Protestants sentence example
Catholics and Protestants were unanimous in praising his fiery eloquence in the Lent sermons which he preached at Montpellier in 1686.
It suffered much during the Wars of Religion, especially in 1568 after its capture by the Protestants under Coligny.
Under the persecution, a large number were killed, and between four and five millions of Protestants left the country.
In the 16th century Quercy was a stronghold of the Protestants, and the scene of a savage religious warfare.
Protestants number some 65,000, of whom half are Italian and half foreign.Advertisement
In 1906 there were in the state 301,565 members of religious denominations, of whom 86.2% were Protestants.
At the Worms conference (1540) between Catholics and Protestants he was the sole representative of the Swiss.
The population is now estimated at about 3500 Moslems and 6500 Christians; there are numerous schools, hospitals, &c., conducted by Greeks, Latins and Protestants.
The number of Protestants may be estimated at about 600,000 and the Jews at about 70,000.
It was stipulated that there was to be toleration for both Catholics and Protestants; that the Spanish king should be recognized as de jure sovereign, and the prince of Orange as governor with full powers in Holland and Zeeland.Advertisement
In 1900 it had a population of 11,781, of whom 8878 were French-speaking, while there were 8277 Protestants to 3424 Romanists and 56 Jews.
In 1670, fleeing from the dangers of Upper Hungary, where the Protestants and Imperialists were constantly in arms against each other, he took refuge with his kinsman Michael Teleki, the chief minister of Michael Apafy, prince of Transylvania.
The States General met in December; the edict of Orleans (January 1561) followed, and finally, after the colloquy of Poissy, the edict of January 1562, the most liberal, except that of Nantes, ever obtained by the Protestants of France.
The compromise of Aquinas, though not unchallenged, holds the field and that even with Protestants.
Deism is, in fact, the Thomist natural theology (more clearly distinguished from dogmatic theology than in the middle ages, alike by Protestants and by the post-Tridentine Church of Rome) now dissolving partnership with dogmatic and starting in business for itself.Advertisement
The authorship of the epistles is in many cases a matter of subordinate importance; at least for Protestants or for those surrendering Bible infallibility, which Rome can hardly do.
In 1900 the population was S493, all German-speaking and mainly Protestants.
They have become^mainly Protestants, Catholics or Mormons, but retain many superstitions connected with their native religion.
Although, however, he adds that at this point he suspended his religious inquiries, " acquiescing with implicit belief in the tenets and mysteries which are adopted by the general consent of Catholics and Protestants," his readers will probably do him no great injustice if they assume that even then it was rather to the negations than to the affirmations of Protestantism that he most heartily assented.
In 1900 it had 7831 inhabitants, mostly German-speaking, and mainly Protestants.Advertisement
He treated the question at issue as one of pure logic, and disliking the Reformers, the right of private judgment which Protestants claimed, and the somewhat prosaic uniformity of the English Church, he flung himself into a general campaign against Protestantism in general and the Anglican form of it in particular.
The Albigenses have received much sympathy, as being a kind of pre-Reformation Protestants; but it is now recognized that their tenets were an extreme form of Manichaeism.
At Oxford William Chillingworth was then busy with his great work, The Religion of Protestants, and it is possible that by intercourse with him Taylor's mind may have been turned towards the liberal movement of his age.
He thought it his duty to support the German Habsburgs and the cause of the Roman Catholic Church against the Protestants, to assert his sovereignty over Holland, and to extend the dominions of his house.
She was reconciled with Archbishop Hamilton, and took up arms against the Protestants of Perth, who, incited by Knox, had destroyed the Charterhouse, where many of the Scottish kings were buried.Advertisement
He insisted on bringing up all the children in his school as Protestants; and he thus made his schools proselytizing as well as educational institutions.
Most remarkable of all, the Roman Catholic churches, in this strong, hold of exiled Puritanism where Catholics were so long under the heavy ban of law, outnumber those of any single Protestant denomination; Irish Catholics dominate the politics of the city, and Protestants and Catholics have been aligned against each other on the question of the control of the public schools.
Therefore Protestants are not only free, but bound, to criticize it; indeed, for a Protestant Christian, dogma cannot be said to exist.
In 1567 the town was sacked and burned by the Protestants.
He was for eight years professor of theology in the Protestant college of Nimes; but in 1661, having successfully opposed a scheme for re-uniting Catholics and Protestants, he was forbidden to preach in Lower Languedoc. In 1662 he obtained a post at Montauban similar to that which he had lost; but after four years he was removed from this also.Advertisement
Fully 95% of the inhabitants are Roman Catholics, under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the archbishop of Olmiitz and the bishop, of Briinn; 2.7% Protestants and 2% Jews.
Dolet, &c. For a time her influence with her brother, to whom she was entirely devoted, and whom she visited when he was imprisoned in Spain, was effectual, but latterly political rather than religious considerations made him discourage Lutheranism, and a fierce persecution was begun against both Protestants and freethinkers, a persecution which drove Des Periers to suicide and brought Dolet to the stake.
This stands on the site where, in 1618, the Protestants attempted to build a church, the forcible prevention of which by Abbot Wolfgang Solander was the immediate cause of the protest of the Bohemian estates and the "defenestration" of the ministers Martinic and Slavata, which opened the Thirty Years' War.
In 1900 the population was 12,559, mainly Protestants and French-speaking.
More than two-thirds of the inhabitants are Protestants; the majority of the remainder are Roman Catholics, and there are about 25,000 Jews.Advertisement
Education is given by a public-school system, which, while nominally providing for separate schools for Catholics and Protestants, makes it practically impossible at most points to carry on such schools.
About 1607 Schoppe entered the service of Ferdinand, archduke of Styria, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand II., who found him very useful in rebutting the arguments of the Protestants, and who sent him on several diplomatic errands.
It was attacked unsuccessfully by the Protestants in 1568, and was taken in 1591 by Henry IV., who was crowned there three years afterwards.
It was recognized as canonical by the council of Trent, but is not so regarded by Protestants.
Both by Catholics and by Protestants blessings may be applied to things inanimate as well as animate; but while in the reformed Churches this involves no more than an appeal to God for a special blessing, or a solemn "setting apart" of persons or objects for sacred purpoes, in the Catholic idea it implies a special power, conferred by God, of the priests over the invisible forces of evil.Advertisement
Protestants have condemned these formulae as so much magic, and in this modern science tends to agree with them; but to orthodox Protestants at least Catholics have a perfect right to reply that, in taking this line, they are but repeating the accusation brought by the Pharisees against Christ, viz.
From the end of the 16th century the inheritors of the Hussite tradition in Bohemia were included in the more general name of "Protestants" borne by the adherents of the Reformation.
According to religion 92.47% of the inhabitants were Roman Catholics; 5.7% were Jews; 2.11% were Protestants and the remainder belonged to the Greek church.
