On the other hand, he took a lively part in the politico-religious controversies within the fold of Prussian Protestantism.
WEISSENFELS, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, situated on the Saale 20 m.
As a friend of the Prussian "Camarilla" and of King Frederick William IV.
On the failure of this attempt he left Austria and joined the headquarters of the Prussian army (1813), and became a member of the board of administration for north Germany.
Later on he attempted to influence the Prussian Northern Union in the direction of the national policy, and he took part in the sessions of the Erfurt parliament; but, soon realizing the hopelessness of any good results from the vacillating policy of Prussia, he retired from the contest, and, as a major in the service of the SchleswigHolstein government, took part in the Danish War of 1850.
In 1862 he was elected a member of the Prussian Lower House.
I've also tried to move East Prussian cities that are now in Russia or Lithuania, but I'm not sure I found them all.
He was at that time serving as a lieutenant in the Prussian life-guards at Potsdam.
STRALSUND, a seaport of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the west side of the Strelasund, an arm of the Baltic, 12 m.
The name was suggested by Prussian blue, the earliest known compound of cyanogen.
Matriculating at the university of Gottingen in 1811, he began by devoting himself to astronomy under Carl Friedrich Gauss; but he enlisted in the Hanseatic Legion for the campaign of 1813 - 14, and became lieutenant of artillery in the Prussian service in 1815.
LAUENBURG, a duchy of Germany, formerly belonging with Holstein to Denmark, but from 1865 to Prussia, and now in cluded in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.
BOCHOLT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, near the frontier of Holland, 12 m.
Of the three sons of Count Franz, the eldest, Friedrich (1810-1881), entered the diplomatic service; after holding other posts he was in 1850 appointed president of the restored German Diet at Frankfort, where he represented the anti-Prussian policy of Schwarzenberg, and often came into conflict with Bismarck, who was Prussian envoy.
LINGEN, a town in the Prussian province of Hanover, on the Ems canal, 43 m.
GOCH, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the Niers, 8 m.
General Ricotti Magnani, minister of war, therefore framed an Army Reform Bill designed to bring the Italian army as nearly as possible up to the Prussian standard.
Upon the outbreak of the Prussian Kulturkampf the Left had pressed the Right to introduce an Italian counterpart to the Prussian May laws, especially as the attitude of Thiers and the hostility of the French Clericals obviated the need for sparing French susceptibilities.
He not only re-established the Prussian legation to the Vatican, suppressed since 1874, and omitted from the imperial message to the Reichstag (17th November 1881) all reference to King Humberts visit to Vienna, but took occasion on the n9th of November to refer to Italy as a country tottering on the verge of revolution, and opened in the German semi-official press ~ campaign in favor of an international guarantee for the independence of the papacy.
town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Sorebach, 54 m.
TRIER (French treves), an ancient city of Germany, formerly the capital of an archbishopric and electorate of the empire, and now the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and the chief town of a governrnental department in the Prussian province of the Rhine.
Educated at the universities of Bonn and Heidelberg, he obtained a position in Florence through the influence of an Englishman, William Craufurd, but soon he entered the Prussian diplomatic service and was employed in Florence, in Constantinople and in Rome.
by the Prussian province of Hanover.
A large part of this has been reclaimed and the sandy soil laid bare, but on the Drente and Prussian borders areas of fen still remain.
Dana, and now commonly used in scientific writings as a specific term for the real Prussian amber.
On the shores of the Baltic it occurs not only on the Prussian and Pomeranian coast but in the south of Sweden, in Bornholm and other islands, and in S.
SCHWETZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of West Prussia, on the left bank of the Vistula, 29 m.
In the same year he was nominated a Grand Cross in the Imperial Order of the Rose of Brazil; he also held the Prussian Order "Pour le Merite," and belonged to the Legion of Honour of France and to the Order of the North Star of Sweden and Norway.
During the revolutionary ferment of 1848-49 he urged the Prussian king to refuse the imperial crown, co-operated with the Austrian emperor in suppressing the Hungarian insurrection, and compelled the Prussians to withdraw their support from the insurgents in Schleswig-Holstein.
KAMMIN, or Cammin, a town in the Prussian province of Pomerania, 22 m.
On the whole, the best statistical source for this information is the annual computation published by the Archiv fiir Eisenbahnwesen, the official organ of the Prussian Ministry of Public Works; but the figure quoted above utilizes the Board of Trade returns for the United Kingdom and the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the United States.
Haderslev), a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, 31 m.
GLUCKSBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, romantically situated among pine woods on the Flensburg Fjord off the Baltic, 6 m.
SPREMBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, situated partly on an island in the river Spree and partly on the west bank, 76 m.
217) with the west Prussian custom of the mock birth of a child on the harvest-field, the object being to ensure a plentiful crop for the coming year.
He took no part in the war, but his brother, who was an officer in the Prussian army, was killed in Bohemia.
In May of this year he had an important interview with Bismarck, who wished to secure his support for the reform of the confederation, and after the war was over at once accepted the position of a Prussian subject, and took his seat in the diet of the North German Confederation and in the Prussian parliament.
He was one of the three Hanoverians, Windthorst and Miquel being the other two, who at once won for the representatives of the conquered province the lead in both the Prussian and German parliaments.
GLEIWITZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the Klodnitz, and the railway between Oppeln and Cracow, 40 m.
Papyrusurkunde," in the Abhandlungen of the Prussian Academy, Berlin, 1907).
SIEGBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, on the river Sieg, 16 m.
He belonged to the Prussian Conservative party, and was a violent anti-Semite.
GOSLAR, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, romantically situated on the Gose, an affluent of the Oker, at the north foot of the Harz, 24 m.
This was restored in 1867-1878 at the cost of the Prussian government, and was adorned with frescoes portraying events in German history.
He was certainly not the Jew of Prussian Poland which his enemies declared him to be, and he has to this day a circle of devoted adherents.
crossed the Prussian border.
The province sends 14 members to the German Reichstag, and 26 to the Prussian house of representatives.
The heir to the Prussian crown bears the title of governor of Pomerania.
MUNSTER AM Stein, a watering-place of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the Nahe, 21m.
Bismarck admitted the aversion of the population to Prussian rule, but said that everything would be done to conciliate the people.
Above all, there arose in 1440 the Prussian League (Preussischer Bund), in which the nobles and towns joined together, nominally for common protection of their rights, but really against the Order.
GREIFSWALD, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the navigable Ryk, 3 m.
In the old Prussian provinces alone there were fifty-three different customs frontiers, and German manufactures could not develop until the growth of the Zollverein brought with it commercial consolidation, internal freedom and greater homogeneity of economic conditions.
SODEN, a town and spa of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, pleasantly situated in the valley of the Sulzbach under the southern slope of the Taunus range, io m.
WITTENBERGE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Elbe, near the influx of the Stepenitz into that river, 77 m.
After occupying the Prussian capital he launched against England the famous Berlin Decree (21st of November 1806), declaring her coasts to be in a state of blockade, and prohibiting all commerce with them.
Further, owing to the carelessness of the Prussian negotiator, Napoleon was able to require the exaction of impossibly large sums from that exhausted land, and therefore to keep his troops in her chief fortresses.
Seeing that Godoy, the all-powerful minister at Madrid, had given mortal offence to Napoleon early in the Prussian campaign of 1806 by calling on Spain to arm on behalf of her independence, it passes belief how he could have placed his country at the mercy of Napoleon at the end of the year 1807.
A letter written by the Prussian statesman, Baron vom Stein, had fallen into the hands of the French and revealed to the emperor the ferment produced in Germany by news of the French reverses in Spain.
The revenge of the autocrat was characteristic. Besides driving Stein from office, he compelled Prussia to sign a convention(8th of September) for the payment to France of a sum of 140,000,000 francs, and for the limitation of the Prussian army to 42,000 men.
Napoleon on his side succeeded in adjourning the question of the partition of Turkey; but he awarded the Danubian provinces and Finland to his ally and agreed to withdraw the French garrisons from the Prussian' fortresses on the Oder.
