Each strand of spiral or annular first-formed tracheids is called a protoxylem strand, as distinct from the metaxylem or rest of the xylem, which consists of thick-walled tracheids, the pits of which are often scalariform.
The thin-walled spiral or annular tracheae of the protoxylem allow of longitudinal stretching brought about by the active growth in length of the neighboring living parenchymatous cells of a growing organ.
Or many protoxylems. When the protoxylem strands are situated at the periphery of the stele, abutting on the pericycle, as in all roots, and many of the more primitive Pteridophyte stems, the stele is said to be exarch.
When there is a single protoxylem strand in the centre of the stele, or when, as is more commonly the case, there are several protoxylem strands situated at the internal limit of the xylem,, the centre of the stem being occupied by parenchyma, the stele is endarch.
The protoxylem of each is a leaftrace, while the metaxylem consisting of a right and a left portion forms a quite distinct cauline system.
13, 23), the xylem of which is usually wedgeshaped in cross-section with the protoxylem elements at the inner extremity, while the phloem forms a band on the outer side of the xylem, and separated from it by a band of conjunctive tissue (mesodesm).
The protoxylem and protophloem are developed a few cells from the inner and outer margins respectively of the desmogen strand, the desmogenic tissue left over giving rise to the segments of endocycle and pericycle capping the bundle.
This is known as exogenous branch-formation In the root, on the other hand, the origin of branches is endogenous The cells of the pericycle, usually opposite a protoxylem strand divide tangentially and give rise to a new growing-point.
The protoxylem-elements are situated at the extreme inner edge of the secondary wood, and may occur as small groups of narrow, spirallypitted elements scattered among the parenchyma which abuts on the main mass of wood.
A leaf-trace, as it passes through the cortex, has a collateral structure, the protoxylem being situated at the inner edge of the xylem; when it reaches the leaf-base the position of the spiral tracheids is gradually altered, and the endarch arrangement (protoxylem internal) gives place to a mesarch structure (protoxylem more or less central and not on the edge of the xylem strand).
In a bundle examined in the basal portion of a leaf the bulk of the xylem is found to be centrifugal in position, but internally to the protoxylem there is a group of centripetal tracheids; higher up in the petiole the xylem is mainly centripetal, the centrifugal wood being represented by a small arc of tracheids external to the protoxylem and separated from it by a few parenchymatous elements.
Finally, in the pinnae of the frond the centrifugal xylem may disappear, the protoxylem being now exarch in position and abutting on the phloem.
The roots of some cycads resemble the stems in producing several cambiumrings; they possess 2 to 8 protoxylem-groups, and are characterized by a broad pericyclic zone.
The root is diarch in structure, but additional protoxylem-strands may be present at the base of the main root; the pericycle consists of several layers of cells.
The roots of many conifers possess a narrow band of primary xylem-tracheids with a group of narrow spiral protoxylem-elements at each end (diarch).
The vascular bundles themselves are collateral, the xylem consisting of the protoxylem, towards the centre of the stem, and two groups of xylem, between which the phloem is situated; the protoxylem elements soon break down, giving rise to the carinal canal.
The single stele in the stem consisted of the phloem surrounding a solid central strand of xylem, the groups of protoxylem being situated at the projecting angles.
In Sphenophyllum, in which the transverse section of the xylem is triangular, there were three or six protoxylem groups; in Cheirostrobus they were more numerous.
The stem is monostelic, the protoxylem groups being towards the periphery of the xylem, the development of which is thus centripetal; the centre of the stele is occupied by sclerenchymatous tissue.
Spinosa) the radial stele has a number of protoxylem groups arranged round the periphery, much as in Lepidodendron.
(X 135.) px, Protoxylem of strand.