Compulsory and gratuitous schooling for the Protestants had been enforced in Livonia since 1860, and in Courland since 1875.
Religion.-Seventy-five per cent at least of the Letts are Protestants, but there is a Catholic majority in Latgalia and a number of Greek Orthodox among the Letts.Advertisement
On the other hand, the Protestants universally adhered to the opinion that only the books in the Hebrew collection are canonical.
Not including the city of Rio de Janeiro, whose population was estimated at 691,565 in conformity with a special municipal census of 1906, the total population was 16,626,991, of which 15,572,671 were Roman Catholics, 177,727 Protestants, 876,593 of other faiths.
The census of 1890 divided the population into 14,179,615 Roman Catholics, 1 43,743 Protestants, 3300 of all other faiths, 7257 of no religious profession, and 600,000 unchristianized Indians.
The Protestant contingent consists of a number of small congregations scattered throughout the country, a few Portuguese Protestants from the Azores, a part of the German colonists settled in the central and southern states, and a large percentage of the North Europeans and Americans temporarily resident in Brazil.
Many of them were forced by his tyranny to return to France; and ten thousand Protestants, ready to embark for the new colony, were deterred by their representations.Advertisement
The majority of the white inhabitants are Protestants, the bodies with the largest number of adherents being the Anglicans, Dutch Reformed Church, Presbyterians and Wesleyans.
Their reigns synchronized with the Thirty Years' War, during which the emperors were never in a position seriously to withstand the attacks of the malcontent Magyars, the vast majority of whom were still Protestants, who naturally looked upon the Transylvanian princes as their protectors and joined them in thousands whenever they raided Moravia or Lower Austria, or threatened to advance upon Vienna.
Three times he waged war on the emperor, twice he was proclaimed king of Hungary, and by the peace of Nikolsburg (Dec. 31, 1621) he obtained for the Protestants a confirmation of the treaty of Vienna, and for himself seven additional counties in northern Hungary besides other substantial advantages.
Even as late as 1622 the Protestants at the diet of Pressburg were strong enough to elect their candidate, Szaniszl6 Thurz6, palatine.
It was replied that Hungary was outside the operation of the treaty of Westphalia, and that the Protestants had been condemned not ex odio religionis but crimine rebellions.
Between 1678 and 1682 Tokoli waged three wars with Leopold, and, in September 1682, was acknowledged both by the emperor and the sultan as prince of North Hungary as far as the river Garam, to the great relief of the Magyar Protestants.
Among the Protestants who exerted themselves in theological and controversial writings were Nemeti, Alvinczy, Alexander Felvinczy, Martonfalvi and Melotai, who was attached to the court of Bethlen Gabor.
In 1760 he published a work entitled Les Toulousaines, advocating the rights of the Protestants; and he afterwards established at Paris an agency for collecting information as to their sufferings, and for exciting general interest in their cause.
No official record of his consecration can be discovered, but there is no sufficient reason to doubt the fact; and it is certain that during his lifetime he was acknowledged as a canonical bishop both by Roman Catholics and by Protestants.
Close by the park there stood, until the 19th century, a house believed to have belonged to the notorious Bishop Bonner, the persecutor of Protestants in the reign of Mary; his name is still attached to a street here.
As regards religion, the inhabitants are fairly equally distributed into Roman Catholics and Protestants.
The great majority of the inhabitants were Protestants, but the family which succeeded in 1685 belonged to the Roman Catholic Church.
Philip William, however, gave equal rights to all his subjects, but under his son and successor, the elector John William, the Protestants were deprived of various civil rights until the intervention of Prussia and of Brunswick in 1705 gave them some redress.
Another historic part filled by Amyraut was in the negotiations originated by Pierre le Gouz de la Berchere (1600-1653), first president of the parlement of Grenoble, when exiled to Saumur, for a reconciliation and reunion of the Catholics of France with the French Protestants.
They were recruited largely, but not solely, from among the Roman Catholics, and the Protestants among them were often identical with the NonJurors.
About 93% are Protestants, 6% Roman Catholics, and only 2% Jews.
Protestants of the Augsburg and Helvetic Confessions numbered 54,364; members of the Church of England, 49 o; Old Catholics, 975; members of the Greek Orthodox Church, 3674; Greek Catholics, 2521; and Mahommedans, 889.
In 1900 it contained 11,532 inhabitants, of whom 9288 were German-speaking, 1466 Romonsch-speaking, and 677 Italianspeaking; while 7561 were Protestants, 3962 Romanists and one a Jew.
In 1900 the population was 8404, practically all Protestants and German-speaking.
The column in the centre of the square was erected in 1638, to commemorate the defeat of the Protestants near Prague by the Bavarians during the Thirty Years' War.
Of the population, 84% are Roman Catholic, 14% Protestants, and 2% Jews.
It was also complicated by racial and religious prejudices, a large proportion of the factory operatives being foreigners and Roman Catholics, and most of the country people native Protestants.
His scheme for the establishment of a university which should satisfy both Roman Catholics and Protestants met with general disapproval.
The population of Frankfort has steadily increased since the beginning of the 19th century; it amounted in 1817 to 41,458; (1840) 55,269; (1864) 77,372; (1871) 59, 26 5; (1875) 103,136; (1890) 179,985; and (1905), including the incorporated suburban districts, 334,951, of whom 175,909 were Protestants, 88,457 Roman Catholics and 21,974 Jews.
He was a bigoted Catholic, and showed to the Protestants even less mercy than his father.
The Protestants number only a little over 13,000, while there are about 2 500 Jews.
At least 30,000 Protestants preferred exile, and it was not till the edict of tolerance of 1781 granted by Joseph II.
At the same time he did not argue for the complete abolition of the tests, but desired that they should be so framed as to make it possible for most Protestants conscientiously to subscribe to them.
Kovno and Suvalki provinces Roman Catholics make up 75.2% of the population, Jews 12.5%, Orthodox 8.9% and Protestants and Calvinists 3.5%.
The crowd, which collected on so shocking a discovery, took up the idea that he had been strangled by the family to prevent him from changing his religion, and that this was a common practice among Protestants.
He showed great ability in diplomacy, particularly in organizing the Protestants.
Their position is curiously akin to that outlined by William Chillingworth in his famous work The Religion of Protestants (1637-1638).
This decision was at once challenged, on the 19th of April, by the protest of the Evangelical states (whence the name Protestants); and the effect of this disclaimer was not small.
His reputation among Protestants was at the time so bad that he was charged with the authorship of the treatise De tribus impostoribus, as well as with having carried his alleged approval of polygamy into practice.
In the same year he retired from parliament but re-entered it in 1853, and was till 1872 the chief representative of the English-speaking Protestants of Quebec province.
