How to use Prussia in a sentence
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
For the Rhine provinces not incorporated in Prussia, with the special object of regulating episcopal elections; concerned Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse, Saxony, Nassau, Frankfort, the Hanseatic towns, Oldenburg and Waldeck.
Restored to Prussia in 1816 it was again fortified, but in 1862 the fortifications were converted into a public park.
After the conclusion of peace in 1815 it was restored to Prussia, except some small portions which were given to the kingdom of Holland.
During his reign Poland suffered much humiliation from the attempts of her subject principalities, Prussia and Moldavia, to throw off her yoke.Advertisement
Later it belonged to Meissen and to Saxony, passing to Prussia in 1814.
He became (1756-1759) the leading spirit of Nicolai's important literary undertakings, the Bibliothek and the Literaturbriefe, and ran some risk (which Frederick's good nature obviated) by somewhat freely criticizing the poems of the king of Prussia.
It was taken by France in 1807, and in 1815 it passed to Prussia.
It reverted to Hanover after the battle of Leipzig in 1813, and in 1816 was ceded to Prussia, the greater part of it being at once transferred by her to Denmark in exchange for Swedish Pomerania.
In 1848, when Prussia made war on Denmark, Lauenburg was occupied at her own request by some Hanoverian troops, and was then administered for three years under the authority of the German confederation, being restored to Denmark in 1851.Advertisement
Definitely incorporated with this country in 1853, it experienced another change of fortune after the short war of 1864 between Denmark on the one side and Prussia and Austria on the other, as by the peace of Vienna (30th of October 1864) it was ceded with Schleswig and Holstein to the two German powers.
It retained its constitution and its special privileges until the 1st of July 1876, when it was incorporated with the kingdom of Prussia.
He was ambassador at Berlin in 1866 at the time of the rupture between Prussia and Austria, and after the Seven Weeks' War was charged with the negotiation of the preliminaries of peace at Nikolsburg.
The convex side rests upon the duchy of Coburg and is in part bounded by Bavaria, while the concave side, turned towards the north, contains portions of four other Thuringian states and Prussia between its horns, which are 46 m.
With the exception of Wangeroog, which belongs to the grand duchy of Oldenburg, the East Frisian Islands belong to Prussia.Advertisement
With the exception of Fano, which is Danish, all these islands belong to Prussia.
After the death of the English king, William III., in 1702, it passed to Frederick I., king of Prussia, and in 1815 the lower county was transferred to Hanover, only to be united again with Prussia in 1866.
Hesse-Nassau was formed in 1867-1868 out of the territories which accrued to Prussia after the war of 1866, namely, the landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel and the duchy of Nassau, in addition to the greater part of the territory of Frankfort-on-Main, parts of the grand-duchy of Hesse, the territory of Homburg and the countship of HesseHomburg, together with certain small districts which belonged to Bavaria.
The province is not notably well suited to agriculture, but in forests it is the richest in Prussia, and the timber trade is large.
The three branches of the Bourbon house, ruling in France, Austrian Spain and the Sicilies, joined with Prussia, Bavaria and the kingdom of Sardinia to despoil Maria Theresa of her heritage.Advertisement
Peace not to be concluded until Italy should have received Venetia, I Prussia an equivalent territory in Germany.
La Marmora, however, who believed himself bound in iour to Prussia, refused to enter into a separate arrangement.
Prussia, while satisfied at the fall of the temporal power, seemed to fear lest Italy might recompense the absence of French opposition to the occupation of Rome by armed intervention in favor of France.
In 1815 Saxony ceded them to Prussia.
The Treveran territories on the right bank of the Rhine were secularized and given to Nassau-Weilburg in 1803, and in 1814 nearly the whole of the former electoral dominions were given to Prussia.Advertisement
The Mansfeld family became extinct in 1780 on the death of Josef Wenzel Nepomuk, prince of Fondi, the lands being divided between Saxony and Prussia.
The wheat-rtist costs Australia 2,000,000 to L3,000,000 annually, and in 1891 alone the loss which Prussia suffered from grain-rusts was estimated at 20,000,000 sterling.
By the congress of Vienna it was given to Prussia.
At the peace of Luneville Zweibriicken was ceded to France; on its reunion with Germany in 1814 the greater part of the territory was given to Bavaria, the remainder to Oldenburg and Prussia.
There is more than one meaning of Prussia discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
An approchement now began between the courts of Russia and Prussia; and in 1863 Gorchakov smoothed the way for the occupation of Holstein by the Federal troops.
This seemed equally favourable to Austria and Prussia, but it was the latter power which gained all the substantial advantages; and when the conflict arose between Austria and Prussia in 1866, Russia remained neutral and permitted Prussia to reap the fruits and establish her supremacy in Germany.
Coming to the Tertiary we find the Oligocene beds of Aix, of east Prussia (amber) and of Colorado, and the Miocene of Bavaria, especially rich in remains of beetles, most of which can be referred to existing genera.
Whilst Russia, Austria, Prussia and France were becoming powerful monarchies with centralized administration, Poland had remained a weak feudal republic with an elected king chosen under foreign influence and fettered by constitutional restrictions.
Frederick the Great was at that moment impatient to extend and consolidate his kingdom by getting possession of the basin of the lower Vistula, which separated eastern Prussia from the rest of his dominions, while Austria had also claims on Polish territory and would certainly not submit to be excluded by her two rivals.
When the patriots under Koscziusko made a desperate effort to recover the national independence the struggle produced a third partition (1795), by which the remainder of the kingdom was again divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria.
Alexander insisted still more strongly on this claim, and in the convention which he concluded with the First Consul in October 1801 it was agreed that the maintenance of a just equilibrium between Austria and Prussia should be Napoleon.
In November 1864 it passed with Schleswig to Prussia.
The castle, which occupies the site of a former Cistercian monastery, was, from 1622 to 1779, the residence of the dukes of HolsteinSonderburg-Gliicksburg, passing then to the king of Denmark and in 1866 to Prussia.
In 1210 Valdemar led a second expedition eastwards, this time directed against heathen Prussia and Samland, the chief result of which was the subjection of Mestwin, duke of Pomerania, the leading chieftain in those parts.
Bishop Georg von Polentz embraced the Reformation in 1523, and in 1525 the district was incorporated with the duchy of Prussia.
After his grandfather, George I., became king of Great Britain and Ireland in 1714, Frederick was known as duke of Gloucester and made a knight of the Garter, having previously been betrothed to Wilhelmina Sophia Dorothea (1709-1758), daughter of Frederick William I., king of Prussia, and sister of Frederick the Great.
Frederick the Great of Prussia, when he seized Silesia, extended his protection to those who remained in that province.
In 1866 Bennigsen used all his influence to keep Hanover neutral in the conflict between Prussia and Austria, but in vain.
Panin was the inventor of the famous "Northern Accord," which aimed at opposing a combination of Russia, Prussia, Poland, Sweden, and perhaps Great Britain, against the Bourbon-Habsburg League.
