To Protestantism, faith is personal trust.
In the past many conflicting estimates were made of the character and achievements of the pope during whose pontificate Protestantism first took form.
Protestantism generally, it is to be observed, quite approved the execution of the heretic.
Catholicism increasingly took for granted that a man imperilled his soul by thinking for himself; Protestantism replied that he could certainly lose it, if he left his thinking to another.
In a great sermon on the 10th of April (Easter week) 1588, he stoutly vindicated the Protestantism of the Church of England against the Romanists, and, oddly enough, adduced "Mr Calvin" as a new writer, with lavish praise and affection.
Protestantism took over the superstition from.
Returning to Normandy he was presented to the king by Jacques of Matignon; after he had abjured Protestantism, being again presented by Philip Desportes, abbot of Tiron, as a young man without equal for knowledge and talent, he was appointed reader to the king.
Henry, however, stoutly refused to go further in the direction of German Protestantism, even with the prospect of forwarding the proposed union between him and the princes of the Schmalkaldic League.
It may be added that after the Reformation Arianism was revived in Socinianism, and Pelagianism in Arminianism; but the conception of heresy in Protestantism demands subsequent notice.
Protestantism was clearly becoming inextricably associated with politics of a very intricate sort.
16, 1645), the last political triumph of Hungarian Protestantism, whereby the emperor was forced to confirm once more the oft-broken articles of the peace of Vienna, 1 The counties of Szatmar, Ugocsa and Bereg and the fortress of Tokaj were formally ceded to him.
The procession of the Host on Corpus Christi day became, as it were, a public demonstration of Catholic orthodoxy against Protestantism and later against religious Liberalism.
The Church of Rome prefers medieval or modern statements of its position; Protestantism can use only modern statements.
ANTOINE PERRENOT GRANVELLA, CARDINAL DE (1517-1586), one of the ablest and most influential of the princes of the church during the great political and ecclesiastical movements which immediately followed the appearance of Protestantism in Europe, was born on the 20th of August 1517 at Besancon, where his father, Nicolas Perrenot de Granvella (1484-1550), who afterwards became chancellor of the empire under Charles V., was practising as a lawyer.
Reformation; and most of them were Jesuits, the order that set out to be nothing Protestantism was, and everything that Protestantism was not.
The polemical conception which has done much to perpetuate this confusion is that of the historical continuity of Protestantism from the earliest times.
Full of energy, Amyraut very speedily gave to French Protestantism a new force.
It was not only that she lost many thousands of her best citizens, but this blow against Protestantism deprived her of those Protestant alliances in Europe which had been in the past her great diplomatic support.
Grundsdtzen, 1863-1872) that Protestantism ought not to speak of dogmas at all, except as things of its imperfect past.
Gradually the separation from the church became more complete: the sacraments were regarded as merely symbolical; the priests became helpers of the faithful; ceremonies disappeared; and a new religious society arose equally unlike the medieval church and the Protestantism of the 16th century.
He got an answer couched in somewhat ironical terms to the effect that Protestantism owed its existence in a measure to the house of Saxony, from which the prince descended, seeing that this house and that of the landgrave of Hesse had stood quite alone against Europe in upholding Luther and his cause.
For many years afterwards, Bellarmine was held by Protestant advocates as the champion of the papacy, and a vindication of Protestantism generally took the form of an answer to his works.
He now began to be regarded as the chief upholder of Protestantism in the ministry; he lost favour with Charles, and on Sunday, the 9th of September 1673, was dismissed from the chancellorship. Among the reasons for this dismissal is probably the fact that he opposed grants to the king's mistresses.
On the 25th of March he made a striking speech upon the state of the nation, especially upon the dangers to Protestantism and the misgovernment of Scotland and Ireland.
He has been designated the "Restorer of Protestantism in France," and was the organizer of the "Church of the Desert."
Court formed the design of writing a history of Protestantism, and made large collections for the purpose, which have been preserved in the Public Library of Geneva; but this he did not live to carry out.
The work which the young Frenchman did for his countrymen was immense.3 The year 1555 may be taken as the date when French Protestantism began to be organized.
But these two sections of Protestantism, in their common exile and in presence of the preponderating Roman Catholicism of the country, seemed at first inclined to draw closer together than had been thought possible in Great Britain.
The inspiring principle had been the defence and support of Protestantism, the question with Cromwell being "whether the Christian world should be all popery."
But Cromwell's dream of putting himself at the head of European Protestantism never even approached realization.
In 1677, to secure Protestantism in case of a Roman Catholic succession, he introduced a bill by which ecclesiastical patronage and the care of the royal children were entrusted to the bishops; but this measure, like the other, was thrown out.
Though a strong Tory and supporter of the hereditary principle, James's attacks on Protestantism soon drove him into opposition.
The progress of the archbishop's opinion towards that middle Protestantism, if it may be so called, which he did so much to impress on the formularies of the Church of England, was gradual, as a brief enumeration of the successive steps in that progress will show.
Ostentatious avoidance of a fish-diet became, indeed, one of the outward symbols of militant Protestantism among the Puritans.
In 1580 Protestantism got the upper hand; the ban of the empire followed and was executed by Ernest of Bavaria, archbishop-elector of Cologne in 1598.
According to earlier views - repeatedly revived in Protestantism - revelation is just philosophy over again.
Or it is the doctrine of unfallen man's " natural state " - a doctrine intensified in Protestantism - separating itself from the theologians' grave doctrine of sin.
On the other hand, Western Protestantism has also made great headway, notably the Stundists, whose rationalisticProtestant teaching has gained a firm foothold especially in Little Russia, where the Raskol never penetrated.
Although, however, he adds that at this point he suspended his religious inquiries, " acquiescing with implicit belief in the tenets and mysteries which are adopted by the general consent of Catholics and Protestants," his readers will probably do him no great injustice if they assume that even then it was rather to the negations than to the affirmations of Protestantism that he most heartily assented.