Laud, now archbishop of Canterbury, was not a little solicitous about Chillingworth's reply to Knott, and at his request, as "the young man had given cause why a more watchful eye should be held over him and his writings," it was examined by the vicechancellor of Oxford and two professors of divinity, and published with their approbation in 1637, with the title The Religion of Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation.
The Religion of Protestants is characterized by much fairness and acuteness of argument, and was commended by Locke as a discipline of "perspicuity and the way of right reasoning."
But after the great defeat of the Protestants in 1547, in the battle of Muhlberg, the city found itself quite isolated in southern Germany.
The religious views of Servetus, marked by strong individuality, are not easily described in terms of current systems. His denial of the tripersonality of the Godhead and the eternity of the Son, along with his anabaptism, made his system abhorrent to Catholics and Protestants alike, in spite of his intense Biblicism, his passionate devotion to the person of Christ, and his Christocentric scheme of the universe.
Having failed to rouse Spain and Venice against the Turks, Gregory attempted to form a general coalition against the Protestants.
By habit a Catholic, but above all things fond of power, she was determined to prevent the Protestants from getting the upper hand, and almost equally resolved not to allow them to be utterly crushed, in order to use them as a counterpoise to the Guises.
She conceived the project of marrying her favourite son, the duke of Anjou, to Queen Elizabeth of England, and her daughter Margaret to Henry of Navarre, To this end she became reconciled with the Protestants, and allowed Coligny to return to court and to re-enter the council.
It might not be easy to formulate precisely the doctrines for which he died, and certainly some of them, as, for example, that regarding the church, were such as many Protestants even would regard as unguarded and difficult to harmonize with the maintenance of external church order; but his is undoubtedly the honour of having been the chief intermediary in handing on from Wycliffe to Luther the torch which kindled the Reformation, and of having been one of the bravest of the martyrs who have died in the cause of honesty and freedom, of progress and of growth towards the light.
He employed extreme measures against the pamphleteers of the time, but sought peace in Italy and with the Protestants.
In order to justify his newly-won laurels, Luynes undertook an expedition against the Protestants, but died of a fever in the midst of the campaign, at Longueville in Guienne, on the 15th of December 1621.
They thus differ little from orthodox Protestants of other denominations, and in general are prepared to co-operate with them on equal terms.
After this the " French " slowly concentrated in Buddu in the south, the Protestants migrating thence.
By increasing the territory of the Roman Catholics, and giving them estates on the road from Buddu to the capital, Portal gave effect to projects which the Protestants had violently opposed.
It has 3077 inhabitants, all German-speaking and Protestants.
The conflicts between Catholics and Protestants speedily merged into the chronic political rivalries, domestic and foreign, which distracted the European states; and religious considerations played a very important part in diplomacy and war for at least a century and a half, from the diet of Augsburg in 1530 to the English revolution and the league of Augsburg, 1688-89.
It may well be that his picture is too bright, and that in his obvious anxiety to prove the needlessness of an ecclesiastical revolution he has gone to the opposite extreme from the Protestants.
A few of the humanists became Protestants - Melanchthon, Bucer, Oecolampadius and others - but the great majority of them, even if attracted for the moment by Luther's denunciation of scholasticism, speedily repudiated the movement.
It was his anxiety to remove everything that obscured this central idea which led him to revolt against the ancient Church, and this conception of faith served, when he became leader of the German Protestants, as a touchstone to test the expediency of every innovation.
Those who signed this appeal were called Protestants, a name which came to be generally applied to those who rejected the supremacy of the pope, the Roman Catholic conceptions of the clergy and of the Mass, and discarded sundry practices of the older Church, without, however, repudiating the Catholic creeds.
The Protestants were requested to submit a statement of their opinions, and on June 25th the " Augsburg Confession " was read to the diet.
In the first part of the confession the Protestants seek to prove that there is nothing in their doctrines at variance with those of the universal Church " or even of the Roman Church so far as that appears in the writings of the Fathers."
The majority of the diet approved a recess, allowing the Protestants a brief period of immunity until the 15th of April 1531, after which they were to be put down by force.
All Church property was to be restored, and, perhaps most important of all, the jurisdiction of the Imperial court (Reichskammergericht), which was naturally Catholic in its sympathies, was extended to appeals involving the seizure of ecclesiastical benefices, contempt of episcopal decisions and other matters deeply affecting the Protestants.
In November the Protestants formed the Schmalkaldic League, which, after the death of Zwingli, in 1531, was joined by a number of the South German towns.
The period of immunity assigned to the Protestants passed by;.
It was clear from the first that the decisions of the council would be uncompromising in character, and that the Protestants would certainly refuse to be bound by its decrees.
The very first anathemas of the council were directed against those innovations which the Protestants had most at heart.
The alliance of England and the Scottish Protestants against the French, and the common secession from the papal monarchy, was in a sense the foundation and beginning of Great Britain.
A council held at Sens, 1528-29, approved all those doctrines of the old Church which the Protestants were attacking, and satisfied itself with enumerating a list of necessary conservative reforms.
After a fierce attack on Protestants caused by the mutilation of a statue of the Virgin, in 1528, the king, anxious to con ciliate both the German Protestants and anti-papal England, invited some of the reformers of Meaux to preach in the Louvre.
Calvin's book furnished the Protestants not only with a compact and admirably written handbook of theology, vigorous and clear, but with a system of Church government and a code of morals.
While hundreds were imprisoned or burned, Protestants seemed steadily to increase in numbers, and finally only the expostulations of the parlement of Paris prevented the king from introducing the Inquisition in France in accordance with the wishes of the pope and the cardinal of Lorraine.
Notwithstanding these measures for their extermination, the French Protestants were proceeding to organize a church in accordance with the conceptions of the early Christian communities as Calvin described them in his Institutes.
Du Bourg and others ventured warmly to defend the Protestants in the parlement of Paris in the very presence of the king and of the cardinal of Lorraine.
Persecution was revived by the Guises; Du Bourg, the brave defender of the Protestants, was burned as a heretic; yet Calvin could in the closing years of his life form a cheerful estimate that some three hundred thousand of his countrymen had been won over to his views.
Catherine, who had promoted these measures, cared nothing for the Protestants, but desired the support of the Bourbon princes.
Protestants were placed upon a political equality and made eligible to all public offices.
But in Servetus, whose execution he approved, we find an isolated, feeble revolt against assumptions which both Catholics and Protestants of all shades accepted without question.
Faith was not belief in authoritative teachings; it was trust in the promises of God and in Jesus was apt to seem intangible, and the influence of the learned tradition was strong - for a time, indeed, doctrine was more cultivated among Protestants than in the Church of Rome.
Perhaps the Roman theologians of that age were more concerned than the Protestants to draw a line round necessary truths.
Church traditions are infallible; and church dogmas reach us (from the original revelation) through an infallible medium, the Catholic Church, which the Protestants sadly lack.