Panin further incensed Catherine by meddling with the marriage arrangements of the grand duke Paul and by advocating a closer alliance with Prussia, whereas the empress was beginning to incline more and more towards Austria.
Nevertheless, even after the second marriage of Paul Panin maintained all his old influence over his pupil, who, like himself, was now a warm admirer of the king of Prussia.
In spite of this, however, and of the skill with which he presided over the debates, the conference came to nothing owing to the refusal of the king of Prussia to attend.
On the 15th of May 1870 he was appointed minister of foreign affairs in the 0111vier cabinet, and was thus largely, though not entirely, responsible for the bungling of the negotiations between France and Prussia arising out of the candidature of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern for the throne of Spain, which led to the disastrous war of 1870-71.
In 1846 she received a gold medal from the king of Prussia.
It was a free town till 1802, when it came into the possession of Prussia.
In 1807 it was joined to Westphalia, in 1816 to Hanover and in 1866 it was, along with Hanover, re-united to Prussia.
The latter, corresponding substantially to the present province of West Prussia, remained subject to Poland until 1309, when it was divided between Brandenburg and the Teutonic Order.
In 1720, by the peace of Stockholm, Swedish Pomerania was curtailed by extensive concessions to Prussia, but the district to the west of the Peene remained in the possession of Sweden until the general European settlement of 1815.
Then Sweden assigned her German possessions to Denmark in exchange for Norway, whereupon Prussia, partly by purchase and partly by the cession 4 r of the duchy of Lauenburg, finally succeeded in uniting the whole of Pomerania under her rule.
The months he spent at Berlin were important in the history of Prussia, for while he was there Frederick the Great died.
During his journey he had made the acquaintance of Jakob Mauvillon (1743-1794), whom he found possessed of a great number of facts and statistics with regard to Prussia; these he made use of in a great work on Prussia published in 1788.
In 1848 he was elected to the lower legislative chamber of Baden, and in 1850 advocated the project of union with Prussia at the parliament held at Erfurt.
On the 10th of October 1806 a battle took place near Saalfeld between the French and the Prussians, during which Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia was killed.
It was evident from an early period of the war, however, that Prussia was resolved to reannex Alsace to German territory.
Here Christian, bishop of Prussia, who had received from the Polish duke of Masovia a part of Kulmerland as a fief, had founded the knightly Order of Dobrzin, and was attempting with its aid to subdue the heathens of Prussia.
In 1229 the Order began the conquest of Prussia, founding fortresses at each step to rivet its conquests (for instance, at Thorn, named after Toron in Palestine), much as the AngloNormans had done in their conquest of Wales.
The Hussite movement, a victorious expression of Czech nationality, is contemporaneous with the loss of German dominion in Prussia; the exodus of German students from Prague takes place a year before the defeat of the Order at Tannenburg.
It brought Ladislaus little immediate gain; but it stimulated the elements of unrest in Prussia to fresh activity.
The ultimate result was that in 1454 an embassy of the League offered Prussia to the Polish king, and that, after many years of war, the Peace of Thorn (1466) gave to Poland West Prussia, with Marienburg, Thorn, Danzig and other towns, in full possession, and, while leaving East Prussia to the Order, made the Order the vassals of Poland for the territory which it retained.
From 1466 to 1526 grand masters of the Order ruled in East Prussia as vassals of Poland.
The brethren of East Prussia, however, still sighed for independence; and they pursued the policy of choosing German princes to be grand masters of the Order, in the hope of regaining liberty by their aid.
When Lutheranism arose, it spread rapidly in Prussia; Albert himself came into contact with Luther, and turning Protestant he secularized his territories, and (1526) made them into an hereditary duchy, still held as a fief of the king of Poland.
The Order, clinging to its rights with the conservatism of an ecclesiastical corporation, still maintained its claims to East Prussia, and pressed them tenaciously even against the electors of Brandenburg themselves, when they inherited the land on the failure of Albert's descendants in 1618.
Whatever its connexion with the Habsburgs, the Order has its real heirs in the Hohenzollerns of Prussia.
When Frederic the Great gained West Prussia by the first partition of Poland (1772), he was uniting together once more the dominions of the Order, sundered since 1466; and it is the kings of Prussia who have inherited the Order's task of maintaining German influence on the banks of the Vistula.
In 1678 it was captured by the elector of Brandenburg, but was restored to the Swedes in the following year; in 1713 it was desolated by the Russians; in 1715 it came into the possession of Denmark; and in 1721 it was again restored to Sweden, under whose protection it remained till 1815, when, along with the whole of Swedish Pomerania, it came into the possession of Prussia.
Immense quantities are imported into Britain from Norway, Sweden and Prussia, under the names of "white Norway," "Christiania" and "Danzig deal."
The officer points out the folly of such a course, and the certainty that the republic, whose troops had triumphed over those of Prussia and Austria, will speedily disperse the untrained levies of Provence.
His own violations of the treaties of Luneville and Amiens were overlooked; and in particular men forgot that the weakening of the Knights of St John by the recent confiscation of their lands in France and Spain, and the protracted delay of Russia and Prussia to guarantee their tenure of power in Malta, furnished England with good reasons for keeping her hold on that island.
Military affairs in this period are dealt with under Napoleonic Campaigns; but it may be noted here that during the anxious days which Napoleon spent at the camp of Boulogne in the second and third weeks of August 1805, uncertain whether to risk all in an attack on England in case Villeneuve should arrive, or to turn the Grand Army against Austria, the only step which he took to avert a continental war was the despatch of General Duroc to Berlin to offer Hanover to Prussia on consideration of her framing a close alliance with France.
Napoleon pressed almost equally hard upon Prussia.
When modified in February 1806, after Prussia's demobilization, they comprised the occupation of Hanover by Prussia, with the proviso, however, that she should exclude British ships and goods from the whole of the northwest coast of Germany.
The duchy of Berg, along with the eastern part of Cleves and other annexes, now went to Murat, brother-in-law of Napoleon (March 1806); and that melodramatic soldier at once began to round off his eastern boundary in a way highly offensive to Prussia.
What was more, Prussia, finding that Napoleon had secretly offered to the British Hanover (that gilded hook by which he caught her early in the year), now resolved to avenge this, the last of several insults.
Napoleon was surprised by the news of Prussia's mobilization; he had come to regard her as a negligible quantity, and now he found that her unexpected sensitiveness on points of honour was about to revivify the Third Coalition against France.
For Austria we may read Prussia; for Ulm, Jena-Auerstadt; for the occupation of Vienna, that of Berlin; for Austerlitz, Friedland, which again disposed of the belated succour given by Russia.
The parallel extends even to the secret negotiations; for, if Austria could have been induced in May 1807 to send an army against Napoleon's communications, his position would have been fully as dangerous as before Austerlitz if Prussia had taken a similar step. Once more he triumphed owing to the timidity of the central power which had the game in its hands; and the folly which marked the Russian tactics at Friedland (14th of June 1807), as at Austerlitz, enabled him to close the campaign in a blaze of glory and shiver the coalition in pieces.
