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prussians

prussians Sentence Examples

  • In 1866 the defeat of Austria by the Prussians led to the incorporation of Venice in United Italy.

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  • The Prussians are up in arms now.

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  • From 1850 onwards it was again repaired and strengthened at great cost, and was considered impregnable; but in the war of 1864 the Prussians turned it by crossing the Schlei, .and it was abandoned by the Danes on the 6th of February without a blow.

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  • It was thereupon destroyed by the Prussians; in spite of which, however, a long line of imposing ruins still remains.

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  • the 16th the Prussians began hostilities, and on the 20th ly declared war.

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  • On the of July the Prussians completely defeated the, ,, strians at Koniggrtz, and on the 5th Austria Led Venetia to Napoleon, accepting his, mediation gratz.

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  • During the revolutionary ferment of 1848-49 he urged the Prussian king to refuse the imperial crown, co-operated with the Austrian emperor in suppressing the Hungarian insurrection, and compelled the Prussians to withdraw their support from the insurgents in Schleswig-Holstein.

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  • Saxony was in that year attacked by the Prussians, and with so much success that not only was the Saxon army forced to capitulate at Pirna in October, but the elector, who fled to Warsaw, made no attempt to recover Saxony, which remained under the dominion of Frederick.

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  • On the 10th of October 1806 a battle took place near Saalfeld between the French and the Prussians, during which Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia was killed.

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  • The lay subjects of the Order consisted of two classes; on the one hand there were the conquered Prussians, in a position of serfdom, bound in time of war to serve with the brethren in foreign expeditions; on the other hand there were the German immigrants, both urban and rural, along with the free Prussians who had voluntarily submitted and remained faithful.

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  • On the 29th of June the near approach of the Prussians (who had orders to seize him, dead or alive), caused him to retire westwards towards Rochefort, whence he hoped to reach the United States.

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  • POTATO WAR (Kartofelkrieg), the name given by the Prussians to the War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778-79.

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  • The Prussians and a Saxon contingent, commanded by Frederick the Great and his brother Prince Henry, were opposed to two Austrian armies under Loudon and Lacy.

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  • There is a statue to Commandant Beaurepaire, who, in 1792, killed himself rather than surrender Verdun to the Prussians.

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  • In 1637 it suffered much from the Swedes, and in 1745 it fell into the hands of the Prussians.

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  • The bridge over the Elbe was destroyed by the French in 1813, and again by the Saxons in June 1866 in order to impede the march of the Prussians on Dresden.

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  • To meet the impending blow the Prussians had been extended in a cordon along the great road leading from Mainz to Dresden, Blucher was at Erfurt, Riichel at Gotha, Hohenlohe at Weimar, Saxons in Dresden, with outposts along the frontier.

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  • In the meantime the Prussians were effecting their concentration.

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  • Hohenlohe pointed out that the Prussians were equally badly off, but promised to do his best to help his allies.

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  • However, it was evident that the bulk of the Prussians lay to his left, and instructions were at once despatched to Davout to turn westward from Naumburg towards Kdsen and to bring Bernadotte with him if the two were still together.

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  • At this moment the Prussians were actually on parade and ready to move off to attack, but just then the " evil genius " of the Prussian army, von Massenbach, an officer of the Headquarter Staff, rode up and claiming to speak with the authority of the king and commander-in-chief, induced Hohenlohe to order his troops back to camp. Of all this Napoleon saw nothing, but from all reports he came to the conclusion that the whole Prussian army was actually in front of him, and at once issued orders for his whole army to concentrate towards Jena, marching all night if need be.

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  • Briefly summarized, the battle came to this - in four successive efforts the Prussians failed because they were locally outnumbered.

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  • But the Prussians attacked at the old regulation speed of seventy-five paces to the minute, and the French manoeuvred at the quick or double of i 20 or 150.

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  • So desperate had been their resistance that the Prussians unanimously stated Davout's strength at double the actual figure.

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  • During the night the Prussians continued their retreat, the bulk of the main body to Summerda, Hohenlohe's corps towards Nordhausen.

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  • Bennigsen, now commanding the whole Russian army which with Lestocq's Prussians amounted to 100,000, also moved into winter quarters in the triangle Deutsch-Eylau-Osterode-Allenstein, and had every intention of remaining there, for a fresh army was already gathering in Russia, the 1st corps of which had reached Nur about 50 m.

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  • Soult and Murat attacked his rearguard on the 3rd, and learning from his Cossacks that the French corps were being directed so as to swing round and enclose him, he withdrew by a night march and ultimately succeeded in getting his whole army, with the exception of von Lestocq's Prussians, together in the strong position along the Alle, the centre of which is marked by Preussisch-Eylau.

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  • This time, however, Bennigsen, with over 60,000 men in position and 15,000 Prussians expected to arrive next morning, had no desire to avoid a battle, and deployed for action, his front protected by great batteries of guns, many of them of heavy calibre, numbering some 200 in all.

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  • Meanwhile Bennigsen had prepared for a fresh undertaking, and leaving Lestocq with 20,000 Prussians and Russians to contain Bernadotte, who lay between Braunsberg and Spandau on the Passarge, he moved southwards on the 2nd, and on the 3rd and 4th of June he fell upon Ney, driving him back towards Guttstadt, whilst with the bulk of his force he moved towards Heilsberg, where he threw up an entrenched position.

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  • Meanwhile the Russians and Prussians had concentrated all available men and were moving on an almost parallel line, but somewhat to the south of the direction taken by the French.

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  • Leaving the leading troops to repulse as best they might the furious attack of both Russians and Prussians, and caring little whether they lost ground, he rapidly organized for his own control a battle-reserve.

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  • Perhaps no battle better exemplifies the inherent strength of the emperor's strategy, and in none was his grasp of the battlefield more brilliantly displayed, for, as he fully recognized, " These Prussians have at last learnt something - they are no longer the wooden toys of Frederick the Great," and, on the other hand, the relative inferiority of his own men as compared with his veterans of Austerlitz called for far more individual effort than on any previous day.

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  • Blucher with about 95,000 Russians and Prussians was about Breslau, and Schwarzenberg, with nearly 180,000 Austrians and Russians, lay in Bohemia.

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  • It was the scene of two battles between the Prussians and Austrians on the 27th and the 28th of June 1866.

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  • It was captured by the Prussians in 1815.

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  • There the Prussians defeated the Austrians in May 1745, and in June 1760 the Prussians were routed by a greatly superior force of Austrians.

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  • But the Prussians having studied their allies in the war of 1864 knew the weakness of the Austrian staff and the untrustworthiness of the contingents of some of the Austrian nationalities, and felt fairly confident that against equal numbers they could hold their own.

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  • The direction of the Prussian railways, not laid out primarily for strategic purposes, conditioned the first deployment of the whole army, with the result that at first the Prussians were distributed in three main groups or armies on a front of about 250 m.

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  • On this date (June IIth) the Prussians stood in the following order: The army of the Elbe, General Herwarth von Bittenfeld, three divisions only, about Torgau; the I.

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  • To overcome it he at length obtained authority (June 15th) to order the army of the Elbe into Saxony, and on the 18th the Prussians entered Dresden, the Saxons retiring along the Elbe into Bohemia; and on the same day the news that the Austrian main body was marching from Olmiitz towards Prague arrived at headquarters.

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  • The Prussians followed on the 29th, but, owing to the iie of the roads, they had to march in two long columns, separated by almost a day's march, and when the advanced guard of the left column, late in the afternoon, gained touch with the enemy, the latter were in a position to crush them by weight of numbers, had they not suddenly been ordered to continue the retreat on Miletin.

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  • corps (Steinmetz) began to emerge from the long defile leading from Glatz to Nachod, and the Prussians had hardly gained room to form for action beyond its exit before they too were attacked.

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  • While trying to feed his army he omitted to fight it, and, with the chance of overwhelming the Prussians by one great effort of marching, he delayed the necessary orders till too late, and the Prussian II.

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  • The Prussians determined to hold on at all costs.

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  • Meanwhile fresh Austrian batteries appeared against the front of the 8th division, and fresh Prussians in turn had to be engaged to save the 8th.

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  • Fortunately the Prussians here derived an unexpected advantage from the shape of the ground, and indeed from the weather.

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  • The advantage of the breech-loader now began to assert itself, for the Austrian skirmishers who covered the front of the guns could only load when standing up, while the Prussians lay down or fired from cover.

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  • Such a charge as prelude to the advance of a great infantry bayonet attack must have swept the exhausted Prussians down the hill like sheep, but the opportunity passed, and the gunners finding their position untenable, limbered up, not without severe losses, and retired to a second position in rear.

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  • Occurring about 2.30, and almost simultaneously with the withdrawal of the Austrian guns on their left already alluded to, this may be said to have decided the battle, for although the Saxons still stood firm against the attacks of the Elbe army, and the reserves, both cavalry and infantry, attempted a series of counterstrokes, the advantage of position and moral was all on the side of the Prussians.

