, would provide equal opportunities for every psalm.
In the lessons, as in the psalms, the order for special days breaks in upon the normal order of ferial offices and dislocates the scheme for consecutive reading.
We see a real man, but a man helpless anywhere save in the study or in the convent - a little fresh-coloured man, with soft brown eyes, who had a habit of stealing away to his cubiculum whenever the conversation became too lively; somewhat bent, for it is on record that he stood upright when the psalms were chanted, and even rose on his tiptoes with his face turned upwards; genial, if shy, and occasionally given to punning, as when he said that he preferred Psalmi to Salmones; a man who perhaps led the most placid uneventful life of all men who ever wrote a book or scribbled letters.
The penitential psalms are sung, and at the end of each a candle is extinguished.
on the Psalms, Canticles, Job, the Gospel Harmony, and the Pauline Epistles), sermons and letters, which still exist in MS. The Glossae commentarius in psalmos Davidis, were first published at Paris in 1533.
There are thus four groups of Hallel psalms: - civ.-cvii.
which are Maccabean) belong to the Greek period, forming a collection of sixteen psalms composed for public use by the choirs, especially at the great feasts.
It would appear that in the time of Gamaliel 1 International Critical Commentary, " Psalms," Intro.
probably dates from the first half of the 2nd century A.D., and these four psalms were recited after the pouring out of the fourth cup, the two earlier ones being taken at the beginning of the meal.
misereri, to have mercy or pity), the name of one of the penitential psalms (li.), from its opening words, Miserere mei, Deus.
They are as follows: (i.) The Calendar; (ii.) The names of the Faires of Scotland; (iii.) The Confession of Faith used at Geneva and received by the Church of Scotland; (iv.-vii.) Concerning the election and duties of Ministers, Elders and Deacons, and Superintendent; (viii.) An order of Ecclesiastical Discipline; (ix.) The Order of Excommunication and of Public Repentance; (x.) The Visitation of the Sick; (xi.) The Manner of Burial; (xii.) The Order of Public Worship - Forms of Confession and Prayer after Sermon; (xiii.) Other Public Prayers; (xiv.) The Administration of the Lord's Supper; (xv.) The Form of Marriage; (xvi.) The Order of Baptism; (xvii.) A Treatise on Fasting with the order thereof; (xviii.) The Psalms of David; (xix.) Conclusions or Doxologies; (xx.) Hymns - metrical versions of the Decalogue, Magnificat, Apostles' Creed, &c.; (xxi.) Calvin's Catechism; (xxii.
The Psalms and Catechism together occupy more than half the book.
His critical edition of the Psalms (1882-1883) was his chief contribution to biblical exegesis, but after his death Professor Bacher edited Graetz's Emendationes to many parts of the Hebrew scriptures.
He translated and edited Gesenius's Hebrew Grammar (1839; 1877), and published revised versions with notes of Job (1856), Genesis (1868), Psalms (1871), Proverbs (1872), Isaiah i.
In it the Pater Noster, Ave Maria, Deus in Adjutorium, &c., are followed by five psalms and five antiphons, after which come the "little chapter," the hymn and the verse, which vary according to the season, the Magnificat and its antiphon, and the appropriate collect.
Hitherto they had been erratic, lukewarm and poorly attended (vagae, tepentes, infrequentesque); those which he instituted were characterized by fasting, prayers, psalms and tears."
At the litaniae majores and minores and other penitential processions, joyful hymns are not allowed, but the litanies are sung, and, if the length of the procession requires, the penitential and gradual psalms.
used heretofore in the days of rogations" were ordered to be observed by the Injunctions of Queen Elizabeth in 1559; and for these processions certain "psalms, prayers and homilies" were prescribed.
And in Psalms ii.
Like the Pentateuch, the Psalms, the VIegilloth, the Pirke Aboth, this work was divided into five parts, with the critical discussion of which we shall deal below.
This is the first example of rhymed psalms in Rumanian, the author following the Polish rhymed version of Ian Kohanowski.