If Prussian towns "behaved badly" (he wrote on the 4th of March), they were to be burnt; Eugene was not to spare even Berlin.
This category includes German places located in the Prussian provinces of East Prussia, West Prussia, Posen, Silesia, Brandenburg, and Pomerania, and places in the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
RECKLINGHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 22 m.
In 1810 it was divided by Napoleon between the grand duchy of Berg and France, but was, in 1815, restored to the duke of Arenberg as a fief under Prussian sovereignty.
ESCHWEGE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, on the Werra, and the railway Treysa-Leinefelde, 28 m.
(1719-1790), who served in the Prussian army under Frederick the Great, is chiefly famous as the husband of Caroline (1721-1774), "the great landgravine," who counted Goethe, Herder and Grimm among her friends and was described by Frederick the Great as femina sexu, ingenio vir.
Soon the growing desire for liberty made itself felt in Hesse, and in 1820 Louis gave a constitution to the land; various forms were carried through; the system of government was reorganized, and in 1828 Hesse-Darmstadt joined the Prussian Zollverein.
SCHWEDT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the left bank of the Oder, 13 m.
In 1818 he became a master in a school at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, thereby entering the service of the Prussian government.
A copy of the book was sent to the Prussian minister of education, Karl Albert Kamptz (1769-1849), the notorious hunter of democrats.
Within a week Ranke received the promise of a post at Berlin, and in less than three months was appointed supernumerary professor in the university of that city, a striking instance of the promptitude with which the Prussian government recognized scientific merit when, as in Ranke's case, it was free from dangerous political opinions.
The Prussian government provided the means, and in September 1827 he started for Italy.
For a time Ranke was now engaged in an occupation of a different nature, for he was appointed editor of a periodical in which Friedrich Perthes designed to defend the Prussian government against the democratic press.
He did not satisfy the Prussian conservatives, and after four years the Historische Politische Bleitter came to an end.
Stimulated by this, he brought out his Neun Bucher preussischer Geschichte (1847-48), a work which, chiefly owing to the nature of the subject, makes severe demands on the attention of the reader - he is the "Dryasdust" of Carlyle's Frederick; but in it he laid the foundation for the modern appreciation of the founders of the Prussian state.
He took no immediate part in the movements of 1848, but in the following years he drew up several memoranda for the king, whom he encouraged in his efforts to defend the character and identity of the Prussian state against the revolutionaries.
At Berlin, somewhat against his will, he was drawn into a controversy on the Apostles' Creed, in which the party antagonisms within the Prussian Church had found expression.
Windthorst took no part in the critical events of 1866; contrary to the opinion of many of his friends, after the annexation of Hanover by Prussia he accepted the fait accompli, took the oath of allegiance, and was elected a member both of the Prussian parliament and of the North German diet.
He acted as representative of his exiled king in the negotiations with the Prussian government concerning his private property and opposed the sequestration, thus for the first time being placed in a position of hostility to Bismarck.
It was chiefly owing to his skill and courage as a parliamentary debater and his tact as a leader that the party held its own and constantly increased in numbers during the great struggle with the Prussian government.
CAUB, or Kaub, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, on the right bank of the Rhine, 28 m.
Here Blucher crossed the Rhine with the Prussian and Russian armies, on New Year's night 1813-1814, in pursuit of the French.
KOSLIN, or Coslin, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, at the foot of the Gollenberg (450 ft.), 5 m.
In the large market place is the statue of the Prussian king Frederick William I., erected in 1824, and there is a war memorial on the Friedrich Wilhelm Platz.
by Prussian and Austrian Silesia.
GOLLNOW, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the right bank of the Ihna, 14 m.
HILDEN, a town in the Prussian Rhine province on the Itter, 9 m.
HARBURG, a seaport town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, on the left bank of the southern arm of the Elbe, 6 m.
The Prussian government proposes establishing here a free port, on the lines of the Freihafen in Hamburg.
By his wife Margarethe Schleierweber, the daughter of a French corporal, but renowned for her beauty and intellectual gifts, he was the father of Karl Friedrich Moritz Paul von Briihl (1772-1837), the friend of Goethe, who as intendant-general of the Prussian royal theatres was of some importance in the history of the development of the drama in Germany.
It consists of two main parts, separated from each other by a narrow strip of Prussian territory.
HAVELBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Havel and the railway Glowen-Havelberg.
Reymann's well-known Specialkarte von Mittel Europa (: 200,000), acquired by the Prussian government in 1874 (it will ultimately consist of 796 sheets), a government and Liebenow's map of central Europe (1:300,000) and C. Vogel's beautiful map of Germany (1: 500,000).
Far superior to these maps is the Karte von Attika (1: ioo,000 and 1:25,000) based upon careful surveys made by Prussian officers and published by E.
In the meantime large scale maps prepared by European authorities are to be welcomed, such as maps of Chih-li and Shan-tung (1:200,000), from surveys by Prussian officers, 1901-1905, maps on East China (1:1,000,000) and of Yun-nan by British, German and Indian officers, of the Indo-Chinese frontier (1:200,000, Paris 1908), and of the upper Yangtsze-kiang by S.
LAUBAN, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of Silesia, is situated in a picturesque valley, at the junction of the lines of railway from Gorlitz and Sorau, 16 m.
Engler on the flora in the Sitzungsberichte of the Prussian Academy of Science, Nos.
EMMERICH (the ancient Embrica), a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the right bank of the Rhine and the railway from Cologne to Amsterdam, 5 m.
of Minden, on the Herford-Altenbeken line of the Prussian state railways.
m., three-fourths of which is in Austrian, and the remainder in Prussian territory.
It was early in 1862, when the struggle of Bismarck with the Prussian liberals was already begun.
Bismarck coquetted with him as the representative of a force that might help him to combat the Prussian liberals; in 1878, in a speech before the Reichstag, he spoke of him with deep respect, as a man of the greatest amiability and ability from whom much could be learned.
In the following year a conference, from which the Austrian and Prussian representatives were excluded, was opened at Bucharest (November 1772).
An offensive move into Franconia was under discussion, and for this purpose the Prussian staff had commenced a lateral concentration about Weimar, Jena and Naumburg when the storm burst upon them.
reward for information of the Prussian point of concentration..
The Prussian headquarters, however, spent the 12th and 13th in idle discussion, whilst the troop commanders exerted themselves to obtain some alleviation for the suffering of their starving men.
On the road from Gera to Jena Napoleon was met by intelligence from Lannes announcing his occupation of Jena and the discovery of Prussian troops to the northward.
At this moment the Prussians were actually on parade and ready to move off to attack, but just then the " evil genius " of the Prussian army, von Massenbach, an officer of the Headquarter Staff, rode up and claiming to speak with the authority of the king and commander-in-chief, induced Hohenlohe to order his troops back to camp. Of all this Napoleon saw nothing, but from all reports he came to the conclusion that the whole Prussian army was actually in front of him, and at once issued orders for his whole army to concentrate towards Jena, marching all night if need be.
Six hours earlier his conclusion would have been correct, but early that morning the Prussian headquarters, alarmed for the safety of their line of retreat on Berlin by the presence of the French in Naumburg, decided to leave Hohenlohe and Rachel to act as rear-guard, and with the main body to commence their retreat towards the river Unstrutt and the Eckhardtsberge where Massenbach had previously reconnoitred an " ideal " battlefield.
This belief in positions was the cardinal principle of Prussian strategy in those days.
In view of these troops the Prussian line, which had advanced faultlessly as if on parade, halted to prepare its bayonet attack by fire, and, once halted, it was found impossible to get them to go on again.
The French who had thrown themselves into houses, copses, &c., picked off the officers, and the flanks of the long Prussian lines swayed and got into confusion.
The rival artilleries held each other too thoroughly to be able to spare attention to the infantry, whilst the Prussian cavalry, which had forgotten how to charge in masses of eighty or more squadrons, frittered away their strength in isolated efforts.