While Protestants, he thinks, have undermined it by a deeper conception of faith,' Roman Catholics have come to attach more value to obedience and " implicit belief " than to knowledge; and even the Eastern Church lives to-day by the cultus more than by the vision of supernatural truth.
His most distinctive doctrine is perhaps his theory of the sacrament, which involved him and his followers in a long and, on Luther's part, an acrimonious dispute with the German Protestants.
The total population in 1900 was 206,498, almost exclusively German-speaking, but numbering 114,176 Protestants to 91,039 Romanists and 990 Jews.
Some time after a copy of the order of the new monarchs (William and Mary) to continue all Protestants in their offices in the colonies had been received, Leisler falsely announced that he had received a commission as lieutenant-governor.
Roman Catholics number 51.4% and Protestants 46.6% of the population, and there are 16,000 Jews.
Classified according to religion there were, in 1904, 372,078 Protestants, 1,310,391 Roman Catholics, and 32,379 Jews.
All the churches named have missions to the natives, and in 1904, 104,389 aboriginals and 10,909 persons of mixed race were returned as Protestants, and 1093 aboriginals and 117 of mixed race as Roman Catholics.
Roman Catholics are more numerous in Montana than Protestants, having 72,359 communicants out of a total of 98,984 of all denominations in 1906, when there were 7022 Methodists, 4096 Presbyterians, 3290 Protestant Episcopalians and 2029 Baptists.
About 94% of the inhabitants of Saxony are Protestants; about 12,500 are Jews, and about 4.7%, including the royal family, are Roman Catholics.
He refused the proffered crown of Bohemia, and, when the Bohemian Protestants elected a Calvinist prince, he assisted the emperor against them with men and money.
No change followed in the internal affairs of the new kingdom, except that Roman Catholics were admitted to equal privileges with Protestants.
There are very few Protestants.
Finally, ample scope for the display of tolerance - or intolerance - is found in the mixed marriages between Protestants and Catholics, which, as a result of the modern facilities for intercommunication and the consequent greater mobility of the population, have shown a large increase during the last few decades - in Germany, for instance.
His lectures drew large audiences, including many Protestants.
The liberal school of thought of which Mohler was a prominent exponent was discouraged in official circles, while Protestants, on the other hand, complain that the author failed to grasp thoroughly the significance of the Reformation as a great movement in the spiritual history of mankind, while needlessly dwelling on the doctrinal shortcomings, inconsistencies and contradictions of its leaders.
Notwithstanding the opposition of the Protestants and nobles of France, the queen carried through her purpose and the marriages were concluded in 1615.
It not only brought him into unremitting conflict with the Protestants and the nobles of France, but also made him the enemy of his mother, of his brother Gaston of Orleans, who made himself the champion of the cause of the nobles, and sometimes even of his wife.
The missionaries in Siam are entirely French Roman Catholics and American Protestants.
He strove to blot out the memory of the Huguenot connexions of his house by affecting the greatest zeal against Protestants.
Island Magee had, besides antiquarian remains, a notoriety as a home of witchcraft, and was the scene of an act of reprisal for the muchdisputed massacre of Protestants about 1641, by the soldiery of Carrickfergus.
One result of this foreign immigration, particularly from France and Italy, has been the rapid increase of Romanists, who now form the majority in the canton, while in the city they were still slightly less numerous than the Protestants in 1900; later (local) statistics give in the Canton 75,400 Romanists to 64,200 Protestants, and in the city 52,638 Romanists to 51,221 Protestants.
Protestants, in rejecting the sacrifice of the mass, deny also that there is a Christian priesthood " like the Levitical," and have either dropped the name of " priest" or use it in a quite emasculated sense.
The Protestants number about one million, the largest body being the Evangelical Church in Slovakia with a membership of over 400,000.
The intolerance shown to the Protestants, the troubles of the Thirty Years' War, the plague and other causes, soon conspired to change this state of affairs, and in the 18th century the population sank to 12,000.
Rudolph now sought the aid of the princes of the empire, and even of the Protestants; but he had met with no success in this direction when trouble arose in Bohemia.
For a time, therefore, the Protestants had to be cautious in Poland proper, but they found a sure refuge in Prussia, where Lutheranism was already the established religion, and where the newly erected university of Konigsberg became a seminary for Polish ministers and preachers.
Soon the Protestants became numerous enough to form ecclesiastical districts of their own.
In the diet itself the Protestants were absolutely supreme, and invariably elected a Calvinist to be their marshal.
In Poland proper the szlachta were fiercely opposed to the magnates; and the Protestants seemed bent upon still further castigating the clergy.
But, at the beginning of the 17th century, when the current of the Catholic reaction was running very strongly and the Jesuits, after subduing the Protestants, began to undermine the position of the Orthodox Church in Lithuania, a more intolerant spirit 1 Cf.
Half of these were the Protestants of the towns of Polish Prussia and Great Poland, the other half was composed of the Orthodox population of Lithuania.
Besides extirpating the various sects of Protestants, they also busied themselves with destroying the Greek Church in Lithuania.
A Socinian Bible was issued by Simon Budny in 1570 at Nieswiez, as he professed to find many faults in the version issued under the patronage of Radziwill; in 1597 appeared the Roman Catholic version of the Jesuit Wujek; and in 1632 the so-called Danzig Bible, which is in use among Protestants and is still the most frequently reprinted.
Hence the necessity for outward conformity, and the importance attached to ritual and ceremony, unity in which must be established at all costs, in contrast to dogma and doctrine, in which he showed himself lenient and large-minded, winning over Hales by friendly discussion, and encouraging the publication of Chillingworth's Religion of Protestants.
Hall presents the policy of this king in a very favourable light and shows his own sympathy with the Protestants.
But the peace of Crespy and the emperor's negotiations with the Protestants (1544) turned him against Charles, and he was suspected of desiring his defeat in the Schmalkaldic War.
When, therefore, the breach came, and the struggle between reformers and conservatives within the undivided Church was transformed into a struggle between Protestants and Romanists, it was inevitable that the authority which in the previous centuries had been ascribed to the Church 1 E.g.
From cover to cover the whole New Testament was regarded at the beginning of the 18th century by almost all Protestants as the infallible revelation of the true religion.
The compromise that resulted from these conflicting forces suited Elizabeth very well; she had little dislike of Catholics who repudiated the papacy, but she was forced to rely mainly on Protestants, and had little respect for any form of ecclesiastical self-government.
She could not afford to recognize Mary's claim, for that would have been to alienate the Protestants, double the number of Catholics, and, in her own phrase, to spread a winding-sheet before her eyes; for all would have turned to the rising sun.
Of the other religious communities, the most important are the Protestants, numbering 3000, and the Buddhists, about 250.
There was nothing heroic about Cecil or his policy; it involved a callous attitude towards struggling Protestants abroad.
