Protestant sentence example
Cloyne was the seat of a Protestant diocese until 1835, when it was united to that of Cork.
The Protestant response was not long in coming.
Upon the king's illness in May he held frequent meetings of Monmouth's friends at his house to consider how best to act for the security of the Protestant religion.
From this vantage-ground Ritschl criticizes the use of Aristotelianism and speculative philosophy in scholastic and Protestant theology.
So dreadful had been the yoke of Rome, which they had shaken off, that they feared to submit to anything similar even under Protestant auspices.Advertisement
In 1801 and 1802 Napoleon took into his own hands the independence of both Catholic and Protestant Churches, the national synod was abolished, and all active religious propaganda was rigorously forbidden.
And the Directory of Public Worship has shaped and coloured, perhaps too thoroughly, the ritual and atmosphere of every group of Protestant Anglo-Saxon worshippers throughout the world, except Episcopalians.
After the Irish rebellion of 1641 the Protestant interest for a time was ruined.
Dr Briggs remained a member of the Union Seminary faculty but left the Presbyterian Church to enter the Protestant Episcopal.
Before that time three religions (cultes) were recognized and supported by the state-the Roman Catholic, the Protestant (subdivided into the Reformed and Lutheran) and the Hebrew.Advertisement
He appeared on the 6th of March before the standing committee of the two Houses to explain his conduct, when he stated that he had come over because he saw danger to the Protestant religion in the king's service, and expressed his willingness to take the Covenant.
He opposed the compelling of Protestant Nonconformists to take the oath required of Roman Catholics.
He remained one of Elizabeth's most trusted Protestant counsellors, being appointed in 1572 chancellor of the order of the Garter and a secretary of state.
He was required to maintain the Protestant reformed religion and to suppress " all religion at variance with the gospel."
The jealousy of Catholic against Protestant, of south against north, were too deeply rooted.Advertisement
Complete toleration in fact was only extended to Protestant nonconformists, who composed the Cromwellian established church, and who now meted out to their antagonists the same treatment which they themselves were later to receive under the Clarendon Code of Charles II.
In foreign policy Cromwell's chief aims appear to have been to support and extend the Protestant faith, to promote English trade, and to prevent a Stuart restoration by foreign policy.
The Protestant policy was further followed up by treaties with Sweden and Denmark which secured the passage of the Sound for English ships on the same conditions as the Dutch, and a treaty with Portugal which liberated English subjects from the Inquisition and allowed commerce with the Portuguese colonies.
Cromwell wisely inclined towards France, for Spain was then a greater menace than France alike to the Protestant cause and to the growth of British trade in the western hemisphere; but as no concessions could be gained from either France or Spain, the year 1654 closed without a treaty being made with either.
War broke out between the Protestant states of Sweden, Denmark, Holland and Brandenburg, with whom religion was entirely subordinated to individual aims and interests, and who were far from rising to Cromwell's great conceptions; while the Vaudois were soon subjected to fresh persecutions.Advertisement
The Calvinist ministers were expelled; Protestant books were confiscated and destroyed; the acts of Protestant lawyers and officials were declared invalid.
It has a Protestant and a Roman Catholic church and manufactures of brushes, plush goods, cigars and margarine.
This from a Protestant historian like Goetz is most valuable criticism.
Danby therefore ordered a return from every diocese of the numbers of dissenters, both Romanist and Protestant, in order by a proof of their insignificance to remove the royal scruples.3 In December 1676 he issued a proclamation for the suppression of coffee-houses because of the "defamation of His Majesty's Government" which took place in them, but this was soon withdrawn.
As a zealous churchman and Protestant he still possessed a following.Advertisement
During this reign the work of the Reformation made rapid progress, the sympathies both of the Protector and of the young king being decidedly Protestant.
Not to speak of the canonists, Thomas Aquinas gives natural law an important place; while Melancthon, drawing from Aquinas, gives it an entrance into Protestant thought.
He takes the line of separating the things of God from those of Caesar, and defends the traditional Protestant theology with obvious sincerity.
He was the son of a physician, and was educated at Malta Protestant college.