12, are viewed as a small pious community such as we find in the Psalms (see Nowack's Comm.).
(3) Expository and homiletical works, including the Hexaemeron, and several series of discourses On the Workmanship of Man, On the Inscriptions of the Psalms, On the Sixth Psalm, On the first three Chapters of Ecclesiastes, On Canticles, On the Lord's Prayer and On the Eight Beatitudes.
He translated the Psalms into Persian, the Gospels into Judaeo-Persic,.
1707; John Magnusson, who wrote Hristafla, a didactic poem; Stefan Olafsson, composer of psalms, rimur, &c., d.
Odd afterwards translated the Psalms, and several devotional works of the day, Corvinus's Epistles, &c. He was made lawman of the north and west, and died from a fall in the Laxa in Kios, June 1556.
This fine penitential prayer seems to have been modelled after the penitential psalms. It exhibits considerable unity of thought, and the style is, in the main, dignified and simple.
considered to be his translation of the Psalms into Servian verse (Saltiyer Slovinski).
Mention may also be made of a treatise on orthography, of which a fragment (on Quantity) has been preserved; a tract on prosody; commentaries on Hephaestion and Dionysius Thrax; and grammatical notes on the Psalms.
In 1534 he published two translations of his own, the first Dulichius's Vom alten and newen Gott, and the second a Paraphrase upon the Psalms, and in 1535 he completed his translation of the Bible.
In addition to papers published to defend his claims Antonio was the author of the Panegyrus Alphonsi Lusitanorum Regis (Coimbra, 1550), and of a cento of the Psalms, Psalmi Confessionales (Paris 1592), which was translated into English under the title of The Royal Penitent by Francis Chamberleyn (London, 1659), and into German as Heilige Betrachtungen (Marburg, 1677).
Rollock wrote Commentaries on the Epistles tc the Ephesians (1590) and Thessalonians (1598) and Hebrews (1605), the book of Daniel (1591), the Gospel of St John (1599) and some of the Psalms (1598); an analysis of the Epistle to the Romans (1594), and Galatians (1602); also Questions and Answers on the Covenant of God (1596), and a Treatise on Effectual Calling (1597).
The Veda contains devotional hymns; we can no more expect much narrative here than in the Psalms of David.
This was the end of the long tragedy of civil strife and of wars of conquest, mingled with the sound of Results of madrigals and psalms and pavanes.
He was condemned, as "vehemently suspected of heresy," to incarceration at the pleasure of the tribunal, and by way of penance was enjoined to recite once a week for three years the seven penitential psalms. This sentence was signed by seven cardinals, but did not receive the customary papal ratification.
the Hexaemeron (Creation) and Abraham, some of the Psalms, and the Gospel according to Luke.
betweene a Soule and her Saviour (1635), but he is best known by his metrical version of the Psalms (1643), which was approved by the Westminster Assembly and (in a revised form) is still used in the Scottish Presbyterian churches.
is probably referred to in Psalms of Solomon xvii.
His publications include The Reality of Religion (1884); The Poetry of Tennyson (1889); The Other Wise Man (1896); Ships and Havens (1897); The Toiling of Felix, and Other Poems (1900); The Poetry of the Psalms (1900); The Blue Flower (1902); Days Off (1907); The House of Rimmon (1908); Out-of-Doors in the Holy Land (1908); Collected Poems (191 I); The Bad Shepherd (1911); The Unknown Quantity (1912); The Lost Boy (1914); Fighting for Peace (1917); The Valley of Vision (1919); and Golden Stars (1919) .
chanting psalms and singing hymns is not merely to glorify our language, but to heal it.
The Psalms were chanted, and Hymns sung by the choir with spirit and care; the Hymns were " Come to thy Temple.
Apart from a brief foray into Proverbs, every single one of the passages was from the Psalms.
hoodoo practice mostly due to the popularity of the text Secrets of the Psalms by Godrey Selig.
