When worked at the top of a stem formed of the stock, the growth from the graft or bud must be pruned in a similar way.
If a piece of bark and cortex are torn off, the occlusion takes longer, because the tissues have to creep over the exposed area of wood; and the same is true of a transverse cut severing the branch, as may be seen in any properly pruned tree.
To form a standard tree, either the stock is allowed to grow up with a straight stem, by cutting away all side branches up to the height required, say about 6 ft., the scion or bud being worked at that point, and the head developed therefrom; or the stock is worked close to the ground, and the young shoot obtained therefrom is allowed to grow up in the same way, being pruned in its progress to keep it single and straight, and the top being cut off when the desired height is reached, so as to cause the growth of lateral shoots.
The others are generally pruned so as to combine a moderate supply of young wood with a greater or less number of fruit spurs.
This is the proper foundation for a good specimen, and illustrates how all such subjects should be pruned to keep them stocky and presentable in form.
The older plants will occasionally require the roots pruned in order to keep them in as small pots as possible without being starved.
Fruit trees may be pruned from now till March in the north.
In northern India, where the weather in the winter months is cold and dry, growth practically ceases, and then the whole area is pruned and cut down to about 16 ins.
It invariably happens during the most active period of feeding, three or four days after the fourth moult up to the rising, and generally appears after a meal of coarse leaves, obtained from mulberries pruned the same year and growing in damp soil.
They retain their Armenian liturgies and rites, pruned to suit the Vatican standards of orthodoxy, and they recognize the pope as head of the church.
Fruit trees trained as espaliers, fans or cordons against walls, trellises or fences, are not only pruned carefully in the winter but must be also pruned during the early summer months.
In the outside flower garden little can be done except that shrubs may be pruned, or new work, such as making walks or grading, performed, if weather permits.
Fruit trees and grape vines generally should be pruned; and, if the wood of the vine is wanted for cuttings, or scions of fruit trees for grafts, they should be tied in small bundles and buried in the ground until spring.
High all over, but in Travancore and Ceylon it grows continuously and is only pruned when found expedient at intervals of 15 months to 2 years.
The head is pruned to form six or eight strong offsets; and by judicious use of the knife, and by training, preferably on a hoop placed within them, these are caused to grow outwards and upwards to a height of about 6 ft.
Further, that the former (Roman) is the more original of the two, being related to the latter (Antiochene) as fuller first draft to severely pruned copy.
The Pharisees, who pruned and fed the tree of Judaism so that it might bear fruit for the healing of the Nation - and the nations in the latter days - gave them the opportunity of posing as the champions of the primitive standards.
They pruned Burkes Economical Reform Bill till it left as many abuses as it suppressed; and though the bill prohibited the grant of pensions above 300, they hastily gave away pensions of much larger value to their own friends before the bill had received the royal assent.
It is then pruned, in order clearly to show the mode of branching, and is spread out as naturally as possible with the right hand.
It is doubtful if the attempts of reformers to spiritualize the Eucharist bring us, except so far as they pruned ritual extravagances, nearer to its original significance; perhaps the Roman, Greek and Oriental churches have better preserved it.
The Mufaddaliyat differs from the Hamasa in being a collection of complete odes (gasidas), while the latter is an anthology of brilliant passages specially selected for their interest or effectiveness, all that is prosaic or less striking being pruned away.
If the shoots produced are not sufficient in number, or are badly placed, or very unequal in vigour, the head should be cut back moderately close, leaving a few inches only of the young shoots, which should be pruned back to buds so placed as to furnish shoots in the positions desired.
Long, which are not to be pruned unless they are unequal in strength, a defect which is rather to be remedied by summer pinching than by winter pruning.
Thus in the peach, nectarine, apricot, plum and cherry, which are commonly trained fan-fashion, the first three (and also the morello cherry if grown) will have to be pruned so as to keep a succession of young annual shoots, these being their fruit-bearing wood.
Cordons of apples and pears have to be similarly treated, but cordons of peaches and nectarines are pruned so as to provide the necessary annual succession of young bearing wood.
In the second case all roots that have struck downwards into a cold uncongenial subsoil must be pruned off if they cannot be turned in a lateral direction, and all the lateral ones that have become coarse and fibreless must also be shortened back by means of a clean cut with a sharp knife, while a compost of rich loamy soil with a little bone-meal, and leaf-mould or old manure, should be filled into the trenches from which the old sterile soil has been taken.
The pot plants are overhauled in the autumn, the roots pruned, a layer being cut off to allow new soil to be introduced.
If vines have been neglected to be pruned, rub off the buds that are not wanted; this is safer than pruning now.
The appearance of a specimen pelargonium properly pruned is shown in fig.