Organization and tactics did not affect the issue directly, for the conduct of the men and their junior officers gave abundant proof that in the hands of a competent leader the " linear " principle of delivering one shattering blow would have proved superior to that of a gradual attrition of the enemy here, as on the battlefields of the Peninsula and at Waterloo, and this in spite of other defects in the training of the Prussian infantry which simultaneously caused its defeat on the neighbouring field of Auerstadt.
Fortunately a dense fog hid the helpless masses on the Landgrafenberg from sight of the Prussian gunners.
For want of room, only a few Prussian over the Saale at Kosen, when his advanced guard came in contact with that of the Prussian main army.
Nevertheless by mid=day their strength was well-nigh exhausted, whilst the Prussian reserve, eighteen battalions of guards under Kalckreuth, stood intact and ready to engage.
Even then the day might have been saved had Blucher been able to find even twenty squadrons accustomed to gallop together, but the Prussian cavalry had been dispersed amongst the infantry commands, and at the critical moment it proved impossible for them to deliver a united and decisive attack.
Scarcely leaving his troops time to restore their worn-out footgear, or for the cavalry to replace their jaded horses from captured Prussian resources, he set Davout in motion towards Warsaw on the 2nd of November, and the remainder of the army followed in successive echelons as rapidly as they could be despatched.
The cavalry, moving well in advance, dispersed the Prussian depots and captured their horses, as far as the line of the Vistula, where at last they encountered organized resistance from the outposts of Lestocq's little corps of 15,000 men - all that was left of Frederick the Great's army.
towards Danzig, which was still in Prussian hands.
Lestocq was, meanwhile, driven through Konigsberg (which surrendered on the r 5th) on Tilsit, and now that he was no longer supported by the Russians, the Prussian commander gave up the struggle.
Then the main army under Napoleon in person (220,000 men; with 80,000 more under the viceroy of Italy on his right rear); and on the extreme left at Tilsit a flanking corps, comprising the Prussian auxiliary corps and other Germans (in all 40,000 strong).
As the news of the destruction of the 'Grande Armee spread, and the appearance of countless stragglers convinced the Prussian people of the reality of the disaster, the spirit generated by years of French domination burst out.
The material loss inflicted on the French was not very great, but its effect in raising the moral of the raw Prussian cavalry and increasing their confidence in their old commander was enormous.
The crown prince of Sweden (Bernadotte), with his Swedes and various Prussian levies, 135,000 in all, lay in and around Berlin and Stettin; and knowing his former marshal well, Napoleon considered Oudinot a match for him.
Ney, who had joined Oudinot after Grossbeeren, had been defeated at Dennewitz (6th Sept.), the victory, won by Prussian troops solely, giving the greatest encouragement to the enemy.
Were it not for political and municipal boundaries Hamburg might be considered as forming with Altona and Ottensen (which lie within Prussian territory) one town.
ENSCHEDE, a town in the province of Overysel, Holland, near the Prussian frontier, and a junction station 5 m.
RUPPIN, or Neuruppin, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, lies on the W.
BOCHUM, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 11 m.
HITZACKER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover at the influx of the Jeetze into the Elbe, 33 m.
HATTINGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the river Ruhr, 21 m.
William refused, however, in 1806, in which year by the death of his father he became prince of Orange, to separate his interests from those of his Prussian relatives, and fought bravely at Jena.
GRUNBERG, a town of Germany, in Prussian Silesia, beautifully situated between two hills on an affluent of the Oder, and on the railway from Breslau to Stettin via Kiistrin, 36 m.
Frederick acted on the defensive with consummate skill, and the capture of the Prussian fortress of Kolberg on Christmas day O.S.
IMMANUEL OSCAR MENAHEM DEUTSCH (1829-1873), German oriental scholar, was born on the 28th of October 1829, at Neisse in Prussian Silesia, of Jewish extraction.
EUSKIRCHEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on a plateau lying to the E.
COPERNICUS (or [[Koppernigk), Nicolaus]] (1473-1543), Polish astronomer, was born on the 19th of February 1473, at Thorn in Prussian Poland, where his father, a native of Cracow, had settled as a wholesale trader.
His treatise De monetae cudendae ratione, 1526 (first printed in 1816), written by order of King Sigismund I., is an exposition of the principles on which it was proposed to reform the currency of the Prussian provinces of Poland.
But after a time Delbriick, suspected of inspiring his charge with a dislike of the Prussian military caste and even of belonging to a political secret society, was dismissed, his place being taken by the pastor and historian Friedrich Ancillon, while a military governor was also appointed.
The story of the evolution of the Prussian parliament belongs to the history of Prussia.
The loyalty of the Prussian army remained inviolate; but the king was too tender-hearted to use military force against his "beloved Berliners," and when the victory of the populace was thus assured his impressionable temper yielded to the general enthusiasm.
A German or Austrian count may be a wealthy noble of princely rank, a member of the Prussian or Austrian Upper House, or he may be the penniless cadet of a family of no great rank or antiquity.
SCHONEBECK, a town of Germany, in the province of Prussian Saxony, on the left bank of the Elbe, 9 m.
LANDESHUT, a town in the Prussian province of Silesia, at the north foot of the Riesengebirge, and on the river Bober, 65 m.
In 1863 he was appointed professor at Freiburg; in 1866, at the outbreak of war, his sympathies with Prussia were so strong that he went to Berlin, became a Prussian subject, and was appointed editor of the Preussische Jahrbilcher.
SUHL, a town of Germany, in the province of Prussian Saxony, picturesquely situated on the Lauter, on the southern slope of the Thuringian Forest, 62 m.
HAMBURG, a state of the German empire, on the lower Elbe, bounded by the Prussian provinces of Schleswig-Holstein and Hanover.
m., and consists of the city of Hamburg with its incorporated suburbs and the surrounding district, including several islands in the Elbe, five small enclaves in Holstein; the communes of Moorburg in the Luneburg district of the Prussian province of Hanover and Cuxhaven-Ritzebuttel at the mouth of the Elbe, the island of Neuwerk about 5 m.
The state furnishes three battalions of the 2nd Hanseatic regiment, under Prussian officers.
STASSFURT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, and one of the chief seats of the German salt-producing industry, situated on both sides of the Bode, 20 m.
by the Prussian Rhine province and the Hessian province of Rhein-Hessen; on the E.
by the administrative districts of Trier and Coblenz, belonging to the Prussian Rhine province.
member of the university of Kiev, and of the Prussian, Bavarian and Danish academies; he received the Prussian order Pour le Write, and was corresponding member of the Academie des sciences morales et politiques of the French Institute.
A vast amount of traffic is directed to Berlin, by means of the Havel-Spree system of canals, to the Thuringian states and the Prussian province of Saxony, to the kingdom of Saxony and Bohemia, and to the various riverine states and provinces of the lower and middle Elbe.
MYSLOWITZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia.
Their rifle, 1 though a muzzle-loader, was in every other respect superior to the Prussian needle-gun, and their M.L.
The direction of the Prussian railways, not laid out primarily for strategic purposes, conditioned the first deployment of the whole army, with the result that at first the Prussians were distributed in three main groups or armies on a front of about 250 m.
According to this, the Austrian troops already in Bohemia, 1st corps, Count Clam-Gallas, 30,000 strong, were to receive the Saxons if the latter were forced to evacuate their own country, and to act as an advanced guard or containing wing to the main body under Feldzeugmeister von Benedek (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 8th, 10th corps) which was to concentrate at Olmiitz, whence the Prussian staff on insufficient evidence concluded the Austrians intended to attack Silesia, with Breslau as their objective.
Had the Austrians attacked on both flanks forthwith, the Prussian central (I.) army could have reached neither wing in time to avert defeat, and the political consequences of the Austrian victory might have been held to justify the risks involved, for even if unsuccessful the Austrians and Saxons could always retreat into Bavaria and there form a backbone of solid troops for the 95,000 South Germans.
It is customary to ascribe their successes to the power of the breech-loader, but there were actions in which it played no part, cavalry versus cavalry encounters, and isolated duels between batteries which gave the Prussian gunners a confidence they had not felt when first crossing the frontier.