Generally he was in favour of more decided intervention on behalf of continental Protestants than Elizabeth would admit; but it is not always easy to ascertain the advice he gave.
The people of Mexico are almost wholly of the Roman Catholic faith, the census of 1900 returning 13,533,013 communicants of that church, 51,795 Protestants (in great part foreigners), 3811 of other faiths, and 18,640 of no faith.
He continued to urge the necessity of more vigorous intervention on behalf of the Protestants abroad, though now his clients were the Dutch rather than the Huguenots.
By an act passed in 1873, known as Fawcett's Act, all tests were abolished, and the prizes and honours of all grades hitherto reserved for Protestants of the Established Church were thrown open to all.
The governor of the city, Colonel Luttrell, at the same time issued a proclamation ordering all Protestants not housekeepers, excepting those following some trade, to depart from the city within 24 hours, under pain of death or imprisonment, and in various ways restricting those who were allowed.
At the Reformation the chasuble was rejected with the other vestments by the more extreme Protestants.
In 1850 Pierce became president of a convention assembled at Concord to revise the constitution of his state, and used his influence to secure the removal of those provisions of the constitution of 1792 which declared that only Protestants should be eligible for higher state offices.
Almost all of these were Protestants.
The statistics of communicants or members are defective, and because of the different organization in this respect of different bcdies, notably of the Protestants and Roman Catholics, comparisons are more or less misleading.
Disregarding, however, such incomparability, but excluding 15% of all Roman Catholics (for children under 9 years of age), the total number of church members was 32,936,445, of whom 61.6% were Protestants, 36.7% Roman Catholics and 1.7% members of other churches.
In this particular they very largely understate the number of Hebrews, whose communicants (0.3%) are heads of families only, and largely of the Protestants; whereas they represent practically the total Roman Catholic population above 9 years of age.
So also the immigration of French Canadians and of Irish explains the fact that in every state of one-time Puritan New England the Roman Catholics were a majority over Protestants and all other churches.
The "six towns" were severely punished for their share in the war of the league of Schmalkalden, and about this time the reformed teaching made very rapid progress in Lusatia, the majority of the inhabitants becoming Protestants.
This matter of the king's marriage was of great political importance, the Protestants and the Catholics being equally interested in the issue.
The Polish Protestants hoped that he would take this course and thus bring about a breach with Rome at the very crisis of the confessional struggle in Poland, while the Habsburgs, who coveted the Polish throne, raised every obstacle to the childless king's remarriage.
The exclusiveness with which they were favoured, and their high-handed proceedings, awakened the resentment of the princes of the blood, Anthony king of Navarre and Louis prince of Conde, who gave their countenance to a conspiracy (conspiracy of Amboise) with the Protestants against the house of Guise.
In March 1825 he was created cardinal by Leo XII., and shortly afterwards was entrusted with an important mission to adjust a concordat regarding the interests of the Catholics of Belgium and the Protestants of Holland.
The royal house belongs to the Roman Catholic confession, but the bulk of the inhabitants are Lutheran Protestants.
He took part, with much charity and mildness, in the Oxford disputes against Cranmer, Latimer and Ridley; but he had no liking for the fierce bigotry and bloody measures then in force against Protestants.
Feckenham used all his influence with Mary "to procure pardon of the faults or mitigation of the punishment for poor Protestants" (Fuller), and he was sent by the queen to prepare Lady Jane Grey for death.
About threefifths of the Hawaiians and nearly all of American, British or North European descent are Protestants.
In considering the origins of medieval churches, moreover, it must be borne in mind that as a general rule their builders were not actuated by the motives usual in modern times, at least among Protestants.
The Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555) recognized no Protestants save adherents of the Confession; this was modified in 1648.
It satisfied neither Catholics nor Protestants.
The discussions were approved by the pope and the emperor, but had no popular feeling behind them, and though the negotiations were continued for ten years, especially between Molanus on the one side and Bossuet on the other, no agreement was reached, for the Protestants could not accept the Council of Trent as authoritative or surrender the matter of communion under both species.
From the Grisons, who favoured France and Venice, Spain seized the Valtelline in 1620, incidentally uprooting heresy there by the massacre of six hundred Protestants.
In Holland the expiration of the Twelve Years' Truce in 1621 forced the Dutch Protestants once more to gird on the sword.
Allied with the Liberals against the orthodox Protestants, who were threatening religious liberty, the Catholics assisted in 1857 to establish a system of non-sectarian state schools, where attendance is not obligatory nor instruction gratuitous.
The cool reception his endeavours, met with, both at the hands of the French ecclesiastics as well as in Rome, satisfied Bismarck " that the papal hierarchy lacked either the power or the good will to afford Germany assistance of sufficient value to make it worth while giving umbrage to both the German Protestants and the Italian national party, and risking a reaction of the latter upon the future relations between the two countries, which would be the inevitable result were Germany openly to espouse the papal cause in Rome."
Moreover, in the industrial districts of Germany, for example, the Christian industrial movement, supported by Protestants and Catholics alike, had achieved considerable results, and proved a serviceable means of combating the seductions of Socialism.
Pop. (1900) 35,968 (only 13,659 in 1850); (1905) 38,700, mainly French-speaking and Protestants; of the 6114 "Catholics" the majority are "Old Catholics."
At the census of 1905 the population of Silesia was 4,942,611, of whom 2,120,361 were Protestants, 2,765,394 Catholics and 46,845 Jews.
The Roman Catholics, most of whom are under the ecclesiastical sway of the prince bishop of Breslau, are predominant in Upper Silesia and Glatz; the Protestants prevail in Lower Silesia, to the west of the Oder, and in Lusatia.
According to religion, 84.73 were Roman Catholics, 14% Protestants and the remainder were Jews.
In 1906 the total number of communicants of different religious denominations in the state was 2,977,022, of whom 1,717,037 were Protestants and 1,214,734 were Roman Catholics.
Among continental Protestants its tradition has been more tenaciously maintained.
All his divines are Protestants.
He was called by his adversaries "the Goliath of the Protestants."
He skilfully took advantage of the alarm of the German Protestants after the battle of White Hill in 1620, to secure the coadjutorship to the see of Bremen for his son Frederick (September 1621), a step followed in November by a similar arrangement as to Werden; while Hamburg by the compact of Steinburg (July 1621) was induced to acknowledge the Danish overlordship of Holstein.
It may be noticed that while the Austrian branch excludes any other than Roman Catholics from the order, the Spanish Fleece may be granted to Protestants.
At the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War Sigismund prudently leagued with the emperor to counterpoise the united efforts of the Turks and the Protestants.
The French Protestants support the Societe des Missions Evangeliques, founded in 1822.
In the Carolines and Marshalls it has now largely passed to German missionaries, the Americans having enough to do in the Philippines, where there are already over 27,000 Protestants.