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  • On the other hand, the Prussians were new to the battlefield, and the reaction after the elation of victory was intense; moreover, if what happened at Hiihnerwasser affords a guide, the staff would have required some days to disentangle the units which had fought and to assign them fresh objectives.

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  • On purely military grounds the Prussians should have marched at once towards the Austrian field army, i.e.

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  • On the day of Koniggratz the Prussians moved into position to attack the Bavarians, and on the 4th of July v.

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  • The Prussians occupied Frankfurt (16th).

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  • Luther for his part did not stop at the suggestion, but in order to facilitate the change made special efforts to spread his teaching among the Prussians, while Albert's brother, George, prince of Ansbach, laid the scheme before Sigismund of Poland.

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  • Vienna was not occupied by the Prussians in the war of 1866, but the invaders marched to within sight of its towers.

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  • The Prussians, under Prince William (afterwards emperor), invaded Baden in the middle of June.

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  • On the 10th he met the Prussians at Waghausel, and was completely defeated; on the 25th Prince William entered Karlsruhe; and at the end of the month the members of the provisional government, who had taken refuge at Freiburg, dispersed.

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  • Fortunately for the Prussians, Bazaine had issued similar orders to his subordinates, who, having their men better in hand, were able to obey; and as night began to close in the French broke off the action and retired under the guns of the Metz forts, convinced that at last they had "broken the spell" of German success.

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  • The Prussians, having seen the cavalry whilst yet at a distance, ceased firing, formed their skirmishers into groups, and the closed supports standing in deployed lines, two deep, shattered the cavalry with volleys and file-firing, as with blown and exhausted horses they endeavoured to close with their adversaries.

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  • The threat of the charge had, however, induced caution on the French side, and for about two hours there was a lull in the fighting, which the Prussians utilized on their right in bringing up reinforcements through the Bois des Ognons.

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  • Hardly had they stepped off when Cissey's first line, catching sight of them, opened a devastating fire upon their left flank, and to meet this fresh danger the Prussians endeavoured to change front half-left whilst still on the move.

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  • Against the weight of French numbers, nearly three to one, the Prussians were unable to stand, and presently they broke and drifted backwards, completely routed.

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  • All along the rest of the line the Prussians were still holding their own, and on the extreme right fresh troops from the IX.

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  • The same idea had, however, occurred to Ladmirault, and he had called on the two nearest French cavalry divisions to put it into execution, and as the Prussians began to reach the plateau west of Mars-la-Tour and the Yron brook from the south, the French were deploying across it some two thousand yards to the north.

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  • It was almost dark when the Prussians approached the French position between Rezonville and the woods to the northward, and the troops soon lost direction in the smoke and became involved in the direst confusion; the firing again blazed out for a few moments, only to die away as utter exhaustion at length put an end to the Prussian advance.

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  • Simultaneously the French artillery also took up the challenge, and from the heights near St Privat the 6th Corps, whose presence had been unsuspected by the Prussians, joined in the fight.

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  • The French troops in Ste Marie were only an outpost of the 6th corps, and seeing themselves outnumbered, they withdrew about 2.30, the Prussians rushing the village immediately afterwards.

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  • But he miscalculated both the endurance of Cadogan's men (amongst whom the Prussians were conspicuous for their tenacity) and the rapidity with which in Marlborough's and Eugene's hands the wearied troops of the Allies could be made to move.

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  • Konitz was the first fortified post established in Prussia by Hermann Balk, who in 1230 had been commissioned as Landmeister, by the grand-master of the Teutonic order, to reduce the heathen Prussians.

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  • Jagerndorf suffered severely during the Thirty Years' War, and was the scene of engagements between the Prussians and Austrians in May 1745 and in January 1779.

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  • In the previous year the German Confederation, to which the grand-duchy of Luxemburg had belonged since 1815, had been dissolved; but the Prussians maintained their garrison in Luxemburg, which was not included in the new North German Confederation, while King William III.

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  • The Prussians were irritated by this proposal, but war was averted, and the question was referred to a conference of the powers in London.

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  • Its first site was near the fishing village of Steindamm, but after its destruction by the Prussians in 1263 it was rebuilt in its present position.

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  • It was Anschar, a monk of Corbie, who first preached to the Scandinavians, and other Benedictines were apostles to Poles, Prussians and other Slavonic peoples..

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  • It had previously narrowly escaped absorption by Napoleon, who passed through the town during the pursuit of the Prussians after the battle of Jena in 1806, and was only dissuaded from abolishing the duchy by the tact and courage of the duchess Louisa.

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  • In 1866 the Prussians inflicted a severe defeat on the Austrians in the neighbourhood.

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  • The allies had foreseen the very manoeuvre that Napoleon designed to put into execution, and had decided that if an attempt were made to break their centre they would concentrate forwards and on their inner flanks, the Anglo-Dutch army forming up at Gosselies and the Prussians at Fleurus.

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  • The left wing was directed to push up the Gosselies-Quatre Bras road, and Pajol's cavalry followed the Prussians who retired along the Gilly-Fleurus road.

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  • Marshal Ney joined the army, was given the command of the left wing, and ordered to drive the Prussians out of Gosselies, and clear the road northward of that place.

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  • The Prussians were driven from the town, but they managed to effect a roundabout retreat to Ligny, where they rallied.

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  • Had Napoleon attempted this he would (if successful) have driven the Anglo-Dutch army back upon the Prussians, instead of separating the allies, as he actually tried to do and very nearly succeeded in doing.

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  • The shock was too great; the Prussians gave way immediately and were chased back into the woods by cavalry.

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  • Gerard's advance had been delayed owing to the commander of his leading division deserting with his staff to the Prussians.

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  • each; and it could with, equal facility swing against the Prussians or the Anglo-Dutch, and was already placed between them."

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  • The Prussians numbered about 83,000 men to Napoleon's 71,000 (including Lobau, who only came up at the end of the day).

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  • The villages were captured and recaptured, but generally the French had the better of the fighting, for they compelled Blucher to use up more and more of his reserves, and prevented the Prussians from breaking through to the southward of S.

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  • The Prussians had seized the opportunity offered by the slackening of the French attacks to rally and deliver a counterstroke, which was parried, after achieving a small measure of success, by the bayonets of the Young Guard.

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  • He could at least beat Blucher and render the Prussians unfit for any serious operation except retreat on June 17, although he could no longer expect to destroy the Prussian army.

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  • Napoleon was master of Blucher's battlefield, and the beaten Prussians had retired to the north of the Namur-Nivelles road.

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  • If the Prussians now retired northwards, parallel to the direction which Wellington would follow perforce on the morrow, the chance of co-operating in a decisive battle would still remain to the allies; and Gneisenau's order issued by moonlight, directing the retreat on Tilly and Wavre, went far to ensuring the possibility of such combined action.

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  • Gneisenau apparently selected Wavre, not with the intention of assisting his ally, but rather to re-establish his own line of communication, and the presence of the Prussians on the field of battle of Waterloo must be put down to the immortal credit of Blucher and Grolmann, his quartermaster-general.

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  • The Prussians lost about 12,000 men and 21 guns, and the French 850o; in Ligny more than 4000 dead lay on an area of about 400 sq.

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  • Early in the morning Wellington (still ignorant of the exact position of his ally) sent out an officer, with an adequate escort, to establish touch with the Prussians.

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  • This staff officer discovered and reported that the Prussians were drawing off northwards to rally at Wavre; and about 9 A.M.

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  • Early on the 17th the Prussians drew off northwards on three roads, Thielemann covering the withdrawal and moving via Gembloux to join hands with Billow.

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  • Corps), a force of 33,000 men and 11o guns, to follow the Prussians, penetrate their intentions and discover if they meditated uniting with Wellington in front of Brussels.

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  • Their retreat having been unmolested, the Prussians were ready once more to take the field, quite twenty-four hours before Napoleon deemed it possible for the foe defeated at Ligny.

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  • The duke was to stand fast to receive the attack, whilst the Prussians should close round Napoleon's exposed right and support Wellington's left.

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  • The Prussians were thus the real general reserve, and it was Wellington's task to receive Napoleon's attack and prepare him for the decisive counter-stroke.

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  • It was therefore put off first of all until 9 A.M., and later until 11.30, to permit the sodden ground to dry sufficiently for the mounted arms to manoeuvre freely and give time to the French army to close up. During the night the emperor had received a report from Marshal Grouchy, dated Gembloux, 10 P.M., 17th, which stated that the Prussians were retiring in two columns towards Wavre and Perwez.

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  • Grouchy added that if he found that the bulk of the Prussians were moving on Wavre he would follow them and separate them from Wellington.

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  • But the Prussians had not yet changed the fate of the day.

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  • The veterans did the work magnificently with the bayonet, ousted the Prussians from the place, and drove them back 600 yards beyond it.

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  • But Lobau's heroic efforts had not been in vain; they had given his master time to make his last effort against Wellington; and when the Guard was beaten back the French troops holding Plancenoit kept free the Charleroi road, and prevented the Prussians from seizing Napoleon's line of retreat.

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  • at "La Belle Alliance," the victorious chiefs arranged that the Prussians should take up the pursuit, and they faithfully carried out the agreement.