Why did he then appoint the ordinances of preaching, prayer, singing of psalms, baptism, and the Lord's supper?
penitential psalms, evincing a tone of sincere piety.
Bread From Heaven: Posted each Wednesday morning, these reflections on the Psalms are a great spiritual pick-me-up.
This is because the piety of the psalms is quite alien to the piety of the psalms is quite alien to the piety that prevails in many contemporary churches.
He makes people rise at five in the morning to sing psalms.
The purpose of chanting psalms and singing hymns is not merely to glorify our language, but to heal it.
Perhaps psalm praying means praying the psalms in short, and praying long prayers like the prayers at the root of the psalms.
These translated psalms follow Comus: A Mask in the 1673 text of Poems &c.
metrical psalms he might have allowed, but certainly not the bulk of what appears in our hymn books.
While Bright deals only with psalm 137, presumably he would also apply this principle of interpretation to the other imprecatory psalms.
Certain authorities find no Davidic psalms in the Psalter.
Be aware of the major types of messianic psalms.
Although dead, they were heard singing psalms even by their enemies.
Try using the rosary; begin by praying the Psalms.
sermon series in the Psalms.
singing of psalms, baptism, and the Lord's supper?
The thanksgiving psalms seem to have been used in public worship, often in conjunction with a thanksgiving offering.
Haggai's name is mentioned in the titles of several psalms in the Septuagint (Psalms cxxxvii., cxlv.-cxlviii.) [and other versions, but these titles are without value, and moreover vary in MSS.
A Levite probably had a hand in the work, and this, with the evidence for the Levitical Psalms (see Psalms), gives the caste an interesting place in the study of the transmission of the biblical records.
He had published in 5539 his Kriegbi chlein des Friedens (pseudonymous), his Schrifftliche and ganz gri ndliche Auslegung des 64 Psalms, and his Das verbiitschierte mit sieben Siegeln verschlossene Buck (a biblical index, exhibiting the dissonance of Scripture); in 1541 his Spruchworter (a collection of proverbs, several times reprinted with variations); in 1542 a new edition of his Paradoxa; and some smaller works.
He wrote The Religion of Israel (1882); Quotations from the Old Testament in the New Testament (1884); Judaism and Christianity (1890); and the Book of Proverbs (1899) in the "International Critical Commentary"; and edited a translation of Erdmann's commentary on Samuel (1877) in Lange's commentaries; Murray's Origin of the Psalms (1880); and, in Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel (Hebrew text and English version, 1899).
word /iaXAecv, to play the harp), the name used to designate the religious poems of the Hebrews, which are contained in the Psalter (see Psalms, Book oF).
There are, however, Targumim on the Psalms and Job, composed in the 5th century, on Proverbs, resembling the Peshitta version, on the five Meghilloth, paraphrastic and agadic (see below) in character, and on Chronicles - all Palestinian.
To this period belong Ilafz al-Quti (the Goth?) who made a version of the Psalms in Arabic rhyme, and Bahya (more correctly Behai) ibn Paquda, dayyan at Saragossa, whose Arabic ethical treatise has always had great popularity among the Jews in its Hebrew translation, .¥Iobhoth ha-lebhabhath.
Damiani advocated the substitution of flagellation for the recitation of the penitential psalms, and drew up a scale according to which 1000 strokes were equivalent to ten psalms, and 15,000 to the whole psalter.
The ancient Babylonian psalms clearly reveal that the highest minds were moving out of polytheism to a monotheistic identification of various deities as diverse phases of one underlying essence.
The " servant of Yahweh " presents one aspect of the problem and its attempted solution, the book of Job another, while in the Psalms, e.g.
The reverence felt for the canonized Torah or law (the Pentateuch or so-called five books of Moses) grew even into worship. Of this spirit we find clear expression in some of the later psalms, e.g.
That the tradition of the titles requires careful sifting is no longer doubted, and the results of recent criticism have been to confirm the view that " it is no longer possible to treat the psalms as a record of David's spiritual life through all the steps of his chequered career " (W.
