This runs down the anterior and outer side of the upper arm, and is attached to the proximal tendon of the extensor metacarpi radialis longus, a little below the outer condyle of the humerus.
It appears to be primarily related to the organs of attachment and to have attained greater elaboration than the rest of the nervous system because the proximal end is the most specialized and most stimulated portion of the worm.
The longitudinal system is discontinuous, and is subdivided into proximal, medial and distal portions.
The proximal portion forms the retractor muscles of themanubrium, or proboscis, well developed, for example, in Geryonia.
The causes of disease may be provisionally classified somewhat as follows, but it may he remarked at the outset that no one of these proximal causes, or agents, is ever solely responsible; and it is very easy to err in attributing a diseased condition to any of them, unless the relative importance of primary and subordinate agencies is discoverable.
Its upper end forms the acrocoracoid process, against the inner surface of which leans the proximal portion of the clavicle.
Of wrist-bones only two remain in the adult bird; the original distal carpals coalesce with the proximal end of the metacarpals.
The shaft of the pubis runs parallel with that of the ischium, with which it is connected by a short ligamentous or bony bridge; this cuts off from the long incisura pubo-ischiadica a proximal portion, the foramen obturatum, for the passage of the obturator nerve.
The femur often possesses a well visible pneumatic foramen on the median side of the proximal end of its shaft.
The condyles of the tibia are in reality not parts of this bone, but are the three proximal tarsalia which fuse together and with the distal end of the tibia.
The essential feature is that the proximal end of the inner membranes is attached to the last pair of tracheal rings; outer tympaniform membranes exist generally between the 2nd, 3rd and 4th bronchial semi-rings.
The fore-legs of many male dyticids have the three proximal foot-segments broad and saucer-shaped, and covered with suckers, by means of which they secure a firm hold of their mates.
A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.
(Original drawing by Pocock.) freely movable; claw free or fused; basal segments of 4th and 5th pairs widely separated by the sternal area; appendages of 3rd pair with all the segments except the proximal three, forming a manyjointed flagellum.
With few exceptions they are composed (i) of a minute organ of fixation (the scolex), which marks the proximal attached end of the body; (2) of a narrow neck from which (3) a number of segments varying from three to several thousands are budded off distally.
- Elongated cylindrical animals either with a single subterminal sucker at the proximal end, or with the corresponding end of the body converted into a mobile undulatory fold.
(iii.) In Umbonula of Cribrilina, showing the frontal membrane and parietal the entrance to the muscles of the young zooecium are like compensation - .sac on those of Membranipora, but they become the proximal side of the covered by the growth, from the proximal operculum (op).
The species may be further distinguished by the former having the proximal third of the tail-quills pure white, and the distal two-thirds black, with a narrow white margin, while the latter has the same feathers barred with black and white alternately for nearly their whole length.
The apical end of the rotifer usually narrows suddenly beyond the curve of the gut and the cloacal aperture to form the foot of pseudopodium which ends in an organ of attachment, a pair of movable toes, each with the opening of a cement-gland (gl) at its tip. Thus for orientation we place the rotifer like the cuttle-fish, head downwards: the ciliated disk is basal or oral, proximal to the rest of the animal, the foot is apical, and the brain and cloacal aperture are anterodorsal.
The eyes are refractive globules set in a cup of red pigment traversed by a nerve fibre, and lie on the proximal side of the body, directly on the postero-dorsal surface of the brain, or at a little distance from it, on the neck, often within the circle on the corona, and usually well within the transparent body.
Typically there are two pairs - a proximal, more or less approximated on the postero-dorsal surface, and a distal pair, more widely separate.
But the proximal pair are often fused into a single median antenna (supplied, however, by two nerves), and in one case at least the distal pair may be similarly fused.
In Bdelloidaceae and Seisonaceae the whole organ is paired, the germary proximal, the vitellary next the cloaca.
Usually each tube is provided with caecal appendages on its proximal portion, and these serve as vesiculae seminales, while the distal portion is enlarged and glandular and secretes the egg-shell.
The more proximal portion of the rhopalium usually bears one or more ocelli (oc).
8); the primitively open cup has now closed over to form a vesicle lying beneath the ectoderm; the outer wall of the vesicle becomes thickened to form a cellular lens (1), while the proximal wall consists of sensory and pigmented cells and forms a retina.
In all the Phyllopoda the number of endites is six, and the proximal one is more or less distinctly specialized as a gnathobase, working against its fellow of the opposite side in seizing food and transferring it to the mouth.
The number of exites is less constant, but, in A pus, two are present, the proximal branchial in function and the distal forming a stiffer plate which probably aids in swimming.
The mandibles, like the antennae, have, in the nauplius, the form of biramous swimming limbs, with a masticatory process originating from the proximal part of the protopodite.
Three series are distinguished, podobranchiae, attached to the proximal segments of the appendages, pleurobranchiae, springing from the body-wall, and an intermediate series, arthrobranchiae, inserted on the articular membrane of the joint between the limb and the body.