Having been converted into a palace for the Frankish kings and their deputies, it passed in 1197 to the archbishops, and was restored (1846 7 1856) and turned into a Protestant church.Advertisement
With the Reformation in the 16th century, Church courts properly speaking disappeared from the non-episcopal religious communities which were established in g Holland, in the Protestant states of Switzerland and of Germany, and in the then non-episcopal countries of Denmark and Norway.
Just south of the city is Kemper Hall, a Protestant Episcopal school for girls, under the charge of the Sisters of St Mary, opened in 1870 as a memorial to Jackson Kemper (1789-1870), the first missionary bishop (1835-1859), and the first bishop of Wisconsin (1854-1870) of the Protestant Episcopal Church.
In February 1679, when the country was agitated by real or fancied dangers to the Protestant religion, the earl entered political life as secretary of state for the northern department and became at once a member of the small clique responsible for the government of the country.
However, in 1691, he was permitted to return to England, and he declared himself a Protestant and began to attend the sittings of parliament.
Though a Protestant, he supported the government of Mary of Guise, showed himself violently anti-English, and led a raid into England, subsequently in 1559 meeting the English commissioners and signing articles for peace on the border.Advertisement
The queen required a protector, whom she found, not in the feeble Darnley, nor in any of the leaders of the factions, but in the strong, determined earl who had ever been a stanch supporter of the throne against the Protestant party and English influence.
On the 12th Bothwell was created duke of Orkney and Shetland and the marriage took place on the 15th according to the Protestant usage, the Roman Catholic rite being performed, according to some accounts, afterwards in addition.'
The contrast between the new regime and the ancient tradition of the city was curiously illustrated in 1818 by a scene described in Metternich's Memoirs, when, before the opening of the congress, Francis I., emperor of Austria, regarded by all Germany as the successor of the Holy Roman emperors, knelt at the tomb of Charlemagne amid a worshipping crowd, while the Protestant Frederick William III.
He took orders in the Protestant Church of Ireland, and was rector of Killyleagh, Down, from 1825 till his death on the 3rd of December 1866.
His tenure of office was marked by an increased zeal for missions in Protestant lands, and by the removal of the society's headquarters from Rome to Fiesole near Florence in 1870.Advertisement
It contains a beautiful Roman Catholic and a Protestant church, a handsome new town-hall and an agricultural school.
As we might expect, Protestant lands are more busily occupied with apologetics.
No Protestant, of course, can agree with Roman Catholic theology that (supernatural) faith is an obedient assent to church authority and the mysteries it dictates.
In 1501 Bishop Luke of Prague edited the first Protestant hymn-book; in 1502 he issued a catechism, which circulated in Switzerland and Germany and fired the catechetical zeal of Luther; in 1565 John Blahoslaw translated the New Testament into Bohemian; in1579-1593the Old Testament was added; and the whole, known as the Kralitz Bible, is used in Bohemia still.
In response the Moravians, at the General Synod (1909), welcomed the offer, but also declared their wish (a) to preserve their independence as a "Protestant Episcopal Church"; (b) to co-operate freely as heretofore with other Evangelical Churches.Advertisement
The Esths and all other Western Finns, the Germans and the Swedes are Protestant.
The throne was vacant, the great nobles quarrelling among themselves, the Catholic Poles in the Kremlin of Moscow, the Protestant Swedes in Novgorod, and enormous bands of brigands everywhere.
Nearly all the natives are Christians, Protestant missions having been long established in several of the islands.
There is also on Keppel Island a Protestant missionary settlement for the training in agriculture of imported Fuegians.
Probably through the influence of Ridley, who had been master of Pembroke Hall, Grindal was selected as one of the Protestant disputants during the visitation of 1549.Advertisement
He returned to England in J anuary 1559, was appointed one of the committee to revise the liturgy, and one of the Protestant representatives at the Westminster conference.
It has a Protestant church and some small manufactures and is a favourite sea-bathing resort.
In 1906, of the 14,944 members of religious denominations 9,97 0 were Roman Catholics, 1,210 Protestant Episcopalians, 1,105 Latter-Day Saints (Mormons), 618 Methodists and 520 Presbyterians.
