Provinces Sentence Examples
The provinces are divided into cantons and subdivided into communes.
By this time, too, several of the other provinces had come into existence.
It was now that Alexander completed the conquest of the provinces north of the Hindu Kush by the reduction of the last mountain strongholds of the native princes.
Political Divisions and Towns.-The chief political divisions of the republic consist of one federal district, 14 provinces and 10 territories, the last in great part dating from the settlement of the territorial controversies with Chile.
The principal wheat and Indian corn producing districts lie in the provinces of Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, Cordoba and Entre Rios, and the average yield of wheat throughout the country is about 12 bushels to the acre.Advertisement
In the Andean provinces of Mendoza, San Juan, Catamarca and Rioja viticulture attracts much attention, and the area in vineyards in 1901 was 109,546 acres, only 18% of which was outside the four provinces named.
In the provinces of Tucuman, Salta and Jujuy the main industry is sugar growing and manufacture.
The existing system of taxation also presses heavily upon the provinces, as may be seen from the fact that the national, provincial and municipal exactions together amount to £7 per head of population, while the total value of the exports in 1898 was only L6 in round numbers.
In the national capital and territories it is supervised by a national council of education with the assistance of local school boards; in the 14 provinces it is under provincial control.
Under the provisions of this law the provinces were authorized to borrow specie abroad and deposit the same with the national government as security for their issues.Advertisement
From this port foreign merchandise found its way duty free into the Spanish provinces of Buenos Aires, Tucuman and Paraguay, and even into the interior of Peru.
The jealousy of the provinces, however, against the capital led to a series of disturbances, and for many years continual civil war devastated every part of the country.
This project of closer union met, however, with much opposition both at Buenos Aires and the provinces.
The rule of Rosas was now one of tyranny and almost incessant bloodshed in Buenos Aires, while his partisans, foremost amongst whom was General Ignacio Oribe, endeavoured to exterminate the Unitarians throughout the provinces.
Urquiza at this juncture resigned the presidency, and Doctor Santiago Derqui was elected president of the fourteen provinces with the seat of government at Parana; while Urquiza became once more governor of Entre Rios, and Mitre was appointed governor of Buenos Aires.Advertisement
The struggle for supremacy between Buenos Aires and the provinces had, however, to be fought out, and hostilities once more broke out in 1861.
The The national government and the twelve provinces forming the Cordoba League, were ranged on one side; the city and province of Buenos Aires and the province of Corrientes on the other.
In their hurry to obtain wealth, this crowd of office-mongers from the provinces lent themselves to all kinds of bribery and corruption.
General Roca was induced to undertake the duties of minister of the interior, and his influence in the provinces was sufficient to check any attempts to stir up disturbances at Cordoba or elsewhere.
This large influx of Europeans, however, is modifying the population by reducing the Indian and mestizo elements to a minority, although they are still numerous in the mesopotamian, northern and north-western provinces.Advertisement
Before I790 France was divided into thirty-three great and seven small military governments, often called provinces, which are, however, to be distinguished from the provinces formed under the feudal system.
In the provinces there are national schools of fine art and of music and other establishments and free subventioned schools.
Bethlen no sooner felt firmly seated on his throne than he seized the opportunity presented to him by the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War to take up arms in defence of the liberties and the constitution of the extra-Transylvanian Hungarian provinces, with the view of more effectually assuring his own position.
The ornithology of New South Wales and Queensland is more varied and interesting than that of the other provinces.
A remnant of the race exists in each of the provinces, while a few tribes still wander over the interior.Advertisement
Four other parties, besides Howitt's, were sent out that year from different Australian provinces.
Overland routes had now been found possible, though scarcely convenient for traffic, between all the widely separated Australian provinces.
Unlike the other mainland provinces, it was at first held and used chiefly for the reception of British convicts.
It is heard of first as the residence of Asoka (afterwards emperor), when viceroy of, the western provinces.
They had united under their sway a number of provinces with different histories and institutions and speaking different languages, and their aim was to centralize the government.
The peace of Arras with France (March 1483) freed him to deal with the discords in the Netherland provinces, and more especially with the turbulent opposition in the Flemish cities.
His proposal to impose a tax of 1% on real property and of 2% on movable property was rejected by all the larger provinces.
Open-air conventicles were held in all parts of the provinces, and the fierce Calvinist preachers raised the religious excitement of their hearers to such aitch that it found vent in a furious outburst The lcono- P oasts.
This revolt of the northern provinces was facilitated by the fact that Alva had withdrawn many of the garrisons, and was moving to oppose an invasion from the south.
A swarm of commissioners ransacked the provinces in search of delinquents, and the council sat daily for hours, condemning the accused, almost without a hearing, in batches together.
The famous defence of Haarlem, lasting through the winter of 1572 to July 1573, cost the besiegers 12,000 lives, and gave of the insurgent provinces time to breathe.
The stadtholder summoned a meeting of the states of Holland and Zeeland to Delft, and on the 25th of April an act of federation between the two provinces was executed.
He also had authority to confer the protectorate of the federated provinces upon a foreign prince.
A treaty establishing a firm alliance between the provinces, represented by the states-general, assembled at Brussels on the one part, and on the other by the prince of Orange, and the states of Holland and Zeeland, was agreed upon and ratified under the title of the " Pacification of Ghent."
He therefore refused, with the approval of the representatives of these provinces, to allow the publication of the " Perpetual Edict " in Holland and Zeeland.
This feeling was widespread throughout the Walloon provinces, and found expression in the League of Arras (5th of January 1579).
By it the northern provinces bound themselves together " as if they were one province " to maintain their rights and liberties " with life-blood and goods " against foreign tyranny, and to grant complete freedom of worship and of religious opinion throughout the confederacy.
William was still struggling to carry out that larger scheme of a union of all the seventeen provinces, which at the time of the " Pacification of Ghent " had seemed a possibility.
It did not long remain French, for in 1521 the count of Nassau, Charles V.'s general, took it and added it to the Spanish provinces.
The population of the peninsula includes about 850,000 Chinese, mostly immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the southern provinces of China, of whom about 300,000 reside in the colony of the Straits Settlements, 365,000 in the Federated Malay States,.
He consented to pay an increased tribute to the Avars and allowed the Persians, who had declared war in 604 under Chosroes II., to overrun the Asiatic provinces and to penetrate to the Bosporus.
They made Milan their home; and the empire was nominally divided between them, Gratian taking the trans-Alpine provinces, whilst Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina.
In 387 Magnus Maximus, who had commanded a Roman army in Britain, and had in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) made himself master of the northern provinces, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.
Thence its northern and northeastern frontier marches with the Punjab and the United Provinces until it touches the river Chambal, where it turns south-eastward for about 200 m., dividing the states of Dholpur, Karauli, Jaipur and Kotah from Gwalior.