Nelson's crowning triumph rendered impossible for the present all other means of attack on those elusive foes; and Napoleon's sense of the importance of that battle may be gauged, not by his public utterances on the subject, but by his persistence in forcing Prussia to close Hanover and the whole coastline of north-west Germany against British goods.
Napoleon, therefore, had Prussia completely at his mercy; and his conditions to that power bore witness to the fact.
The prayers of Queen Louisa of Prussia failed to bend him from his resolve.
Even so, Prussia was bereft of half of her territories; those west of the river Elbe went to swell the domains of Napoleon's vassals or to form the new kingdom of Westphalia for Jerome Bonaparte; while the spoils which the House of Hohenzollern had won from Poland in the second and third partitions were now to form the duchy of Warsaw, ruled over by Napoleon's ally, the elector (now king) of Saxony.
The tsar acquired a frontier district from Prussia, recognized the changes brought about by Napoleon in Germany and Italy, and agreed by a secret article that the Cattaro district on the east coast of the Adriatic should go to France.
Both Russia and Prussia now agreed rigorously to exclude British ships and goods from their dominions.
After some diplomatic fencing Russia and Prussia broke with England and entered upon what was, officially at least, a state of war with her.
Napoleon desired to press on the partition of Prussia, Alexander that of Turkey.
For the present Napoleon's ire fell upon Prussia.
The revenge of the autocrat was characteristic. Besides driving Stein from office, he compelled Prussia to sign a convention(8th of September) for the payment to France of a sum of 140,000,000 francs, and for the limitation of the Prussian army to 42,000 men.
Napoleon on his side coerced Prussia into an offensive alliance and had the support of Austria and the states of the Rhenish Confederation.
He altogether underrated the importance of the national movement in Prussia.
Prussia (he wrote on the 14th of March) was a weak country.
He therefore heard without dismay at the end of March that Prussia had joined Russia in a league in which Sweden was now an active participant.
Early in April he sought to gain the help of ioo,000 Austrian troops by holding out to Francis of Austria the prospect of acquiring Silesia from Prussia.
Austria now proposed the terms named above with the addition that the Confederation of the Rhine must be dissolved, and that Prussia should be placed in a position as good as that which she held in 1805, that is, before the campaign of Jena.
Events had shown that, even after losing half a million of men in Russia, he was a match for her and Prussia combined.
Metternich persuaded the tsar and the king of Prussia to make a declaration that the allies would leave to Napoleon the "natural boundaries" of France - the Rhine, Alps, Pyrenees and Ocean.
So far back as the 13th of March, six days before he reached Paris, the powers at Vienna declared him an outlaw; and four days later Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia bound themselves to put 150,000 men into the field to end his rule.
This category includes German places located in the Prussian provinces of East Prussia, West Prussia, Posen, Silesia, Brandenburg, and Pomerania, and places in the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
Bergisch-Gladbach is in Rhenish Prussia, 8 m.
It is one of the chief manufacturing places in Rhenish Prussia, its principal industries being the spinning and weaving of cotton, the manufacture of silks, velvet, ribbon and damasks, and dyeing and bleaching.
It became a town in 1336; weaving was introduced here towards the end of the 18th century, and having belonged for a long time to the duchy of Juliers it came into the possession of Prussia in 1815.
Louis secured again a district on the left bank of the Rhine, including the cities of Mainz and Worms, but he made cessions of territory to Prussia and to Bavaria and he recognized the independence of HesseHomburg, which had recently been incorporated with his lands.
Dalwigk was one of Prussia's enemies, and during the war of 1866 the grand-duke fought on the Austrian side, the result being that he was compelled to pay a heavy indemnity and to cede certain districts, including Hesse-Homburg, which he had only just acquired, to Prussia.
Many reforms in ecclesiastical, educational, financial and administrative matters were introduced, and in general the grand-duchy may be said to have passed largely under the influence of Prussia, which, by an arrangement made in 1896, controls the Hessian railway system.
Since the annexation of Hesse-Cassel by Prussia in 1866 the grand-duchy has been known simply as Hesse.
When this line became extinct in 1784 the lordship reverted to Prussia, being claimed both by the king as personal property and by the state.
He belonged to what was called the Great German party, and opposed the project of reconstituting Germany under the leadership of Prussia; he defended the government against the liberal and democratic opposition; at this time he began the struggle against the secularization of schools, which continued throughout his life.
Windthorst took no part in the critical events of 1866; contrary to the opinion of many of his friends, after the annexation of Hanover by Prussia he accepted the fait accompli, took the oath of allegiance, and was elected a member both of the Prussian parliament and of the North German diet.
It was for a time a Hanse town, and came into the possession of Prussia in 1720, having belonged to Sweden since 1648.
In 1376 it was united to the principality of Luneburg, along with which it fell in 1705 to Hanover, and in 1806 to Prussia.
His indiscretion was repeatedly responsible for the king of Prussia's discoveries of the plans laid against him.
After the annexation of Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Homburg by Prussia in 1866 Hesse-Darmstadt remained the only independent part of Hesse, and it generally receives the common name.
Hesse-Nassau is a province of Prussia formed in 1866 from part of Hesse-Cassel and part of the duchy of Nassau.
The signing of the peace of Teschen, which averted a great war with Prussia, on the 13th of May 1779, was the last great act of her reign, and so Maria Theresa judged it to be in a letter to Prince Kaunitz; she said that she had now finished her life's journey and could sing a for she had secured the repose of her people at whatever cost to herself.
In 1761 it was the headquarters of Frederick the Great, and in 1815 it was the last Saxon town that made its submission to Prussia.
It passed into the possession of Prussia in 1815.
They form the highest portion of the Sudetic system which separates south-east Prussia from the Austrian empire, and finds its natural continuation towards the N.W.
The same year he published a remarkable pamphlet on the Italian War and the Mission of Prussia, in which he warned his countrymen against going to the rescue of Austria in her war with France.
France was doing the work of Germany by weakening Austria; Prussia should form an alliance with France to drive out Austria and make herself supreme in Germany.
At the outset of his reign negotiations were actively pursued for the conclusion of a 1757-1 treaty with Prussia, to counteract the alliance 1757-1773.
Prussia and Austria now offered their mediation; and in June conferences were opened at Focshani, which led to no result.
Sultan Selim was anxious to restore his country's prestige by a victory before making peace, but the condition of his troops rendered this hope unavailing; while Prussia, though on the 31st of January 1790 she had signed an offensive treaty with Turkey,' gave her no help during the war.
Through the mediation of England, Holland and Prussia, Turkey and Austria concluded on the 4th of August 1791 the treaty of Sistova, by which Belgrade and the other conquests made by Austria were restored.
So far as the extreme claims of the tsar were concerned, neither Austria nor Prussia was willing to concede them, and both had joined with France and Great Britain in presenting, on the 12th of December 1853, an identical note at St Petersburg, drawn up at the Conference of Vienna, reaffirming the principles of the treaty of 1841.
He was also aware that the exactions of the French had produced deep indignation throughout Germany and especially in Prussia.