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  • The French had lost over 40,000 men and almost all their artillery on June 18; the Prussians lost 7000, and Wellington over 15,000 men.

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  • Grouchy was now urged by his generals, especially by Gerard, to march to the sound of the firing, but he refused to take their advice, and pushed on to Wavre, where he found the Prussians (Thielemann's corps of 16,00o men) holding the passages across the Dyle.

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  • A fierce fight (called the Action of Wavre) began about 4 P.M., in which the Prussians were for long victorious.

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  • The town, which existed in the middle of the 13th century, was burnt down in 1864 during the assault by the Prussians upon the Diippler trenches.

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  • He was born on the 2nd of December 1817 at Dusseldorf, where his father held important posts in the public service both under the French and the Prussians; in 1831 he had been raised to the hereditary nobility.

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  • He took an active part in the levee-en-masse, and in November 1793 was given the task of establishing the revolutionary government in the departments of Meuse and Moselle, where he gained an unenviable notoriety by ordering the execution of the sentence of death decreed by the revolutionary tribunal on some young girls at Verdun who had offered flowers to the Prussians when they entered the town.

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  • Appointed sub-prefect of Avesnes during the Hundred Days, he was imprisoned by the Prussians in revenge for the death of the maidens of Verdun, and lived in exile during the Restoration.

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  • From this point to the culmination of the advance at LiaoYang, the situation of the Japanese closely resembles that of the Prussians in 1866.

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  • In 1807 it became the capital of the kingdom of Westphalia; in 1813 it was bombarded and captured by the Russian general Chernichev; in 1830, 1831 and 1848 it was the scene of violent commotions; from 1850 to 1851 it was occupied by the Prussians, the Bavarians and the Austrians; in 1866 it was occupied by the Prussians, and in 1867 was made the capital of the newly formed Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.

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  • When war broke out in 1806 against Napoleon, 22,00022,000 Saxon troops shared the defeat of the Prussians at Jena, but the elector immediately afterwards snatched at Napoleon's offer of neutrality, and abandoned his former ally.

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  • Nothing but Austria's vehement desire to keep a powerful neighbour at a distance from her boundaries preserved it from being completely annexed by the Prussians, who had succeeded the Russians in the government.

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  • The entire kingdom, with the solitary exception of the Kdnigstein, was occupied by the Prussians.

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  • Outside Brussels at Evere is the chief cemetery, with fine monuments to the British officers killed at Waterloo (removed from the church in that village), to the French soldiers who died on Belgian soil in 1870-71, and another to the Prussians.

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  • In 1742 it fell into the hands of the Prussians, and in December 1805 the Bavarians under Wrede were defeated near the town.

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  • The principal part of Posen, on the left bank of the Warthe, comprises the old town (Alstadt) and the modern quarter created by the Prussians after 1793.

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  • Rumours of the war of extermination conducted against their kinsmen, the wild Prussians, by the Knights, first woke the Lithuanians to a sense of their own danger, and induced them to abandon their loose communal system in favour of a monarchical form of government, which concentrated the whole power of the state in a single hand.

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  • In the first year of the 13th century, the Knights of the Sword, one of the numerous orders of crusading military monks, had been founded in Livonia to "convert" the pagan Letts, and, in 1208, the still more powerful Teutonic order was invited by Duke Conrad of Masovia to settle in the district of Kulm (roughly corresponding to modern East Prussia) to protect his territories against the incursions of the savage Prussians, a race closely akin to the Lithuanians.

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  • But the unfortunate prince had to choose between dependence and extermination, for his unaided resources were powerless against the persistent attacks of the unconquerable The Prussians.

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  • The Russians then poured into eastern Poland; the Prussians, at the beginning of 1793, alarmed lest Catherine should appropriate the whole Republic, occupied Great Poland; and a diminutive, debased and helpless assembly met at Grodno in order, in the midst of a Russian army corps,"to come to an amicable understanding" with the partitioning powers.

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  • The first serious reverse, at Szczekociny (June 5), was more than made up for by the successful defence of Warsaw against the Russians and Prussians (July 9 to Sept.

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  • On the 29th of June 1866 the Prussians gained here a great victory over the Austrians.

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  • of the town is the battlefield of Dennewitz where the Prussians defeated the French on the 6th of September 1813.

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  • It is remarkable in history as the scene of three battles: (1) the victory of the Prussians and English over the imperial army on the 15th of February 1761; (2) that of the Prussians over the Bavarians on the 17th of April 1813; and (3) the engagement on the 27th of June 1866 between the Prussians and the Hanoverians, in which the latter, though victorious in the field, were compelled to lay down their arms on the arrival of overwhelming Prussian reinforcements.

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  • Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).

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  • The attack upon it by the Prussians in 1793 was repulsed; in 1815 they had to be content with blockading it; and in 1870, though it was closely invested by the Germans after the battle of Worth, it held out until the end of the war.

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  • The Bohemian king also led two expeditions against the Prussians.

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  • In 1864 the Prussians under Herwarth von Bittenfeld took Alsen, which was occupied by 9000 Danish troops under Steinmann, thus bringing the Danish war to a close.

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  • Blucher, with the Prussians, lay between Charleroi, Namur and Liege.

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  • Much trouble was caused by the behaviour of some of the allied troops, notably the Prussians.

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  • At the instigation of Bonaparte Hanover was occupied by the Prussians for a few months in 1801, but at the settlement which followed the peace of Luneville the secularized bishopric of Osnabruck was added to the electorate.

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  • In 1866 it was occupied by the Prussians, who did not finally evacuate it until the spring of the following year.

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  • The intervention of Austria in the War of Liberation, and the consequent advance of the Allies under the Austrian field-marshal Prince Schwarzenberg from Prague upon Dresden, recalled Napoleon from Silesia, where he was engaged against the Prussians and Russians under Blucher.

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  • On the right the Russians under Wittgenstein advanced from Striesen, the Prussians under Kleist through the Grosser Garten, whilst Prussians under Prince Augustus and Austrians under Colloredo moved upon the Moczinski redoubt, which was the scene of the most desperate fighting, and was repeatedly taken and retaken.

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  • Ney led a counter-attack against the Allies' left, the Moczinski redoubt was definitely recaptured from Colloredo, and the Prussians were driven out of the Grosser Garten.

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  • Still, the left attack may have had a purely tactical object, for in that quarter was the main body of the Prussians and Russians, and Napoleon's method was always to concentrate the fury of the attack on the heaviest masses of the enemy, i.e.

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  • The forces engaged were 96,000 French, Saxons, &c., and 200,000 Austrians, Russians and Prussians.

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  • The Prussians erected here a fine monument by Van Oemberg in 1859.

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  • His family were originally Prussians, and served in the Spanish army for several generations.

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  • In 1848 no attempt was made by the Danes to oppose the Prussians, who entered on the 2nd of May, and maintained their position against the Danish gunboats.

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  • On the 10th of July 1866 the Prussians defeated the Bavarians with great slaughter near Kissingen.

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  • It was occupied by the French in 1806, and refortified in 1813 by command of Napoleon; but in 1814 it was stormed by the Prussians under Tauentzien, who received the title of "von Wittenberg" as a reward.

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  • Kolin is chiefly famous on account of the battle here on the 18th of June 1757, when the Prussians under Frederick the Great were defeated by the Austrians under Daun (see Seven Years' War).

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  • The result was the raising of the siege of Prague and the evacuation of Bohemia by the Prussians.

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  • The rapid victory of the Prussians and the wise moderation of Bismarck paved the way for a complete revolution in Bavaria's relation to Prussia and the German question.

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  • Since 1871 Bavaria has shared to the full in the marvellous development of Germany; but her "particularism," founded on traditional racial and religious antagonism to the Prussians, was by no means dead, though it exhibited itself in no more dangerous form than the prohibition, reissued in 1900, to display any but the Bavarian flag on public buildings on the emperor's birthday; a provision which has been since so far modified as to allow the Bavarian and imperial flags to be hung side by side.

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  • About 1210 he was appointed master of the Teutonic Order, and was offered, in 1226, the province of Kulm by Conrad I., duke of Masovia, in return for help against the Prussians; this he accepted and obtained the investiture from Frederick.

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  • During the siege of Paris he left the city in a balloon and joined Gambetta, for whom he organized a system of spies through which General Trochu was kept informed of the strength and disposition of the Prussians around Paris.

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  • On the 10th of June 1807 a battle took place at Heilsberg between the French under Soult and Murat, and the Russians and Prussians under Bennigsen.

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  • The Goths (Gotones) appareptly inhabited the basin of the Vistula about the middle of its course, but the lower part of the basin was inhabited by non-Teutonic peoples, among whom we may mention the Galindi, probably Prussians, and the Aestii, either Prussian or Esthonian, in the coastlands at the mouth of the river, who are known especially in connection with the amber trade.

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  • against the heathen Prussians flocked hither from all lands; towns, Konigsberg, Thorn, KuIm and others, were founded; and in alliance with the Brothers of the Sword, the order was soon pressing farther eastwards.