He treated the question at issue as one of pure logic, and disliking the Reformers, the right of private judgment which Protestants claimed, and the somewhat prosaic uniformity of the English Church, he flung himself into a general campaign against Protestantism in general and the Anglican form of it in particular.
He was made a major-general in 1649, and but for his Protestantism would have succeeded Owen Roe as chief of the O'Neills.
Protestantism was professed by a large number of the inhabitants; and in many respects their characteristics identified them rather with the race to the east than that to the west of the Rhine.
His Protestantism advanced with the times, and he received higher promotion under Northumberland than under the moderate Somerset.
In 1555 Rawlins White, a fisherman, was burnt at Cardiff for his Protestantism, and in 1679 two Catholic priests were executed for recusancy.
The extirpation of Protestantism was a deliberate prearranged programme, and as Protestantism was by this time identical with Magyarism 3 the extirpation of the one was tantamount to the extirpation of the other.
Here Gfrdrer had manifested opinions unfavourable to Protestantism, which, however, were not openly avowed until fully developed in his church history (Allgemeine Kirchengeschichte bis Beginn des 14ten Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, 1841-1846).
On grounds of Scripture and reason he at length declared for Protestantism, and wrote in 1634, but did not publish, a confutation of the motives which had led him over to Rome.
The conflict assumed the character of a struggle between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism, in which Philip appeared as the champion of the Church.
Protestantism was then vigorously stamped out.
Protestantism; on the contrary, he yearned to beat these by their own weapons, chiefly by showing them that Catholics could interpret the Bible in a manner quite as mystical and pietistic as theirs.
The terms " Reformation " and " Protestantism " are inherited by the modern historian; they are not of his devising, and come to him laden with reminiscences of all the exalted enthusiasms and bitter antipathies engendered by a period of fervid religious dissension.
Yet the discussions he aroused, the attacks he made upon the institutions of the medieval Church, and especially the position he assigned to the Scriptures as the exclusive source of revealed truth, serve to make the development of Protestantism under Henry VIII.
When Francis died little had been done, in spite of the government's cruelty, to check Protestantism, while a potent organ of evangelical propaganda had been developing just beyond the confines of France in the town of Geneva.
Geneva, however, with its most distinguished of Protestant theologians, became a school of Protestantism, which sent its trained men into the Netherlands, England and Scotland, and especially across the border into France.
It is much less certain that the disciplinary reforms which the council, following the example of its predecessors, re-enacted, owed anything to Protestantism, unless indeed the council would have shown itself less intolerant in respect to such innovations as the use of the vernacular in the services had this not smacked of evangelicalism.
What Protestantism saw in the distant past, Trent naturally recognized in the present.
7 Early Protestantism lived too much in the thought of justification to mark out the boundaries of creed with this scholastic precision.
The result of the discussion was that Bern was won over to the side of the reformer, who apprehended the whole struggle of Protestantism as turning directly on the political decisions of the various units of the Confederation.
The medieval church set forth Christ as present in the orderly community of the faithful; Protestantism aimed at setting the individual in immediate communion with Christ, without the mechanical intervention of the officers of the community; the 1 D'Argentre, Collectio judiciorum de novis erroribus, i.
His Protestantism was robust enough; he did not mind recommending that a priest "might be put to some torment" (Hatfield MSS.
On the other hand, he took a lively part in the politico-religious controversies within the fold of Prussian Protestantism.
humanity, good life, equal and honest dealing with men of different opinion," Cromwell thought, would convert the whole island to Protestantism.
Under the new influences which were brought to bear on him, he in less than two years resumed his Protestantism.
In this, as in other respects, he was a precursor of Protestantism.
His "oration" on this occasion, which was immediately published in the French Mercury, remains a striking landmark in the history of French Protestantism.
The university of Saumur became the university of French Protestantism.
Exclusive of his controversial writings, he left behind him a very voluminous series of practical evangelical books, which have long remained the fireside favourites of the peasantry of French Protestantism.
In 1852 he took part in establishing the Nouvelle Revue de theologie, the first periodical of scientific theology published in France, and in the same year helped to found the "Historical Society of French Protestantism."
In 1561, however, the enmity against him was fanned into flame by his adoption of Protestantism.
to receive Queen Christina's abjuration of Protestantism.
Bengel (better known as a commentator), Zinzendorf, Butler and the Erskines helped to redeem the time from the reproach of being the dark age of Protestantism.
Nevertheless on her deathbed, when she was attended by the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, she used expressions which were construed as a declaration of Protestantism.
Luther's colleague at Wittenberg, Carlstadt, began denouncing the monastic life, the celibacy of the clergy, the veneration of images; and before the end of 1521 we find the first characteristic outward symptoms of Protestantism.
beliefs to those of the rising Protestantism.
Thus the Vaudois ceased to be relics of the past, and became absorbed in the general movement of Protestantism.
It became famous by the so-called "butchery of Eperjes," a tribunal instituted by the Austrian general Caraffa in 1687, which condemned to death and confiscated the property of a great number of citizens accused of Protestantism.
During a visit to Geneva in 1754 Rousseau saw his old friend and love Madame de Warens (now reduced in circumstances and having lost all her charms), while after abjuring his abjuration of Protestantism he was enabled to take up his freedom as citizen of Geneva, to which his birth entitled him and of which he was proud.
He did not care for dogma, and accordingly the dogmas of Rome, which had the consent of the Christian world, were in his eyes preferable to the dogmas of Protestantism....
These struggles constitute the entire political history of Geneva up to about 1535, when a new epoch of unrest opens with the adoption of Protestantism.
p. 136, 15) points out with great truth how, from this point of view, the name "Protestantism" has survived as embodying for many the conception of liberty, of the right of private judgment, of toleration for every progressive idea in religion, as opposed to the Roman Catholic principles of authority and tradition; so that many even of those who do not "profess and call themselves Christians" yet glory in the name of "Protestant."