On the night of the loth, 1 At the action of Saalfeld on the loth, the young and gallant Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia was killed.
Experience only can teach the art of packing wagons and the care of draught animals, and throughout the campaign the small ponies of Poland and East Prussia broke down by thousands from over loading and unskilful packing.
Napoleon had from the first been aware of the secret alliance between Prussia and Russia, sworn by their respective sovereigns over the grave of Frederick the Great, and this knowledge had been his principal reason for precipitating hostilities with the former.
Behind these all Prussia was overrun by newly formed units, (3 rd and 4th battalions) raised from depot companies, conscripts for 1807, and old soldiers rejoining after sickness or wounds.
But here too the weather and the state of the roads operated adversely, for Ney came up too late, while Davout, in the full tide of his victorious advance, was checked by the arrival of Lestocq, whose corps Ney had failed to intercept, Campaign Of 1807 In Poland And Prussia Scale.
After the peace of Tilsit the Grand Army was gradually withdrawn behind the Rhine, leaving only three commands, totalling 63,000 men, under Davout in Prussia, Oudinot in west central Germany, and Lefebvre in Bavaria, to assist the princes of the Confederation of the Rhine in the maintenance of order and the enforcement of the French law of conscription, which was rigorously insisted on in all the States comprised in this new federation.
The Convention of Tauroggen became the starting-point of Prussia's regeneration.
Meanwhile the emperor in Paris had been organizing a fresh army for the reconquest of Prussia.
His concentration was effected with his usual sureness and celerity, but whilst the French moved on Wittenberg, Blucher was marching to his right, indifferent to his communications as all Prussia lay behind him.
It passed in 1559 to Duke John the Younger, founder of the line of Holstein-Sonderburg, on the extinction of which, in 1761, it fell to Denmark, and in 1867, with Schleswig-Holstein, to Prussia.
In Prussia the superintendents now wear pectoral crosses (instituted by the emperor William II.).
In 1791 he married Frederica Wilhelmina, daughter of Frederick William II., king of Prussia, thus cementing very closely the relations between the houses of Orange-Nassau and Hohenzollern.
By sheer tenacity of purpose, Bestuzhev had extricated his country from the Swedish imbroglio; reconciled his imperial mistress with the courts of Vienna and London, her natural allies; enabled Russia to assert herself effectually in Poland, Turkey and Sweden, and isolated the restless king of Prussia by environing him with hostile alliances.
Elizabeth rightly regarded the treaty of Westminster (January 16, 1756, whereby Great Britain and Prussia agreed to unite their forces to oppose the entry into, or the passage through, Germany of the troops of every foreign power) as utterly subversive of the previous conventions between Great Britain and Russia.
A by no means unwarrantable fear of the king of Prussia, who was "to be reduced within proper limits," so that "he might be no longer a danger to the empire," induced Elizabeth to accede to the treaty of Versailles, in other words the Franco-Austrian league against Prussia, and on the 17th of May 1757 the Russian army, 85,000 strong, advanced against Konigsberg.
She insisted throughout that the king of Prussia must be rendered harmless to his neighbours for the future, and that the only way to bring this about was to reduce him to the rank of an elector.
On the 21st of May 1760 a fresh convention was signed between Russia and Austria, a secret clause of which, never communicated to the court of Versailles, guaranteed East Prussia to Russia, as an indemnity for war expenses.
It was inspired by the most uncompromising hostility towards the king of Prussia.
It was finally arranged by the allies that their envoys at Paris should fix the date for the assembling of a peace congress, and that, in the meantime, the war against Prussia should be vigorously prosecuted.
His great reputation led to his being entrusted by the government with several missions; in 1865 he represented Prussia in the conference called at Frankfort to introduce a uniform metric system of weights and measures into Germany.
In Prussia, with its traditional loyalty and its old-world caste divisions, he believed that such a conception could be realized, and he took up an attitude half-way between those who would have rejected the proposal for a central diet altogether as a dangerous "thin end of the wedge," and those who would have approximated it more to the modern conception of a parliament.
For Frederick William the position of leader of Germany now meant the employment of the military force of Prussia to crush the scattered elements of revolution that survived the collapse of the national movement.
His establishment of the northern confederacy was a reversion to the traditional policy of Prussia in opposition to Austria, which, after the emperor Nicholas had crushed the insurrection in Hungary, was once more free to assert her claims to dominance in Germany.
But Prussia was not ripe for a struggle with Austria, even had Frederick William found it in his conscience to turn his arms against his ancient ally, and the result was the humiliating convention of Olmtitz (November 29th, 1850), by which Prussia agreed to surrender her separatist plans and to restore the old constitution of the confederation.
On the 13th of March 1879 he married Princess Louise Marguerite of Prussia, third daughter of Prince Frederick Charles, and received an additional annuity of £10,000.
In this capacity he showed his usual industry and devotion, concluding the treaties between France and Austria and France and Prussia, which preceded the French invasion of Russia in 1812.
The difficulty of determining in any case the exact significance of the title of a German count, illustrated by the above, is increased by the fact that the title is generally heritable by all male descendants, the only exception being in Prussia, where, since 1840, the rule of primogeniture has prevailed and the bestowal of the title is dependent on a rent-roll of £3000 a year.
In 1863 he was appointed professor at Freiburg; in 1866, at the outbreak of war, his sympathies with Prussia were so strong that he went to Berlin, became a Prussian subject, and was appointed editor of the Preussische Jahrbilcher.
Suhl, which obtained civic rights in 1527, belonged to the principality of Henneberg, and formed part of the possessions of the kingdom of Saxony assigned to Prussia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
The military organization of Hamburg was arranged by convention with Prussia.
Philip William, however, gave equal rights to all his subjects, but under his son and successor, the elector John William, the Protestants were deprived of various civil rights until the intervention of Prussia and of Brunswick in 1705 gave them some redress.
It total length is 725 m., of which 190 are in Bohemia, 77 in the kingdom of Saxony, and 350 in Prussia, the remaining 108 being in Hamburg and other states of Germany.
In 1896 and 1897 Prussia and Hamburg signed covenants whereby two channels are to be kept open to a depth of 9.
In 1850 Prussia, realizing from the breakdown of her mobilization for the war then impending with Austria that success was impossible, submitted to the Austrian demands, but her statesmen saw from the first that the "surrender of Olmiitz," as it was termed, rendered eventual war with Austria "a military necessity."
Hanover and Hesse-Cassel, which were nearest to Prussia and therefore immediately dangerous, were dealt with promptly and without waiting for the decision in the main theatre of war.
It appears that Prince Charles wished to march via Jena and Gera into Prussia, as Napoleon had done sixty years before, but the scheme was negatived by the Austrian government, which exercised the supreme command of the allies.
During the ensuing year Prussia was devastated, and Albert consented early in 1521 to a truce for four years.
He then journeyed to Wittenberg, where he was advised by Martin Luther to cast aside the senseless rules of his order, to marry, and to convert Prussia into an hereditary duchy for himself.