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  • acted in the main faithfully as the first servant of the state The army he always kept in readiness for war; but he also encouraged peaceful arts, and diffused throughout his kingdom so much of his own alert and aggressive spirit that the Prussians became more intelligent and more wealthy than they had ever before been.

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  • Destroyed by the Prussians in 1262, it was restored in 1279.

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  • Not far from Aussig iš the village of Kulm, where, on the 29th and 30th of August 1813, a battle took place between the French under Vandamme and an allied army of Austrians, Prussians and Russians.

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  • During the war between France and Germany, Amiens, after an important action, fell into the hands of the Prussians on the 28th of November 1870.

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  • He took part in no less than five crusades with the Teutonic order against the heathen Lithuanians and Prussians.

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  • Niethammer (1766-1848) on the day before the battle, he speaks with admiration of the " world-soul," the emperor, and with satisfaction of the probable overthrow of the Prussians.

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  • The Prussians occupied it without resistance in 1866.

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  • In 1849 it was the scene of an engagement between the Prussians and the Baden revolutionists.

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  • ADALBERT (originally Voytech), (c. 950-997), known as the apostle of the Prussians, the son of a Bohemian prince, was born at Libice (Lobnik, Lubik), the ancestral seat near the junction of the Cidlina and the Elbe.

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  • In 1849 the Baden revolutionaries seized Worms, but were overthrown by the Mecklenburgers and Prussians in May of that year.

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  • defeated an allied army of Russians and Prussians (see Napoleonic Campaigns).

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  • corps, to cross the Spree and attack the Prussians posted about Burk.

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  • The Prussians were not experienced troops, but were full of ardour and hatred of the French.

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  • In 1866 the Prussians occupied the town from July 13th till September 3rd.

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  • Among the old Prussians they were invited to share an annual sacrificial 1 Fergusson, 65; Crooke ii.

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  • At Freiburg, on the 22nd of July 1762, the Prussians defended themselves successfully against the superior forces of the Austrians.

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  • His father, Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, the youngest of a family to which the mother had brought the germs of mental malady, was a man of strong will and originality, and so proud of the independence of his native town that when Danzig in 1793 surrendered to the Prussians he and his whole establishment withdrew to Hamburg.

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  • In the remaining campaigns of the Seven Years' War the English contingent was more conspicuous by its conduct than the Prussians themselves.

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  • Across the river, on the Schaferberg, lies a more modern fortress built by the Prussians about 1750.

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  • But the Bulgarians had skilfully exploited their primacy during the first war to induce the European press and public to regard Serbians and Greeks as mere satellites,' and, as is not unusually the case with successful propaganda, they had come to believe in it themselves, fortified in the belief by fulsome compliments addressing them as the "Prussians of the Balkans" and the "Japanese of the West."

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  • in height, and surmounted by a car of victory (Auriga), which, taken by Napoleon to Paris in 1807, was brought back by the Prussians in 1814.

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  • (15th of November 1863) the town was occupied by the Saxon troops acting as the executive of the German Confederation, and it was the base of the operations of the Austrians and Prussians against Schleswig in the spring of the following year.

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  • Wiirzburg was bombarded and taken by the Prussians in 1866, in which year it ceased to be a fortress.

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  • In the vicinity a battle was fought, on the 9th of October 1806, between the French and the Prussians.

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  • In 1787 Amsterdam was occupied by the Prussians, and in 1795 by the French under Pichegru.

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  • The important engagements fought near the town on the 27th and 28th of June 1866 opened Bohemia to the victorious Prussians.

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  • In September 1793 the Prussians gained a victory here over a body of French troops.

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  • In 1794 its new castle was sacked by the French, and in 1849 it was the scene of a contest between the Prussians and the insurrectionists.

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  • In June of the same year the Austrian victory at Kolin obliged the Prussians to raise the siege.

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  • In 1866 the Prussians, who had invaded Bohemia, occupied Prague (July 8) without encountering any resistance.

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  • In 1846 was the seat of a congress of the Liberal party of the Baden parliament; and in 1849 it was the scene of an encounter between the Prussians and the insurgents.

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  • In the battle which took place near it between the Austrians and Prussians on the 7th of September 1757, Hans Karl von Winterfeldt, the general of Frederick the Great, was slain.

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  • The famous "Weissenburg lines," consisting of entrenched works erected by Villars in 1706 along the Lauter, and having a length of 12 m., were stormed in October 1793 by the Prussians and Saxons under the Austrian general Wurmser.

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  • In the Seven Years' War Fersen distinguished himself during the operations round Usedom and Wollin (1759), when he inflicted serious loss on the Prussians.

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  • The Prussians occupied the northern part of Wurttemberg and peace was made in August 1866; by this Wurttemberg paid an indemnity of 8,000,000 gulden, but at once concluded a secret offensive and defensive treaty with her conqueror.

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  • Accompanied by King Frederick William, Brunswick had entered France with 80,000 men, of whom more than half were Prussians, the Battle of >, Vamy.

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  • When Conde and Valenciennes had been taken, the British went off to assail Dunkirk and the Prussians retired into Luxemburg.

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  • In the east the Prussians and Austrians took Mainz at the end of July, allowing the garrison to depart on condition of not serving against the Allies for a year.

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  • The Prussians were driven out of the eastern departments.

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  • His subordinate Kellermann repulsed the Prussians at Valmy (September 20, 1792), and he himself severely defeated the Austrians at Jemappes (November 6).

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  • It afterwards suffered so much from war and pestilence that about 1772, when the Prussians took possession, it contained only from five to six hundred inhabitants.

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  • In 1795 it was again stormed by the French, and in 1813 it was taken from them by the Prussians under Billow.

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  • The bourgeoisie, the Assembly, the country and La Fayette, one of the leaders of the army, now embarked upon a royalist reaction, which would perhaps have been efficacious, Manifesto had it not been for the entry into the affair of the ki Prussians as allies of the Austrians, and for the insolent manifesto of the duke of Brunswick.

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  • Instead of profiting by Dumouriezs treachery and the successes in La Vende, the Coalition, divided over the resuscitated Polish question, lost time on the frontiers of this new Poland of the west which was sacrificing itself for the sake of a Universal Republic. Thus in January 1794 the territory of France was cleared of the Prussians and Austrians by the victories at Hondschoote, Wattignies and Wissembourg; the army of La Vende was repulsed from Granville, overwhelmed by Hoches army at Le Mans and Savenay, and its leaders shot; royalist sedition was suppressed at Lyons, Bordeaux, Marseilles and Toulon; federalist insurrections were wiped out by the terrible massacres of Carrier at Nantes, the atrocities of Lebon at Arras, and the wholesale executions of Fouch and Collot dHerbois at Lyons; Louis XVI.

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  • It is famous as the scene of a battle in which the Prussians under Frederick the Great defeated the Russians commanded by Fermor, on the 25th of August 1758 (see Seven Years' War).

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  • and Bethlen Gabor, prince of Transylvania; and on the 26th of July 1866 a preliminary treaty of peace between the Prussians and the Austrians was signed here.

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  • In 1741 the Prussians took the place by storm, and during the Seven Years' War it formed an important centre of operations for the Prussian forces.

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  • The unrest of 1848 spread to Dessau, and led to the interference of the Prussians and to the establishment of the new constitution in 1859.

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  • During the siege of Paris she joined the ambulance service, and untiringly preached resistance to the Prussians.

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  • The Prussians occupied Paris, and twenty thousand British troops encamped in the Bois de Boulogne.

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  • Every second the Prussians rung the knell of death with their artillery.

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  • During the revolution in Baden in 1849 the town was for a time in the hands of the insurgents, and was afterwards occupied by the Prussians.

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  • It is a railway junction of some consequence, with cultivation of vines, fruit and vegetables, brewing, tanning, &c. Diedenhofen is an ancient Frank town (Theudonevilla, Totonisvilla), in which imperial diets were held in the 8th century; was captured by Conde in 1643 and fortified by Vauban; capitulated to the Prussians, after a severe bombardment, on the 25th of November 1870.

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  • From 1850 onwards it was again repaired and strengthened at great cost, and was considered impregnable; but in the war of 1864 the Prussians turned it by crossing the Schlei, .and it was abandoned by the Danes on the 6th of February without a blow.

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  • It was thereupon destroyed by the Prussians; in spite of which, however, a long line of imposing ruins still remains.

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  • the 16th the Prussians began hostilities, and on the 20th ly declared war.

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  • On the of July the Prussians completely defeated the, ,, strians at Koniggrtz, and on the 5th Austria Led Venetia to Napoleon, accepting his, mediation gratz.

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  • During the revolutionary ferment of 1848-49 he urged the Prussian king to refuse the imperial crown, co-operated with the Austrian emperor in suppressing the Hungarian insurrection, and compelled the Prussians to withdraw their support from the insurgents in Schleswig-Holstein.

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  • Saxony was in that year attacked by the Prussians, and with so much success that not only was the Saxon army forced to capitulate at Pirna in October, but the elector, who fled to Warsaw, made no attempt to recover Saxony, which remained under the dominion of Frederick.