Parkersburg is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Oil, coal, natural gas and fire-clay abound in the neighbouring region, and the city is engaged in the refining of oil and the manufacture of pottery, brick and tile, glass, lumber, furniture, flour, steel, and foundry and machine-shop products.
The Protestant controversy on the Eucharist (1524) revealed his disagreement with Luther on that critical point.
An anathema was accordingly issued from Schmalkald against Schwenkfeld (together with Sebastian Franck); his books were placed on the Protestant "index"; and he himself was made a religious outlaw.
He and they were frequently condemned by Protestant ecclesiastical and political authorities, especially by the government of Wurttemberg.
Schwenkfeld's mysticism was the cause of his divergence from Protestant orthodoxy and the root of his peculiar religious and theological position.
It possesses two Protestant and four Roman Catholic churches, a synagogue, a mining school, a convent, a hospital, two orphanages, and barracks.
He spent much of his early life at the court of Charles I., and became a Protestant.
During this time, it is the judgment of the most recent Protestant writer on St Dominic that, though keeping on good terms with Simon de Montfort, the leader, and praying for the success of the crusaders' arms during the battle of Muret, "yet, so far as can be seen from the sources, Dominic took no part in the crusade, but endeavoured to carry his spiritual activity on the same lines as before.
This verdict of a fair-minded and highly competent Protestant church historian on the most controverted point of Dominic's career is of great value.
It has been customary for Protestant writers to represent the mystics of Germany and Holland as precursors of the Reformation.
In 1 534 the Saxon lords of Biinau obtained it and introduced the Protestant religion, which was exterminated when, after the battle of the White Hill (1620) the Bunau family was driven out.
When Lutheranism arose, it spread rapidly in Prussia; Albert himself came into contact with Luther, and turning Protestant he secularized his territories, and (1526) made them into an hereditary duchy, still held as a fief of the king of Poland.
The three Gothic Protestant churches, the Marienkirche, the Nikolaikirche and the Jakobikirche, and the town-hall (Rathaus) are the principal edifices, and these with their lofty spires are very picturesque.
It contains the barracks and the commissariat stores, the Protestant church, orphanage, Masonic lodge, post-office and numerous private dwellings.
By his personal conduct he had set an ideal example for Anglican priests, and it was not his fault that national authority failed to crush the individualistic tendencies of the Protestant Reformation.
It has a Protestant and a Roman Catholic (Gothic) church, a synagogue and a Progymnasium.
Beton was arrested and the regency fell to the heir presumptive James, earl of Arran, whose inclinations were towards England and the Protestant party, and who hoped to secure the hand of the infant princess for his own son.
The hostility of Arran and his brother Archbishop Hamilton forced Mary into friendly relations with the lords who favoured the Protestant party.
In matters of religion she at first tried to hold the balance between the Catholic and Protestant factions and allowed the Presbyterian preachers the practice of their religion so long as they refrained from public preachings in Edinburgh and Leith.
On New Year's Day 1534 the bishop interdicted all preaching unauthorized by himself, and ordered the burning of all Protestant Bibles.
The other public buildings include railway works, places of worship (Protestant, Roman Catholic, Mahommedan and Hindu) and schools, an Indian bazaar, a general hospital and waterworks - the water being obtained from springs 13 m.
Next year he followed the example of Henry of Navarre by abjuring the Protestant faith.
Inside the fortress lies the old Protestant burying-ground, with tombs of Sackville, of John Murray, of Sir Francis Vincent, last ambassador but one from Great Britain to the republic, of Consul Smith, whose collection of books forms the nucleus of the King's library in the British Museum, and of Catherine Tofts, the singer, Smith's first wife.
But the appeal to the verbally inspired Bible was stronger than that to a church hopelessly divided; the Bible, and not the consent of the universal church, became the touchstone of the reformed orthodoxy; in the nomenclature of the time, " evangelical " arose in contradistinction to " Catholic," while, in popular parlance, the " protest " of the Reformers against the " corruptions of Rome " led to the invention of the term " Protestant," which, though nowhere assumed in the official titles of the older reformed churches, was early used as a generic term to include them all.