While trying to feed his army he omitted to fight it, and, with the chance of overwhelming the Prussians by one great effort of marching, he delayed the necessary orders till too late, and the Prussian II.
In about two hours the t2 Prussian battalions and 3 batteries found themselves assailed by upwards of 40 Austrian battalions and zoo guns, and against such swarms of enemies each man felt that retreat from the wood across the open meant annihilation.
But the Austrian gunners were intent on the Prussian batteries farther back, which as the light improved had come into action.
The Prussian infantry crept nearer and nearer, till at under 300 yds.
This withdrawal took place about 2 p.m., and the crisis on the Prussian side may be said to have lasted from about i i a.m.
By this time every infantry soldier and gun within call had been thrown into the fight, and the Austrians might well have thrown odds of three to one upon the Prussian centre and have broken it asunder.
The 2nd and 4th Austrian corps found themselves all at once threatened in flank and rear by heavy masses of Prussian infantry, the leading brigades of the crown prince's army, and they began to withdraw towards the centre of their position in ordered brigade masses, apparently so intent on keeping their men in hand that they seem never to have noticed the approach of the Prussian reserve artillery of the Guard which (under Prince Kraft zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen) was straining forward over heavy soil and through standing corn towards their point of direction, a clump of trees close to the tower of the church of Chlum.
The Austrian cavalry, on weak and emaciated horses, could not gallop at speed up the heavy slopes (2 1 ?), and the artillery of both Prussian wings practically broke every attempt of the infantry to form for attack.
Their artillery driven back off the ridges formed a long line from Stosser to Plotist facing the enemy, and under cover of its fire the infantry at length succeeded in withdrawing, for the Prussian reserve cavalry arrived late on the ground, and the local disconnected efforts of the divisional cavalry were checked by the still intact Austrian squadrons.
Whereas at 2.30 absolute destruction seemed the only possible fate of the defeated army, by 6 p.m., thanks to the devoted heroism of the artillery and the initiative of a few junior commanders of cavalry, it had escaped from the enclosing horns of the Prussian attack.
The convergence of the Prussian armies on the battlefield ended in the greatest confusion.
Moreover the little fortresses of Josephstadt and Koniggratz both refused to capitulate, and the whole Prussian armies were thus compelled to move down the Elbe to Pardubitz before they could receive any definite new direction.
Meanwhile Benedek had in fact assigned only one corps with the reserve cavalry to oppose a Prussian advance towards Vienna, and the remaining seven retired to Olmiitz, where they were on the flank of a Prussian advance on Vienna, and had all the resources of Hungary behind them to enable them to recuperate.
Meanwhile the Prussian main army was pursuing its advance under very adverse circumstances.
In western Germany the Prussian forces, depleted to the utmost to furnish troops for the Bohemian campaign, were opposed to the armies of Hanover and Bavaria and the 8th Federal corps (the last consisting of Hessians, Wurttembergers, Badensers and Nassauers with an Austrian division drawn from the neutralized Federal fortresses), which were far superior in number.
The 13th Prussian division (v.
On the 15th and 16th of June Beyer moved on Cassel, while the two other Prussian generals converged on Hanover.
Both places were in Prussian hands before the 20th.
Arentschild won a notable success over the improvised Prussian and Coburg division of General v.
Falckenstein, the Prussian commander-in-chief in the west, was achieved next day.
The Prussian army, now called the "Army of the Main," of three divisions (one being unusually strong), had next to deal with the 7th (Bavarians) and 8th (other South Germans) Federal corps in the valley of the Main.
The 7th corps thereupon drew back to the Franconian Saale, the 8th to ` Frankfurt, and on the 7th of July the Prussian army was massed about Fulda between them.
A Prussian reserve corps under the grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, formed at Leipzig, had meanwhile overrun eastern Bavaria up to Nuremberg.
But the improved organization, better communications and supplies, superior moral, and once again the breech-loader versus a standing target, which caused the Prussian successes, at least give us an opportunity of comparing the old and the new systems under similar conditions, and even thus the principle of the "armed nation" achieved the decision in a period of time which, for the old armies, was wholly insufficient.
Frankfort, nominally a free city, but with a Prussian resident who did very much what he pleased, was not like Gotha and Leipzig.
His father was an official, his mother an Ancillon, distantly related to the Prussian minister of that name.
For a Prussian official to venture to give uncalled-for advice to his sovereign was a breach of propriety not calculated to increase his chances of favour; but it gave Gentz a conspicuous position in the public eye, which his brilliant talents and literary style enabled him to maintain.
This activity gained him recognition abroad and gifts of money from the British and Austrian governments; but it made his position as an official in Berlin impossible, for the Prussian government had no mind to abandon its attitude of cautious neutrality.
Private affairs also combined to urge Gentz to leave the Prussian service; for, mainly through his own fault, a separation with his wife was arranged.
He watched with interest the Prussian military preparations, and, at the invitation of Count Haugwitz, he went at the outset of the campaign to the Prussian headquarters at Erfurt, where he drafted the king's proclamation and his letter to Napoleon.
After the breakdown of the German parliament, Raumer returned to Berlin, where he was made a member of the first chamber of the Prussian parliament.
BEUTHEN, or NIEDERBEUTHEN, a town of Germany, in the north of Prussian Silesia, on the Oder, the capital of the mediatized principality of Carolath-Beuthen.
SAARBRUCKEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, on the left bank of the Saar, a navigable tributary of the Mosel, is situated 49 m.
Aided by grants from the Prussian government, these workers systematically investigated the effect of introducing a large number of different chemical substances (oxides) into vitreous fluxes.
LIEGNITZ, a town in Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, picturesquely situated on the Katzbach, just above its junction with the Schwarzwasser, and 40 m.
On the death of the last duke of Liegnitz in 1675, the duchy came into the possession of the Empire, which retained it until the Prussian conquest of Silesia in 1742.
ODERBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Alte Oder, 2 m.
It falls into three distinct parts: (1) the largest portion, with the city of Bremen, lying on both banks, but chiefly on the right, of the lower course of the Weser, surrounded by the Prussian province of Hanover and the grandduchy of Oldenburg, and consisting in the main of lowland country intersected by canals and dykes; (2) the town and district of Vegesack, lying separate from, but immediately north of the main portion, on the right bank of the river; (3) the port of Bremerhaven, 46 m.
By the convention with Prussia of the 27th of June 1867, the free state surrendered its right to furnish its own contingent to the army, the recruits being after that time drafted into the Hanseatic infantry regiment, forming a portion of the Prussian IX.
ASCHERSLEBEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, 36 m.
LEOBSCHUTZ (Bohemian Lubczyce), a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the Zinna, about 20 m.
Still his position was most delicate, especially when the betrothal between the grand-duke Peter and Sophia of AnhaltZerbst (afterwards Catharine II.) was carried through against his will, and Elizabeth of Holstein, the mother of the bride, arrived in the Prussian interests to spy upon him.
HAMELN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, at the confluence of the Weser and Hamel, 33 m.
ALTENA, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the river Lenne, 38 m.
On the neighbouring Schlossberg is the ancestral castle of the counts of La Marck, ancestors, on the female side, of the Prussian royal house.
MARTIN FRIEDRICH RUDOLF VON DELBRUCK, Prussian statesman (1817-1903), was born at Berlin on the 16th of April 1817.
Delbruck now began, with the support of Bismarck, to apply the principles of free trade to Prussian fiscal policy.
In 1868 he became a Prussian minister without portfolio.
In October 1870, when the union of Germany under Prussian headship became a practical question, Delbriick was chosen to go on a mission to the South German states, and contributed greatly to the agreements concluded at Versailles in November.
ELBERFELD, a manufacturing town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the Wupper, and immediately west of and contiguous to Barmen.
In 1815 Elberfeld was assigned by the congress of Vienna, with the grand-duchy of Berg, to Prussia, and its prosperity rapidly developed under the Prussian Zollverein.