Among the latter, on the other hand, "Protestantism" is used as exclusive of a good many of the doctrines and practices which in the Lutheran Church were at one time "Protestant" as.
Yet we may say that this was its salvation; for the struggle against Luther drove the papacy back to its ecclesiastical duties, and the council of Trent established medieval dogma as the doctrine of modern Catholicism in contradistinction to Protestantism.
He has been represented as the saviour of German Protestantism on the one hand, and on the other as a traitor to his faith and country.
The divided state of German Protestantism, resulting from these theological differences, contributed in no small degree to the disasters of the Thirty Years' War, and various attempts were made to unite the two confessions.
Calvinism, indeed, rather recommended itself to the Poles as being of non-German origin, and Calvin actually dedicated his Commentary on the Mass to the young krolewicz (or crown prince) Sigismund Augustus, from whom protestantism, erroneously enough, expected much in the future.
Then began a religious interim, which was gradually prolonged for ten years, during which time Protestantism in Poland flourished exceedingly.
The diet of1558-1559indicates the high-water mark of Polish Protestantism.
An auxiliary cause of the decline of Protestantism was the beginning of a Catholic reaction.
Poland was the great land of eastern Europe, and owing to the universal toleration encouraged by the government, Protestantism was widely spread.
A few words may be said here about the spread of Protestantism in Poland, which is so intimately mixed up with the development of the national language.
This category contains articles about Christian denominations that cannot be ordered under Roman Catholicism, Protestantism or Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy.
The situation at his accession was grave and complex: the steady growth of Protestantism, the preponderant power of the emperor and his prolonged wars with France, the advances of the Turks, the uncertain mind of the Church itself - all conspired to produce a problem involved and delicate.
For a time she was safe enough; she would not renounce her Protestantism until Catholicism had been made the law of the land, but she followed Gardiner's advice to her father when he said it was better that he should make the law his will than try to make his will the law.
- In the ancient and medieval Church and in the dogmatic period of Protestantism there was little or no attempt at historical study of prophecy, and the prophetical books were found instructive only through the application of allegorical or typical exegesis.
4 a of the earliest settlements in the Salzach valley, and was a principal centre of Protestantism.
Maximilian carried the elaborate etiquette of the court of Vienna to Mexico, but favouring toleration of Protestantism, and the supremacy of the Crown over the Church, he was too liberal for the clericals who had set him up. As a foreigner he was unpopular, and the regiments of Austrians and Belgians which were to serve as the nucleus of his own army were more so.
An essential element in the new policy was the substitution of an alliance with France for the old Burgundian friendship. The affair of San Juan de Ulua and the seizure of the Spanish treasure-ships in 1568 had been omens of the inevitable conflict with Spain; Ridolfi's plot and Philip II.'s approaches to Mary Stuart indicated the lines upon which the struggle would be fought; and it was Walsingham's business to reconcile the Huguenots with the French government, and upon this reconciliation to base an Anglo-French alliance which might lead to a grand attack on Spain, to the liberation of the] Netherlands, to the destruction of Spain's monopoly in the New World, and to making Protestantism the dominant force in Europe.
His devotion to Protestantism made him feverishly alive to the perils which threatened the Reformation; and he took an alarmist view of every situation.
in 1583, and here his vehement and suspicious Protestantism led him astray and provoked him into counterworking the designs of his own government.
Some thought that, under a Protestant sovereign, the Canadian Catholics would be rapidly converted to Protestantism.
He devoted the period of his exile to study, and the superintendence of works for the fortifications of Bern and Basel which were designed as a material defence of the cause of Protestantism.
In the very characteristic preface to the new edition of 1871 he proposes never to reprint his earlier works on art; disclaims many of the views they contained, and much in their literary form; and specially regrets the narrow Protestantism by which they were pervaded.
1862), he declares that Protestantism is a principle which is always living and active, and not something which was realized once and for all in the past.
Protestantism has, indeed, produced a distinctive church architecture, i.e.
It was sacked after the Bernese conquest (1536) and the introduction of Protestantism, but many ancient tapestries and other precious objects are still preserved in the Historical Museum at Bern.
But in 1536 the territory of the bishop (as well as the Savoyard barony of Vaud) was forcibly conquered by the Bernese, who at once introduced Protestantism.
In order to check the progress of Protestantism in Italy Paul III.
Though already 79 years of age, he was animated by the fiery zeal of youth, and he employed the most drastic methods for executing the necessary reforms anc combating the advance of Protestantism.
Protestantism was successfully eradicated in Italy; but the pope failed to prevent the secession of England.
On the one hand missions were despatched to America, India, China and Japan: on the other, a strenuous attempt was made to reannex the conquests of Protestantism.
Everywhere, in Germany and France, in Switzerland and the Low Countries, in Poland and Hungary, efforts were made to check the current of Protestantism and to re-establish the orthodox faith.
Not for generations had the prospects for the ultimate annihilation of Protestantism been brighter.
That service to Protestantism was performed by Catholic powers jealous of the preponderance of the Habsburgs.
Biblical criticism, by throwing doubt on the infallibility of the Scriptures, was undermining the traditional foundation of orthodox Protestantism, and most of the Protestant Churches,.
Disquieted by some forcible attempts on Rudolph II.'s part to suppress Protestantism in certain parts of the country, and mistrusting a formal guarantee of religious liberty which was given to them in 1609, the Silesians joined hands with the Bohemian insurgents and renounced their allegiance to their Austrian ruler.
Her father, who was a convinced Lutheran, was strongly opposed to his daughter's conversion, and supplied her with books of controversy to protect her Protestantism.