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  • On the 10th of October 1806 a battle took place near Saalfeld between the French and the Prussians, during which Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia was killed.

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  • The lay subjects of the Order consisted of two classes; on the one hand there were the conquered Prussians, in a position of serfdom, bound in time of war to serve with the brethren in foreign expeditions; on the other hand there were the German immigrants, both urban and rural, along with the free Prussians who had voluntarily submitted and remained faithful.

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  • On the 29th of June the near approach of the Prussians (who had orders to seize him, dead or alive), caused him to retire westwards towards Rochefort, whence he hoped to reach the United States.

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  • POTATO WAR (Kartofelkrieg), the name given by the Prussians to the War of the Bavarian Succession in 1778-79.

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  • The Prussians and a Saxon contingent, commanded by Frederick the Great and his brother Prince Henry, were opposed to two Austrian armies under Loudon and Lacy.

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  • In 1866 the defeat of Austria by the Prussians led to the incorporation of Venice in United Italy.

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  • There is a statue to Commandant Beaurepaire, who, in 1792, killed himself rather than surrender Verdun to the Prussians.

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  • In 1637 it suffered much from the Swedes, and in 1745 it fell into the hands of the Prussians.

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  • The bridge over the Elbe was destroyed by the French in 1813, and again by the Saxons in June 1866 in order to impede the march of the Prussians on Dresden.

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  • To meet the impending blow the Prussians had been extended in a cordon along the great road leading from Mainz to Dresden, Blucher was at Erfurt, Riichel at Gotha, Hohenlohe at Weimar, Saxons in Dresden, with outposts along the frontier.

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  • In the meantime the Prussians were effecting their concentration.

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  • Hohenlohe pointed out that the Prussians were equally badly off, but promised to do his best to help his allies.

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  • These requests, however, remained unanswered, and the Prussians and Saxons spent the night before the battle shivering in their miserable bivouacs.

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  • However, it was evident that the bulk of the Prussians lay to his left, and instructions were at once despatched to Davout to turn westward from Naumburg towards Kdsen and to bring Bernadotte with him if the two were still together.

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  • At this moment the Prussians were actually on parade and ready to move off to attack, but just then the " evil genius " of the Prussian army, von Massenbach, an officer of the Headquarter Staff, rode up and claiming to speak with the authority of the king and commander-in-chief, induced Hohenlohe to order his troops back to camp. Of all this Napoleon saw nothing, but from all reports he came to the conclusion that the whole Prussian army was actually in front of him, and at once issued orders for his whole army to concentrate towards Jena, marching all night if need be.

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  • Briefly summarized, the battle came to this - in four successive efforts the Prussians failed because they were locally outnumbered.

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  • But the Prussians attacked at the old regulation speed of seventy-five paces to the minute, and the French manoeuvred at the quick or double of i 20 or 150.

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  • So desperate had been their resistance that the Prussians unanimously stated Davout's strength at double the actual figure.

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  • During the night the Prussians continued their retreat, the bulk of the main body to Summerda, Hohenlohe's corps towards Nordhausen.

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  • Bennigsen, now commanding the whole Russian army which with Lestocq's Prussians amounted to 100,000, also moved into winter quarters in the triangle Deutsch-Eylau-Osterode-Allenstein, and had every intention of remaining there, for a fresh army was already gathering in Russia, the 1st corps of which had reached Nur about 50 m.

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  • Soult and Murat attacked his rearguard on the 3rd, and learning from his Cossacks that the French corps were being directed so as to swing round and enclose him, he withdrew by a night march and ultimately succeeded in getting his whole army, with the exception of von Lestocq's Prussians, together in the strong position along the Alle, the centre of which is marked by Preussisch-Eylau.

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  • This time, however, Bennigsen, with over 60,000 men in position and 15,000 Prussians expected to arrive next morning, had no desire to avoid a battle, and deployed for action, his front protected by great batteries of guns, many of them of heavy calibre, numbering some 200 in all.

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  • Meanwhile Bennigsen had prepared for a fresh undertaking, and leaving Lestocq with 20,000 Prussians and Russians to contain Bernadotte, who lay between Braunsberg and Spandau on the Passarge, he moved southwards on the 2nd, and on the 3rd and 4th of June he fell upon Ney, driving him back towards Guttstadt, whilst with the bulk of his force he moved towards Heilsberg, where he threw up an entrenched position.

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  • Meanwhile the Russians and Prussians had concentrated all available men and were moving on an almost parallel line, but somewhat to the south of the direction taken by the French.

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  • Leaving the leading troops to repulse as best they might the furious attack of both Russians and Prussians, and caring little whether they lost ground, he rapidly organized for his own control a battle-reserve.

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  • Perhaps no battle better exemplifies the inherent strength of the emperor's strategy, and in none was his grasp of the battlefield more brilliantly displayed, for, as he fully recognized, " These Prussians have at last learnt something - they are no longer the wooden toys of Frederick the Great," and, on the other hand, the relative inferiority of his own men as compared with his veterans of Austerlitz called for far more individual effort than on any previous day.

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  • Blucher with about 95,000 Russians and Prussians was about Breslau, and Schwarzenberg, with nearly 180,000 Austrians and Russians, lay in Bohemia.

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  • It was the scene of two battles between the Prussians and Austrians on the 27th and the 28th of June 1866.

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  • It was captured by the Prussians in 1815.

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  • There the Prussians defeated the Austrians in May 1745, and in June 1760 the Prussians were routed by a greatly superior force of Austrians.

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  • But the Prussians having studied their allies in the war of 1864 knew the weakness of the Austrian staff and the untrustworthiness of the contingents of some of the Austrian nationalities, and felt fairly confident that against equal numbers they could hold their own.

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  • The direction of the Prussian railways, not laid out primarily for strategic purposes, conditioned the first deployment of the whole army, with the result that at first the Prussians were distributed in three main groups or armies on a front of about 250 m.

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  • On this date (June IIth) the Prussians stood in the following order: The army of the Elbe, General Herwarth von Bittenfeld, three divisions only, about Torgau; the I.

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  • To overcome it he at length obtained authority (June 15th) to order the army of the Elbe into Saxony, and on the 18th the Prussians entered Dresden, the Saxons retiring along the Elbe into Bohemia; and on the same day the news that the Austrian main body was marching from Olmiitz towards Prague arrived at headquarters.

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  • The Prussians followed on the 29th, but, owing to the iie of the roads, they had to march in two long columns, separated by almost a day's march, and when the advanced guard of the left column, late in the afternoon, gained touch with the enemy, the latter were in a position to crush them by weight of numbers, had they not suddenly been ordered to continue the retreat on Miletin.

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  • the leading troops were attacked by an overwhelming Austrian force and at Soor and KOniginhof (Guard corps) on the 28th and 29th, and at Schweinschadel (Steinmetz) on the 2 9 th, the Prussians in every encounter proving themselves, unit for unit, a match for their adversaries.

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  • corps (Steinmetz) began to emerge from the long defile leading from Glatz to Nachod, and the Prussians had hardly gained room to form for action beyond its exit before they too were attacked.

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  • While trying to feed his army he omitted to fight it, and, with the chance of overwhelming the Prussians by one great effort of marching, he delayed the necessary orders till too late, and the Prussian II.

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  • The Prussians determined to hold on at all costs.

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  • Meanwhile fresh Austrian batteries appeared against the front of the 8th division, and fresh Prussians in turn had to be engaged to save the 8th.

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  • Fortunately the Prussians here derived an unexpected advantage from the shape of the ground, and indeed from the weather.

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  • The advantage of the breech-loader now began to assert itself, for the Austrian skirmishers who covered the front of the guns could only load when standing up, while the Prussians lay down or fired from cover.

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  • Such a charge as prelude to the advance of a great infantry bayonet attack must have swept the exhausted Prussians down the hill like sheep, but the opportunity passed, and the gunners finding their position untenable, limbered up, not without severe losses, and retired to a second position in rear.

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  • Occurring about 2.30, and almost simultaneously with the withdrawal of the Austrian guns on their left already alluded to, this may be said to have decided the battle, for although the Saxons still stood firm against the attacks of the Elbe army, and the reserves, both cavalry and infantry, attempted a series of counterstrokes, the advantage of position and moral was all on the side of the Prussians.

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  • On the other hand, the Prussians were new to the battlefield, and the reaction after the elation of victory was intense; moreover, if what happened at Hiihnerwasser affords a guide, the staff would have required some days to disentangle the units which had fought and to assign them fresh objectives.

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  • On purely military grounds the Prussians should have marched at once towards the Austrian field army, i.e.

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  • On the day of Koniggratz the Prussians moved into position to attack the Bavarians, and on the 4th of July v.

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  • The Prussians occupied Frankfurt (16th).

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  • Luther for his part did not stop at the suggestion, but in order to facilitate the change made special efforts to spread his teaching among the Prussians, while Albert's brother, George, prince of Ansbach, laid the scheme before Sigismund of Poland.