Even in England, where the church retained most strongly the Catholic tradition, this distinction of " Protestant" and " Catholic" was clearly maintained, at least till the " Catholic revival " in the Church of England of the 19th century.
To the Romanist " Catholic " means " Roman Catholic "; to the high Anglican it means whatever is common to the three " historic " branches into which he conceives the church to be divided - Roman, Anglican and Orthodox; to the Protestant pure and simple it means either what it does to the Romanist, or, in expansive moments, simply what is " universal " to all Christians.
In it are the Scoville Memorial Library (about 8000 volumes in 1910); the Hotchkiss preparatory school (opened in 1892, for boys); the Salisbury School (Protestant Episcopal, for boys), removed to Salisbury from Staten Island in 1901 and formerly St Austin's school; the Taconic School (1896, for girls); and the Connecticut School for Imbeciles (established as a private institution in 1858).
On the accession of Elizabeth, Curwen at once accommodated himself to the new conditions by declaring himself a Protestant, and was continued in the office of lord chancellor.
Most remarkable of all, the Roman Catholic churches, in this strong, hold of exiled Puritanism where Catholics were so long under the heavy ban of law, outnumber those of any single Protestant denomination; Irish Catholics dominate the politics of the city, and Protestants and Catholics have been aligned against each other on the question of the control of the public schools.
The town has four Roman Catholic churches and one Protestant.
Among the public buildings and places of interest are the three churches on the Green, built in 5854; Center Church (Congregational), in the rear of which is the grave of John Dixwell (1608-1689), one of the regicides; United (formerly known as North) Church (Congregational), and Trinity Church, which belongs to one of the oldest Protestant Episcopal congregations in Connecticut.
At Peekskill are the Peekskill military academy (1833, nonsectarian); St Mary's school, Mount St Gabriel (Protestant Episcopal), a school for girls established by the sisterhood of St Mary; the Field memorial library; St Joseph's home (Roman Catholic); the Peekskill hospital, and several sanatoria.
Therefore Protestants are not only free, but bound, to criticize it; indeed, for a Protestant Christian, dogma cannot be said to exist.
He was a strong Lutheran and exercised a powerful influence in that direction as court preacher in Dresden and as president of the Protestant consistory at Munich.
Nine-tenths of the scholars are in the schools of the French Protestant Mission, which are conducted by English, or English-speaking, missionaries.
In 1906 the Baptists were the strongest religious denomination; the Methodists ranked second, while the Roman Catholic, Presbyterian and Protestant Episcopal churches were of relatively minor importance.
He was for eight years professor of theology in the Protestant college of Nimes; but in 1661, having successfully opposed a scheme for re-uniting Catholics and Protestants, he was forbidden to preach in Lower Languedoc. In 1662 he obtained a post at Montauban similar to that which he had lost; but after four years he was removed from this also.
Marguerite herself, however, was protected by her brother, and her personal inclinations seem to have been rather towards a mystical pietism than towards dogmatic Protestant sentiments.
There are a college, church and schools belonging to the American mission, a native Protestant church and a Jesuit establishment.
It possesses a Roman Catholic and two Protestant churches, a palace, which from 1524 to 1642 was the residence of the Harburg line of the house of Brunswick, a high-grade modern school, a commercial school and a theatre.
From 1859 both Protestant and Presbyterian missions were established in the island.
A union with the last-named was finally arranged, in spite of the queen's opposition, in order to strengthen the alliance with the Protestant powers in Germany, and the marriage took place on the 14th of February 1613 midst great rejoicing and festivities.
On the 26th of August 1618, Frederick, as a leading Protestant prince, was chosen king by the Bohemians, who deposed the emperor Ferdinand, then archduke of Styria.
Her beauty, grace and vivacity exercised a great charm over her contemporaries, the enthusiasm for her, however, being probably not merely personal but one inspired also by her misfortunes and by the fact that these misfortunes were incurred in defence of the Protestant cause; later, as the ancestress of the Protestant Hanoverian dynasty, she obtained a conspicuous place in English history.