After some delay the king assented to it provided that Prussia were held as a Polish fief; and after this arrangement had been confirmed by a treaty made at Cracow, Albert was invested with the duchy by Sigismund for himself and his heirs on the 10th of February 1525.
Summoned before the imperial court of justice, Albert refused to appear and was placed under the ban; while the order, having deposed the grand master, made a feeble effort to recover Prussia.
The early years of Albert's rule in Prussia were fairly prosperous.
After the war of 1866, Prussia negotiated with Baden, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt with a view to the removal of all tolls.
In March 1736 he received his first letter from Frederick of Prussia, then crown prince only.
Frederick, now king of Prussia, made not a few efforts to get Voltaire away from Madame du Chatelet, but unsuccessfully, and the king earned the lady's cordial hatred by persistently refusing or omitting to invite her.
All this time Frederick of Prussia had been continuing his invitations.
But Frenchmen, always touchy on such a point, regarded Voltaire as something of a deserter; and it was not long before he bitterly repented his desertion, though his residence in Prussia lasted nearly three years.
The king's disgust at this affair (which came to an open scandal before the tribunals) was so great that he was on the point of ordering Voltaire out of Prussia, and Darget the secretary had no small trouble in arranging the matter (February 1751).
In the early autumn of 1751 La Mettrie, one of the king's parasites, and a man of much more talent than is generally allowed, horrified Voltaire by telling him that Frederick had in conversation applied to him (Voltaire) a proverb about "sucking the orange and flinging away its skin," and about the same time the dispute with Maupertuis, which had more than anything else to do with his exclusion from Prussia, came to a head.
Even Voltaire did not venture to publish this lampoon on a great official of a prince so touchy as the king of Prussia without some permission, and if all tales are true he obtained this by another piece of something like forgery - getting the king to endorse a totally different pamphlet on its last leaf, and affixing that last leaf to Akakia.
But again the affair blew over, the king believing that the edition of Akakia confiscated in Prussia was the only one.
Moreover, he was from the first aware of the probable developments of the Revolution and of the consequences to Prussia of the weakness and vacillations of her policy.
He realized that the dominance of France could only be broken by the union of Austria and Prussia, acting in concert with Great Britain.
The downfall of Prussia left Austria the sole hope of Germany and of Europe.
In 1848 he was elected a member of the German parliament at Frankfort, where he associated himself with the right centre, supporting the proposal for a German empire under the supremacy of Prussia; and he was one of the deputation which offered the imperial crown to Frederick William IV.
From 1381 to 1793 it belonged to the counts of Nassau-Saarbriicken, and then, after having been in the possession of France from 1801 to 1815, it passed to Prussia.
By the convention with Prussia of the 27th of June 1867, the free state surrendered its right to furnish its own contingent to the army, the recruits being after that time drafted into the Hanseatic infantry regiment, forming a portion of the Prussian IX.
In Prussia there are two Feldprobste (who are directly under the war minister), one Lutheran, one Roman Catholic. The latter is a titular bishop, and has sole spiritual authority over soldiers.
Consequently Great Britain, and still more Austria, were Russia's natural allies, while the aggressive and energetic king of Prussia was a danger to be guarded against.
The empress herself was averse from an alliance with Great Britain and Austria, whose representatives had striven to prevent her accession; and many of her personal friends, in the pay of France and Prussia, took part in innumerable conspiracies to overthrow Bestuzhev.
A bogus conspiracy, however, got up by the Holstein faction, aided by France and Prussia, who persuaded Elizabeth that the Austrian ambassador was intriguing to replace Ivan VI.
Frederick II., conscious of the instability of his French ally, was now eager to contract an offensive alliance with Russia; and the first step to its realization was the overthrow of Bestuzhev, "upon whom," he wrote to his minister Axel von Mardefeld, "the fate of Prussia and my own house depends."
The attention of European diplomacy at this time was concentrated upon the king of Prussia, whose insatiable acquisitiveness disturbed all his neighbours.
Bestuzhev's offer, communicated to the British government at the end of 1745, to attack Prussia if Great Britain would guarantee subsidies to the amount of some £6,000,000, was rejected as useless now that Austria and Prussia were coming to terms. Then he turned to Austria, and on the 22nd of May 1746, an offensive and defensive alliance was concluded between the two powers manifestly directed against Prussia.
In 1748, however, he got rid of him by proving to the empress that Vorontsov was in the pay of Prussia.
The hour of Bestuzhev's triumph coincided with the peace congress of Aixla-Chapelle, which altered the whole situation of European politics and introduced fresh combinations, the breaking away of Prussia from France and a rapprochement between England and Prussia, with the inevitable corollary of an alliance between France and the enemies of Prussia.
He prevented Gustavus from invading Prussia in revenge for the refusal of the king of Prussia to declare war against France, and during the rest of the reign was in semidisgrace, though generally a member of the government when the king was abroad.
In 1814 it again became Hanoverian, but in 1866 fell with that kingdom to Prussia.
In 1815 Elberfeld was assigned by the congress of Vienna, with the grand-duchy of Berg, to Prussia, and its prosperity rapidly developed under the Prussian Zollverein.
For the next few years he was employed by Cardinal Hosius, the learned Polish prelate, in his efforts to check the spread of heresy in Poland, Lithuania and Prussia.
It has been the capital of Schleswig-Holstein since its incorporation by Prussia in 1864.
In the East, the German Order, while enjoying Hanseatic privileges, frequently opposed the policy of the League abroad, and was only prevented by domestic troubles and its Hinterland enemies from playing its own hand in the Baltic. After the fall of the order in 1467, the towns of Prussia and Livland, especially Dantzig and Riga, pursued an exclusive trade policy even against their Hanseatic confederates.
His loyalty to King George (son of Ernst August) would not permit him to take the oath of allegiance to the victorious king of Prussia, and he was therefore placed on the retired list, though with the full amount of his salary as pension.
He also established an ecclesiastical organization in the newly converted provinces of Prussia, which he divided into four dioceses; but his attempt to govern the Baltic countries through a legate broke on the opposition of the Teutonic Order, whose rights in Prussia he had confirmed.
A speech, denouncing the projected incorporation of Schleswig and Holstein with Denmark, delivered in the Chamber of Baden on the 6th of February 1845, spread his fame beyond the limits of his own state, and his popularity was increased by his expulsion from Prussia on the occasion of a journey to Stettin.
Some of those on the right bank of the river were given to Prussia and to Hesse; others were formed into a grand duchy for Dalberg.
By treaty with Prussia in 1867 the troops of the duchy are incorporated with the Prussian army.
Besides the civil list the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha enjoys a very large private fortune, amassed chiefly by Ernest I., who sold the principality of Lichtenberg, which the congress of Vienna had bestowed upon him in recognition of his services in 1813, to Prussia for a large sum of money.
By virtue of a convention with Prussia, of 1871, the Baden army forms a portion of the Prussian army.