In 1866 there were not more than loo Christians; official returns in 1910 show 178,686 Protestants, including 72,000 church members and probationers; and 72,290 Roman Catholics.
The geographical position of electoral Saxony hardly less than her high standing among the German Protestants gave her ruler much importance during the Thirty Years' War.
But John George's reluctance to join the Protestants disappeared when the imperial troops under Tilly began to ravage Saxony, and in September 1631 he concluded an alliance with the Swedish king.
The districts of Lower Bavaria, Upper Bavaria and the Upper Palatinate are almost wholly Roman Catholic, while in the Rhine Palatinate, Upper Franconia, and especially Middle Franconia, the preponderance is on the side of the Protestants.
The Protestants have the same civil rights as the Roman Catholics, and the sovereign may be either Roman Catholic or Protestant.
Among the Protestants the highest authority is the general consistory of Munich.
By additional articles the equality of religions was guaranteed and the rights of Protestants safeguarded, concessions which were denounced at Rome as a breach of the Concordat, which had been signed immediately before.
The Jesuits now gained the upper hand; one by one the liberal provisions of the constitution were modified or annulled; the Protestants were harried and oppressed; and a rigorous censorship forbade any free discussion of internal politics.
In 1900 the total population of the canton was 589,433, of whom 483,388 were German-speaking, 97,789 French-speaking, and 7167 Italian-speaking; while there were 506,699 Protestants, 80,489 Romanists (including the Old Catholics), and 1543 Jews.
But Anjou was a Catholic, and this fact aroused among the Protestants a feeling that they were being betrayed.
The Protestants of Germany were on the point of being crushed by the forces of the Austrian Habsburgs and the Catholic League.
The Belgians were strict Catholics, the Dutch Calvinistic Protestants.
He approved of the "Petition and Advice," only objecting to the conferring of the title of king on Cromwell; became a member of the new House of Lords; and supported ardently Cromwell's foreign policy in Europe, based on religious divisions, and his defence of the Protestants persecuted abroad.
In 1900 its population (including the neighbouring villages) was 7761, mainly German-speaking, while there were 5563 Protestants to 2188 Romanists.
The population of the Rhine province in 1905 was 6,435,778, including 4,47 2,058 Roman Catholics, 1,877,582 Protestants and 55,408 Jews.
It is computed that there are 10,000 Protestants (half English) and 5000 Jews, and that all the rest are Catholics.
These measures for the furthering of education among the people on the part of a government mainly composed of Protestants were received with suspicion and disfavour by the priests, and still more the attempts subsequently made to regulate the education of the priests themselves.
Protestants (mostly Lutherans) amount to 6%, while about 5% are members of the Orthodox Greek Church.
At the Reformation (1561) the fabric was greatly injured by the 5th earl of Glencairn and the Protestants, who dismantled the altar, stripped the church of images and relics, and are even alleged to have burnt it.
Conspicuous as a champion of orthodoxy against atheists, Jews and Protestants - without resigning this position, and still upholding practical orthodoxy - Charron suddenly stood forth as the representative of the most complete intellectual scepticism.
It is difficult, indeed, to blame the burghers for resisting the dubious reforming efforts of Hermann of Wied, archbishop from 1515 to 1546, inspired mainly by secular ambitions; but the expulsion of the Jews in 1414, and still more the exclusion, under Jesuit influence, of Protestants from the right to acquire citizenship, and from the magistracy, dealt severe blows at the prosperity of the place.
The rebellion put an end to the growing reconciliation between Roman Catholics and Protestants; religious passions were now violently inflamed, and the Orangemen and Catholics divided the island into two hostile factions.
Pop.(1905) 2 3, 2 37 (43% Protestants), including a considerable garrison.
At the pope's instigation he recommenced persecution some years later, but his duchess and some German princes pleaded successfully in favour of the Protestants.
Where a sovereign rules over a state containing a large proportion of both Catholics and Protestants, which is usually the case, both systems coexist.
According to the religious census of 1900 there were in the German empire- 35,231,104 Evangelical Protestants, 20,327,913 Roman Catholics, 6472 Greek Orthodox, 203,678 Christians belonging to other confessions, 586,948 Jews, f 1,597 members of other sects and 5938 unclassified, The Christians belonging to other confessions include Moravian Brethren, Mennonites, Baptists, Methodists and Quakers, German Catholics, Old Catholics, &c. The table on following page shows the distribution of the population according to religious beliefs as furnished by the census of 1900.
Almost two-thirds of the population belong to the Evangelical Church, and rather more than a third to the Church of Rome; the actual figures (based on the census of 1900) being (%) Evangelical Protestants, 62.5; Roman Catholics, 36.1; Dissenters and others, .043, and Jews, fO.
The Protestants have not increased proportionately in number since 1890, while the Roman Catholics show a small relative increase.
On this point it must be borne in mind that the population of the larger towns, on account of the greater mobility of the population since the introduction of railways and the abolition of restrictions upon free settlement, has become more mixedBerlin, Leipzig, Hamburg, &c., showing proportionally more Roman Catholics, and Cologne, Frankfort-onMain, Munich more Protestants than formerly.
Here the average proportion of Protestants to Roman Catholics is two to one.
He must have men and money for this purpose even at the price of an arrangement with the Protestants.
Under these circumstances the emperor took the matter into his own hands, and his negotiations with the Protestants resulted in July 1532 in the religious peace of Nurernberg, a measure which granted temporary toleration to the Lutherans and which was repeatedly confirmed in the following years.
All the states and cities which subscribed to the confession of Augsburg were admitted to it, and thus a large number of Protestants, including the duchies of Wurttemberg and Pomerania and the cities of Augsburg and Frankfort, secured a needful protection against the decrees of the Reichskammergeric/it, which the league again repudiated.
In 1539, too, the Protestants received a great accession of strength, the Lutheran prince Henry succeeding his Romanist brother George as duke of Saxony.
The Protestants were now at the height of their power, but their ascendancy was about to be destroyed, and that rather by the folly and imprudence of their leaders than by the skill and valour of their foes.
The emperor, however, was unable, or unwilling, to make a more general attack on the Protestants.
At the diet of Spires in 1544 Charles purchased military assistance from the Protestants by making lavish promises to them.
Turkey and France were again threatening war, and although the council had returned to Trent it seemed less likely than ever to satisfy the Protestants.
Although in all probability numerically superior at this time to the Romanists, the Protestants were weakened by divisions, which were becoming daily more pronounced and more serious, and partly owing to this fact the emperor was able to resist the demands of each party and to moderate their excesses.
With regard to the religious question efforts were made to compose the differences among the Protestants; but while these ended in failure the Roman Catholics were gaining ground.
Catholics urged the enforcement of the decrees of the council of Trent the serious differences among the Protestants received fresh proof from the attempt made to exclude the Calvinist prince Frederick III., elector palatine of the Rhine, from the benefits of the peace of Augsburg.