For the so-called Gradual Psalms, cxx.-cxxxiv., the "songs of degrees," LXX.
6), which was devoted to prayer and study, and into which the inmate brought nothing but the Law and the Prophets, together with the Psalms and other works which tended to the promotion of piety.
Even in one of the Psalms (lxxxiii.
The tradition in Psalms cxxxii.
We certainly need not suppose that the Davidic, Asaphic and Korahite psalms severally once existed as separate books, for, if this had been the case, it is probable that the ascription would not have been prefixed to each separate psalm, but rather to the head of each collection (cf.
20; moreover we should be compelled to assent 'to the view expressed in the Oxford Dictionary that those psalms which have the heading r3??
The absence of the musical titles, however, ma y be taken as an indication that the last collection of psalms was formed in a different place from that in which the earlier collections had arisen; and if, as seems probable, we may identify this place with the Temple at Jerusalem, the absence of musical titles is easily explained, for the number of skilled musicians who there ministered, and who would, of course, possess the tradition of the various modes and tones, would make precise musical directions superfluous.
2, we should indeed naturally infer that these two psalms were regarded by Ben Sira as the work of David; but this would prove nothing as to the date of the collection in which we now have them.
and possibly xxxiii., is a collection of psalms in the shape which it assumed in a Judaean synagogue in the earlier days of the Maccabaean victories.
It is not improbable that the Elohistic redaction of the second collection of psalms is due not so much to any Jewish scruples about writing the Tetragrammaton as to the fear that it might fall into the hands of the heathen who were trying to destroy the Hebrew Scriptures, and might thus be desecrated (cf.
In the final compilation, or perhaps in a subsequent redaction, some alterations were made in the original order, some notes were added describing the circumstances in which various psalms had been composed, and lastly, in order to assimilate the outward form of the Psalter to that of the Pentateuch, the three collections were divided into five books.
Some of the Jewish traditions as to the use of particular psalms have been already cited; it may be added that the Mishna (Tamid) assigns to the service of the continual burnt-offerings the following weekly cycle of psalms. - (1) xxiv., (2) xlviii., (3) lxxxii., (4) xciv., (5) lxxxi., (6) xciii., (Sabbath) xcii., as in the title.
Briggs, Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Psalms," vol.
There is also an exposition of the first twenty psalms (published by Pez in Anecdota nova, iv.) and an epitome of Hrabanus Maurus's commentary on Leviticus.
Donne, Sir Henry Wotton, Izaak Walton, Bishop Andrewes and Francis Bacon, who dedicated to him his translation of the Psalms. Walton tells us that "the love of a court conversation, mixed with a laudable ambition to be something more than he was, drew him often from Cambridge to attend the king wheresoever the court was," and James I.
The so-called Psalter of Solomon, on the other hand, a collection of Pharisee psalms written in Hebrew soon after the taking of Jerusalem by Pompey, and preserved to us only in a Greek version, has nothing to do with Solomon or the traditional conception of his person, and seems to owe its name to a transcriber who thus distinguished these newer pieces from the older "Psalms of David" (see SOLOMON, PSALMS OF).
Just as many of the punishments enjoined by the Roman criminal code were gradually commuted by medieval legislators for pecuniary fines, so the years or months of fasting enjoined by the earlier ecclesiastical codes were commuted for proportionate fines, the recitation of a certain number of psalms, and the like.
In literary criticism its fundamental thesis, stated independently of Vatke and in the same year by George in Die dlteren jiidischen Feste, and in a measure anticipated by Reuss, who in 1832 was maintaining in his academical lectures that the prophets were older than the Law and the Psalms more recent than both, is that the chronological order of the three main sources of the Hexateuch is (1) the prophetic narratives (JE), (2) Deuteronomy, (3) the Priestly Code (P), the last being post-exilic. This entirely reversed the prevailing view that P with its exact details and developed ceremonial and sacerdotal system was at once the earliest portion of the Pentateuch and the Grundschrift or foundation of the whole - a view that was maintained by Ewald and, though with very important modifications, to the last by A.