Jurieu defended the doctrines of Protestantism with great ability against the attacks of Antoine Arnauld, Pierre Nicole and Bossuet, but was equally ready to enter into dispute with his fellow Protestant divines (with Louis Du Moulin and Claude Payon, for instance) when their opinions differed from his own even on minor matters.
His writings are described by Harnack as a curious mixture of Catholic orthodoxy and unconscious tendencies to Protestantism; their most noticeable point is the great importance they attach to the fact of sin, both original and actual.
While rejecting purgatory, Protestantism took over this eschatology.
To the outward eye his gigantic strength and herculean build lent him the appearance of health and vigour, but forty years of unintermittent toil and anxiety had told upon him, and during the last two-and-twenty years of his reign, by which time all his old self-chosen counsellors had died off, he apathetically resigned himself to the course of events without making any sustained effort to stem the rising tide of Protestantism and democracy.
Tatar, Mahommedan and Hindu invasions all preceded the Portuguese who brought Roman Catholicism, and the Dutch who brought Protestantism.
On the 25th of August Protestantism was proclaimed and Catholicism suppressed in Scotland by a convention of states assembled without the assent of the absent queen.
Carrying out his share of the bargain by occupying Silesia and Lusatia, where he displayed much clemency, the Saxon elector had thus some part in driving Frederick V., elector palatine of the Rhine, from Bohemia and in crushing Protestantism in that country, the crown of which he himself had previously refused.
Gradually, however, he was made uneasy by the obvious trend of the imperial policy towards the annihilation of Protestantism, and by a dread lest the ecclesiastical lands should be taken from him; and the issue of the edict of restitution in March 1629 put the coping-stone to his fears.
As education passed by degrees into the hands of the Jesuits the progress of Protestantism was effectually arrested in Bavaria.
In other words, the story in its usual form spread wherever there was a tincture of Protestantism.
The chief task of this branch was the defence of the Catholic faith, especially against the Protestantism of Geneva.
Protestantism was not, however, definitively proclaimed as the state religion in Bremen until 1618.
The older Protestantism uncompromisingly judged the monastic ideal and life to be both unchristian and unnatural, an absolute perversion deserving nothing but condemnation.
The views of the new Protestantism concerning monasticism are probably no less excessive than those of the old.
At the time of the Reformation they had gone over to Protestantism, and during the wars of the 16th century the new religion made great progress in Piedmont.
With Bern he made a compromise, regaining Gex, the Chablais, and the Genevois, on condition that Protestantism should be tolerated there, but he renounced Vaud and some other districts (1566).
These territories are bordered by a broad stretch of country on the north, where Protestantism has maintained its hold since the time of the Reformation, including Bayreuth or eastern upper Franconia, middle Franconia, the northern half of Wui-ttemberg and Baden, with Hesse and the Palatinate.
The adhei-ents of Protestantism are divided by their confessions into Reformed and Lutheran.
dissenters from the Roman religion to obedience, Protestantism was making substantial progress in the,states, notably in Anbalt and in Pomerania, and in the cities, and in January 1534 the Protestant princes were bold enough to declare that they did not regard the decisions of the Reichskammergeric/zt as binding upon them.
to enthrone Protestantism completely therein.
It was resisted by the Austrian members, who were supported by the ultramontanes and the democrats, both of whom disliked Prussia, the former because of her Protestantism, the latter because of her bureaucratic system.
The Roman Catholics hated her as the land par excellence of Protestantism and free thought.
Protestantism was introduced in 1568, and Magdalena, the last Roman Catholic abbess, died in 1589; but Protestant abbesses were appointed to the foundation, and continued to enjoy their imperial privileges till 1803, when Gandersheim was incorporated with Brunswick.
As archduke of Styria he had crushed out Protestantism in that duchy, and having been elected king of Bohemia in 1618 1 Rudolph V.
The Thirty Years' War now ceased to be a religious struggle The between Catholicism and Protestantism; it resolved Swedish itself into a return to the old political strife between and French France and the Habsburgs.
This hostility of the Church to the German nationalist movement led in 1898 to an agitation against the Roman Catholic Church, and among the Germans of Styria and other territories large numbers left the Church, going over either to Protestantism or to Old Catholicism.
Shaftesbury had assiduously kept alive the anti-popery agitation, and Monmouth, as the champion of Protestantism, was received with every sign of popular delight.
He took a leading part in safeguarding the results of the Reformation and was indefatigable in his endeavours to unite the different sections of Protestantism for the sake of effective resistance against the Catholic reaction.
On his return to Switzerland, d'Aubigne was invited to become professor of church history in an institution of the kind, and continued to labour in the cause of evangelical Protestantism.
He never liked Protestantism, and he was prepared for peace with Rome on his own terms. Those terms were impossible of acceptance by a pope in Clement VII.'s position; but before Clement had made up his mind to reject them, Henry had discovered that the papacy was hardly worth conciliating.
As regards Christianity in these regions, Protestantism, Presbyterianism and patriotism find here a battle-ground.
Her independence, her resistance, curbed the conquering ambitions of England abroad; and it went for something in securing the independence of France, and the success of Protestantism, where it succeeded.
Protestantism, and the disasters of James V., with the regency of his widow, were to convert the majority of Scots to the English party.
Meanwhile the many noble and dissatisfied pensioners of England adopted Protestantism, which also made its way among the barons, burgesses and clergy, so that, for political reasons, James at last could not but be hostile to the new creed; he bequeathed this anti-protestantism, with the French alliance, through his wife, Mary of Guise, and the influence of the house of Lorraine, to his unhappy daughter, Mary Stuart.
The country, ever jealous of its independence, found at last that France threatened her freedom even more than did England, the apparent enemy; and thus, partly from Protestantism, partly from patriotism, the English party in Scotland proved victorious, and the Reformation was accomplished.