The podobranchiae are clearly epipodites, or, more correctly, parts of the epipodites, and it is probable that the arthroand pleuro-branchiae are also epipodial in origin and have migrated from the proximal segment of the limbs on to the adjacent body-wall.
(After Hirase.) p, Pollen-tube (proximal end).
Of bunches of elongate cylindrical zooids, whose proximal portions are united by solenia and compacted, by fusion of their own walls and those of the solenia, into a fleshy mass called the coenenchyma.
In the order Pseudaxonia the colonies are upright and branched, consisting of a number of short zooids whose proximal ends are imbedded in a coenenchyma containing numerous ramifying solenia and spicules.
The latter contains the proximal moieties of the zooids and numerous but separate spicules.
It owes its commercial value to the beauty of its hard red calcareous axis which in life is covered by a cortex in which the proximal moieties of the zooids are imbedded.
Object, but is imbedded in sand or mud by the proximal portion of the stem known as the peduncle.
The pinnae are formed by the elongated autozooids, whose proximal portions are fused together to form a leaf-like expansion, from the upper edge of which the distal extremities of the zooids project.
Z', the distal, and Z 2, the proximal or intracalicular portion of the zooid; ec, ectoderm; ct, coenenchymal tubes; sp, superficial network of solenia.
Developed; it remains permanently attached to the dorsal wall of the polypary, of which it forms the proximal end, its apex rarely reaching beyond the third or fourth theca.
There is no reason to suppose that the central apical plate of certain free-swimming crinoids has any more to do with the distal foot-plate of the larval Antedon stem than has the so-called centrodorsal of Antedon itself, which is nothing but the compressed proximal end of the stem.
It is spheroidal, with the mouth and anus at opposite poles; there are five ambulacra, and the ambulacral plates are large, simple and alternating, each being pierced by two podial pores which lie in a small oval depression; the ambulacrals next the mouth form a closed ring of ten plates; the interambulacrals lie in single columns between the ambulacra, and are separated from the mouth-area by the proximal ambulacrals just mentioned, and sometimes by the second set of ambulacrals also; the ambulacra end in the five oculars or terminals, which meet in a ring around the anal area and have no podial pores, but one of them serves as a madreporite; within this ring is a star-shaped area filled with minute irregular plates, none of which can safely be selected as the homologues of the so-called basals or genitals of later forms; within the ring of ambulacrals around the mouth are five somewhat pointed plates, which Jaekel regards as teeth, but which can scarcely be homologous with the interradially placed teeth of later echinoids, since they are radial in position; small spines are present, especially around the podial pores.
- Crinoidea in which the base consists of BB only, the aboral prolongations of the chambered organ being interradial; new columnals are introduced at the extreme proximal end of the stem.
Comparison with monstrous forms shows that the pitcher of Cephalotus arises by a calceolate pouching from the upper surface of the ordinary spathulate leaves, the lid here arising from the proximal side of the pitcher-orifice.
Its proximal end forms a shallow cup for articulation with the outer condyle of the humerus; the distal end bears a knob which fits into the radial carpal.
Quadrate bone with single proximal knob.
Tergal ful muscles arising from the thoracic walls, and inserted into the proximal ends of the thighs, N.
Serrula on movable digit of appendages of 1st pair fixed throughout its length, and broader at its proximal than at its distal end; the immovable digit with an external process.
The hind wings, on the contrary, are for the most part membranous and, when extended, of large size; each consists of two portions, the distal of which, in virtue of the arrangement and jointing of its nervures, is capable of being both doubled up and folded fanwise beneath the proximal, which is partly horny when the wing is tucked away under the front wing-case of the same side.
(iv.) In the Microporidae and Steganoporellidae the body-cavity becomes partially subdivided by a calcareous lamina ("cryptocyst," Jullien) which grows from the proximal and lateral sides in a plane parallel to the frontal membrane and not far below it.
- There is a large ganglion lying in close contact with the pharynx, proximal to the crop and on its antero-dorsal side; in Bdelloidaceae at least it is united by short connectives with a smaller postero-ventral ganglion to form a nerve collar.
Bdelloidaceae; foot with two toes and accessory spurs or a simple perforated disk; body telescopic at either end, with an antero-dorsal proboscis ending in a ciliate cup and bearing the proximal antenna; corona usually bilobed, very wheel-like.
The duplication of the flagellum begins at its proximal end, that which is in relation with the kinetonucleus.
Its proximal centrosome (its distal one vanishing as such).
Often the head is retractile, and a constriction of flexible cuticle distal to it is termed a neck: in Philodinaceae there are a series of thin flexible rings which permit both distal and proximal ends to be telescoped into the middle; and in Taphrocampa, regular constrictions of the whole bodywall give an appearance of metemeric segmentation to the body.
In the Tubiporidae the spicules of the proximal part of the body-wall are fused together to form a firm tube, the corallite, into which the distal part of the zooid can be retracted.