It had little chance of doing more than make speeches; the country was in the hands of an armed mob of civilians and mutinous soldiers; and, meanwhile, the grand-duke of Baden had joined with Bavaria in requesting the armed intervention of Prussia, which was granted on the condition that Baden should join the League of the Three Kings.
Two days before the affair of Werbach (24th of July), however, the second chamber had petitioned the grand-duke to end the war and enter into an offensive and defensive alliance with Prussia.
The grand-duke had from the first been opposed to the war with Prussia, but had been forced to yield owing to popular resentment at the policy of Prussia in the Schleswig-Holstein question.
The ministry, now at one, resigned; Baden announced her withdrawal from the German confederation; and on the 17th of August a treaty of peace and alliance was signed with Prussia.
The troops of Baden took a conspicuous share in the war of 1870; and it was the grand-duke of Baden, who, in the historic assembly of the German princes at Versailles, was the first to hail the king "of Prussia as German emperor.
By the treaty under which Baden had become an integral part of the German empire, he had reserved only the exclusive right to tax beer and spirits; the army, the post-office, railways and the conduct of foreign relations were placed under the effective control of Prussia.
On the death of his uncle in 1861 and the accession of his father, Prince Frederick William, as he was then always called, became crown prince of Prussia.
His education, the influence of his mother, and perhaps still more that of his wife's father, the Prince Consort, had made him a strong Liberal, and he was much distressed at the course of events in Prussia after the appointment of Bismarck as minister.
From this time he was very anxious to see the king of Prussia unite the whole of Germany, with the title of emperor, and was impatient of the caution with which Bismarck proceeded.
A serious difference of opinion with the chancellor regarding the proposal for a marriage between Prince Alexander of Battenberg and the princess Victoria of Prussia was arranged by the intervention of Queen Victoria, who visited Berlin to see her dying son-in-law.
He had undoubtedly shown that he was an injudicious friend, for the diary proved that the prince, in his enthusiasm for German unity, had allowed himself to consider projects which would have seriously compromised the relations of Prussia and Bavaria.
In 1595 Emden became a free imperial city under the protection of Holland, and was occupied by a Dutch garrison until 1744 when, with East Friesland, it was transferred to Prussia.
In 1810 Emden became the chief town of the French department of Ems Oriental; in 1815 it was assigned to Hanover, and in 1866 was annexed with that kingdom by Prussia.
On returning to Prussia he became mathematical instructor at the school of military engineering, leaving this post in 1792 to take part as a general staff officer in the war against France.
Accordingly the Dual State was involved in a common downfall, and in the three partitions of 1772, 1792 and 1795 to which it was subjected at the hands of Russia, Prussia and Austria, Lithuania fell a prey to Russia and Prussia.
An early expression of reviving Lithuanian national consciousness was the appearance of the newspaper" Ausra,"which, printed in East Prussia, lived for three years, though even in that short period its editor, banished from Germany, had to take refuge at Prague.
In Prussian Lithuania a craftier policy allowed greater outward liberty, though the process of German colonization, seconded by persecution, restricted the Lithuanian language which was once dominant in East Prussia to barely five districts (Tilsit 38%, Heydekrug 61.9%, Memel 47.1%, Ragnit 27%, Labiau 30%).
But an artistic temperament was hardly that required of a king of Prussia on the eve of the Revolution; and Frederick the Great, who had employed him in various services - notably in an abortive confidential mission to the court of Russia in 1 780 - openly expressed his misgivings as to the character of the prince and his surroundings.
In 1781 Frederick William, then prince of Prussia, inclined, like many sensual natures, to mysticism, had joined the Rosicrucians, and had fallen under the influence of Johann Christof Wollner (1732-1800), and by him the royal policy was inspired.
But far more fateful for Prussia was the king's attitude towards the army and foreign policy.
In the circumstances Frederick William's intervention in European affairs was not likely to prove of benefit to Prussia.
The Dutch campaign of 1787, entered on for purely family reasons, was indeed successful; but Prussia received not even the cost of her intervention.
An attempt to intervene in the war of Russia and Austria against Turkey failed of its object; Prussia did not succeed in obtaining any concessions of territory from the alarms of the Allies, and the dismissal of Hertzberg in 17 9 1 marked the final abandonment of the anti-Austrian tradition of Frederick the Great.
A subsidy treaty with the sea powers (April 1 9, 1 794) filled his coffers; but the insurrection in Poland that followed the partition of 1793, and the threat of the isolated intervention of Russia, hurried him into the separate treaty of Basel with the French Republic (April 5, 1795), which was regarded by the great monarchies as a betrayal, and left Prussia morally isolated in Europe on the eve of the titanic struggle between the monarchical principle and the new political creed of the Revolution.
The introduction of the Augsburg Interim in 1548 necessitated his departure from Nuremberg; he went first to Breslau, and afterwards settled at Konigsberg as professor in its new university at the call of Duke Albert of Prussia.
In Prussia the title has occasionally been bestowed by the king on general superintendents of the Lutheran church, as in 1829, when Frederick William III.
He practised astrology; this recommended him to Duke Albert of Prussia, who made him his librarian (1550).
He was a bitter opponent of Prussia and an ardent controversialist.
For instance, in 1891 the emigration from the provinces of West Prussia and Posen was extraordinarily heavy10.9 and Io 4 per mille respectively-but the excess of births over deaths was 19.6 per mille.
In England in 1891, 71.6% of the population were residing in their native county; in Prussia, 69.7% in the kreis; in France, 81.7% in the department; in Austria, 80.2% in the bezirk; in Switzerland, 82.1% in the canton where they were born (Weber, Growth of Cities, p. 249).
It thereafter remained in the possession of the electors of Saxony until 1815, when it passed to Prussia.
Through the influence of Leibnitz he received from the king of Prussia a gold medal for his supposed discoveries; but Nicolaus Hartsoeker and some of the French academicians disputed the fact.
On the advance of the French army under Napoleon into Prussia, he determined to leave Wittenberg and abandon his university career.
It was here that in 1814 Great Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia concluded the treaty (dated March i, signed March 9) by which they severally bound themselves not to conclude a separate peace with Napoleon, and to continue the war until France should have been reduced within the boundaries of 1792.
His chief object, the conquest of Prussia, was still unaccomplished, and a new foe arose in the elector of Brandenburg, alarmed by the ambition of the Swedish king.
At the end of June 1657, at the head of 8000 seasoned veterans, he broke up from Bromberg in Prussia and reached the borders of Holstein on the 18th of July.
From 1807 to 1814 it belonged to the kingdom of Westphalia; and in 1866 passed with Hesse Cassel to Prussia.
Konitz was the first fortified post established in Prussia by Hermann Balk, who in 1230 had been commissioned as Landmeister, by the grand-master of the Teutonic order, to reduce the heathen Prussians.
By the treaty of Tilsit in 1807 it was annexed to the kingdom of Westphalia, but came again to Prussia on the downfall of Napoleon.
Thoroughly disliking Prussia, he was in hearty accord with George in resisting her aggressive policy; and after the annexation of Hanover in 1866 he accompanied the exiled king to Hietzing.