The result was irritation, the nobles looking towards England as soon as Mary Tudor was succeeded by Elizabeth, while Protestantism daily gained ground, inflamed by a visit from Knox (1555-1556).
The politicians hoped that Elizabeth might convert Mary to her own invisible shade of Protestantism if the sister sovereigns could but meet, and for two years the promise of a meeting was held up before Mary.
As the chief pastor of the Hungarian church Pazmany used every means in his power, short of absolute contravention of the laws, to obstruct and weaken Protestantism, which had risen during the 16th century.
Their effect was considerable; and at Pusey's request Newman reviewed them in the British Critic (December 1836), treating them for the most part with sympathy as a triumph over popular Protestantism.
His zeal for Protestantism induced him to follow the duke of Northumberland, and he filled the office of secretary of state for Lady Jane Grey during her nine days' reign.
Cheke was visited by two priests and by Dr John Feckenham, dean of St Paul's, whom he had formerly tried to convert to Protestantism, and, terrified by a threat of the stake, he gave way and was received into the Church of Rome by Cardinal Pole, being cruelly forced to make two public recantations.
The last provision meant that the growing Protestantism was to be fought by harrassing litigation - nicht fechten sondern rechten was the phrase.
Four years later, Worms formally embraced Protestantism, and religious conferences were held there in 15 4 0 and 1557.
But Baur was a theologian and historian as well as a Biblical critic. As early as 1834 he published a strictly theological work, Gegensatz des Katholicismus and Protestantismus nach den Prinzipien and Hauptdogmen der beiden Lehrbegriffe, a strong defence of Protestantism on the lines of Schleiermacher's Glaubenslehre, and a vigorous reply to J.
The sturdy Protestantism of Taylor and his flock, who seem to have caused various commotions, marked him out for the special enmity of Mary's government; and he was one of the first to suffer when in January 1 555 parliament had once more given the clerical courts liberty of jurisdiction.
The Roman Catholic and Greek divisions of the Christian Church are homogeneous in organization, but in Protestantism certain denominations are national, established by differing governments, and others are independent of governmental aid, making a large number of differing denominations.
Protestantism in its primary principle is the return to primitive Christianity.
But in Protestantism reason and the light of nature are in themselves as impotent as in the Roman Church.
Thus Protestantism also came to identify theology with the whole range of human knowledge, and in its official forms it was as hostile to the progress of science as was the Roman Church itself.
Thus a struggle within Protestantism arose, with persecutions of Protestants by Protestants.
Moreover, many failed to find the expression of their faith in the official creed or in the established organization, and Protestantism divided into many sects and denominations, founded upon special types of religious experience or upon particular points in doctrine or in cult.
Thus Protestantism presents a wide diversity in comparison with the regularity of the Roman Church.
Protestantism centred - or was by Catholics supposed to centre - in a mysterious " right of private judgment "; the council accordingly retorted by hymning the praises of obedience, of submitting to authority and never thinking for oneself.
Half Europe was full of waverers between Protestantism and Catholicism tolerably certain to decide for the Church that offered them the cheapest terms of salvation; and even in wholly Catholic countries many, especially of the upper class, might easily be scared away from the confessional by severity.
be orderly and systematic; and the Modernists accordingly show little sympathy with Protestantism.
Later the French-Canadians, Italians, Poles and Bohemians added notably to the number; an appreciable percentage of Oriental Catholics is also found, - Greeks, Syrians, Armenians, &c. Natural increase, especially among the first Catholic immigrants, and a certain percentage of conversions from Protestantism, are contributory sources.
All the Protestantism of England was in arms against the author of the obnoxious tract.
Calvin, a French student of Picard origin, created the type of Protestantism to which the majority of French Huguenots adhered.
Nuremberg was the first of the imperial towns to throw in its lot with the Reformation, and it embraced Protestantism with its wonted vigour about 1525.
and his brother, the German king, Ferdinand I., was so complete that it was said the landgrave had done more for Protestantism by this enterprise than a thousand of Luther's books would do.
And next year the archbishop himself had been murdered, and Knox was preaching in St Andrews a fully developed Protestantism.
And looking back upon that course afterwards, he records with much complacency how his earliest St Andrews sermon built up a whole fabric of aggressive Protestantism upon Puritan theory, so that his startled hearers muttered, "Others sned (snipped) the branches; this man strikes at the root."
Her marriage to a great Catholic prince would be ruinous to Scotland, probably also to England, and perhaps to all Protestantism.
The massacre of St Bartholomew rather united English and Scottish Protestantism; and Knox in St Giles' pulpit, challenging the French ambassador to report his words, denounced God's vengeance on the crowned murderer and his posterity.
25, 1598) decided the struggle in favour of Charles - and Protestantism.
At the Riksdag of the same year, the estates committed themselves irrevocably to Protestantism by excluding Proscription Catholics from the succession to the throne, and o prohibiting them from holding any office or dignity in Sweden.
As a matter of fact the Polish republic was no danger whatever to Protestantism.
Henceforth till her collapse, seventy years later, she was the recognized leader of Continental Protestantism.
To sink in five years from the position of the champion of Protestantism to that of the common enemy of every Protestant power was a degradation not to be compensated by any amount of military glory.
Mme d'Aubigne returned to France, and from sheer poverty unwillingly yielded her daughter to her sister-in-law, Mme de Villette, who made the child very happy, but converted or pretended to convert her to Protestantism.
The Dutch War, declared on the 17th of March 1672, though the commercial and naval jealousies of Holland had certainly not disappeared in England, was unpopular because of the alliance with France and the attack upon Protestantism, while the king's second declaration of indulgence (15th of March 1672) aroused still further antagonism, was declared illegal by the parliament, and was followed up by the Test Act, which obliged James and Clifford to resign their offices.
In February 1679 the king had consented to order James to go abroad, and even approved of the attempt of the primate and the bishop of Winchester to convert him to Protestantism.