On the great estates in Assyria and its subject provinces were many serfs, mostly of subject race, settled captives, or quondam slaves, tied to the soil they cultivated and sold with the estate but capable of possessing land and property of their own.
The United Telephone Company confined its operations to London; subsidiary companies were formed to operate in the provinces.
In the division of the provinces, Gaul fell to Antony, who entrusted Pollio with the administration of Gallia Transpadana.
Only now was Matthias able to turn against the Turks, who were again threatening the southern provinces.
This is the highest point in the northern Apennines, and belongs to a group of summits of nearly equal altitude; the range which is continued thence between Tuscany and what are now known as the Emilian provinces presents a continuous ridge from the mountains at the head of the Val di Mugello (due north of Florence) to the point where they are traversed by the celebrated Furlo Pass.
Southern Italy indeed has in general a very different climate from the northern portion of the kingdom; and, though large tracts are still occupied by rugged mountains of sufficient elevation to retain the snow for a considerable part of the year, the districts adjoining the sea enjoy a climate similar to that of Greece and the southern provinces of Spain.
The following table indicates the areas of the several provinces (sixty-nine in number), and the population of each according to the censuses of the 31st of December 1881 and the 9th of February 1901.
The kingdom is divided into 69 provinces, 284 regions, of which 197 are classed as circondarii and 87 as districts (the latter belonging to the province of Mantua and the 8 provinces of Venetia), 1806 administrative divisions (mandamenti) and 8262 communes.
They, and also the inhabitants of central Italy, are more industrious than the inhabitants of the southern provinces, who have by no means recovered from centuries of misgovernment and oppression, and are naturally more hot-blooded and excitable, but less stable, capable of organization or trustworthy.
The principal causes are the growth of population, and the over-supply of and low rates of remuneration for manual labor in various Italian provinces.
It is extensively distributed, but especially flourishes in the Neapolitan provinces.
Turnips are grown principally in the central provinces as an alternative crop to wheat.
Hemp is largely cultivated in the provinces of Turin, Ferrara, Bologna, Foril, Ascoli Piceno and Caserta.
Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), which at the beginning of the 19th century, at the time of the Continental blockade, and again during the American War of Secession, was largely cultivated, is now grown only in parts of Sicily and in a few southern provinces.
The vine is cultivated throughout the length and breadth of Italy, but while in some of the districts of the south and centre it occupies from 10 to 20% of the cultivated area, in some of the northern provinces, such as Sondrio, Belluno, Grosseto, &c., the average is only about I or 2% The methods of cultivation are varied; but the planting of the vines by themselves in long rows of insignificant bushes is the exception.
In Lombardy, Emilia, Romagna, Tuscany, the Marches, Umbria and the southern provinces, they are trained to trees which are either left in their natural state or subjected to pruning and pollarding.
In Sicily and the provinces of Reggio, Catanzaro, Cosenza and Lecce this tree flourishes without shelter; as far north as Rome, Aquila and Teramo it reqtiires only the slightest protection; in the rest of the peninsula itruns the risk of damage by frost every ten years or so.
Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro, Cosenza, Lecce, Salerno, Naples and Caserta are the continental provinces which come next after Sicily.
Extraction is extensively carried on in the provinces of Messina and Palermo.
The chief silk-producing provinces arc Lombardy, Venetia and Piedmont.
Another stock, with no close allies nearer than the south of France, is found in the plain of Racconigi and Carmagnola; the mouse-colored Swiss breed occurs in the neighborhood of Milan; the Tirolese breed stretches south to Padua and Modena; and a red-coated breed named of Reggio or Friuli is familiar both in what were the duchies of Parma and Modena, and in the provinces of lJdine and Treviso.
Swine are extensively reared in many provinces.
Parmesan is not confined to the province from which it derives its name; it is manufactured in all that part of Emilia in the neighborhood of the P0, and in the provinces of Brescia, Bergamo, Pavia, Novara and Alessandria.
Gorgonzola, which takes its name from a town in the province, has become general throughout the whole of Lombardy, in the eastern parts of the ancient provinces, and in the province of Cuneo.
The chief diminution has taken place in the south in regard to oranges and lemons, cereals and (for some provinces) vines.
In Emilia both mezzadria and lease tenure are widely diffused in the provinces of Ferrara, Reggio and Parma; but other special forms of contract exist, known as the famiglio da spesa, boaria, braccianti obbligati and braccianti disobbligati.
Other forms of contract are the piccola mezzadria, or sub-letting by tenants to under-tenants, on the half-and-half system; enfiteusi, or perpetual leases at low rentsa form which has almost died out; and mezzadria (in the provinces of Caserta and Benevento).
Since then special laws have hampered development, some provinces, as for instance Sardinia, being allowed to manufacture for their own consumption but not for export.
Paper-making is highly developed in the provinces of Novara, Caserta, Milan, Vicenza, Turin, Como, Lucca, Ancona, Genoa, Brescia, Cuneo, Macerata and Salerno.
Each region produces a special type, Venetia turning out imitations of 16th- and I 7th-century styles, Tuscany the 15th-century or cinquecento style, and the Neapolitan provinces the Pompeian style.
Yet in some Tusban provinces, as, for instance, that of Grosseto, where malaria rages, laborers are organized in gangs under corporals, who undertake harvest work.
Public charity is exercised through the permanent charitable foundations (opere pie), which are, however, very unequally distributed in the different provinces.
C. 37 ecclesiastical provinces, each under a metropolitan, cornposed of 148 suifragan dioceses.
The largest sees exist in Venetia and Lombardy, and the smallest in the provinces of Naples, Leghorn, Forli, Ancona, Pesaro, Urbino, Caserta, Avellino and Ascoli.
Up to that year some of the regions of the kingdom, such as Tuscany, continued to have a kind of autonomy; but by the laws of the 20th of March the whole country was divided into 69 provinces and 8545 communes.
The total was in 1900, 49,496,193 for the communes and 6,908,022 for the provinces.
It was in Italy that the military value of a network of roads was first appreciated by the Romans, and the lesson stood them in good stead in the provinces.
At its close the provinces of Italy were placed beneath Greek dukes, controlled by a governor-general, entitled exarch, who ruled in the Byzantine emperors name at Ravenna.
A fourth humiliating episode in this period was the invasion of the Magyar barbarians, who overran the north of Italy, and reduced its fairest provinces to the condition of a wilderness.
But now the moment had arrived when this vast group of provinces, forming the future kingdom of the Two Sicilies, was about to enter definitely and decisively within the bounds of the Italian community.
The crimes of his vicar Ezzelino, who laid whole provinces waste and murdered men by thousands in his Paduan prisons, increased the horror with which he was regarded.
In the hands of able captains, like Francesco Sforza or Piccinino, these mercenary troops became moving despotisms, draining the country of its wealth, and always eager to fasten and found tyrannies upon the provinces they had been summoned to defend.