After this Frederick and the Calvinists looked for sympathy more and more to the Protestants in France and the Netherlands, whom they assisted with troops, while the Lutherans, whose chief prince was Augustus, elector of Saxony, adopted a more cautious policy and were anxious not to offend the emperor.
Spreading their advanced religious views, these settlers were partly responsible for two serious outbreaks of disorder, At Aix-laChapelle the Protestants, not being allowed freedom of worship, took possession of the city in 1581.
A short time afterwards the militant party among the Protestants suffered a heavy loss by the death of their leader, John Casimir, whose policy, however, was continued by his nephew and pupil, the elector Frederick IV.
But neither desertion nor death was able to crush entirely the militant Protestants, among whom Christian, prince of Anhalt (1568-1630), was rapidly becoming the most prominent figure.
This ordered the restoration of all ecclesiastical lands which had come into the possession of the Protestants since the peace stein, of Passau in.
At first this great king was coldly received by the Protestants, who were ignorant of his designs and did not want a stranger to profit by the internal disputes of their country.
Wurzburg and Frankfort were among the cities which opened their gates to the Swedish king as the deliverer of the Protestants; several princes sought his alliance, and, making the captured city of Mainz his headquarters, he was busily engaged for some months in resting and strengthening his army and in negotiating about the future conduct of the war.
The Roman Catholic princes of the Empire were to be represented at Munster and the Protestants at Osnabruck.
This was the sole advantage gained from the war by the Protestants.
The Protestants responded by demanding that they should lose nothing which they had held before 1618, when the war began.
The opposition of the bishops to these laws was supported even by many Protestants, especially by the more orthodox Lutherans, who feared the effect of this increased subjection of all churches to the state; they were opposed also by the Conservative members of the Upper House.
A similar movement began among the Protestants after the commercial crisis of 1873, which forms an epoch in German thought, since it was from that year that men first began to question the economic doctrines of Liberalism, and drew attention to the demoralization which seemed to arise from the freedom of speculation and the influence of the stock exchangea movement which in later years led to some remarkable attempts to remedy the evil by legislation.
The Protestants eagerly sought out the writings which exposed and denounced the arrogance of the popes, while the Romanists attempted to counter them with the numerous lives of the saints.
His speech in favour of reserving to the crown the right of absolute veto under the new constitution drew down upon him the wrath of the advanced politicians of the Palais Royal; but in spite of threats and abuse he continued to advocate a moderate liberal policy, especially in the matter of removing the political disabilities of Jews and Protestants and of extending the system of trial by jury.
In the civil wars, from 1641, Carrickfergus was one of the chief places of refuge for the Protestants of the county of Antrim; and on the 10th of June 1642, the first Presbytery held in Ireland met here.
Under certain conditions, Protestants and coloured persons may also claim separate schools, but of these only four or five exist.
It is the seat of a Greek Orthodox (Rumanian) archbishop, and of the superintendent of the Protestants for the Transylvanian circle.
During Charles V.'s struggles with the German Protestants, Ferdinand preserved a neutral attitude, which contributed to gain Germany a short period of internal peace.
The next Turkish war was the direct outcome of Leopold's policy in Hungary, where the persecution of the Protestants and the suppression of the constitution in 1658, led to a widespread conspiracy.
This was mercilessly suppressed; and though after a period of arbitrary government (1672-1679), the palatinate and the constitution, with certain concessions to the Protestants, were restored, the discontent continued.
Thanks to its presence the Armenian protestants are a large and rich community, which suffered less in the massacre of 1895 than the Gregorians.
He therefore took counsel merely with his interest as a temporal prince, threw in his lot with France, supported the duke of Nevers in the Mantuan Succession, and, under stress of ' fear of Habsburg supremacy, suffered himself to be drawn into closer relations with the Protestants than beseemed his office, and incurred the reproach of rejoicing in the victories of heretics.
Later, in keeping with his position, he opposed all concessions to the Protestants; but still showed himself so vacillating that the papacy ceased to be regarded as a serious political factor, and was entirely ignored in the final settlement of Westphalia, 1648.
His spirit was comprehensive; in confessional matters he was for a union of all Protestants; though a Zwinglian, his readiness to compromise with the advocates of consubstantiation gave him trouble with the Zwinglian stalwarts.
The Magyars are mostly Roman Catholics or Unitarians, the Germans Protestants, and the Rumanians adherents of the Greek Church..
The Union gave a considerable impetus to the manufacture, as did also the establishment of the Board of Manufactures in 1727, which applied an annual sum of £2650 to its encouragement, and in 1729 established a colony of French Protestants in Edinburgh, on the site of the present Picardy Place, to teach the spinning and weaving of cambric. From the 1st of November 1727 to the 1st of November 1728 the amount of linen cloth stamped was 2,183,978 yds., valued at £103,312, but for the year ending the 1st of November 1822, when the regulations as to the inspection and stamping of linen ceased, it had increased to 36,268,530 yds., valued at £1,396,296.
The truth of this matter is obscure; our early historians of this age, Protestants like Knox and Pitscottie, with Buchanan and the Catholic Lesley, are seldom to be trusted without documentary corroboration.
The idea of a Spanish marriage excited the wrath of Knox, whose interviews with Mary did nothing but irritate both parties and alienate the politicians from the more enthusiastic Protestants.
Hence Mary summoned the forces of the country, under Bothwell and Huntly; she forgave Murray; the murderers had no aid from the Protestants of Edinburgh, who as before failed them in their need.
Of the total population, civil and military, 578,458 were Magyars, 104,520 were Germans, 25,168 were Slovaks, and the remainder was composed of Croatians, Servians, Rumanians, Russians, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies, &c. According to religion, there were 445,023 Roman Catholics, 5806 Greek Catholics, 4422 Greek Orthodox; 67,319 were Protestants of the Helvetic, and 38,811 were Protestants of the Augsburg Confessions; 168,985 were Jews, and the remainder belonged to various other creeds.
He also repeatedly thwarted the martial ambitions of Gabriel Bethlen, and prevented George Rakoczy I., over whom he had a great influence, from combining with the Turks and the Protestants.
Yet the conference did good; it showed that the Protestants were agreed on all doctrinal points but one.
They met in conference in mid-winter at the little town of Schmalkald, and laid the foundations of what became the powerful Schmalkald League, which effectually protected the Protestants of Germany until it was broken up by the intrigues of the imperial party.
An important Diet of Hungarian Protestants took place here in 1681.
The worst severities of the penal code had been, in a certain measure, relaxed, but the Catholics were still in a state of vassalage, and they were still pariahs compared with the Protestants.
Up to this juncture the question had been in the hands of Grattan and other Protestants, and of a small knot of Catholic nobles and prelates; but their efforts had not accomplished much, and they aimed only at a kind of compromise, which, while conceding their principal claims, would have placed their church in subjection to the state.