His inaugural address on The Principle of Protestantism, delivered in German at Reading, Pennsylvania, in 1844, and published in German with an English version by J.
Nevin (q.v.), by its Neander-like view that Romanism and Protestantism were only stages in the divinely appointed development of the Christian Church, aroused fierce opposition in the Reformed Church and Schaff was characterized as "Puseyistic" and "semi-papistical"; in 1845 he was tried for heresy and found not guilty by the Synod.
His De Conscientia, ejus Jure et Casibus (1632), an attempt to bring Christian ethics into clear relation with particular cases of conduct and of conscience, was a new thing in Protestantism.
learning would flourish, and Protestantism be no bar to advancement.
He was recalled in 1621, and began to be instructed in the Roman Catholic religion, though his abjuration of Protestantism was deferred until the end of 1622.
Shortly afterwards Henry had reason to regret the policy which had identified him so closely with the German Protestantism, and denied reconciliation with the emperor.
Meanwhile the great victory of the imperialists at Miihlberg had for a time crushed German Protestantism.
In 1631 the Saxons for a time occupied a large part of Bohemia, and even attempted to re-establish Protestantism.
The word all, as Matthew Arnold observes (St Paul and Protestantism, ch.
He at once became the principal champion of Swiss Protestantism against the Lutherans as well as the Catholics, and was appointed chaplain to Protector Somerset.
Then in the Magdeburg Centuries (1559-1574) Protestantism tried to make good its attack on the medieval Church by a great collection of sources accompanied with much destructive criticism.
Protestantism, indeed, since the Act of Settlement in 1689, has been of the essence of the Constitution, the sovereign forfeiting his or her crown ipso facto by acknowledging the authority of the pope, by accepting " the Romish religion," or by marrying a Roman Catholic; and though of late years efforts have been made to modify or to abrogate this provision, the fact that such efforts have met with widespread opposition shows that it still represents the general attitude of the British nation.
Protestantism, however, is a generic term which in England covers a great variety of opinions, and a large number of rival religious organizations.
The Church of England, both in constitution and doctrine, represents in general the mean between Roman Catholicism on the one hand and the more advanced forms of Protestantism on the other (see Episcopacy).
The result has been the development within the Established Church of a most startling diversity of doctrine and ritual practice, varying from what closely resembles that of the Church of Rome to the broadest Liberalism and the extremest evangelical Protestantism.
A similar tone of exaggerated depreciation of the Massoretic Hebrew text, coloured by polemical bias against Protestantism, mars his greatest work, the posthumous Exercitationes biblicae de hebraeici graecique textus sinceritate (1660), in which, following in the footsteps of Cappellus, but with incomparably greater learning, he brings irrefragable arguments against the then current theory of the absolute integrity of the Hebrew text and the antiquity of the vowel points.
GIOVANNI DIODATI (1576-1649), Swiss Protestant divine, was born at Geneva on the 6th of June 1576, of a noble family originally belonging to Lucca, which had been expatriated on account of its Protestantism.
In deference to his mother's Protestantism he was baptized in the chapel of the British embassy, thus becoming a member of the Church of England.
Among its greatest achievements, apart from the philanthropic institutions founded at Halle, were the organization of the Moravian Church in 1727 by Count von Zinzendorf, Spener's godson and a pupil in the Halle Orphanage, and the establishment of the great Protestant missions, Ziegenbalg and others being the pioneers of an enterprise which until this time Protestantism had strangely neglected.
"It was," says Rudolf Sohm, "the last great surge of the waves of the ecclesiastical movement begun by the Reformation; it was the completion and the final form of the Protestantism created by the Reformation.
and his loyalty to the Empire prevented him from pursuing any definite policy for the defence of Protestantism.
London, 1849), an able defence of Catholicism on the ground that it represents the spirit of obedience or order, as opposed to Protestantism, the spirit of revolt or anarchy.
In the 16th century Protestantism was widely diffused by their means.
The sect spread in a few years to London, Oxford and other centres of intellectual life, but for many years its followers were not numerous; like the old Lollardy, Protestantism took root only in certain places and among certain classesnotably the lesser clergy and the merchants of the great towns.
But no further advances were made towards Protestantism after the publication and authorization of the Great Bible in English.
The obloquy under which Jameslaboured increased when the Thirty Years War broke out (1618), and when his daughter Elizabeth, whose husband, the electorpalatine, was the unhappy claimant to the Bohemian crown (1619), stood forth as the lovely symbol of the deserted Protestantism of Europe.
The strong Protestantism of Elizabeths reign had assumed a distinctly Calvinistic form, and the country gentlemen who formed the majority of the House of Commons were resolutely determined that no other theology than that of Calvin should be taught in England.
In the case of England there seemed a special danger to Protestantism; for whatever religious sympathies Charles II.
He perceived clearly that the effect of the new French principles could no more be confined to French territory than the principles of Protestantism in the 16th century could be confined to Saxony.
Within its walls Mary Queen of Scots was crowned in 1543, when nine months old, and in the same year the earl of Arran, regent of Scotland, abjured Protestantism; in 1544 an assembly of nobles appointed Mary of Guise queen-regent; on the 29th of July 1567 James VI.
8), and became in due time a dogmatic locus in Protestantism.
The Greek and the Roman Catholic Churches stand united against Protestantism in the general theory of law and of sacraments; but a Protestant can hardly doubt that, if Catholicism is to be accepted, a Catholic organization, and doctrine are better furnished by the Western Church than by the arrested development of its rival.
The clock is wound up at the great crises of history, but proceeds to run down, and does so even more rapidly in Protestantism than in Catholicism.
When Protestantism arose, there was urgent need of reform.
history that Protestantism is more than a removal of abuses, or even than a removal carried out with reckless disregard of consequences.