There are several Roman Catholic and Protestant churches.
The principal Protestant church is a Gothic building dating from the end of the 13th century, with a fine tower, and a choir of later date (1410).
The upper consists of princes of the grand-ducal family, heads of mediatized houses, the head of the Roman Catholic and the superintendent of the Protestant church, the chancellor of the university, two elected representatives of the land-owning nobility, and twelve members nominated by the grand duke.
Following the example of his ancestors Philip cared for education and the general welfare of his land, and the Protestant university of Marburg, founded in 1527, owes to him its origin.
In 1548 the bishopric was seized by the elector of Brandenburg, who finally took possession of it fifty years later, and the cathedral passed to the Protestant Church, retaining its endowments till the edict of 1810, by which all former ecclesiastical possessions were assumed by the crown.
The London Hibernian Society asked him to accompany Dr David Bogue, the Rev. Joseph Hughes, and Samuel Mills to Ireland in August 1807, to report on the state of Protestant religion in the country.
Roman Catholics greatly predominate among religious denominations, having in 1906 477,774 members out of a total of 778,901 for all denominations; in the same year there were 185,554 Baptists, 79,464 Methodists, 9070 Protestant Episcopalians and 8350 Presbyterians.
The communities now recognized are the Latin (or Catholic), Greek (or Orthodox), Armenian Catholic, Armenian Gregorians, Syrian, and United Chaldee, Maronite, Protestant and Jewish.
Parisian families, but in 1675 he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at the Protestant university of Sedan.
He moderated the lord-deputy's policy of deporting the Irish, and unlike him he paid some attention to the interests of the English settlers; moreover, again unlike Fleetwood, he appears to have held the scales evenly between the different Protestant sects, and his undoubted popularity in Ireland is attested by Clarendon.
In 1904 he visited Canada and the United States, and was present at the triennial general convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States and Canada.
The largest religious denomination in the state in 1906 was the Roman Catholic, with 378,288 communicants out of a total of 834,442 members of all religious denominations; there were 267,322 Lutherans, 47,637 Methodists, 27,569 Presbyterians, 24,309 Baptists, 22,264 Congregationalists, and 18,763 Protestant Episcopalians.
During the same period the Lutheran zeal of the citizens led to the expulsion of the Mennonites and other Protestant sects, who founded Altona.
The loss this brought to the city was, however, compensated for by the immigration of Protestant refugees from the Low Countries and Jews from Spain and Portugal.
In the Protestant Churches 2 the custom as to vestments differs widely, corresponding to a similar divergence in tradition and teaching.
Clearly it was the intention of the government, consistently with the whole trend of its policy, to cover its concession to the Protestant party dominant in the Commons by retaining some of the outward forms of the old services until such time as it should be expedient to "take other order."
Formally to legalize the minimum enjoined by the rubrics of 1549 would, on the other hand, offend the "Protestant" section of the Church, without reconciling those who would be content with nothing short of the Catholic maximum.
Tomlinson, The Prayer Book, Articles and Homilies (1897), a polemical work from the Protestant point of view, but scholarly and based on a mass of contemporary authorities to which references are given; the bishop of Exeter, The Ornaments Rubric (London, 1901), a pamphlet.
It belongs to the Protestant Church.
With these stern Protestant discourses may be contrasted the beautiful, but somewhat euphuistical sermons of St Francois de Sales (1605-1622), full of mystical imagery.
Since the end of the 18th century, although a great number of volumes of sermons have been and continue to be published, and although the pulpit holds its own in Protestant and Catholic countries alike, for purposes of exhortation and encouragement, it cannot be said that the sermon has in any way extended its influence as a form of pure literature.
In Protestant countries casuistry shrank and dwindled, though works on the subject continued to be written both in Germany and England during the 17th century.
But the Protestant casuist never pretended to speak authoritatively; all he did was to give his reasons, and leave the decision to the conscience of his readers.
Education, in those parts of Latvia where it was standardized by the Protestant Church and Baltic regime, remained on a higher level than in Latgalia with only 38% able to read.