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  • On the capitulation of the Hanoverian army in 1803 Hameln fell into the hands of the French; it was retaken by the Prussians in 1806, but, after the battle of Jena, again passed to the French, who dismantled the fortifications and incorporated the town in the kingdom of Westphalia.

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  • Vienna was not occupied by the Prussians in the war of 1866, but the invaders marched to within sight of its towers.

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  • The Prussians, under Prince William (afterwards emperor), invaded Baden in the middle of June.

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  • On the 10th he met the Prussians at Waghausel, and was completely defeated; on the 25th Prince William entered Karlsruhe; and at the end of the month the members of the provisional government, who had taken refuge at Freiburg, dispersed.

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  • Fortunately for the Prussians, Bazaine had issued similar orders to his subordinates, who, having their men better in hand, were able to obey; and as night began to close in the French broke off the action and retired under the guns of the Metz forts, convinced that at last they had "broken the spell" of German success.

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  • At daybreak on the 16th, no Prussians being reported in sight by the outposts, the troops began nonchalantly to prepare for the resumption of the march.

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  • The Prussians, having seen the cavalry whilst yet at a distance, ceased firing, formed their skirmishers into groups, and the closed supports standing in deployed lines, two deep, shattered the cavalry with volleys and file-firing, as with blown and exhausted horses they endeavoured to close with their adversaries.

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  • The threat of the charge had, however, induced caution on the French side, and for about two hours there was a lull in the fighting, which the Prussians utilized on their right in bringing up reinforcements through the Bois des Ognons.

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  • Ladmirault, commanding the French 4th Corps had seen, during the afternoon of the 15th, the terrible crowd and confusion prevailing in the defiles leading to Gravelotte, and resolved to disobey his orders and to move direct from his bivouacs by the road from Woippy to St Privat, disregarding altogether the alleged danger from the Prussians supposed to be advancing from Thionville.

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  • Hardly had they stepped off when Cissey's first line, catching sight of them, opened a devastating fire upon their left flank, and to meet this fresh danger the Prussians endeavoured to change front half-left whilst still on the move.

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  • Against the weight of French numbers, nearly three to one, the Prussians were unable to stand, and presently they broke and drifted backwards, completely routed.

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  • All along the rest of the line the Prussians were still holding their own, and on the extreme right fresh troops from the IX.

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  • The same idea had, however, occurred to Ladmirault, and he had called on the two nearest French cavalry divisions to put it into execution, and as the Prussians began to reach the plateau west of Mars-la-Tour and the Yron brook from the south, the French were deploying across it some two thousand yards to the north.

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  • It was almost dark when the Prussians approached the French position between Rezonville and the woods to the northward, and the troops soon lost direction in the smoke and became involved in the direst confusion; the firing again blazed out for a few moments, only to die away as utter exhaustion at length put an end to the Prussian advance.

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  • Simultaneously the French artillery also took up the challenge, and from the heights near St Privat the 6th Corps, whose presence had been unsuspected by the Prussians, joined in the fight.

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  • The French troops in Ste Marie were only an outpost of the 6th corps, and seeing themselves outnumbered, they withdrew about 2.30, the Prussians rushing the village immediately afterwards.

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  • But he miscalculated both the endurance of Cadogan's men (amongst whom the Prussians were conspicuous for their tenacity) and the rapidity with which in Marlborough's and Eugene's hands the wearied troops of the Allies could be made to move.

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  • Konitz was the first fortified post established in Prussia by Hermann Balk, who in 1230 had been commissioned as Landmeister, by the grand-master of the Teutonic order, to reduce the heathen Prussians.

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  • Jagerndorf suffered severely during the Thirty Years' War, and was the scene of engagements between the Prussians and Austrians in May 1745 and in January 1779.

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  • In the previous year the German Confederation, to which the grand-duchy of Luxemburg had belonged since 1815, had been dissolved; but the Prussians maintained their garrison in Luxemburg, which was not included in the new North German Confederation, while King William III.

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  • The Prussians were irritated by this proposal, but war was averted, and the question was referred to a conference of the powers in London.

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  • Liitzen is famous also as the scene of a victory of Napoleon over the Russians and Prussians on the 2nd of May 1813 (see Napoleonic Campaigns).

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  • Its first site was near the fishing village of Steindamm, but after its destruction by the Prussians in 1263 it was rebuilt in its present position.

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  • It was Anschar, a monk of Corbie, who first preached to the Scandinavians, and other Benedictines were apostles to Poles, Prussians and other Slavonic peoples..

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  • It had previously narrowly escaped absorption by Napoleon, who passed through the town during the pursuit of the Prussians after the battle of Jena in 1806, and was only dissuaded from abolishing the duchy by the tact and courage of the duchess Louisa.

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  • In 1866 the Prussians inflicted a severe defeat on the Austrians in the neighbourhood.

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  • The allies had foreseen the very manoeuvre that Napoleon designed to put into execution, and had decided that if an attempt were made to break their centre they would concentrate forwards and on their inner flanks, the Anglo-Dutch army forming up at Gosselies and the Prussians at Fleurus.

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  • The left wing was directed to push up the Gosselies-Quatre Bras road, and Pajol's cavalry followed the Prussians who retired along the Gilly-Fleurus road.

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  • Marshal Ney joined the army, was given the command of the left wing, and ordered to drive the Prussians out of Gosselies, and clear the road northward of that place.

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  • The Prussians were driven from the town, but they managed to effect a roundabout retreat to Ligny, where they rallied.

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  • Had Napoleon attempted this he would (if successful) have driven the Anglo-Dutch army back upon the Prussians, instead of separating the allies, as he actually tried to do and very nearly succeeded in doing.

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  • The shock was too great; the Prussians gave way immediately and were chased back into the woods by cavalry.

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  • Gerard's advance had been delayed owing to the commander of his leading division deserting with his staff to the Prussians.

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  • each; and it could with, equal facility swing against the Prussians or the Anglo-Dutch, and was already placed between them."

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  • The Prussians numbered about 83,000 men to Napoleon's 71,000 (including Lobau, who only came up at the end of the day).

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  • The villages were captured and recaptured, but generally the French had the better of the fighting, for they compelled Blucher to use up more and more of his reserves, and prevented the Prussians from breaking through to the southward of S.

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  • The Prussians had seized the opportunity offered by the slackening of the French attacks to rally and deliver a counterstroke, which was parried, after achieving a small measure of success, by the bayonets of the Young Guard.

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  • Amand; the exhausted Prussians were overpowered by the chasseurs of the Guard and forced to retire in disorder.

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  • He could at least beat Blucher and render the Prussians unfit for any serious operation except retreat on June 17, although he could no longer expect to destroy the Prussian army.

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  • Napoleon was master of Blucher's battlefield, and the beaten Prussians had retired to the north of the Namur-Nivelles road.

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  • If the Prussians now retired northwards, parallel to the direction which Wellington would follow perforce on the morrow, the chance of co-operating in a decisive battle would still remain to the allies; and Gneisenau's order issued by moonlight, directing the retreat on Tilly and Wavre, went far to ensuring the possibility of such combined action.

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  • Gneisenau apparently selected Wavre, not with the intention of assisting his ally, but rather to re-establish his own line of communication, and the presence of the Prussians on the field of battle of Waterloo must be put down to the immortal credit of Blucher and Grolmann, his quartermaster-general.

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  • The Prussians lost about 12,000 men and 21 guns, and the French 850o; in Ligny more than 4000 dead lay on an area of about 400 sq.

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  • Early in the morning Wellington (still ignorant of the exact position of his ally) sent out an officer, with an adequate escort, to establish touch with the Prussians.

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  • This staff officer discovered and reported that the Prussians were drawing off northwards to rally at Wavre; and about 9 A.M.

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  • Early on the 17th the Prussians drew off northwards on three roads, Thielemann covering the withdrawal and moving via Gembloux to join hands with Billow.

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  • Corps), a force of 33,000 men and 11o guns, to follow the Prussians, penetrate their intentions and discover if they meditated uniting with Wellington in front of Brussels.

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  • Their retreat having been unmolested, the Prussians were ready once more to take the field, quite twenty-four hours before Napoleon deemed it possible for the foe defeated at Ligny.

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  • The duke was to stand fast to receive the attack, whilst the Prussians should close round Napoleon's exposed right and support Wellington's left.

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  • The Prussians were thus the real general reserve, and it was Wellington's task to receive Napoleon's attack and prepare him for the decisive counter-stroke.

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  • It was therefore put off first of all until 9 A.M., and later until 11.30, to permit the sodden ground to dry sufficiently for the mounted arms to manoeuvre freely and give time to the French army to close up. During the night the emperor had received a report from Marshal Grouchy, dated Gembloux, 10 P.M., 17th, which stated that the Prussians were retiring in two columns towards Wavre and Perwez.

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  • Grouchy added that if he found that the bulk of the Prussians were moving on Wavre he would follow them and separate them from Wellington.

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  • By following the Prussians Grouchy, who had taken up a position outside the Prussian left flank, would inevitably drive the allies together.