In 1900 its total population was 68,497, nearly all German-speaking, while there were 52,763 Protestants, 15,564 Romanists, and 130 Jews.
Although a sturdy Lutheran the elector hoped at one time to unite the Protestants, on whom he continually urged the necessity of giving no cause of offence to their opponents, and he favoured the movement to get rid of the clause in the peace of Augsburg concerning ecclesiastical reservation, which was offensive to many Protestants.
In 1576 he made a serious but unsuccessful attempt to unite the Protestants upon the basis of some articles drawn up at Torgau, which inculcated a strict form of Lutheranism.
To the Roman Catholic Church belong I I %, to the Greek United Church 3.25%, while 2.5% are Protestants.
They numbered at the 1901 census 117,102, and the Protestants 6644.
For primary instruction there are government schools and schools maintained by the Roman Catholics, Protestants and other faiths, to which the government gives grants in aid.
The Roman Catholic scholars number 67.72%; the Protestants 3.80%; Mahommedans 8.37%; and Hindus and others 20.11%.
Mr Taft managed the delicate task of conducting negotiations with the Vatican without arousing the hostility of either Catholics or Protestants.
In 1562 the Protestants did great damage to the building, which was skilfully restored in the early 1 7 th century.
In 1621 the Spanish invasion and persecution of the Protestants robbed him of all he possessed, and drove him into Poland.
It is used by both Protestants and Roman Catholics, an iron screen separating the parts assigned to each.
He must be held largely responsible for the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, but not for the brutal measures applied against the Protestants.
In any case, she came to London and made friends with Joan Bocher, who was already known for heterodoxy, and other Protestants.
In 1900, 59,698 inhabitants were German-speaking; while 57,144 were Protestants, 6087 Romanists (including Old Catholics) and 6J5 Jews.
For Protestants the Bible only now becomes the infallible, inspired authority in faith and morals.
Luther clearly held to the unity of all Christians, and Protestants are agreed in this.
Many Protestants rebelled against this radical departure from the principles of the Reformation and of Biblical Christianity.
Thus a struggle within Protestantism arose, with persecutions of Protestants by Protestants.
Anne was not present on the occasion, having gone to Bath, and this gave rise to a belief that the child was spurious; but it is most probable that James's desire to exclude all Protestants from affairs of state was the real cause.
Nearly all these were Protestants.
Protestants, with the exception of a small minority in the Anglican communion, unanimously reject the doctrine of purgatory, and affirm that "the souls of believers are at their death made perfect in holiness and do immediately pass into glory."
The first blast-furnace in the colony seems to have been owned by Governor Spotswood, and was built and operated at the head of the Rappahannock river about 1715 by a colony of German Protestants.
To Protestants the age of the papal monarchy was like the reign of Anti-Christ.
Once root out abuses with a firm hand, and they believed that a few timely concessions on points of doctrine would tempt most Protestants back within the Roman pale.
The Protestants refused to attend an assembly where even the most conciliatory prelate could hardly condescend to meet them on equal terms. Nor was Pole allowed to use the only possible means of overcoming their reluctance.
There was no longer any question of reconciliation with the Protestants.
Counter - In Italy, though declared Protestants were few, there was widespread sympathy with some of Luther's ideas; a committee of cardinals at Rome was accordingly organized into an Inquisition, with branches at the chief Italian towns.
There the vision of a reunion with the Protestants had haunted many Catholic brains ever since Bossuet and Leibniz had corresponded on the subject.
Of these again 196,907 were Protestants (Evangelical), 86,939 Roman Catholics and 6819 Jews.
Of these, the Tour de Constance, built by Louis IX., is the most interesting; it commands the northwestern angle of the ramparts, and contains two circular, vaulted chambers, used as prisons for Protestants after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
Notre Dame, the old cathedral, originally erected by the prefect of Gaul, was ruined by the Barbarians, rebuilt in the 11th and 12th centuries, and damaged by the Protestants.
Among Protestants there were 6560 Methodists, 2935 Presbyterians and 2331 Baptists.
The same year he was recalled to Bordeaux, where he was appointed the colleague of Dr Primrose; and when Francis Gomarus was removed to Leiden, Cameron, in 1618, was appointed professor of divinity at Saumur, the principal seminary of the French Protestants.
Unlike Pole, however, he seems to have been averse from the excessive persecution of Mary's reign, and no Protestants were burnt in his diocese.
The town was enthusiastic in the cause of the Reformed Religion in the 16th century, and still contains many Protestants.
On the contrary, the cardinal of Lorraine, by his question whether the Calvinists were prepared to sign the Confession of Augsburg, attempted to sow dissension between them and the Lutheran Protestants of Germany, on whose continued support they calculated.
The Catholic delegates, moreover, discovered a powerful auxiliary when Lainez, the general of the Jesuit order, which had been admitted into France a short time previously, entered the debate; and the acrimony with which he opposed the Protestants was of material service in clarifying the situation.
Still a further reduction was made in the number of members, and a small residuum consisting of five Catholics and five Protestants undertook the task of devising a formula on which the two churches might unite with regard to the question of the Communion.
Not only were Catholics and Protestants opposed to them on doctrinal grounds, but the secular powers, fearing that the new teaching was potentially as revolutionary as Munzer's radicalism had been, soon instituted a persecution of the Anabaptists.
This was fgllowed by Through Scylla and Charybdis, in which he developed his favourite view of revelation as experience; Mediaevalism, a vigorous apologia in reply to a Lenten pastoral of Cardinal Mercier, archbishop of Malines, who had attacked him as the chief exponent of Modernism; and Christianity at the Cross Roads, which emphasizes the distinction between his own position and that of the Liberal Protestants, and is of special interest for its treatment of the eschatological problems of the Gospels.
Indifferent to theological, or even to patriotic, considerations, his plans to protect the reformers rested upon two main principles - unity among the Protestants at home and military aid from abroad.
Envoys were sent repeatedly to France, England and Denmark; Turkey and Venice were looked to for assistance; the jealousy felt towards the Habsburgs by the Bavarian Wittelsbachs was skilfully fomented; and the German Protestants were assured that attack was the best, nay the only, means of defence.
In 1529 the la,ndgrave signed the "protest" which was presented to the diet at Spires, being thus one of the original "Protestants;" in 1530 he was among the subscribers to the confession of Augsburg; and the formation of the league of Schmalkalden in the same year was largely due to his energy.
The duchy was quickly overrun, and Henry - a Catholic prince - driven out; but the good understanding between the emperor and the landgrave was destroyed, and the relations between Protestants and Catholics became worse than before.
Although less active than formerly, the landgrave did not cease to intrigue on behalf of the Protestants while continuing the work of reforming and organizing the Church in Hesse.