Spain, France, Germany, with their Swiss auxiliaries, had been summoned upon various pretexts to partake her provinces.
Montferrat and Alessandria were added to his northern provinces, and his state was recognized as independent.
Of the nominally independent states the chief were the kingdom of Sardinia, ruled over by the house of Savoy, and comprising Piedmont, the isle of Sardinia and nominally Savoy and Nice, though the two provinces last named had virtually been lost to the monarchy since the campaign of 1793.
After Austerlitz (December 2, 1805) Austria made peace by the treaty of Pressburg, ceding to the kingdom of Italy her part of Venetia along with the provinces of Istria and Dalmatia.
Napoleon sought to push matters to an extreme, and on the 2nd of April Annexa- he adopted the rigorous measure of annexing to the tion of the kingdom of Italy the papal provinces of Ancona, Papal Urbino, Macerata and Camerina.
To the kingdom of Sardinia, now reconstituted under Victor Emmanuel I., France ceded its old provinces, Savoy and Nice; and the allies, especially Great Britain and Austria, insisted on the addition to that monarchy of the territories of the former republic of Genoa, in respect of which the king took the title of duke of Genoa, in order to strengthen it for the duty of acting as a buffer state between France and the smaller states of central Italy.
In February 1831 these provinces rose, raised the red, white and green tricolor (which henceforth took the place of the Carbonarist colors as the Italian flag), and shook off the papal yoke with surprising ease.1 At Parma too there was an outbreak and a demand for the constitution; Marie Louise could not grant it because of her engagements with Austria, and, therefore, abandoned her dominions.
In the Austrian provinces and in the duchies it carried all before it, and gained many adherents in the Legations, Rome and Naples, although in the latter regions the autonomist feeling was still strong even among the Liberals.
The proposed congress fell through, and Napoleon thereupon raised the question of the cession of Nice and Savoy as the price of his consent to the union of the central provinces with the Italian kingdom.
Successes achieved in those provinces failed, however, to save Nicotera from the wrath of the Chamber, and on the 14th of December 1877 a cabinet crisis arose over a question concerning the secrecy of telegraphic correspondence.
Unfortunately, the new survey was made largely optional, so that provinces which had reasor to hope for a diminution of land tax under a revised assessment hastened to complete their survey, while others, in which the average of the land tax was below a normal assessment, neglected to comply with the provisions of the scheme.
Thq latter retreated south of the river Mareb, leaving the whole of the cis-Mareb territory, including the provinces of Hamasen, Agameh, Sera and Okul-Kusai, in Italian hands.
Bath-Agos, the native chieftain who ruled the Okul-Kusai and the cis-Mareb provinces on behalf of Italy, intrigued with Mangash, ras of the trans-Mareb province of Tigr, and with Menelek, to raise a revolt against Italian rule on the high plateau.
The movement was confined chiefly to the northern and central provinces.
In June and July 1907 there were again disturbances among the agricultural laborers of Ferrala and Rovigo, and a widespread strike organized by the leg/fe throughout those provinces caused very serious losses to all concerned.
Austrias petty persecutions of her Italian subjects in the irredente provinces, her active propaganda incompatible with Italian interests in the Balkans, and the antiItalian war talk of Austrian military circles, imperilled the relations of the two allies; it was remarked, indeed, that the object of the alliance between Austria and Italy was to prevent war between them.
The Archivii storici and Deputazloni di storia patria of the various Italian towns and provinces contain a great deal of valuable material for local history.
The loss of their political independence has been followed by that of the greater part of their territory, which has been divided up into the Chilean provinces of Arauco, Bio-bio, Malleco and Cautin, and the Indians, much reduced in number, now live in the wooded recesses of the three provinces last named.
As neighbouring dioceses coalesced into " provinces " and provinces into larger districts (corresponding to the civil " dioceses " of the later Roman Empire), the provincial synods of bishops and the synods of the larger districts acquired a criminal jurisdiction, still purely spiritual, of their own.
If a provincial synod be divided as to the guilt of a bishop, the metropolitan is to convene bishops from the neighbouring provinces to decide the cause jointly with the bishops of the original province.
Pending appeal, the appellant's see is not to be filled up. The judges appointed by the bishop of Rome to hear the appeal are to be from the neighbouring provinces.
An " exarch " means properly a superior metropolitan having several provinces under him.
The English and Irish provinces are treated as self-contained.
It is a proof of the wisdom of Aurelius's clemency that he had little or no trouble in pacifying the provinces which had been the scene of rebellion.
In 1801, when the Ceded Provinces were acquired by the East India Company, it became the chief British frontier station.
The primary regions of vegetation, already indicated, and their subordinate provinces may now be considered more in detail.
While the central provinces, Media and northern Babylonia, were conquered by the Parthians, Mesene, Elymais and Persis made themselves independent.
The minor subdivisions into provinces, counties and parishes, or analogous areas, may also be related in many cases to natural features or racial differences perpetuated by historical causes.
In his speech Cicero briefly dismisses the charge of assassination, the main question being the distribution of the provinces, which was the real cause of the quarrels between DeIotarus and his relatives.
Above all it should be borne in mind that nearly all the last subdivisions or provinces are of very little real value and most of them are inapplicable to other classes of animals.
Baird, who distinguishes between Canadian, Alleghanian, Middle or Missourian, Californian and Alaskan provinces.
The rebellion spread like lightning, principally in the central or purely Magyar provinces, where hundreds of manor-houses and castles were burnt and thousands of the gentry done to death by impalement, crucifixion and other unspeakable methods.
The whole area, often collectively styled "Gallia Comata," often "Tres Provinciae," was divided into three provinces, each under a legatus pro praetore appointed by the emperor, with a common capital at Lugudunum (Lyons).
Here also it was found possible to dispense with garrisons, not because the provinces were as peaceful as Narbonensis, but because the Rhine army was close at hand.
The Gauls of the Three Provinces, or some of them, revolted in A.D.
In general, the Gauls of these provinces accepted Roman civilization more or less rapidly, and in due course became hardly distinguishable from the Italian.
In particular, they eagerly accepted the worship of "Augustus and Rome," devised by the first emperor as a bond of state religion connecting the provinces with Rome.
It agrees with the vigorous development of this worship that the Three Provinces, though romanized, retained their own local feeling.
They also helped to keep Gaul itself in order and their presence explains why the four provinces of Gaul proper contained no troops.
Some of the most important deposits of sulphur in the world are worked in Sicily, chiefly in the provinces of Caltanisetta and Girgenti, as at Racalmuto and Cattolica; and to a less extent in the provinces of Catania, Palermo (Lercara) and Trapani (Gibellina).
The people have been, as a rule, more antiforeign in their ideas, and more generally prosperous than the inhabitants of the other provinces.
At present the Moravian Church is divided into four provinces, German, British, American North and American South (North Carolina).