The organization of the Protestant Church was formerly connected with the corporation of the nobles of Livonia and Courland, but the rights of presentation pertaining to the manorial estates of the knights and to the Government estates have been abolished by the introduction of a democratic free church.
Since this surplusage is in turn derived from the Septuagint, from which the old Latin version was translated, it thus follows that the difference between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic Old Testament is, roughly speaking, traceable to the difference between the Palestinian and the Alexandrian canons of the Old Testament.
With a passionate hatred and distrust of the Catholics, and an intense love of political liberty, he united the desire for ease to Protestant Dissenters.
Soon after his ordination in 1599, he assisted Cardinal Duperron in his controversy with the Protestant Philippe de Mornay, and made numerous converts.
There are many private schools in all the large cities, from the primary schools maintained by the church and various corporations and religious associations to schools of secondary and collegiate grades, such as the Protestant mission schools of Petropolis, Piracicaba, Juiz de Fora, Sao Paulo and Parana, the Lyceu de Artes e Officios (night school) of Rio de Janeiro, and the Mackenzie College of Sao Paulo.
The Protestant contingent consists of a number of small congregations scattered throughout the country, a few Portuguese Protestants from the Azores, a part of the German colonists settled in the central and southern states, and a large percentage of the North Europeans and Americans temporarily resident in Brazil.
It is also certain that he liked to excite applause in the galleries by some platitude about the "glorious Revolution" or the "Protestant succession."
Aleppo is an important consular station for all European powers, the residence of the Greek and Armenian Patriarchs of Antioch, and of Jacobite and Maronite bishops, and a station of Roman Catholic and Protestant missions.
Orthodoxy, whether Catholic or Protestant, has since generally adopted Thomas's distinction.
Aiming, both in his sermons and ascetical writings, at development of the religious view, the danger of the times as he saw it was not so much in the Protestant reformation, which was an outside influence, but in the direction that religion had taken among the masses.
His ancestors had been members of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, and had secretly maintained their Protestant belief throughout the period of religious persecution, eventually giving their adherence to the Augsburg confession as approximate to their original faith.
The son was sent in 1812 to the Protestant gymnasium at Pressburg, where he came in contact with the philologist S afafik and became a zealous student of the Slav languages.
Palacky, though entirely national and Protestant in his sympathies, was careful to avoid an uncritical approbation of the Reformers' methods, but his statements were held by the authorities to be dangerous to the Catholic faith.
The two great Protestant communities are divided into ecclesiastical districts, five for each; the heads of these districts bear the title of superintendents.
There were in Hungary in 1900 forty-nine high theological colleges, twenty-nine Roman Catholic; five Greek Uniat, four Greek Orthodox, ten Protestant and one Jewish.
They lavished money on the embellishment of their capital, Gyulafehervar, which became a sort of Protestant Mecca, whither scholars and divines of every anti-Roman denomination flocked to bask in the favour of princes who were as liberal as they were pious.
Progress was necessarily retarded by the influence of the independent Protestant princes of Transylvania in the northern counties of Hungary.
But Thurzo was the last Protestant palatine, and, on his death, the Catholics, at the diet of Sopron (1625), where they dominated the Upper Chamber, and had a large minority in the Lower, were able to elect Count Miklos Esterhazy in Thurz6's stead.
During his primacy (1616-1637), when he had the whole influence of the court, and the sympathy and the assistance of the Catholic world behind him, he put the finishing touches to his life's labour by founding a great Catholic university at Nagyszombat (1635), and publishing a Hungarian translation of the Bible to counteract the influence of Gaspar Karoli's widely spread Protestant version.
Five years later there remained but four noble Protestant families in royal Hungary.
To humble the Habsburgs he aided the Protestant princes of Germany against the emperor, in spite of the strong opposition of the disappointed Catholic party in France, which had looked to the cardinal as a champion of the faith.
They were for some time ruled by a Portuguese, Joao Albasini, who had adopted native customs. Since 1873 Swiss Protestant missionaries have lived among then and many of the Shangaans are Christians and civilized.