In the canons of Hippolytus in the first half of the 3rd century we find this direction: "Let presbyters, subdeacons and readers, and all the people assemble daily in the church at time of cockcrow, and betake themselves to prayers, to psalms and to the reading of the Scriptures, according to the command of the Apostles, until I come attend to reading" (canon xxi.).
Thus for the author of the Psalms of Solomon (c. 60 B.C.), Pompey, who destroyed the independent rule of the Maccabees and stormed Jerusalem, was the Adversary of God (cf.
It is true that the nationalistic tinge is found in late writings (Chronicles, Psalms), and that its absence, therefore, is not merely a matter of date; but it is hardly conceivable that an author of any time before the 5th century could have ignored the nationalistic point of view so completely as Proverbs does.
Both kinds of acrostic occur side by side in the Psalms. Psalm ex., an acrostic of the same kind as David's elegy, is followed by Psalms cxi.
may have suffered more in transmission than those which precede it-even to the extent of losing the acrostic form (like some of the Psalms and Nahum i.), besides half of its stanzas.
Verse 52: " They quelled my life in the pit " (Sheol; Psalms xxx.
(iii.) The coincidences of language between Lamentations and certain late Psalms, such as Psalms lxix., lxxiv., lxxx., lxxxviii., lxxxix., cxix., are numerous and significant, at least as a general indication of date.
From about the 4th century certain psalms began to be grouped together, a process that was furthered by the monastic practice of daily reciting the 150 psalms. This took so much time that the monks began to spread it over a week, dividing each day into hours, and allotting to each hour its portion of the Psalter.
ii.), the prayer of Habakkuk (iii.), the prayer of Hezekiah (Isaiah xxxviii.) and other similar Old Testament passages, and, from the New Testament, the Magnificat, the Benedictus and the Nunc dimittis, are admitted as psalms.
a Mishnic derivative from 55, hillel, " to praise"), a term in synagogal liturgy for (a) Psalms cxiii.-cxviii., often called "the Egyptian Hallel" because of its recitation during the paschal meal on the night of the Passover, (b) Psalm cxxxvi.
Of Biblical and exegetical works we have a considerable part of Eusebius' Commentaries on the Psalms and on Isaiah, which are monuments of learning, industry and critical acumen, though marred by the use of the allegorical method characteristic of the school of Origen; also a work on the names of places mentioned in Scripture, or the Onomasticon, the only one extant of a number of writings on Old Testament topography; and an epitome and some fragments of a work in two parts on Gospel Questions and Solutions, the first part dealing with the genealogies of Christ given in Matthew and Luke, the second with the apparent discrepancies between the various gospel accounts of the resurrection.
It was proposed also, as conducive to the welfare of the church, that the sacrament of the Lord's Supper should be administered more frequently, at least once every month, and that congregational singing of psalms should be practised in the churches.
Toward night candles were burning round his coffin, a pall was spread over it, the floor was strewn with sprays of juniper, a printed band was tucked in under his shriveled head, and in a corner of the room sat a chanter reading the psalms.
Well tonight we continue our sermon series in the Psalms.
Our psalms and hymns should instill courage, determination and steadfast loyalty in our hearts.
Already, allusions in the Song of Deborah and Psalms 29 have been found in the Ugaritic tablets.
Christian Mingle: Using Psalms 37:4 on its masthead, Christian Mingle is a site dedicated to helping you find your perfect Christian mate.
You can start with excerpts or Psalms from the Bible, even if you choose to go non-denominational.
Watching over the dead body is called shemira, and reciting psalms helps pass the time for the watchers.
A short ceremony is performed that includes reading of psalms and a eulogy, followed by the memorial prayer, El Maleh Rachamim.
Common Psalms from the Bible are a good place to start.