In provincial matters each province is independent, holds its own synods, makes its own laws, and elects its own governing board; but the General Synod meets, on the average, every ten years at Herrnhut, and its regulations are binding in all the provinces.
By the Sudan administration this region has been divided into mudirias (provinces), one, including the central portion, retaining the name of Sennar.
The city 1 The state of Panama, with boundaries nearly corresponding to those of the present republic, and including the province of Panama and other provinces, was created in 1855 by legislative enactment.
The contagion spread very rapidly, extending as far as the Rhine provinces, and, across Germany, into Bohemia.
By a looseness of translation, the superintendents of provinces, in the order of Jesuits, who act as officials under the superintendence of and auxiliary to the general, are sometimes called adjutants-general.
The census of 1897 revealed in several provinces a remarkably low proportion of men to women.
For purposes of provincial administration Russia is divided into 78 governments (guberniya), 18 provinces (oblast) and r district (okrug).
Since about the same time a process of rigorous Russification has been carried through in the same provinces, in all departments of administration, in the higher schools and in the university of Dorpat, the name of which was altered to Yuriev.
Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.
The fauna of the Baltic provinces is described in full in the Memoirs of the scientific bodies of these provinces.
In the Baltic provinces they constitute the ennobled landlord class, and are the tradesmen and artisans in the towns.
In the Baltic provinces (Esthonia, Livonia and Courland) the prevailing population is Esthonian, Kuronian or Lettish, the Germans being respectively only 3.8, 7.6 and 8.2% of the population.
The redemption was not calculated on the value of the allotments of land, but was considered as a compensation for the loss of the compulsory labour of the serfs; so that throughout Russia, with the exception of a few provinces in the S.E., it was - and still remains, notwithstanding a very great increase in the value of land - much higher than the market value of the allotment.
Finally, in the Baltic provinces nearly all the land belongs to the German landlords, who either farm the land themselves, with hired labourers, or let it in small farms. Only one-fourth of the peasants are farmers, the remainder being mere labourers, who are emigrating in great numbers.
Beer is chiefly brewed in Poland and the Baltic provinces.
During a halt of a few days in Poland on his way back from Vienna, King Augustus had explained to him a project for partitioning the transBaltic provinces of Sweden, by which Poland should recover Livonia and annex Esthonia, Russia should obtain Ingria and Karelia, and Denmark should take possession of Holstein.
This led to the second partition (1793), by which Russia obtained the eastern provinces with three millions of inhabitants.
It was intended that Russia should take what remained of the northern coast of the Black Sea, Austria should annex the Turkish provinces contiguous to her territory, the Danubian principalities and Bessarabia should be formed into an independent kingdom called Dacia, the Turks should be expelled from Europe, the Byzantine empire should be resuscitated, and the grand-duke Constantine, second son of the Russian heir-apparent, should be placed on the throne of the Palaeologi.
Wholesale arrests were made by the police, and many of the accused were imprisoned or exiled to distant provinces, some by the regular tribunals, and others by so-called " administrative procedure " without a formal trial.
General Mezentsov, the head of the political police, was assassinated in broad daylight in one of the principal streets of St Petersburg, and in the provinces a good many officials of various grades shared the same fate.
In Finland the population is composed of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Protestants; the Baltic provinces are inhabited by German-speaking, Lettspeaking and Esth-speaking Lutherans; the inhabitants of the south-western provinces are chiefly Polish-speaking Roman Catholics and Yiddish-speaking Jews; in the Crimea and on the Middle Volga there are a considerable number of Tatarspeaking Mahommedans; and in the Caucasus there is a conglomeration of races and languages such as is to be found on no other portion of the earth's surface.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
The great majority of them had long been confined to the western and south-western provinces.
In January 1881 Count Loris-Melikov, minister of the interior, proposed to convene a " general commission " to examine legislative proposals before these were laid before the Imperial Council; this commission was to consist of members elected by the zemstvos and the larger towns, and others nominated in the provinces having no zemstvos.
The non-Russian frontier provinces (okrainas) had even before been under-represented (one member for every 350,000 inhabitants, as against one for every 250,000 in the central provinces); the members returned by Poland, the Caucasus and Siberia were now reduced from 89 to 39, those from the Central Asian steppes (23) were swept away altogether; the total number of deputies was reduced from 524 to 442.
Stolypin indeed defended the coup d'etat in the Duma on the ground that the autocrat had merely altered what the autocrat had originally granted; but, while laying stress on the necessity for restoring order in the body politic, he announced a long programme of reforms, including agrarian measures, reform of local government and its extension in the frontier provinces, and state insurance of workmen.
They are under the control of the Post and Telegraph department, the state issuing loans to encourage the undertakings; the authorities in the provinces and communes also give support in various ways, and under various conditions, to public bodies or private persons who desire to promote or embark in the industry.
In the eastern and western portions of this city are situated the residences of the highest dignitaries of the empire; while beyond its confines on the south stand the offices of the six of f icial boards which direct the affairs of the eighteen provinces.
It propagated and spread with extraordinary rapidity, so that by Dominic's death in 1221, only five or six years after the first practical steps towards the execution of the idea, there were over 500 friars and 60 friaries, divided into 8 provinces embracing the whole of western Europe.
In view of the annexation of new provinces under the peace treaties and of the altered state of public opinion on internal policy, he dissolved the Chamber on April 7 1921, and was confirmed in power by the elections on May 15.
Whether the master of the provinces, in which there were Jews, be an Alexander, a Ptolemy, a Seleucid or a Roman, the force by which he rules is the force of Greek culture.
In the provinces and even in Italy his subjects were ready to acknowledge his divinity - with the sole exception of the Jews.
But economic laws are often too strong for civil vagaries or sectarian fanaticism, and as the commerce of Austria suffered by the absence of the Jews, it was impossible to exclude the latter from the fairs in the provinces of from the markets of the capital.
These ancient indications of a Minoan connexion with Sicily have now received interesting confirmation in the numerous discoveries, principally due to the recent excavations of P. Orsi, of arms and painted vases of Late Minoan fabric in Bronze Age tombs of the provinces of Syracuse and Girgenti (Agrigentum) belonging to the late Bronze Age.
In any case, only the eastern districts would have been affected by invaders from over the Rhine, the chief seat of the Belgae proper being in the west, the country occupied by the Bellovaci, Ambiani and Atrebates, to which it is probable (although the reading is uncertain) that Caesar gives the distinctive name Belgium (corresponding to the old provinces of Picardy and Artois).
Augustus, however, finding it too unwieldy, again divided it into three provinces, one of which was Belgica, bounded on the west by the Seine and the Arar (Saone); on the north by the North Sea; on the east by the Rhine from its mouth to the Lacus Brigantinus (Lake Constance).
In that year an act was passed by parliament establishing an agreement with seven of the Lords Proprietors for the surrender of their claims to both provinces.
Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Iran or Persia, Armenia and the provinces of Asia Minor occupy this high region, with which they are nearly conterminous.
In 1879 he followed up the Urangi river to the Altai Mountains, and demonstrated to the world the extraordinary physical changes which have passed over the heart of the Asiatic continent since Jenghiz Khan massed his vast armies in those provinces.
At two points the Russian boundary nearly approaches that of provinces which are directly under British suzerainty.
Eastwards of this the great Kashgar depression, which includes the Tarim desert, separates Russia from the vast sterile highlands of Tibet; and a continuous series of desert spaces of low elevation, marking the limits of a primeval inland sea from the Sarikol meridional watershed to the Khingan mountains on the western borders of Manchuria, divide her from the northern provinces of China.
Farther south, in the Chinese provinces of Shansi and Shensi, the geological succession is similar in some respects to that of the Siberian Palaeozoic plateau, but the sequence is more complete.
This race is believed to form the basis of the people of the Indian peninsula, and of some of the hill tribes of central India, to whom the name Dravidian has been given, and by its admixture with the Melanochroic group to have given rise to the ordinary population of the Indian provinces.
By the western gates of Makran prehistoric irruptions from Mesopotamia broke into the plains of Lower Sind, and either passed on towards the central provinces of India or were absorbed in the highlands south of Kalat.
China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.
The Saracens devastated it in the 8th century, but were driven out, and the island returned to the rule of kings, until they fell in the 10th century, their place being taken by four "judges" of the four provinces, Cagliari, Torres, Arborea and Gallura.
The commercial importance of the town dates from the second half of the r9th century; in 1870 its population had risen to 38,000, and after it was brought into railway connexion with Kharkov and Voronezh, and thus with the fertile provinces of south and south-east Russia, the increase was still more rapid, the number reaching 56,047 in 1885, and 58,928 in 1900 - Greeks, Jews, Armenians and West-Europeans being important elements.
Somewhat later he was created a count, and appointed commander-in-chief and governor-general of "New Russia," as the conquered provinces in the Ukraine were then called.
All that we certainly know about his life is contained in three sentences of his history of the Goths (cap. 50), from which, among other particulars as to the history of his family, we learn that his grandfather Paria was notary to Candac, the chief of a confederation of Alans and other tribes settled during the latter half of the 5th century on the south of the Danube in the provinces which are now Bulgaria and the Dobrudscha.
This large tract, extending from the Arabian Sea on the west to the Satpura mountains in the north, comprises a good part of western and central India, including the modern provinces of the Konkan, Khandesh, Berar, the British Deccan, part of Nagpur, and about half the nizam's Deccan.
It was during these events that the British won the province of Orissa, the old Hindustan afterwards part of the North-Western Provinces, and a part of the western coast in Gujarat.
Inhabited by the Rauraci and the Sequani, it formed part of ancient Gaul, and was therefore included in the Roman empire in the provinces of Germania Superior and Maxima Sequanorum.
By the bill for the incorporation of Alsace and German Lorraine, introduced into the German parliament in May 1871, it was provided that the sole and supreme control of the two provinces should be vested in the German emperor and the federal council until the 1st of January 1874, when the constitution of the German empire was established.
It is divided into six provinces, and covers a broken, mountainous region, partially barren in its higher elevations but traversed by deep, warm, fertile valleys.
In 1754 he was a member of the chambre royale which sat during an exile of the parlement; in 1755 and 1756 he accompanied Gournay, then intendant of commerce, in his tours of inspection in the provinces, and in 1760, while travelling in the east of France and Switzerland, visited Voltaire, who became one of his chief friends and supporters.
Finally, he took a personal share in the administration of justice at Rome, checked the activity of the informers (delatores), and exercised a jealous supervision over the governors of provinces.
Even when Rome and Italy smarted beneath his proscriptions and extortions, the provinces were undisturbed.
When, in 1809, Dalmatia was re-annexed to the Illyrian provinces, Dandolo returned to Venice, having received as his reward from the French emperor the title of count and several other distinctions.
The low price of grain, which was imported in huge quantities from Sicily and other Roman provinces, operated to crush the small holder, at the same time as it made arable farming unremunerative.
It consisted, in addition to the king, his sons and other relatives, of the bishops and later some abbots, of some under-kings and the ealdormen of the shires or provinces, and of a number of ministri, or king's thegns.
In 316, when Antigonus had made himself master of the eastern provinces, Seleucus felt himself threatened and fled to Egypt.
Master of Babylonia, Seleucus at once proceeded to wrest the neighbouring provinces of Persis, Susiana and Media from the nominees of Antigonus.
Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III., who had just succeeded to the Egyptian throne, at once invaded the Seleucid realm and marched victoriously to the Tigris or beyond, receiving the submission of the eastern provinces, whilst his fleets swept the coasts of Asia Minor.
In the interior of Asia Minor Seleucus maintained himself, and when Ptolemy returned to Egypt he recovered Northern Syria and the nearer provinces of Iran.
Having thus recovered the central part of Asia Minor - for the dynasties in Pergamum, Bithynia and Cappadocia the Seleucid government was obliged to tolerate - Antiochus turned to recover the outlying provinces of the north and east.
As a consequence of this blow to the Seleucid power, the outlying provinces of the empire, recovered by Antiochus, reasserted their independence.
In 166 Antiochus left Syria to attempt the reconquest of the further provinces.
In the old Prussian provinces alone there were fifty-three different customs frontiers, and German manufactures could not develop until the growth of the Zollverein brought with it commercial consolidation, internal freedom and greater homogeneity of economic conditions.
At Colmars, on the 21st of Ma 1 794, he drew up the first draft of his Italian plan of campaigi, for severing the Piedmontese from their Austrian allies and for driving the latter out of their Italian provinces.
The French reinforcements which entered Spain managed to secure some of the strongholds of the northern provinces; and the disgraceful feuds in the royal family left the country practically at the emperor's mercy.
Alexander had succeeded in pacifying Finland, and his troops held the Danubian provinces of Turkey - a pledge, as it seemed, for the future conquest of Constantinople.
Napoleon on his side succeeded in adjourning the question of the partition of Turkey; but he awarded the Danubian provinces and Finland to his ally and agreed to withdraw the French garrisons from the Prussian' fortresses on the Oder.
The House of Habsburg now ceded Salzburg and the Inn-Viertel to Napoleon (for his ally, the king of Bavaria); a great portion of the spoils which Austria had torn from Poland in 1795 went to the grand duchy of Warsaw, or Russia; and the cession of her provinces Carinthia, Carniola and Istria to the French empire cut her off from all access to the sea.
In the old provinces of France Napoleon's indomitable will overcame all difficulties of a material kind.
Napoleon was not misled by the enthusiasm of the provinces and Paris.