After the extinction of the main line of the counts of Mansfeld, Eisleben fell to Saxony, and, in the partition of Saxony by the congress of Vienna in 1815, was assigned to Prussia.
This association offered a vigorous opposition to the movement, which succeeded only when it was too late, for obtaining alterations in the constitution limiting the power of the Emperor and laying the foundations of real parliamentary government in the Empire and in Prussia.
The claim of Prussia to the principality of Jagerndorf was the occasion of the first Silesian war (1740-1742), but in the partition, which followed, Austria retained the larger portion of it.
The congress of Vienna (1814-1815) erected Luxemburg into a grand-duchy, added part of the duchy of Bouillon to it, and assigned it to William king of the Netherlands, in return for the German territories of the house of Orange-Nassau, which Napoleon had confistated in 1806, and which were given by the congress to the king of Prussia.
The cry of atheism was raised, and the electoral government of Saxony, followed by all the German states except Prussia, suppressed the Journal and confiscated the copies found in their universities.
In 1773 there appeared in the Public Advertiser one of Franklin's cleverest hoaxes, " An Edict of the King of Prussia," proclaiming that the island of Britain was a colony of Prussia, having been settled by Angles and Saxons, having been protected by Prussia, having been defended by Prussia against France in the war just past, and never having been definitely freed from Prussia's rule; and that, therefore, Great Britain should now submit to certain taxes laid by Prussia - the taxes being identical with those laid upon the American colonies by Great Britain.
Before Franklin left Paris on the 12th of July 1785 he had made commercial treaties with Sweden (1783) and Prussia (1785; signed after Franklin's departure by Jefferson and John Adams).
One or two important treaties were signed in Hanover, which from 18ro to 1813 was part of the kingdom of Westphalia, and in 1866 was annexed by Prussia, after having been the capital of the kingdom of Hanover since its foundation in 1815.
In reality those Powers were far more occupied with the Polish and Eastern questions than with the affairs of France; and the declaration of Pilnitz, drawn up by the sovereigns of Austria and Prussia, which appeared to threaten France with intervention, was recognized by all well-informed persons to be "a loud-sounding nothing."
The war with Prussia and Russia was ended by the treaties of Tilsit (7th and 9th of July 1807).
At the congress of Vienna (1814-15) for the settlement of European affairs, Talleyrand, as the representative of the restored house of Bourbon in France, managed adroitly to break up the league of the Powers (framed at Chaumont in February 1814) and assisted in forming a secret alliance between England, Austria and France in order to prevent the complete absorption of Poland by Russia and of Saxony by Prussia.
In the event of the male line of the present ruling family becoming extinct, the female line will succeed in Waldeck, but Pyrmont wil y fall to Prussia.
In terms of a treaty concluded in 1867 for ten years, renewed in 1877 for a similar period, and continued in 1887 with the proviso that it should be terminable on two years' notice, the finances and the entire government of Waldeck-Pyrmont are managed by Prussia, the little country having found itself unable to support unassisted the military and other burdens involved by its share in the North German Confederation of 1867-187 r and subsequently as a constituent state of the German empire.
The government is conducted in the name of the prince by a Prussian "Landesdirector," while the state officials take the oath of allegiance to the king of Prussia.
Education and similar matters are thus all conducted on the Prussian model; a previous convention had already handed over military affairs to Prussia.
The most important fact in the recent history of the principality is its connexion with Prussia, to which reference has already been made.
The king of Prussia had some reason to complain of the sudden desertion of his ally, but there is no evidence whatever to substantiate his accusation that Bute had endeavoured to divert the tsar later from his alliance with Prussia, or that he had treacherously in his negotiations with Vienna held out to that court hopes of territorial compensation in Silesia as the price of the abandonment of France; while the charge brought against Bute in 1765 of having taken bribes to conclude the peace, subsequently after investigation pronounced frivolous by parliament, may safely be ignored.
The subsequent history of this branch of the Hohenzollerns is identified with that of Brandenburg from 1415 to 1701, and with that of Prussia since the latter date, as in this year the elector Frederick III.
In consequence of the political troubles of 1848 Princes Frederick William of HohenzollernHechingen and Charles Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen resigned their principalities, and accordingly these fell to the king of Prussia, who took possession on the 12th of March 1850.
The Schloss was originally the residence of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic order and later of the dukes of Prussia.
The university (Collegium Albertinum) was founded in 1544 by Albert duke of Prussia, as a "purely Lutheran" place of learning.
The town is less well equipped with museums and similar institutions, the most noteworthy being the Prussia museum of antiquities, which is especially rich in East Prussian finds from the Stone age to the Viking period.
There are two pretty public parks, one in the Hufen, with a zoological garden attached, another the Luisenwahl which commemorates the sojourn of Queen Louisa of Prussia in the town in the disastrous year 1806.
From 1457 it was the residence of the grand master of the Teutonic Order, and from 1525 till 1618 of the dukes of Prussia.
In 1813 the town was the scene of the deliberations which led to the successful uprising of Prussia against Napoleon.
Though the vast ultimate consequences of this sudden appearance of the great western republic in the arena of international politics were not realized even by those in sympathy with Monroe's action, the weight of the United States thrown into the scale on the side of Great Britain made any effective protest by the European powers impossible; Russia, Austria and Prussia contented themselves with joining in a mild expression of regret that the action of Great Britain "tended to encourage that revolutionary spirit it had been found so difficult to control in Europe."
Immediately after his return to Paris the war with Prussia broke out, and his conduct during the disastrous year that followed was marked by a devoted heroism which has secured for him an enduring fame.
He was consequently imprisoned, on the pretext of having fought a duel, and only released when selected to accompany Prince Henry of Prussia in a visit to Vauban's fortifications.
In 1801 the bishopric was secularized and in 1803 was granted to Prussia; in 1807 it was incorporated with the kingdom of Westphalia and in 1813 was transferred to Hanover.
In 1866, along with Hanover, it was annexed by Prussia.
This treaty, which constituted the kingdom of Westphalia and the duchy of Warsaw, registers the nadir of Prussia's humiliation under Napoleon.
He sat in the Erfurt parliament of 1850, and was attached to the Gotha party, which hoped for the regeneration of Germany through the ascendancy of Prussia.
Political differences soon interfered with his work; as an adherent of Prussia and a Protestant, especially as a militant champion against the Ultramontanes, he was from the first an object of suspicion to the Clerical party.
Its cloth and wool manufactories are among the most extensive in Prussia.
Nearly the entire course of the Weser lies in Prussia, but it also touches part of Brunswick and Lippe, and after flowing through Bremen expands into an estuary separating the duchy of Oldenburg from the Prussian province of Hanover.
In 1823, however, a treaty was made establishing a fixed toll and a uniform system of management; this was further improved in 1856 and 1865; and when Prussia took possession of Hanover and Hesse-Nassau in 1866 the chief difficulties in the way of organizing the river-trade disappeared.
From 1665 to 1759 it was held by Sweden, and in 1772 it came into the possession of Prussia.