He welcomed the Armenian bishops who came to England in 1713, and corresponded with the Prussian court on the possibility of the Anglican liturgy as a means of reconciliation between Lutherans and Calvinists.
Slesvig), a town of Germany, capital of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.
STENDAL, a town of Germany, in the province of Prussian Saxony, picturesquely situated on the Uchte, 70 m.
EINBECK, or Em2BECK, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, on the Ilm, 50 m.
Perhaps even this degree of severity might have been held by the Prussian authorities to be unnecessary, had Ewald been less exasperating in his language.
He only came as far as Strassburg, but had to retreat before the victories of the Prussian troops over the Baden insurgents.
KONIGSWINTER, a town and summer resort of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the right bank of the Rhine, 24 m.
NEUMUNSTER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, lies on both banks of the small river Schwale, in the basin of the Stor, 40 m.
SCHAUMBURG-LIPPE, a principality forming part of the German Empire, consisting of the western half of the old countship of Schaumburg, and surrounded by Westphalia, Hanover and the Prussian part of Schaumburg.
NAUMBURG, a town of Germany, in the province of Prussian Saxony, the seat of the provincial law courts and court of appeal for the province and the neighbouring districts.
It became Prussian in 1814.
SIGMARINGEN, a town of Germany, chief town of the Prussian principality of Hohenzollern, on the right bank of the Danube, 55 m.
SOLINGEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, on a height above the Wupper, 13 m.
In 1814 it was restored to Germany and in 1816 it was handed over to the grand duke of Hesse; it remained, however, a fortress of the German confederation and was garrisoned by Prussian and Austrian troops.
UELZEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, on the Ilmenau, east of the famous Liineburger Heide, at the junction of the railway connecting Hamburg, Hanover, Bremen and Stendal, 52 m.
Frankfurt am Main), a city of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, principally on the right bank of the Main, 24 m.
Other bridges are the Obermainbriicke of five iron arches, opened in 1878; an iron foot (suspension) bridge, the Untermainbriicke; the Wilhelmsbriicke, a fine structure, which from 1849 to 1890 served as a railway bridge and was then opened as a road bridge; and two new iron bridges at Gutleuthof and Niederrad (below the city), which carry the railway traffic from the south to the north bank of the Main, where all lines converge in a central station of the Prussian state railways.
The present municipal constitution of the city dates from 1867 and presents some points of difference from the ordinary Prussian system.
On the 16th of July the Prussian troops, under General Vogel von Falkenstein, entered the town, and on the 18th of October it was formally incorporated with the Prussian state.
By treaty with Prussia in 1867 the troops of the duchy are incorporated with the Prussian army.
By virtue of a convention with Prussia, of 1871, the Baden army forms a portion of the Prussian army.
In 1832 the adhesion of Baden to the Prussian Zollverein did much for the material prosperity of the country.
Such of the insurgent leaders as were caught, notably the ex-officers, suffered military execution; the army was dispersed among Prussian garrison towns; and Baden was occupied for the time by Prussian troops.
In the greater politics of Germany, Baden, between 1850 and 1866, was a consistent supporter of Austria; and in the war of 1866 her contingents, under Prince William, had two sharp engagements with the Prussian army of the Main.
Yet as a high-minded patriot Dlugosz had no sympathy whatever with Olesnicki's opposition to Casimir's Prussian policy, and steadily supported the king during the whole course of the war with the Teutonic knights.
The popularity he won was of political service in preparing the way for the union of North and South Germany, and he was the foremost advocate of the imperial idea at the Prussian court.
FLENSBURG (Danish, Flensborg), a seaport of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, at the head of the Flensburg Fjord, 20 m.
ANHALT-DESSAU (1712-1760), who entered the Prussian army in 1725, saw his first service as a volunteer in the War of the Polish Succession (1734-35), and in the latter years of the reign of Frederick William held important commands.
STRIEGAU, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the Striegau Water (Striegauer Wasser), 30 m.
EMDEN, a maritime town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, near the mouth of the Ems, 49 m.
VIERSEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, 1r m.
He was a Knight of the Coburg Order, "Dem Verdienste," and of the Prussian Order, "Pour le Merite," and a member of at least ten foreign Academies.
CHRISTIAN KARL AUGUST LUDWIG VON MASSENBACH (1758-1827), Prussian soldier, was born at Schmalkalden on the 16th of April 1758, and educated at Heilbronn and Stuttgart, devoting himself chiefly to mathematics.
He was chiefly occupied however with framing schemes for the reorganization of the then neglected general staff of the Prussian army, and many of his proposals were accepted.
Massenbach's influence clouded all the Prussian operations.
He then retired to his estate in the Posen province, and occupied himself in writing pamphlets, memoirs, &c. When his estates passed into the grand duchy of Warsaw, he chose to remain a Prussian subject, and on the outbreak of the war of liberation he asked in vain for a post on the Prussian staff.
After the fall of Napoleon he took part in Wurttemberg politics, was expelled from Stuttgart and Heidelberg, and soon afterwards arrested at Frankfurt, delivered over to the Prussian authorities and condemned to fourteen years' fortress imprisonment for his alleged publication of state secrets in his memoirs.
In Prussian Lithuania a craftier policy allowed greater outward liberty, though the process of German colonization, seconded by persecution, restricted the Lithuanian language which was once dominant in East Prussia to barely five districts (Tilsit 38%, Heydekrug 61.9%, Memel 47.1%, Ragnit 27%, Labiau 30%).
This gave the new king much popularity with the mass of the people; while the educated classes were pleased by his removal of Frederick's ban on the German language by the admission of German writers to the Prussian Academy, and by the active encouragement given to schools and universities.
The army was the very foundation of the Prussian state, a truth which both Frederick William I.
But neither the king's character, nor the confusion of the Prussian finances due to his extravagance, gave promise of any effective action.
ZEITZ, a town of Germany, in the extreme south of the Prussian province of Saxony, pleasantly situated on a hill on the Weisse (White) Elster, 28 m.
" northern island"), an island of Germany, in the North Sea, the largest of the East Friesland group, belonging to the Prussian province of Hanover.
APENRADE, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of Schleswig, beautifully situated on the Apenrade Fjord, an arm of the Little Belt, 38 m.
The convex slopes falling from the Prussian position towards Metz gave plenty of cover to the French, and the setting sun shone full in the faces of the Prussian artillerymen.
Shortly before 6.30 the 4th Corps (Ladmi rault) suddenly began to deploy on the high ground to the northwest beyond Mey, thus threatening the right flank of the Prussian I.
On the Prussian side, von Alvensleben's Corps (III.) shortly after daybreak was moving north-westward from the Moselle in two columns, on the right the 5th division, via Gorze and Flavigny on Vionville, on the left the 6th division with corps artillery by Arnaville on Mars-la-Tour, von Alvensleben himself riding a little in advance between the two.
The Prussian cavalry promptly bore away to cover to the westward, and reported what they had seen to superior authority, but not to the advanced guard of the 5th infantry division, which, emerging in its turn from the defile, ran right against the deployed French infantry moving to meet them.
So sudden was the collision that the Prussian advanced guard battery had to fire case to clear its own front.
The French meanwhile had occupied Vionville and Flavigny, and other troops were moving down the slopes from Rezonville to their support, but the united onset of this whole German division overbore all resistance, and the French began to retire eastward, suffering terribly from the shell fire of the Prussian batteries.
Alvensleben, mistaking the withdrawal of the French for the beginning of a retreat, had meanwhile sent orders to the 6th cavalry division to charge in pursuit towards Rezonville; but before it could reach the field the French relieving troops had forced their way through the stragglers and showed such a bold front to the Prussian horsemen that an attack held no promise of success, more especially since they had lost their intervals in their advance and had no room for a proper deployment.
Thus, about noon on the r 6th he reached the high ground between St Privat and Amanvillers, and still without instructions he determined to direct his corps on Bruville and Doncourt, whence he could judge from the drift of the smokeclouds whether he could fall on the Prussian left.
he reached a position north of the Tronville copses whence his guns could fire into the left rear of the long line of Prussian guns (6th division and corps artillery) on the heights above Vionville and Flavigny.