Strabo himself talks of Armoric Heneti, and supposes them to have come from the neighbourhood of Brittany; another theory gives us Sarmatian Heneti, from the Baltic provinces; while the most widely accepted view was that they reached Italy from Paphlagonia.
This category includes German places located in the Prussian provinces of East Prussia, West Prussia, Posen, Silesia, Brandenburg, and Pomerania, and places in the Grand Duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
After the captivity and death of Valerian, Gallienus succeeded to a merely nominal rule in the East, and was too careless and self-indulgent to take any active measures to recover the lost provinces.
Oberlin published several manuals on archaeology and ancient geography, and made frequent excursions into different provinces of France to investigate antiquarian remains and study provincial dialects, the result appearing in Essai sur le patois Lorrain (1775); Dissertations sur les Minnesingers (1782-1789); and Observations concernant le patois et les mceurs des gens de la campagne (1791).
Despite his youth he was made stadtholder of those two provinces and president of the council of state.
It is divided into three provinces, viz.
Unhappily, clinging to the conviction that all the lands which the crusaders would traverse were the "lost provinces" of his empire, he induced the crusaders to do him homage, so that, whatever they conquered, they would conquer in his name, and whatever they held, they would hold by his grant and as his vassals.
Antioch, adorned with many sumptuous buildings, as the chief town of the provinces of Asia, became in point of size the third city of the empire and an eastern Rome.
Hadrian made three provinces of it, Syria, Syria Phoenice and Syria Palestina.
The provinces were unsettled, the barbarians on the borders restless and menacing, and Hadrian wisely judged that the old limits of Augustus afforded the most defensible frontier.
From Antioch Hadrian set out for Dacia to punish the Roxolani, who, incensed by a reduction of the tribute hitherto paid them, had invaded the Danubian provinces.
The gift of "coronary gold" (aurum coronarium), presented to the emperor on certain occasions, was entirely remitted in the case of Italy, and partly in the case of the provinces.
Roads were laid out, some of which yet remain; and in the last three years of English occupation the government spent $580,000 on the two provinces.
In Josephus and the New Testament the name Peraea or ripav Tou 'Iopbavou is most frequently used; and the country is sometimes spoken of by Josephus as divided into small provinces called after the capitals in which Greek colonists had established themselves during the reign of the Seleucidae.
From an industrial point of view Moravia belongs to the foremost provinces of the Austrian Empire.
In educational matters Moravia compares favourably with most of the Austrian provinces.
Thus special parts are reserved for natives of the various provinces of Egypt, of Morocco,Syria, Arabia, India, Turkey, &c. Each student can, FIG.
The total area of the provinces is 1 i 3, 281 sq.
In October 1905 most of Sambalpur and five Oriya-speaking hill-states were transferred from the Central Provinces to Bengal, while the Hindi-speaking states of Chota Nagpur were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces.
The Central Provinces are divided into two parts by the Satpura range of hills (q.v.), which runs south of the Nerbudda river from east to west; so that, speaking generally, it consists of districts north of the Satpuras, districts on the Satpura Provinces.
The tract is half surrounded on the east, north and north-west by the Central Provinces, with which it is amalgamated.
The provinces may be divided into two tracts of upland and three of plain, consisting of the Vindhya and Satpura plateaus, and the Berar, Nagpur and Chhattisgarh plains.
As regards climate the districts of the Central Provinces are generally divided into hot and cool ones.
Two coal-mines are worked in the Central Provinces, at Warora and Mopani, to each of which there is a branch line of railway.
The trade of the Central Provinces is conducted mainly by rail with Bombay and with Calcutta.
Until recently, the only railway in the Central Provinces was the Great Indian Peninsula, with two branches, one terminating at Nagpur, the other at Jubbulpore, whence it was continued by the East Indian system to Allahabad.
It remained under the administration of the resident until the 1st of October 1903, from which date it was amalgamated with the Central Provinces for administrative purposes.
As the immediate result of this change the offices of heads of departments in Berar, except the j udicial commissionership and the conservatorship of forests, were amalgamated with the corresponding appointments in the Central Provinces, and Berar is now treated as one of the divisions of that province for purposes of revenue administration, with a divisional commissioner as its immediate head.
The population of the Central Provinces and Berar as now defined according to the census of 1901 was 10,847,325, and is of very diverse ethical construction, having been recruited by immigration from the countries surrounding it on all sides.
Thirty languages and a hundred and six dialects are found in the Central Provinces alone, and twenty-eight languages and sixty-eight dialects in Berar.
The authentic history of the greater part of the country embraced in the Central Provinces does not begin till the 16th century A.D.
Under this latter raja the Nagpur state covered practically the whole of the present Central Provinces and Berar, as well as Orissa and some of the Chota Nagpur states.
Until the formation of the Central Provinces in 1861, Nagpur province, which consists of the present Nagpur division, Chhindwara and Chhatisgarh, was administered by a commissioner under the central government.
The territories in the north ceded in 1817 by the peshwa (parts of Saugor and Damoh) and in 1818 by Appa Sahib were in 1820 formed into the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories under an agent to the governor-general, and in 1835 were included in the newly formed North-West Provinces.
Restored to the North-West Provinces in 1853, they were finally joined with the Nagpur province to constitute the new Central Provinces in 1861.
On the 1st of October 1903 Berar also was placed under the administration of the commissioner of the Central Provinces (for history see Berar).
In 1905 the greater part of Sambalpur district, with the feudatory states of Bamra, Rairakhol, Sonpur, Patna and Kalahandi, were transferred to Bengal, while the feudatory states of Chang Bhakar, Korea, Surguja, Udaipur and Jashpur were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces.
During the decade 1891-1901 the Central Provinces suffered from famine more severely than any other part of India.
The Central Provinces were stricken by another famine, yet more severe and widespread, caused by the complete failure of the rains in 1899.
A further differentiation of the provinces of chemistry and physics is shown by the classifications of matter.
On the resignation of Lord North's administration, of which Lord George Germain was one of the least popular members, he left the civil service, and was nominated to a cavalry command in the revolted provinces of America.
In both provinces he was distinguished for his practical reforms and for his power in preaching.
In 1 575 a conference was held here between the ambassadors of Spain and those of the United Provinces; in 1667 a peace was signed between England, Holland, France and Denmark; and in 1746-1747 the representatives of the same powers met in the town to discuss the terms of another treaty.
His success as a preacher in the provinces determined his superiors to call him to Paris in 1669 to occupy for a year the pulpit of the church of St Louis.
The northern part is the province of Oberhessen; the southern consists of the contiguous provinces of Starkenburg and Rheinhessen.
Minerals, in which Oberhessen is much richer than the two other provinces, include iron, manganese, salt and some coal.
The three provinces are divided for local administration into 18 circles and 989 communes.
The empire outside of Macedonia itself consisted of 22 provinces.