In general physical characteristics the province resembles East Prussia, but the climate is less harsh and the fertility of the soil greater.
Prussia, chiefly in the west, from Putzig to Konitz, are here reckoned with the Poles.
West Prussia, with the exception of southern Pomerania (around Marienwerder) which belonged to Prussia, was a possession of Poland from 1466 till the first partition of Poland in 1772, when it was given to Prussia with the exception of Danzig and Thorn, which Poland retained till 1793.
The present province was formed in 1808, but from 1824 to 1878 was united with East Prussia.
He received commissions from the cathedral of Cadiz, from the grand duke Paul, from the king of Prussia, from the directors of the Concert Spirituel at Paris; beside his transactions with Breitkopf and Hertel, and with La Chevardiere, he sold to one English firm the copyright of no less than 129 compositions.
Prussia, which has more than nine times as many inhabitants, carries on 45%, and no other state more than 8%.
The Saxon army is modelled on that of Prussia.
Frederick's new position as elector, combined with his personal qualities to make him one of the most powerful princes in Germany, and had the principle of primogeniture been established in his country, Saxony and not Prussia might have been the leading power to-day in the German empire.
Under his ill-omened auspices Saxony sided with Prussia in the First Silesian War, and with Austria in the other two.
When the Bavarian succession fell open in 1777, Frederick Augustus joined Prussia in protesting against the absorption of Bavaria by Austria, and Saxon troops took part in the bloodless " potato-war."
In the new German Empire it is too completely overshadowed by Prussia to have any objective importance by itself.
Frederick, alleging the danger of acting without the concurrence of Prussia, refused, and dissolved the diet.
The bond with Prussia now became closer, and Frederick entered with Prussia and Hanover into the temporary " alliance of the three kings."
Beust became minister for both home and foreign affairs in 1852, and under his guidance the policy of Saxony became more and more hostile to Prussia and friendly to Austria.
When war was declared between Prussia and Austria in 1866, Saxony declined the former's offer of neutrality, and, when a Prussian force crossed the border, the Saxon army under the king and the crown prince joined the Austrians in Bohemia.
On the 7th of February 1867 a military convention was signed with Prussia which, while leaving to Saxony a certain control in matters of administration, placed the army under the king of Prussia; from the 1st of July it formed the XII.
The postal and telegraph systems were also placed under the control of Prussia, and the representation of the Saxon crown at foreign courts was merged in that of the Confederation.
But this omission was supplied in Prussia by a law of the 29th of March 1879, which provided for the appointment, in each commune, of an arbitrator (Schiedsmann) before whom conciliation proceedings in contentious matters might be conducted.
Waitz was an adherent of the party who were eager to bring about a union of the German states under a German emperor; and when the king of Prussia declined the imperial crown the professor withdrew from the assembly in disappointment, and ended his active share in public life.'
Meanwhile the year 1842 was ushered in by splendid fetes in honour of the king of Prussia, who held the prince of Wales at the font.
During a few weeks of 1848 Prince William of Prussia (afterwards German emperor) found an asylum in England.
Less than a year after Princess Beatrice's birth the princess royal was married to Prince Frederick William of Prussia, afterwards the emperor Frederick.
The duke of Connaught married in 1879 the princess Louise of Prussia, daughter of the soldierprince Frederick Charles.
In the words of a French writer" The queen wrote both to the king of Prussia and to the emperor Napoleon.
The impressions of these early years laid the foundation of the ardent attachment to Prussia which distinguished him, like so many other historians of his generation.
He was a determined supporter of Prussian ascendancy, and was one of the first members to retire after the king of Prussia refused the imperial crown in 1849.
They also furnished him with means of flight, and he made for Yverdun in the territory of Bern, whence he transferred himself to Motiers in Neuchatel, which then belonged to Prussia.
The publication of a spiteful letter (really by Horace Walpole, one of whose worst deeds it was) in the name of the king of Prussia made Rousseau believe that plots of the most terrible kind were on foot against him.
It is true that state training schools for male nurses had previously existed in Prussia, the oldest having been founded at Magdeburg in 1799; but the employment of men in hospital wards is a feature of the German system which has not been copied by other advanced countries, and seems to be in process of abandonment in Germany.
Besides these, the term Thuringia also, of course, includes the various "exclaves" of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Bohemia which lie embedded among them.
He was occupied chiefly with affairs of the principalities of Anspach and Bayreuth, newly acquired by Prussia, and especially in the settlement of disputes with Bavaria as to their boundaries.
When he died on the 24th of March 1866, Hesse-Homburg was inherited by Louis III., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, while Meisenheim fell to Prussia.
In the following September, however, Louis was forced to cede his new possession to Prussia, as he had supported Austria during the war between these two powers.
The Belgian Ardennes may be said now to extend from the Meuse above Dinant on the west to the grand duchy of Luxemburg and Rhenish Prussia as far north as the Baraque de Michel on the east, and from a line drawn eastward from Dinant through Marche, Durbuy and Stavelot to the Hautes Fagnes on the north, to the French frontier roughly marked by the Semois valley in the south.
Austria and Prussia were to divide Germany between them.
In return for their acquisitions in Germany, Austria and Prussia were to consent to the erection of an autonomous Polish state extending from Danzig to the sources of the Vistula, under the protection of Russia.
He regarded the Berlin visit as a blunder, chiefly owing to his profound distrust of Prussia; but Alexander ignored his representations, and in February 1807 he lost favour and was superseded by Andrei Eberhard Budberg.
The town carries on considerable trade, due to the navigable river Pina, which connects it with the fertile regions in the basin of the Dnieper, and, by means of the Dnieper-and-Bug canal, with Poland and Prussia, while the Oginsky canal connects it with the basin of the Niemen.
He had not been on the throne for two months when he made pacific overtures to the wellnigh vanquished king of Prussia, whom he habitually alluded to as "the king my master."
Peter's enthusiastic worship of Frederick resulted in a peace (May 5) and then (June 19) in an offensive and defensive alliance between Russia and Prussia, whereby Peter restored to Prussia all the territory won from her by Russia during the last five years at such an enormous expense of men and money, and engaged to defend Frederick against all his enemies.
This was followed up by a whole series of menacing rescripts addressed by Peter to the court of Vienna, in which war was threatened unless Austria instantly complied with all the demands of the king of Prussia.
New life was infused into the city after its annexation by Prussia at the second partition of Poland in 1 793, and since this date its growth has been rapid.
The tariff history of Germany, up to the foundation of the German Empire, is the history of the Zollverein or German customs union; and this in turn is closely connected with the tariff history of Prussia.
In 1818 The Z.oll- Prussia adopted a tariff with much reduced duties, p ?
The excitement and opposition in Germany to the Prussian tariff led to customs legislation by the other German states, some smaller states joining Prussia, while the southern states endeavoured to form independent customs unions.
Within the Zollverein, after 1834, there was an almost unceasing struggle between the protectionist and Free Trade parties, Prussia supporting in the main a Liberal policy, while the South German states supported a Protectionist policy.