Augustinianism reacted against attempts to tone it down in theory or neutralize it in practice, until at last it broke loose in the form of Protestantism.
But Protestantism is largely due further to the Renaissance.
When the Reformers went beyond Augustine to Paul, Protestantism was born.'
Whether Protestantism found its adequate doctrinal expression is very doubtful.
2 The more radical Protestantism of the non-Lutheran orthodox churches is called in a technical sense " Reformed.
Resolutely Protestant in early days and even Calvinistic, it yielded to the suggestions of its episcopal constitution' and sacramental liturgies; and now its theologies range from Calvinism at one extreme to outspoken hatred of Protestantism at the other.
It is thus plain that the stream of Protestantism was very early split up into separate channels.
Men of the second or third generation - often called the " Protestant Scholastics " - work together upon two characteristic doctrines which the fathers of Protestantism left vague.
Harnack ranks his system with Tridentine and post-Tridentine theology on the one hand, and with Protestantism on the other hand, as the third great outcome of the history of dogma.
In regard to the Trinity, Protestantism tart his- has nothing very new to say, though " Sabellianism " tors of is revived by Swedenborg and Schleiermacher.
It is a modern commonplace - Loofs dates the formula from about 1825 - that Protestantism has two principles: a " formal principle," the authority of Scripture, and a " material principle," the doctrine of justification by faith.
We have already indicated that some such pair of principles was prominent when historic Protestantism pulled itself together for defence during its scholastic age.
A bolder and more original attempt to restate Protestantism as a systematic unity is found in the work of A.
Is it enough to extricate the spirit of Protestantism from the imperfect letter of its early creeds?
Casuistry (with parallels in early Protestantism like Jeremy Taylor's Ductor Dubitantium), growing out of the Confessional, is characteristic of this Roman Catholic Ethic; yet the study is not restricted to the technical equipment of confessors.
The reply to Protestantism is represented by Cardinal Bellarmine, Petavius (less directly), Moehler.
The following may serve as illustrations: The creeds of the Protestant Church shut the doors on the past only, but open them for advance in the future; it is immoral and contrary to true Protestantism to require subscription to them.
The limits of the freedom of teaching are not prescribed by the letter of Scripture, but a fundamental requirement of Protestantism is free inquiry in and about the Scriptures.
The attempt to limit the freedom of theological inquiry and teaching in the universities is a violation of the vital principle of Protestantism.
Each of these contains a useful bibliography, as also does the excellent life by Professor Williston Walker, John Calvin, the Organizer of Reformed Protestantism, " Heroes of the Reformation" series (1906).
of Thorshavn, where remains of the cathedral may be seen; but it was abolished at the introduction of Protestantism by Christian III.
He took a prominent part too in the reorganization of the Prussian church, and became the most powerful advocate of the union of the Lutheran and Reformed divisions of German Protestantism.
The moment when Protestantism and Ultramontanism are about to begin their still unfinished struggle is a fit time to notice the chief points in medieval Irish church history.
The English government long hesitated about the official establishment of Protestantism, and the royal order to that effect was withheld until 1551.
On the whole Protestantism made little progress, though the number of Protestant settlers increased.
He was an active prelate, and perhaps the vigorous Protestantism of the West in Elizabeth's reign was partly due to his persuasive powers.
Revering the monarchy and established institutions, they endured forty years of persecution before they took up arlns, It was only during the second half of Henry II.s reign that Protestantism, having achieved its religious evolution, became a political party.
Thenceforward Protestantism adopted a new attitude, and refused obedience to the orders of a persecuting monarchy when contrary to its faith and its interests.
in December 1560 compromised the influence of the Guises and again saved Protestantism.
and the Protestantism of Henry of Navarre, this party talked of re-establishing the authority of the king; but in reality it inclined more to the Guises, martyrs in the good cause, who were supported by Philip II.
By a stroke of the pen he suppressed Protestantism, while Pope Sixtus V., who had at first been unfavourable to the treaty of Joinville as a purely political act, though he eventually yielded to the solicitations of the League, excommunicated the two Bourbons, Henry and Cond.
The king, having succeeded in taking refuge at Chartres, ended, however, by granting him in the Act of Union all that he had refused in face of the barricades the post of lieutenant-general of the kingdom and the proscription of Protestantism.
What had been a slow movement between I585 and 1592 was quickened by Henry IV.s abjuration of Protestantism at Saint-Denis on the 23rd of July 1593.
Beam was the pretext for a rising among the Protestants, who had remained loyal during these troublous years; and although the military organization of French Protestantism, arranged by the assembly of La Rochelle, had been checked in 1621, by the defection of most of the reformed nobles, like Bouillon and Lesdiguires, de Luynes had to raise the disastrous siege of Montauban.
He would not be content merely to serve French interests in Germany, according to the terms of the secret treaty of Bgrwalde (June I631); but, once master of Germany and the rich valley of the Rhine, considered chiefly the interests of Protestantism and Sweden.
succeeded only too well, since Protestantism was reduced both numerically and intellectually.
His first work, published in 1828, as an answer to Hugh James Rose's Cambridge lectures on rationalist tendencies in German theology, showed a good deal of sympathy with the German "pietists," who had striven to deliver Protestantism from its decadence; this sympathy was misunderstood, and Pusey was himself accused of holding rationalist views.
Anticipating events Gebhard had collected some troops, and had taken measures to convert his subjects to Protestantism.
The electorate was soon completely in the possession of Ernest, and the defeat of Gebhard was a serious blow to Protestantism, and marks a stage in the history of the Reformation.
The Rev. Dr James Aitken Wylie (1808-1890), the historian of Protestantism, was a minister in Dollar for several years.