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  • But the Prussians had not yet changed the fate of the day.

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  • The veterans did the work magnificently with the bayonet, ousted the Prussians from the place, and drove them back 600 yards beyond it.

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  • But Lobau's heroic efforts had not been in vain; they had given his master time to make his last effort against Wellington; and when the Guard was beaten back the French troops holding Plancenoit kept free the Charleroi road, and prevented the Prussians from seizing Napoleon's line of retreat.

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  • at "La Belle Alliance," the victorious chiefs arranged that the Prussians should take up the pursuit, and they faithfully carried out the agreement.

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  • The French had lost over 40,000 men and almost all their artillery on June 18; the Prussians lost 7000, and Wellington over 15,000 men.

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  • Grouchy was now urged by his generals, especially by Gerard, to march to the sound of the firing, but he refused to take their advice, and pushed on to Wavre, where he found the Prussians (Thielemann's corps of 16,00o men) holding the passages across the Dyle.

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  • A fierce fight (called the Action of Wavre) began about 4 P.M., in which the Prussians were for long victorious.

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  • The town, which existed in the middle of the 13th century, was burnt down in 1864 during the assault by the Prussians upon the Diippler trenches.

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  • He was born on the 2nd of December 1817 at Dusseldorf, where his father held important posts in the public service both under the French and the Prussians; in 1831 he had been raised to the hereditary nobility.

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  • He took an active part in the levee-en-masse, and in November 1793 was given the task of establishing the revolutionary government in the departments of Meuse and Moselle, where he gained an unenviable notoriety by ordering the execution of the sentence of death decreed by the revolutionary tribunal on some young girls at Verdun who had offered flowers to the Prussians when they entered the town.

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  • Appointed sub-prefect of Avesnes during the Hundred Days, he was imprisoned by the Prussians in revenge for the death of the maidens of Verdun, and lived in exile during the Restoration.

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  • From this point to the culmination of the advance at LiaoYang, the situation of the Japanese closely resembles that of the Prussians in 1866.

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  • In 1807 it became the capital of the kingdom of Westphalia; in 1813 it was bombarded and captured by the Russian general Chernichev; in 1830, 1831 and 1848 it was the scene of violent commotions; from 1850 to 1851 it was occupied by the Prussians, the Bavarians and the Austrians; in 1866 it was occupied by the Prussians, and in 1867 was made the capital of the newly formed Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.

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  • When war broke out in 1806 against Napoleon, 22,00022,000 Saxon troops shared the defeat of the Prussians at Jena, but the elector immediately afterwards snatched at Napoleon's offer of neutrality, and abandoned his former ally.

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  • Nothing but Austria's vehement desire to keep a powerful neighbour at a distance from her boundaries preserved it from being completely annexed by the Prussians, who had succeeded the Russians in the government.

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  • The entire kingdom, with the solitary exception of the Kdnigstein, was occupied by the Prussians.

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  • Outside Brussels at Evere is the chief cemetery, with fine monuments to the British officers killed at Waterloo (removed from the church in that village), to the French soldiers who died on Belgian soil in 1870-71, and another to the Prussians.

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  • In 1742 it fell into the hands of the Prussians, and in December 1805 the Bavarians under Wrede were defeated near the town.

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  • The principal part of Posen, on the left bank of the Warthe, comprises the old town (Alstadt) and the modern quarter created by the Prussians after 1793.

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  • Rumours of the war of extermination conducted against their kinsmen, the wild Prussians, by the Knights, first woke the Lithuanians to a sense of their own danger, and induced them to abandon their loose communal system in favour of a monarchical form of government, which concentrated the whole power of the state in a single hand.

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  • In the first year of the 13th century, the Knights of the Sword, one of the numerous orders of crusading military monks, had been founded in Livonia to "convert" the pagan Letts, and, in 1208, the still more powerful Teutonic order was invited by Duke Conrad of Masovia to settle in the district of Kulm (roughly corresponding to modern East Prussia) to protect his territories against the incursions of the savage Prussians, a race closely akin to the Lithuanians.

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  • But the unfortunate prince had to choose between dependence and extermination, for his unaided resources were powerless against the persistent attacks of the unconquerable The Prussians.

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  • The Russians then poured into eastern Poland; the Prussians, at the beginning of 1793, alarmed lest Catherine should appropriate the whole Republic, occupied Great Poland; and a diminutive, debased and helpless assembly met at Grodno in order, in the midst of a Russian army corps,"to come to an amicable understanding" with the partitioning powers.

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  • The first serious reverse, at Szczekociny (June 5), was more than made up for by the successful defence of Warsaw against the Russians and Prussians (July 9 to Sept.

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  • On the 29th of June 1866 the Prussians gained here a great victory over the Austrians.

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  • of the town is the battlefield of Dennewitz where the Prussians defeated the French on the 6th of September 1813.

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  • It is remarkable in history as the scene of three battles: (1) the victory of the Prussians and English over the imperial army on the 15th of February 1761; (2) that of the Prussians over the Bavarians on the 17th of April 1813; and (3) the engagement on the 27th of June 1866 between the Prussians and the Hanoverians, in which the latter, though victorious in the field, were compelled to lay down their arms on the arrival of overwhelming Prussian reinforcements.

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  • In 1008 Bruno went to the court of Boleslaus, and, after a vain effort to persuade the emperor to end the war between Germans and Poles, determined at all hazards to proceed with his mission to the Prussians.

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  • Here occurs the earliest mention of Vinland, and here are also references of great interest to Russia and Kiev, to the heathen Prussians, the Wends and other Slav races of the South Baltic coast, and to Finland, Thule or Iceland, Greenland and the Polar seas which Harald Hardrada and the nobles of Frisia had attempted to explore in Adam's own day (before 1066).

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  • The attack upon it by the Prussians in 1793 was repulsed; in 1815 they had to be content with blockading it; and in 1870, though it was closely invested by the Germans after the battle of Worth, it held out until the end of the war.

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  • The Bohemian king also led two expeditions against the Prussians.

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  • In 1864 the Prussians under Herwarth von Bittenfeld took Alsen, which was occupied by 9000 Danish troops under Steinmann, thus bringing the Danish war to a close.

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  • Blucher, with the Prussians, lay between Charleroi, Namur and Liege.

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  • Much trouble was caused by the behaviour of some of the allied troops, notably the Prussians.

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  • At the instigation of Bonaparte Hanover was occupied by the Prussians for a few months in 1801, but at the settlement which followed the peace of Luneville the secularized bishopric of Osnabruck was added to the electorate.

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  • In 1866 it was occupied by the Prussians, who did not finally evacuate it until the spring of the following year.

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  • The intervention of Austria in the War of Liberation, and the consequent advance of the Allies under the Austrian field-marshal Prince Schwarzenberg from Prague upon Dresden, recalled Napoleon from Silesia, where he was engaged against the Prussians and Russians under Blucher.

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  • On the right the Russians under Wittgenstein advanced from Striesen, the Prussians under Kleist through the Grosser Garten, whilst Prussians under Prince Augustus and Austrians under Colloredo moved upon the Moczinski redoubt, which was the scene of the most desperate fighting, and was repeatedly taken and retaken.

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  • Ney led a counter-attack against the Allies' left, the Moczinski redoubt was definitely recaptured from Colloredo, and the Prussians were driven out of the Grosser Garten.

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  • Still, the left attack may have had a purely tactical object, for in that quarter was the main body of the Prussians and Russians, and Napoleon's method was always to concentrate the fury of the attack on the heaviest masses of the enemy, i.e.

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  • The forces engaged were 96,000 French, Saxons, &c., and 200,000 Austrians, Russians and Prussians.

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  • The Prussians erected here a fine monument by Van Oemberg in 1859.

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  • His family were originally Prussians, and served in the Spanish army for several generations.

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  • In 1848 no attempt was made by the Danes to oppose the Prussians, who entered on the 2nd of May, and maintained their position against the Danish gunboats.

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  • On the 10th of July 1866 the Prussians defeated the Bavarians with great slaughter near Kissingen.

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  • It was occupied by the French in 1806, and refortified in 1813 by command of Napoleon; but in 1814 it was stormed by the Prussians under Tauentzien, who received the title of "von Wittenberg" as a reward.

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  • During the Danish War of 1864, after suffering severely at the hands of the Danes, the island was occupied by the Prussians on the 13th of July (see Frisian Islands) .

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  • Kolin is chiefly famous on account of the battle here on the 18th of June 1757, when the Prussians under Frederick the Great were defeated by the Austrians under Daun (see Seven Years' War).

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  • The result was the raising of the siege of Prague and the evacuation of Bohemia by the Prussians.

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  • The rapid victory of the Prussians and the wise moderation of Bismarck paved the way for a complete revolution in Bavaria's relation to Prussia and the German question.

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  • Since 1871 Bavaria has shared to the full in the marvellous development of Germany; but her "particularism," founded on traditional racial and religious antagonism to the Prussians, was by no means dead, though it exhibited itself in no more dangerous form than the prohibition, reissued in 1900, to display any but the Bavarian flag on public buildings on the emperor's birthday; a provision which has been since so far modified as to allow the Bavarian and imperial flags to be hung side by side.