Eulogies are generally delivered by close family members along with psalms and prayers.
At the gravesite, the coffin is lowered into the earth, at which time additional psalms or eulogies may be delivered.
Choice of Bible verses, psalms, or other appropriate religious sentiments, frequently focusing on love, honor, unity, and sanctity.
The psalms rendered into metre were formerly the only vehicle of the Church's public praise, but hymns are now also used in most Presbyterian churches.'
Somewhat reluctantly it was accepted by Scottish Presbyterianism as a substitute for an older version with a greater variety of metre and music. "Old Hundred" and "Old 124th" mean the moth and 124th Psalms in that old book.
had split off because of objections to the growing use of Watts's Psalms; they had grown to two presbyteries and thirteen ministers in 1776.
18 Paul contrasts the being filled with the Spirit with the foolishness of intoxication with wine, and remarks that those filled with the Spirit speak to themselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs and give thanks always for all things.
Modern collections of religious poetry sometimes bear the title of Psalms and Hymns, but these are always more or less directly connected with the actual Psalms of David.
The extant writings of the Jewish sages are contained in the books of Job, Proverbs, Psalms, Ben-Sira, Tobit, Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, 4th Maccabees, to which may be added the first chapter of Pirke Aboth (a Talmudic tract giving, probably, pre-Christian material).
In this regard a comparison between them and Daniel, Enoch and Psalms of Solomon is instructive.
The paschal lamb is no longer eaten but represented by the shank bone of a lamb roasted in the ashes; unleavened bread and bitter herbs (haroseth) are eaten; four cups of wine are drunk before and after the repast, and a certain number of Psalms are recited.
He also edited a monthly magazine, The Sword and Trowel; an elaborate exposition of the Psalms, in seven volumes, called The Treasury of David (1870-1885); and a book of sayings called John Ploughman's Talks; or, Plain Advice for Plain People (1869), a kind of religious Poor Richard.
Some authorities think that the " God-fearers " of some of the Psalms and of the New Testament were these limited proselytes.
In 1771 he published his well-known Commentary on the Psalms, a series of expositions based on the Messianic idea.
These liturgical notes make extremely probable the supposition that the poem has been taken from some collection like that of our present book of Psalms, probably on the ground of the authorship asserted by the superscription there attached to it.
which carries no more intrinsic weight than the Davidic titles of the Psalms. The poem begins with a prayer that God will renew the historic manifestation of the exodus, which inaugurated the national history and faith; a thunderstorm moving up from the south is then described, in which God is revealed (3-7); it is asked whether this manifestation, whose course is further described, is against nature only (8-ii); the answer is given that it is for the salvation of Israel against its wicked foes (12-15); the poet describes the effect in terror upon himself (16) and declares his confidence in God, even in utter agricultural adversity (17-19).
His chief works were a Commentary on the Book of Psalms (2 vols., 1864-1868) and a life of Bishop Thirlwall (1877-1878).
BOOK OF PSALMS, or Psalter, the first book of the Hagiographa in the Hebrew Bible.
The name is not therefore equally applicable to all psalms, and in the later Jewish ritual the synonym Hallel specially designates two series of psalms, cxiii.
8 seq.), so also he was held to have completed and arranged the whole book, though according to Talmudic tradition a he incorporated psalms by ten other authors, Adam, Melchizedek, Abraham, Moses, Heman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three sons of Korah.
are pilgrimage psalms, LXX.
The division into five books was known to Hippolytus, but a closer examination of the doxologies shows that it does not represent the original scheme of the Psalter; for, while the doxologies to the first three books are no part of the psalms to which they are attached, but really mark the end of a book in a pious fashion not uncommon in Eastern literature, that to book IV., with its rubric addressed to the people, plainly belongs to the psalm, or rather to its liturgical execution, and does not therefore really mark the close of a collection once separate.
and III., the remaining psalms, lxxxiv.
The best instances of these ideas in the Old Testament are in Psalms 1.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.