He soon became prominent; first by his contributions to its organ the Messenger; then by The Anxious Bench - A Tract for the Times (1843), attacking the vicious excesses of revivalistic methods; and by his defence of the inauguration address, The Principle of Protestantism, delivered by his colleague Philip Schaff, which aroused a storm of protest by its suggestion that Pauline Protestantism was not the last word in the development of the church but that a Johannean Christianity was to be its outgrowth, and by its recognition of Petrine Romanism as a stage in ecclesiastical development.
To Dr Schaff's 122 theses of The Principle of Protestantism Nevin added his own theory of the mystical union between Christ and believers, and both Schaff and Nevin were accused of a "Romanizing tendency."
He disputed at Sedan before the duc de Bouillon with the Jesuit, Jean Maldonat (1534-1583), and wrote in defence of Protestantism.
This superstition, perhaps at its strongest in the 1 3 th to the 15th century, passed into Protestantism.
At this date Newman became editor of the British Critic, and he also gave courses of lectures in a side-chapel of St Mary's in defence of the via media of the Anglican Church as between Romanism and popular Protestantism.
His dislike of Calvinism, or his antipathy to external complications, however, prevented him from taking any serious steps to defend Protestantism from the attacks of the counter-reformation.
Inferior to Austria alone among the states of the Empire, it was regarded as the head of the German Protestantism; while the fact that one-third of its territory lay outside the Empire added to its importance.
From the first he was carefully nurtured to be the future prop of Protestantism by his austere parents.
The Reformation produced little bloodshed in London, with most higher class members co-operating to bring about gradual shifts to Protestantism.
Church Papists - paperback A study of clerical reaction to the sizeable number of Catholics who outwardly conformed to Protestantism in late 16c England.
The death of Home Rule not only decimated his British audience, it also freed Irish protestantism from the restraints of political cohesion.
In modern Protestantism, on the other hand, the idea of an infallible authority whether in the Church or the Bible has tended to disappear, religious truths being conceived as valuable only as they are apprehended and made real to the individual mind and soul by the grace of God, not by reason of any submission to an external authority.
Among other subjects, he wrote on the School of Hierotheus, on Romish falsifications of the Greek Fathers, on Leo XIII., on Liberal Ultramontanism, on the Papal Teaching in regard to Morals, on Vincentius of Lerins and he carried on a controversy with Professor Willibald Beyschlag, of the German Evangelical Church, on the respective merits of Protestantism and Old Catholicism regarded as a basis for teaching the Christian faith.
The re-settlement of the conquered and devastated country was now organized on the Tudor and Straffordian basis of colonization from England, conversion to Protestantism, and establishment of law and order.
The bold criticism of Middleton's recently (174.9) published Free Enquiry into the Miraculous Powers which are supposed to have subsisted in the Christian Church appears to have given the first shock to his Protestantism, not indeed by destroying his previous belief that the gift of miraculous powers had continued to subsist in the church during the first four or five centuries of Christianity, but by convincing him that within the same period most of the leading doctrines of popery had been already introduced both in theory and in practice.
At this stage he was introduced by a friend (Mr Molesworth) to Bossuet's Variations of Protestantism and Exposition of Catholic Doctrine (see Gibbon, Decline and Fall, c. xv., note 79).
In modern Protestantism there is a growing disinclination to deal even with errors of belief by ecclesiastical censure; the appeal to the civil authority to inflict any penalty is abandoned.
It is impossible to offer any exhaustive classification of those who, while they rejected the teachings of the old Church, refused at the same time to conform to the particular types of Protestantism which had found favour in the eyes of the princes and been imposed by them on their subjects.
The Renaissance and Protestantism had their effect in producing that Enlightenment which swept over western Europe in the 18th century.
This weakness was due not to attacks from without - for orthodox Protestantism had long since lost its aggressive force - but to disruptive tendencies within the Church; the Enlightenment of the 18th century had sapped the foundations of the faith among the world of intellect and fashion; the development of Gallicanism and Febronianism threatened to leave the Holy See but a shadowy pre-eminence over a series of national churches, and even to obliterate the frontier line between Catholicism and Protestantism.
Darnley at once threw himself into the arms of the party opposed to the policy of the queen and her secretary - a policy which at that moment was doubly and trebly calculated to exasperate the fears of the religious and the pride of the patriotic. Mary was invited if not induced by the king of Spain to join his league for the suppression of Protestantism; while the actual or prospective endowment of Rizzio with Morton's office of chancellor, and the projected attainder of Murray and his allies, combined to inflame at once the anger and the apprehension of the Protestant nobles.
Her profession of a desire to be instructed in the doctrines of Anglican Protestantism was so transparently a pious fraud as rather to afford confirmation than to arouse suspicion of her fidelity to the teaching of her church.
His personal allegiance to Lutheranism was sound, but he liked neither the growing strength of Brandenburg nor the increasing prestige of the Palatinate; the adherence of the other branches of the Saxon ruling house to Protestantism seemed to him to suggest that the head of electoral Saxony should throw his weight into the other scale, and he was prepared to favour the advances of the Habsburgs and the Roman Catholic party.
1812) edited the correspondence of Cardinal de Granvelle; Alphonse Wauters (1818-1898), archivist of Brussels, published many archaeological works; and Charles Rahlenbeck (1823-1903) wrote enthusiastically of the history of Protestantism in Belgium.
On assuming the government of Styria he set to work to extirpate Protestantism, which had made considerable progress in the Austrian arch-duchies.
The eldest son Jacques also left two sons, famous in the history of Protestantism: - Jacques (1570-1624), pastor of the church founded by himself on his fief of le Tilloy and afterwards at Sedan, where he became professor of Hebrew, distinguished as historian, philologist and exegetical scholar; and Louis (see below).
Another story that ties the origins of the Christmas tree to Christian beliefs involves Martin Luther, who helped found Protestantism.
She loathed her father's conversion to Protestantism as well as his very public and humiliating divorce of her mother.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.