Their fire threw the latter into serious confusion and he had already decided to attack with his nearest division (de Cissey) in the direction of the steeple of Vionville, when his attention was caught by the outbreak of heavy firing in the copses below him, and the entry of fresh Prussian guns into action.
Corps and of the 40th brigade, which latter had been at once ordered into the Tronville copses to check portions of Tixier's division of the French 3rd Corps, which under cover of these copses had gradually worked round the Prussian flank.
Unanimously he and his staff agreed that this fresh enemy could only be the advanced guard of a large Prussian force, possibly, it was suggested, of the crown prince's army, from Alsace and Nancy, and a fresh delay arose while the situation was investigated.
It had no knowledge of the state of affairs on the battlefield, or in the direction of Bruville, though Prussian cavalry had been observing the approach of Ladmirault's corps for some hours.
It was almost dark when the Prussians approached the French position between Rezonville and the woods to the northward, and the troops soon lost direction in the smoke and became involved in the direst confusion; the firing again blazed out for a few moments, only to die away as utter exhaustion at length put an end to the Prussian advance.
The chief characteristic of the day's fighting was the terrible effectiveness of the Prussian artillery, which was handled in masses and not, as on the French side, by batteries.
In a few minutes the batteries on the extreme Prussian left were completely overwhelmed, and suddenly dense lines of French skirmishers emerged from a fold in the ground upon their flank and front, and the gunners were compelled to resort to case-shot, so imminent was their danger.
The French artillery had already evaded the coming blow, and had changed position, "right back," to cover the flank of the rest of the army, and the Prussian and Saxon artillery trotting forward conformed to this new front, their shells sweeping the ground for 2000 yds.
This was stopped almost entirely by the Prussian artillery fire; but the news of its coming spread through the stragglers in the ravine south of the great road, and a wave of panic again swept through the mass, many thousands bolting right upon the front of their own batteries, thus masking their fire at the most critical moment, and something like a crisis in the battle arose.
His younger son fell in one of the first battles on the East Prussian front, and he lived to see the collapse of the corrupt military organization of Russia in the campaign of 1915.
This category contains places located in the Kingdom of WÃ¼rttemberg, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Prussian province of Hohenzollern, and the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine.
After the war of 1866 (in which as a Prussian major-general he organized a Hungarian corps in Silesia) Klapka was permitted by the Austrian government to return to his native country, and in 1867 was elected a member of the Hungarian Chamber of Deputies, in which he belonged to the Deak party.
FRITZLAR, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Cassel, on the left bank of the Eder, 16 m.
Flowing at first southwards through small lakes and marshes, it then turns west and, confined within flat and sandy banks, enters the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.
GEROLSTEIN, a village and climatic health resort of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, attractively situated on the Kyll, in the Eifel range, 110o ft.
HALBERSTADT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province.
Islebia), a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, 24 m.
He entered the Prussian navy in 1865, and by 1890 had risen to be chief-of-staff of the Baltic station in the Imperial navy.
According to a calculation made by P. Frech in 1900, on the basis of the then rate of production, the coalfields of central France, central Bohemia, the kingdom of Saxony, the Prussian province of Saxony and the north of England, would be exhausted in 100 to 200 years, the other British coalfields, the Waldenburg-Schatzlar and that of the north of France in 250 years, those of Saarbriicken, Belgium, Aachen and Westphalia in 600 to Boo years, and those of Upper Silesia in more than 1000 years.
By modifications of the treaty of Vienna the garrisoning of the fortress of Luxemburg had passed into Prussian hands, an arrangement which lasted until 1867.
The treaty of London, signed on the 11th of May 1867, decided that the Prussian garrison must be withdrawn and the fortress dismantled, which was done in 1872.
RHEYDT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, situated on the Niers, r9 m.
WALDENBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, 39 m.
The squadrons under the Prussian general Bothmar, however, made a dashing charge, and achieved considerable temporary success.
HANOVER, the capital of the Prussian province of the same name, situated in a sandy but fertile plain on the Leine, which here receives the Ihme, 38 m.
Prussian army corps, has a large garrison of nearly all arms and a famous military riding school.
It is connected by railway with Berlin, Hamburg, Bremen, Hameln, Cologne, Altenbeken and Cassel, and the facilities of intercourse have, under the fostering care of the Prussian government, enormously developed its trade and manufactures.
STOLP, or Stolpe, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the Stolpe, 10 m.
the county of Waldeck, embedded in Prussian territory between the provinces of Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau, and the principality of Pyrmont, farther to the north, between Lippe, Brunswick, Westphalia and Hanover.
The government is conducted in the name of the prince by a Prussian "Landesdirector," while the state officials take the oath of allegiance to the king of Prussia.
Education and similar matters are thus all conducted on the Prussian model; a previous convention had already handed over military affairs to Prussia.
LUTZEN, a town in Prussian Saxony, in the circle of Merseburg (pop. in 3981), chiefly famous as the scene of a great battle fought on the 6/16th of November 1632 between the Swedes, under King Gustavus Adolphus, and the Imperialists, under Wallenstein.
OSCHERSLEBEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, on the Bode, 24 m.
The modern Prussian province of Hohenzollern is a long, narrow strip of territory bounded on the S.W.
On the west side of the entrance to the bay is the Prussian naval port of Wilhelmshaven.
STEPHEN CZARNIECKI (1599-1665), Polish general, learnt the science of war under Stanislaw Koniecpolski in the Prussian campaigns against Gustavus Adolphus (1626-1629), and under Wladislaus IV.
The town is less well equipped with museums and similar institutions, the most noteworthy being the Prussia museum of antiquities, which is especially rich in East Prussian finds from the Stone age to the Viking period.
it forms the frontier between Prussian and Austrian Silesia, while the remaining 50o m.
In 1767 Teller, whose attitude had made his position at Helmstedt intolerable, was glad to accept an invitation from the Prussian minister for ecclesiastical affairs to the post of provost of Kolln, with a seat in the supreme consistory of Berlin.
his Wohlgemeinte Erinnerungen, 1788), led the Prussian government to pass upon him the sentence of suspension for three months, with forfeiture of his stipend.
FRANKFORT-ON-ODER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, 50 m.
NEU-STETTIN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the small Streitzig lake, 90 m.
He sat in the Erfurt assembly in 1850, and in the second Prussian chamber from 1849 to 1852.
An outspoken opponent of the policy of Manteuffel, he was refused promotion by the Prussian government, and in 1857 accepted the professorship of history at r °Tabingen.
In 1867 he became director of the Prussian archives, with which it was his task to incorporate those of Hanover, Hesse and Nassau.
In Belgium, across an almost open frontier, lay an ever-increasing force of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian troops under Wellington and Blucher.
Blucher's Prussian army of 116,000 men, with headquarters at Namur, was distributed as follows:
The frontier in front of Binche, Charleroi and Dinant was watched by the Prussian outposts.
On the other hand, the duke's whole section lay close to an open frontier across which ran no fewer than four great roads, and the duke considered that his position "required, for its protection, a system of occupation quite different from that adopted by the Prussian army."
When he had left for the front, the emperor proceeded with Grouchy to reconnoitre the Prussian position at Gilly; and handing over the command of the right wing to the marshal, whom he ordered to capture Gilly, Napoleon returned to Charleroi, to hasten the passage of the French army across the Sambre and mass it in the gap between the allies.
As soon as the Prussian marshal got the first real warning of imminent danger, he ordered (in accordance with the prearranged plan) an immediate concentration of his army on his inner flank at Sombreffe.
Meanwhile two long hours had been wasted on the right whilst Grouchy and Vandamme deliberated over their plan of action in front of the Prussian brigade at Gilly; and it was not until the emperor himself again reached the front, about 5.30 P.M., that vigour replaced indecision.