Hardly provinces proper, but rather client principalities, were the two native kingdoms to which Alexander had left the conquered land beyond the Indus - the kingdoms of Taxiles and Porus.
Alexander had at first trusted Persian grandees more freely in this capacity; in Babylonia, Bactria, Carmania, Susiana he had set Persian governors, till the ingrained Oriental tradition of misgovernment so declared itself that to the three latter provinces certainly Macedonians had been appointed before his death.
In the case of certain provinces, possibly in the empire generally, Alexander established a double control.
Again the garrisons in the chief cities, such as Sardis, Babylon, Memphis Pelusium and Susa, were under commands distinct from those of the provinces.
Antigonus never succeeded in reaching Macedonia, although his son Demetrius won Athens and Megara in 307 and again (304-302) wrested almost all Greece from Cassander; nor did Antigonus succeed in expelling Ptolemy from Egypt, although he led an army to its frontier in 306; and after the battle of Gaza in 312, in which Ptolemy and Seleucus defeated Demetrius, he had to see Seleucus not only recover Babylonia but bring all the eastern provinces under his authority as far as India.
In India, Seleucus had in 302 ceded large districts on the west of the Indus to Chandragupta, who had arisen to found a native empire which annexed the Macedonian provinces in the Panjab.
The eastern provinces of Iran went in 240 or thereabouts, when the Greek Diodotus made himself an independent king in Bactria(q.v.) and Sogdiana, and Tiridates, brother of Arsaces, a " Scythian " chieftain, conquered Parthia (so Arrian, but see Parthia).
Some ten years later Seleucus appointed Antiochus as king for the eastern provinces.
Among them were cadastral plans of villages, maps of the provinces of the empire of the Aztecs, of towns and of the coast.
In the case of Japan, the earliest reference to a map is of 646, in which year the emperor ordered surveys of certain provinces to be made.
The cadastral surveys in Canada are carried on by a commission of Crown-lands in the old provinces and by a Dominion land office, which lays out townships as in the United States, but with greater accuracy.
He renewed old taxes and instituted new, increased the tribute of the provinces, and kept a watchful eye upon the treasury officials.
Administration, &c. - The local government of Alberta is carried on by a provincial organization resembling that of the other Canadian provinces.
Alberta has a system of municipal government similar to that of the other provinces.
The Pennsylvanian Quakers advised their members against the trade in 1696; in 1754 they issued to their brethren a strong dissuasive against encouraging it in any manner; in 1774 all persons concerned in the traffic, and in 1776 all slave holders who would not emancipate their slaves, were excluded from membership. The Quakers in the other American provinces followed the lead of their brethren in Pennsylvania.
In the Lithuanian provinces the relations of the masters and serfs were regulated in the time of Nicholas by what were called inventories.
A circular was soon after sent to the governors and marshals of the nobility all over Russia proper, informing them of this desire of the Lithuanian nobles, and setting out the fundamental principles which should be observed " if the nobles of the provinces should express a similar desire."
The former papal territories are now comprised within the Italian provinces of Bologna, Ferrara, Forli, Ravenna, Pesaro and Urbino, Ancona, Macerata, Ascoli-Piceno, Perugia, Rome and Benevento.
Besides the deposits in Oriente province, iron is known to exist in considerable amount in Camaguey and Santa Clara, and copper in Camaguey and Pinar del Rio provinces.
Three-fourths of all are in the jurisdictions of Cienfuegos, Cardenas, Havana, Matanzas and Sagua la Grande, which are the great sugar centres of the island (three-fourths of the crop coming from Matanzas and Santa Clara provinces).
More than four-fifths of the total area sown to cane in the island is in the three provinces of Santa Clara, Matanzas and Oriente (formerly Santiago), the former two representing two-thirds of the area and three-fourths of the crop. The majority of the sugar estates are of an area less than 3000 acres, and the most common area is between 1500 and 2000 acres; but the extremes range from a very small size to 60,000 acres.
There are small mines in Santa Clara and Camaguey provinces.
The most promising deposits and the most important workings are in Matanzas and Santa Clara provinces.
The only good highways of any considerable length in 1908 were in the two western provinces and in the vicinity of Santiago.
The average of settlement per square mile varied from 169.7 in Havana province to 11.8 in Camaguey, and was 46.4 for all of Cuba; the percentage of urban population (in cities, that is, with more than 1000 inhabitants) in the different provinces.
Native blood is most predominant in the provinces of Oriente and Pinar del Rio.
Its powers are extensive, including, in addition to ordinary legislative powers, control of financial affairs, foreign affairs, the power to declare war and approve treaties of peace, amnesties, electoral legislation for the provinces and municipalities, control of the electoral vote for president and vice-president, and designation of an acting president in case of the death or incapacity of these officers.
Both provinces and municipalities are forbidden by the constitution to contract debts without a coincident provision of permanent revenue for their settlement.
The six provinces were created, and had governors and assemblies (" diputaciones "); and a municipal law was provided that in many ways was a sound basis for local government.
Unlike that war, this was carried to the western provinces, and indeed was fiercest there.
These laws strictly defined the powers of the president; more clearly separated the executive departments, so as to lessen friction and jealousies; reformed the courts; reformed administrative routine; and increased the strength of the provinces at the expense of the municipalities.
The trade of the city is principally in Bolivian products - mineral ores, alpaca wool, &c. - but it also receives and exports the products of the neighbouring Peruvian provinces, and the output of the borax deposits in the neighbourhood.
Serajevo, with 41,543 inhabitants in 1895, is the capital of the combined provinces, and other important places are Mostar (17,010), the capital of Herzegovina, Banjaluka (14,812), Dolnja Tuzla (11,034), Travnik (6626), Livno (5273), Visoko(5000), Foca (4217), Jajce (3929) and Trebinje (2966).
The patriarch of Constantinople is the nominal head of the Orthodox priesthood; but by an arrangement concluded in 1879, his authority was delegated to the Austrian emperor, in exchange for a revenue equal to the tribute previously paid by the clergy of the provinces; and his nominations for the metropolitanate of Serajevo, and the bishoprics of Dolnja Tuzla, Banjaluka and Mostar require the imperial assent.
From 1299 to 1322 the country was ruled by the Croatian princes, Paul and Mladen Subic, who, though vassals of Hungary, reunited the provinces of Upper and Lower Bosnia, created by the Hungarians in order to prevent the growth of a dangerous national unity.
The treaty had contemplated the evacuation of the occupied provinces after the restoration of order and prosperity; and this had been expressly stipulated in an agreement signed by the AustroHungarian and Ottoman plenipotentiaries at Berlin, as a condition of Turkish assent to the provisions of the treaty.
The reforms in Turkey certainly encouraged the Serb and Moslem inhabitants of the occupied territory to petition the emperor for the grant of a constitution similar to that in force in the provinces of Austria proper.