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  • About 1210 he was appointed master of the Teutonic Order, and was offered, in 1226, the province of Kulm by Conrad I., duke of Masovia, in return for help against the Prussians; this he accepted and obtained the investiture from Frederick.

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  • During the siege of Paris he left the city in a balloon and joined Gambetta, for whom he organized a system of spies through which General Trochu was kept informed of the strength and disposition of the Prussians around Paris.

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  • On the 10th of June 1807 a battle took place at Heilsberg between the French under Soult and Murat, and the Russians and Prussians under Bennigsen.

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  • The Goths (Gotones) appareptly inhabited the basin of the Vistula about the middle of its course, but the lower part of the basin was inhabited by non-Teutonic peoples, among whom we may mention the Galindi, probably Prussians, and the Aestii, either Prussian or Esthonian, in the coastlands at the mouth of the river, who are known especially in connection with the amber trade.

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  • against the heathen Prussians flocked hither from all lands; towns, Konigsberg, Thorn, KuIm and others, were founded; and in alliance with the Brothers of the Sword, the order was soon pressing farther eastwards.

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  • acted in the main faithfully as the first servant of the state The army he always kept in readiness for war; but he also encouraged peaceful arts, and diffused throughout his kingdom so much of his own alert and aggressive spirit that the Prussians became more intelligent and more wealthy than they had ever before been.

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  • Destroyed by the Prussians in 1262, it was restored in 1279.

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  • Not far from Aussig iš the village of Kulm, where, on the 29th and 30th of August 1813, a battle took place between the French under Vandamme and an allied army of Austrians, Prussians and Russians.

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  • During the war between France and Germany, Amiens, after an important action, fell into the hands of the Prussians on the 28th of November 1870.

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  • He took part in no less than five crusades with the Teutonic order against the heathen Lithuanians and Prussians.

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  • Niethammer (1766-1848) on the day before the battle, he speaks with admiration of the " world-soul," the emperor, and with satisfaction of the probable overthrow of the Prussians.

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  • The Prussians occupied it without resistance in 1866.

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  • In 1849 it was the scene of an engagement between the Prussians and the Baden revolutionists.

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  • ADALBERT (originally Voytech), (c. 950-997), known as the apostle of the Prussians, the son of a Bohemian prince, was born at Libice (Lobnik, Lubik), the ancestral seat near the junction of the Cidlina and the Elbe.

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  • In 1849 the Baden revolutionaries seized Worms, but were overthrown by the Mecklenburgers and Prussians in May of that year.

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  • defeated an allied army of Russians and Prussians (see Napoleonic Campaigns).

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  • corps, to cross the Spree and attack the Prussians posted about Burk.

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  • The Prussians were not experienced troops, but were full of ardour and hatred of the French.

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  • In 1866 the Prussians occupied the town from July 13th till September 3rd.

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  • Among the old Prussians they were invited to share an annual sacrificial 1 Fergusson, 65; Crooke ii.

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  • At Freiburg, on the 22nd of July 1762, the Prussians defended themselves successfully against the superior forces of the Austrians.

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  • His father, Heinrich Floris Schopenhauer, the youngest of a family to which the mother had brought the germs of mental malady, was a man of strong will and originality, and so proud of the independence of his native town that when Danzig in 1793 surrendered to the Prussians he and his whole establishment withdrew to Hamburg.

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  • In the remaining campaigns of the Seven Years' War the English contingent was more conspicuous by its conduct than the Prussians themselves.

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  • Across the river, on the Schaferberg, lies a more modern fortress built by the Prussians about 1750.

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  • But the Bulgarians had skilfully exploited their primacy during the first war to induce the European press and public to regard Serbians and Greeks as mere satellites,' and, as is not unusually the case with successful propaganda, they had come to believe in it themselves, fortified in the belief by fulsome compliments addressing them as the "Prussians of the Balkans" and the "Japanese of the West."

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  • in height, and surmounted by a car of victory (Auriga), which, taken by Napoleon to Paris in 1807, was brought back by the Prussians in 1814.

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  • (15th of November 1863) the town was occupied by the Saxon troops acting as the executive of the German Confederation, and it was the base of the operations of the Austrians and Prussians against Schleswig in the spring of the following year.

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  • Wiirzburg was bombarded and taken by the Prussians in 1866, in which year it ceased to be a fortress.

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  • In the vicinity a battle was fought, on the 9th of October 1806, between the French and the Prussians.

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  • In 1787 Amsterdam was occupied by the Prussians, and in 1795 by the French under Pichegru.

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  • The important engagements fought near the town on the 27th and 28th of June 1866 opened Bohemia to the victorious Prussians.

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  • In September 1793 the Prussians gained a victory here over a body of French troops.

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  • In 1794 its new castle was sacked by the French, and in 1849 it was the scene of a contest between the Prussians and the insurrectionists.

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  • In June of the same year the Austrian victory at Kolin obliged the Prussians to raise the siege.

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  • In 1866 the Prussians, who had invaded Bohemia, occupied Prague (July 8) without encountering any resistance.

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  • In 1846 was the seat of a congress of the Liberal party of the Baden parliament; and in 1849 it was the scene of an encounter between the Prussians and the insurgents.

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  • In the battle which took place near it between the Austrians and Prussians on the 7th of September 1757, Hans Karl von Winterfeldt, the general of Frederick the Great, was slain.

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  • The famous "Weissenburg lines," consisting of entrenched works erected by Villars in 1706 along the Lauter, and having a length of 12 m., were stormed in October 1793 by the Prussians and Saxons under the Austrian general Wurmser.

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  • In the Seven Years' War Fersen distinguished himself during the operations round Usedom and Wollin (1759), when he inflicted serious loss on the Prussians.

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  • The Prussians occupied the northern part of Wurttemberg and peace was made in August 1866; by this Wurttemberg paid an indemnity of 8,000,000 gulden, but at once concluded a secret offensive and defensive treaty with her conqueror.

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  • Accompanied by King Frederick William, Brunswick had entered France with 80,000 men, of whom more than half were Prussians, the Battle of >, Vamy.

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  • When Conde and Valenciennes had been taken, the British went off to assail Dunkirk and the Prussians retired into Luxemburg.

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  • In the east the Prussians and Austrians took Mainz at the end of July, allowing the garrison to depart on condition of not serving against the Allies for a year.

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  • The Prussians were driven out of the eastern departments.

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  • His subordinate Kellermann repulsed the Prussians at Valmy (September 20, 1792), and he himself severely defeated the Austrians at Jemappes (November 6).

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  • It afterwards suffered so much from war and pestilence that about 1772, when the Prussians took possession, it contained only from five to six hundred inhabitants.

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  • In 1795 it was again stormed by the French, and in 1813 it was taken from them by the Prussians under Billow.

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  • The bourgeoisie, the Assembly, the country and La Fayette, one of the leaders of the army, now embarked upon a royalist reaction, which would perhaps have been efficacious, Manifesto had it not been for the entry into the affair of the ki Prussians as allies of the Austrians, and for the insolent manifesto of the duke of Brunswick.

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  • September the investiture of Verdun by the Prussians (August mas- 1930), and finally by the incendiary placards of Marat.

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  • Instead of profiting by Dumouriezs treachery and the successes in La Vende, the Coalition, divided over the resuscitated Polish question, lost time on the frontiers of this new Poland of the west which was sacrificing itself for the sake of a Universal Republic. Thus in January 1794 the territory of France was cleared of the Prussians and Austrians by the victories at Hondschoote, Wattignies and Wissembourg; the army of La Vende was repulsed from Granville, overwhelmed by Hoches army at Le Mans and Savenay, and its leaders shot; royalist sedition was suppressed at Lyons, Bordeaux, Marseilles and Toulon; federalist insurrections were wiped out by the terrible massacres of Carrier at Nantes, the atrocities of Lebon at Arras, and the wholesale executions of Fouch and Collot dHerbois at Lyons; Louis XVI.

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  • It is famous as the scene of a battle in which the Prussians under Frederick the Great defeated the Russians commanded by Fermor, on the 25th of August 1758 (see Seven Years' War).

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  • and Bethlen Gabor, prince of Transylvania; and on the 26th of July 1866 a preliminary treaty of peace between the Prussians and the Austrians was signed here.

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  • Accused of treason by his fellowcountrymen, and of duplicity by the Prussians, he eventually published in defence of his tactics (1873) a series of documents entitled Un po' più di lute sugli eventi dell' anno 1866 (More light.

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  • In 1741 the Prussians took the place by storm, and during the Seven Years' War it formed an important centre of operations for the Prussian forces.

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  • The unrest of 1848 spread to Dessau, and led to the interference of the Prussians and to the establishment of the new constitution in 1859.

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  • During the siege of Paris she joined the ambulance service, and untiringly preached resistance to the Prussians.

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  • 'The enemy of the human race,' as you know, attacks the Prussians.

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  • The Prussians are our faithful allies who have only betrayed us three times in three years.

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