Grouchy meantime reported from Fleurus that Prussian masses were coming up from Namur, but Napoleon does not appear to have attached much importance to this report.
decisive day of the campaign had actually come, and he promptly made arrangements for defeating the Prussian army in his front.
The emperor decided to bear down Blucher's centre and right with the corps of Vandamme and Gerard and with Girard's division which he had drawn into his operations, containing the Prussian left meanwhile with the squadrons of Pajol and Exelmans, assisted by a few infantry.
When the battle was ripe, he would crush the Prussian centre and right between the Guard and D'Erlon's corps.
He could at least beat Blucher and render the Prussians unfit for any serious operation except retreat on June 17, although he could no longer expect to destroy the Prussian army.
Blucher's worn-out soldiers could not withstand the tremendous impact of Napoleon's choicest troops, and the Prussian centre was pierced and broken.
Without doubt, the personal risk to which Blucher exposed himself at this crisis was far too great; for it was essential that the command of the Prussian army should remain vested in a chief who would loyally keep in touch and act entirely in concert with his colleague.
Probably Wellington's failure to co-operate at Ligny had heightened the Prussian chief-of-staff's unworthy suspicions of the good faith and soldierly qualifications of the British marshal; and it was well for the allies that Blucher was able to resume command before Napoleon had time to profit from the dissensions that would probably have arisen had Gneisenau remained in control.
Wellington was by no means so well acquainted with the details of the Prussian defeat at Ligny as he ought to have been.
a Prussian orderly officer arrived from Gneisenau to explain the situation and learn Wellington's plans.
Prussian corps at Gembloux, the emperor directed Marshal Grouchy, to whom he handed over the command of this force, to "proceed to Gembloux."
Pressing danger could only exist if Blucher had gone northwards, and northwards, therefore, in the Dyle valley, he should have diligently sought for traces of the Prussian retreat.'
Had Blucher gone eastwards, Grouchy, holding the Dyle, could easily have held back any future Prussian advance towards Wellington.
By nightfall the situation was all in favour of the allies; for Grouchy was now actually outside the four Prussian corps, who were by this time concentrated astride the Dyle at Wavre.
Although the emperor wrote to Ney again at noon, from Ligny, that troops had now been placed in position at Marbais to second the marshal's attack on Quatre Bras, yet Ney remained quiescent, and Wellington effected so rapid and skilful a retreat that, on Napoleon's arrival at the head of his supporting corps, 1 There appears to be no reason to believe that Grouchy pushed any reconnaissances to the northward and westward of Gentinnes on June 17; had he done so, touch with Blucher's retiring columns must have been established, and the direction of the Prussian retreat made clear.
The right of Milhaud's cuirassier corps, whilst marching from Marbais to Quatre Bras, saw a column of Prussian infantry retiring towards Wavre, and Milhaud reported this fact about 9 P.M.
Full arrangements were made for Blucher's co-operation through General Muffling, the Prussian attaché on the duke's staff.
Its meaning will then clearly be, that Grouchy was to endeavour to place his force on the inner Prussian flank and hold them back from Waterloo.
the Prussian intervention deranged the symmetry of Napoleon's battle-array.
moved to support Billow; together they regained possession of Plancenoit, and once more the Charleroi road was swept by Prussian round shot.
Another dominant influence in shaping the course of events was the loyalty of Blucher to his ally, and the consequent appearance of the Prussian army at Waterloo.
SONDERBURG, a seaport and seaside resort of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, on the S.W.
HILDESHEIM, a town and episcopal see of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, beautifully situated at the north foot of the Harz Mountains, on the right bank of the Innerste, 18 m.
TILSIT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of East Prussia, situated on the left bank of the Memel or Niemen, here crossed by an iron railway bridge, 57 m.
BEUTHEN, or Oberbeuthen, a town of Germany, in the extreme south-east of Prussian Silesia, on the railway between Breslau and Cracow, 121 m.
He was at once elected a member of the Prussian Lower House, and during the next three years was one of the most active members of that assembly: in several important debates he led the attack on the government, and opposed the policy of Bismarck, not only on financial but also on the Polish and Danish affairs.
In 1874 he again accepted a seat in the Prussian parliament, in order to support the government in their conflict with the Clericals, and after 1878 with the Socialists.
In 1875 he had been appointed by Bismarck to the post of director of the Prussian archives.
(Munich, 1889-1894), a work of great importance, for he was allowed to use the Prussian state papers, and was therefore enabled to write a history of the greatest events of his own time with full access to the most secret sources of information.
As a history of Prussian policy from 1860 to 1866 it is therefore of incomparable value.
Sybel left two sons, one of whom became an officer in the Prussian army; the other, Ludwig von Sybel (b.
KOSEN, a village and summer resort of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, 33 m.
LUCKENWALDE, a town in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Nuthe, 30 m.
Visurgis), one of the chief rivers of Germany, formed by the union of the Werra and the Fulda at Minden, in the Prussian province of Hanover, flowing generally north and entering the North Sea below Bremerhaven, between Jade Bay and the estuary of the Elbe.
Nearly the entire course of the Weser lies in Prussia, but it also touches part of Brunswick and Lippe, and after flowing through Bremen expands into an estuary separating the duchy of Oldenburg from the Prussian province of Hanover.
NEUENAHR, a spa of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, situated at the foot of a basalt peak, in the pleasant valley of the Ahr, io m.
Of these 567,318 or 34.5% were Poles, a larger proportion than in any other Prussian province except Posen.
It returns twenty-two members to the Prussian Lower House and thirteen to the Reichstag.
SCHWIEBUS, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, situated in a fertile plain, 47 m.
WEILBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, picturesquely situated on the Lahn, just above the confluence of the Weil, 50 m.
by the Bavarian Palatinate, the Prussian Rhine Province and Luxemburg, and W.
In 1807 it became the capital of the kingdom of Westphalia; in 1813 it was bombarded and captured by the Russian general Chernichev; in 1830, 1831 and 1848 it was the scene of violent commotions; from 1850 to 1851 it was occupied by the Prussians, the Bavarians and the Austrians; in 1866 it was occupied by the Prussians, and in 1867 was made the capital of the newly formed Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.
Meanwhile Prussian troops had arrived to aid the government, and after two days' fierce street fighting the rising was quelled.
When war was declared between Prussia and Austria in 1866, Saxony declined the former's offer of neutrality, and, when a Prussian force crossed the border, the Saxon army under the king and the crown prince joined the Austrians in Bohemia.
A system of conciliation, similar to the Prussian, exists in Italy (laws of the 16th of June 1892, and the 26th of December 1892) and in some of the Swiss cantons (law of the 29th of April 1883).
ESCHWEILER, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the Inde, and the railways Cologne-Herbesthal and Munich-Gladbach-Stolberg, about 8 m.
ALTRANSTADT, a village of Germany, in Prussian Saxony near Merseburg, with (1900) 813 inhabitants.
It might have been expected that the concession of universal suffrage in the case of the House of Deputies would have led to the abolition of the class system of voting for the legislative bodies of the several territories and the introduction of an equal franchise, and also to the doing away with the three-class system of voting - established on the Prussian model - in the case of the election of municipal representatives.
The preparation of a complete critical edition has been undertaken by the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
But even here Ultramontanism gained ground and derived inestimable assistance from the blunders of government after government - witness the conflict of the Prussian administration with Archbishop Droste-Vischering.
A conference met in London, and the difficulty was settled by neutralizing the duchy and ordering the evacuation of the Prussian troops who kept garrison there.
NEUSALZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the Oder, 20 m.
ADOLF BERNHARD CHRISTOPH HILGENFELD (1823-1907), German Protestant divine, was born at Stappenbeck near Salzwedel in Prussian Saxony on the 2nd of June 1823.
He was a determined supporter of Prussian ascendancy, and was one of the first members to retire after the king of Prussia refused the imperial crown in 1849.
In his later years he was almost entirely occupied with Prussian history.
It forms a complete history of the growth of the Prussian monarchy down to the year 1756.
TONDERN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, on the Widane, 8 m.