Capus, A travers la Bosnie et l'Herzegovine (Paris, 1896) contains a detailed and fully illustrated account of the combined provinces, their resources and population.
In the latter year was created the Real Audiencia de la Plata y Charcas, a royal court of justice having jurisdiction over Upper Peru and the La Plata provinces of that time.
The Turkish or Ottoman Empire comprises Turkey in Europe, Turkey in Asia, and the vilayets of Tripoli and Barca, or Bengazi, in North Africa; and in addition to those provinces under immediate Turkish rule, it embraces also certain tributary states and certain others under foreign administration.
The total population of the Turkish Empire in 1910, including Egypt and other regions nominally under the sultan's suzerainty, was 36,323,539, averaging 25 to the square mile; in the provinces directly under Turkish government, 25,926,000.
In the European provinces about two-thirds of the population are Christian and one-third Mahommedan.
For administrative purposes the immediate possessions of the sultan are divided into vilayets (provinces), which are again subdivided into sanjaks or mutessarifliks (arrondissements), these into kazas (cantons), and the kazas into nahies (parishes or communes).
All these officials unite in their own persons the judicial and executive functions, under the " Law of the Vilayets," which made its appearance in 1861, and purported, and was really intended by its framers, to confer on the provinces a large measure of self-government, in which both Mussulmans and non-Mussulmans should take part.
Much educational work has also been done by American colleges, especially in the northern provinces of Asia Minor, in conjunction with Robert College (Constantinople).
In reward for the brilliant services rendered him by Ertoghrul (the father of Osman) and by Osman himself, Ala-ud-din, the last of the Seljuk sultans, conferred certain provinces in fief upon these two great warriors.
The first category included the " imposts " properly so called, the fixed contributions (redevances fixes) to be paid by the " privileged provinces, " and the military exoneration tax.
By this last the centralization of receipts and expenditure and the movement of funds in the provinces were to be confided to the Imperial Ottoman Bank, which extended and perfected its own organization for the purpose.
These " six indirect contributions " were the revenues from tobacco, salt, wines and spirits, stamps (commercial), certain specified fisheries, and the silk tithe in specified provinces.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
Mustafa, delivered up by treachery, was hanged (1424); but Murad remained in Asia, restoring order in the provinces, while his lieutenants continued the war against the Greeks, Albanians and Walachians.
There were also bostanjis, or forest-guards, numbering about 5000, besides local troops in distant and frontier provinces, and about 20,000 akinjis, or light troops, in Europe, who carried out forays in the enemies' country.
The governors of the more distant provinces enjoyed a considerable amount of independence, which in the case of the Barbary states was more or less complete; these entered into treaties with foreign powers, and by their piratical outrages frequently caused the Porte considerable embarrassment.
The new sultan, Mahommed III., Murad's son, succeeded to the throne at a moment when the Turkish arms were suffering reverses in Hungary and in the revolted Danubian provinces; Mahom- the Janissaries, too, were ill-content and mutinous, med IJI., and to put an end to their murmurings Mahommed 1595-4603.
Again war all but broke out; but, through the intervention of France, a treaty of partition was signed at Constantinople on the 23rd of June 1724, whereby the shores of the Caspian from the junction of the Kur and the Arras (Araxes) northwards should belong to Russia, while the western provinces of Persia should fall to the share of Turkey.
But Nadir Kuli Khan came forward as the champion of Shah Tahmasp II., the rightful ruler, and drove the Turks from these provinces, capturing Tabriz.
A serious outbreak took place at Adrianople in 1804, where 20,000 of the new troops had been sent, ostensibly to put down the revolt in Servia, but really to try to bring about the reform of the European provinces.
The rulers of the provinces shared these views; the consequence was disquiet and confusion throughout the empire.
In 1833 the reserves were instituted, and three years later reserve commandants were appointed in six principal provinces.
Educational affairs in the provinces are now superintended by special officials.
The diplomacy of Europe had been searching in vain since the autumn Accession of 1875 for the means of inducing Turkey to institute of Abd-u1- effective administrative reforms and to grant to Hamid 11., its European provinces that autonomy which now 1876.
The decisions of the conference, moderate though they were, in the end requiring merely the nomination of an international commission to investigate the state of the European provinces of Turkey, and the appointment by the sultan, with the approval of the powers, of governors-general for five years, were rejected by the Porte.
Measures of reform in Armenia were also provided for, as also the convocation of an international commission for drawing up a reform scheme for the European provinces left to Turkey.
But the achievements of the two civil agents were less noteworthy; and in 1905 it was agreed that, in view of the financial necessities of the provinces, the other great powers should each appoint delegates to a financial commission with extensive powers of control in fiscal matters.
The northern and western provinces of Cambodia which fall outside the densely populated zone of inundation are thinly peopled; they consist of plateaus, in many places thickly wooded and intersected by mountains, the highest of which does not exceed 5000 ft.
The king is advised by a council of five ministers, the superior members of the class of mandarins; and the kingdom is divided into about fifty provinces administered by members of that body.
At the end of the 18th century the provinces of Battambang and Siem-reap were annexed by Siam.
In 1867 a treaty between France and Siam was signed, whereby Siam renounced its right to tribute and recognized the French protectorate over Cambodia in return for the provinces of Battambang and Angkor, and the Laos territory as far as the Mekong.
In 1904 the territory of Cambodia was increased by the addition to it of the Siamese provinces of Melupre and Bassac, and the maritime district of Krat, the latter of which, together with the province of Dansai, was in 1907 exchanged for the provinces of Battambang, Siem-reap and Sisophon.
It is the natural terminal of three great northern transcontinental railway lines - the Northern Pacific, the Great Northern, and the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound (the extension of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul system); and the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the connecting lines of the Canadian Pacific form lines of communication with the middle Northwest and the Pacific provinces of Canada.
For the purposes of this article it will be taken in its most restricted sense, as signifying the Roman province which was so called after the district that intervened between the river Ister (Danube) and the Haemus Mountains (Balkan) had been formed into the separate provinces of Moesia, and the region between the rivers Strymon and Nestus, which included Philippi, had been added to Macedonia.
Some thirty species of Balanoglossus are known, distributed among all the principal marine provinces from Greenland to New Zealand.
At the opening of 1813, Suchet, with 63,000 men, had been left to hold Valencia, Aragon and Catalonia; and the remainder of the French (about 13 7,000) occupied Leon, the central provinces and Biscay, guarding also the communications with France.
The northern slopes of the Elburz and the lowlands which lie between them and the Caspian, and together form the provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Astarabad, are covered with dense forest and traversed by hundreds (Persian writers say 1362) of perennial rivers and streams. The breadth of the lowlands between the foot of the hills and the sea is from 2 to 25 m., the greatest breadth being in the meridian of Resht in Gilan, and in the districts of Amol, Sari and Barfurush in Mazandaran.