HORDE, a manufacturing town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, is 2 m.
After Jena, Jerome received the surrender of several Prussian towns.
At intervals from 1793 to 1801 Lang was closely connected with the Prussian statesman Hardenberg, who employed him as his private secretary and archivist, and in 1 797 he was present with Hardenberg at the congress of Rastadt as secretary to the legation.
Homburg now forms part of the Prussian province of HesseNassau, and Meisenheim of the province of the Rhine.
ANKLAM, or Anclam, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the Peene, 5 m.
of Prussia forcibly amalgamated the Lutheran and Reformed Churches in the new "Evangelical Church" its public use was forbidden in the Prussian dominions.
He was a member of the German parliament at Frankfort in 1848, when he attached himself to the Right, and of the Erfurt parliament in 1850, when he voted against the Prussian Union.
From 1850 to 1863 he sat in the Prussian Lower House, from 1867 to 1884 in the Reichstag, and from 1879 onwards also in the Prussian Chamber of Deputies.
He had been a member of the Prussian National Assembly in 1848, and in 1888 he published his Erlebnisse eines alten Parlamentariers im Revolutionsjahr 1848.
In 1906 the Prussian government was made somewhat ridiculous by the strike of some t00,000 Polish school children, who objected to being whipped for refusing to answer questions in German.
The petition of the archbishop of Posen that the children should be allowed to receive religious instruction in Polish having been rejected by the Prussian minister of education, he issued on the 17th of October a pastoral allowing parents to confine religious instruction became the seat of a Christian bishopric about the middle of the 10th century.
NORTHEIM, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, on the Ruhme, 12 m.
under the influence of the Liberal statesmen then still powerful in the Prussian government.
The excitement and opposition in Germany to the Prussian tariff led to customs legislation by the other German states, some smaller states joining Prussia, while the southern states endeavoured to form independent customs unions.
The tariff of the Zollverein was, in essentials, the Prussian tariff of 1818, and was moderate as compared with most of the separate tariffs previously existing.
A few weeks after the victory the towns of Thorn, Elbing, Braunsberg and Danzig submitted to the Polish king; and all the Prussian bishops voluntarily offered to render him homage.
But the old abuses continuing to multiply, the Prussian towns and gentry at last took their affairs into their own hands, and formed a so-called Prussian League, which demanded an equal share in the government of the country.
But provinces are not conquered by manifestoes, and Casimir's acceptance of the homage of the Prussian League at once involved him in a war with the desperate Teutonic Knights, which lasted twelve years, but might easily have been concluded in a twelvemonth had he only been loyally supported by his own subjects, for whose benefit he had embarked upon this great enterprise.
The acquisition of the Prussian lands was vital to the existence of Poland.
Indeed, from first to last, the Polish gentry as a body took good care to pay and fight as little as possible, and Casimir depended for the most part upon the liberality of the Church and the Prussian towns, and the valour of the Hussite infantry, 17c,000 of whom, fighting on both sides, are said to have perished.
Not till the victory of Puck (September 17, 1462), one of the very few pitched battles in a war of raids, skirmishes and sieges, did fortune incline decisively to the side of the Poles, who maintained and improved their advantage till absolute exhaustion compelled the Knights to accept the mediation of a papal legate, and the second peace of Thorn (October 14, 1466) concluded a struggle which had reduced the Prussian provinces to a wilderness.'
For this territory the grand-masters, within nine months of their election, were in future to render homage to the Polish king; but, on the other hand, the king undertook not to make war or engage in any important enterprise without the consent of the Prussian province, and vice versa.
was more or less conditioned by the Prussian question, and here also his superior diplomacy triumphantly asserted itself.
12, 1635), recovered the Prussian provinces and the Baltic seaboard from Sweden.
Even when, after the peace of Tilsit, the independent grand-duchy of Warsaw was constructed out of the central provinces of Prussian Poland, his distrust of Napoleon proved to be invincible.
The latter were very busy and were supported by the Roman Catholic Church, which did little for the Prussian Poles and nothing for the Austrian Poles, but was active in harassing the schismatical government of Russia.
About the close of this period we have some valuable writers on Polish history, which now began to be studied critically, such as Hartknoch in his Altand Neues Preussen (1684), a work in which are preserved interesting specimens of the old Prussian language, and Lengnich (1689-1774), author of the valuable Jus publicum regni Poloniae, which appeared in 1742.
Prince von Hardenberg, who by no means shared all the views of his master but was incapacitated by his growing infirmities, was first Prussian plenipotentiary, and assisting him was Baron von Humboldt.
With the Prussian statesmen he had some success, but he could make no impression on Frederick William.
Alexander used to the utmost that influence over the mind of the Prussian monarch which he had been preparing since the beginning of 1813.
In front of the Perches redoubts, the Bosmont, whence the Prussian engineers began their attack, is now heavily fortified with continuous lineslcalled the Organisation defensive de Bosmont.
This victory made possible the junction of the first and second Prussian army corps, and had as an ultimate result the Austrian defeat at KÃ¶niggratz.
of Prussian Silesia, on the railway between Gleiwitz and Konigshatte.
ROBERT VON PUTTKAMMER (1828-1900), Prussian statesman, was born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder on the 5th of May 1828.
In 1859 he became a member of the presidial council (Oberprdsidialrat) at Coblenz, capital of the Prussian Rhine province, and from 1860 to 1866 was Landrat at Demmin in Pomerania.
From 1874 onward he was frequently elected to the Reichstag and the Prussian Chamber of Deputies, in which he attached himself to the German Conservative party.
His reactionary conservative temper was in complete harmony with the views of Bismarck and the emperor William, and with their powerful support he attempted, in defiance of modern democratic principles and even of the spirit of the constitution, to re-establish the old Prussian system of rigid discipline from above.
He was appointed a secular canon (Domherr) of Merseburg, and in 1891 became Oberprdsident of Prussian Pomerania.
It became Prussian in 1815.
This category includes German places in the Kingdom of Saxony, in the Prussian province of Saxony, in the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, in the Duchies of Anhalt, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, and Saxe-Meiningen, and in the Principalities of Reuss, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
JUTERBOG, or Guterbog, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Nuthe, 39 m.
In 1809-1810 Humboldt was at the head of the educational section of the Prussian Home School Office, and, in the brief interval of a year and a half, reorganiza- tton gave to the general system of education the direction which it followed (with slight exceptions) throughout the whole century.
The uniform employment of the term Gymnasium for the highest type of a Prussian school dates from 1812.
The Prussian policy of the next period, beginning with the accession of Friedrich Wilhelm IV.
Paton, The Teaching of Classics -in Prussian Secondary Schools (on " German Reform Schools ") (1907, Wyman, London); J.
This office he resigned in 1813 through his opposition to Napoleon, but assumed it again after the battle of Waterloo (1815) until a disagreement with the Prussian government in 1820 led to his abdication.
Here again his zeal for the supremacy of the church led him to break the agreement between the state and the Catholic bishops which he had signed at his installation, and he was arrested by the Prussian government in November 1837.
MUHLHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in Prussian Thuringia, on the right bank of the Unstrut, 25 m.
In 1802 it lost its independence and passed to Prussia, in 1807 it was attached to the kingdom of Westphalia, but in 1815 it again became Prussian.
LANGENSALZA, a town in the Prussian province of Saxony, on the Salza, about 20 m.
It is remarkable in history as the scene of three battles: (1) the victory of the Prussians and English over the imperial army on the 15th of February 1761; (2) that of the Prussians over the Bavarians on the 17th of April 1813; and (3) the engagement on the 27th of June 1866 between the Prussians and the Hanoverians, in which the latter, though victorious in the field, were compelled to lay down their arms on the arrival of overwhelming Prussian reinforcements.
BIEBRICH, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, on the right bank of the Rhine, 3 m.
JOHANNISBERG, a village of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, in the Rheingau, on the right bank of the Rhine, 6 m.
ISERLOHN, a town in the Prussian province of Westphalia, on the Baar, in a bleak and hilly region, 17 m.