Next in numbers according to European membership among the Protestant bodies are Presbyterians, 19,821 (including 1194 natives), and Methodists 37,812 (including 20,648 natives).
The Protestant European community amounts altogether to 35% of the white population.
The new elector, a keen but not a very bigoted Calvinist, was one of the most active of the Protestant princes.
It was in vain that he married his daughter Mary to the Protestant prince of Orange in 1677.
Protestant nobles of England, enraged at the tolerant policy of James, had been in negotiation with William of Orange since 1687.
Practically no other form of worship exists in the country than that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Protestant and other denominations holding their services in inconspicuous chapels or private apartments in the larger cities, where considerable numbers of foreigners reside.
It contains a Protestant and three Roman Catholic churches, a palace and a gymnasium, and other schools.
His father was a physician, who on embracing the doctrines of the Reformation became a Protestant minister, and to escape persecution settled at Bern, in Switzerland.
Here he met a certain Olympe Dunoyer ("Pimpette"), a girl apparently of respectable character and not bad connexions, but a Protestant, penniless, and daughter of a literary lady whose literary reputation was not spotless.
Volumes and almost libraries have been written on the Calas affair, and we can but refer here to the only less famous cases of Sirven (very similar to that of Calas, though no judicial murder was actually committed), Espinasse (who had been sentenced to the galleys for harbouring a Protestant minister), Lally (the son of the unjustly treated but not blameless Irish-French commander in India), D'Etalonde (the companion of La Barre), Montbailli and others.
There are numerous foreign churches, among which may be mentioned the French Protestant churches in Monmouth Road, Bayswater and Soho Square; the Greek church of St Sophia, Moscow Road, Bayswater; and the German Evangelical church in Montpelier Place, Brompton Road, opened in 1904.
On his way home from the university he passed through Saumur, and, having visited the pastor of the Protestant church there, was introduced by him to Philippe de Mornay, governor of the city.
He had a brilliant course, and was in due time licensed as a minister of the French Protestant Church.
The Protestant archbishopric of Tuam was lowered to a bishopric on the death of Archbishop Power Le Poer Trench in 1839, and united with that of Killala and Achonry.
It is, however, a Roman Catholic archbishopric. The Protestant cathedral is also the parish church, and was to a great extent rebuilt c. 1861 from plans by Sir Thomas Deane.
Though still comparatively young, Gerhard had already come to be regarded as the greatest living theologian of Protestant Germany; in the numerous "disputations" of the period he was always protagonist, while on all public and domestic questions touching on religion or morals his advice was widely sought.
Here is a Protestant colony, known as "the Settlement" and founded in 1834.
Saarbrucken has four Protestant churches, a Roman Catholic and an Old Catholic church, and a town hall adorned with paintings by Anton von Werner, illustrating episodes of the war of 1870.
He was also known as the author of sacred poems. Gottfried Arnold has rightly been classed with the pietistic section of Protestant historians (Bibliotheca Sacra, 1850).
Mission work is undertaken by various Protestant and Roman Catholic societies.
From the outbreak of the Hussite Wars to the Thirty Years' War Saaz was Hussite or Protestant, but after the battle of the White Mountain (1620) the greater part of the Bohemian inhabitants left the town, which became German and Roman Catholic.
It contains one Roman Catholic and four Protestant churches, a synagogue, a fine town-hall dating from the 16th century, and several schools.
The town contains three Roman Catholic churches, a Protestant church, a synagogue, a new town-hall and a gymnasium.
Early in Elizabeth's reign, however, he wrote a larger catechism, to serve as a statement of Protestant principles; it was printed in 1570, and in the same year appeared his "middle" catechism, designed it would seem for the instruction of "simple curates."
Of the latter, the most prominent are the military barracks on the north bank of the river, the Protestant church, the Roman Catholic cathedral and St Colman's Roman Catholic college.
The schools include the Gymnasium (founded in 1592 by the Protestant community as a Latin school), the Realgymnasium (founded in 1830, for "modern" subjects and Latin), the Oberrealschule and Realschule (founded 1893, the latter wholly "modern"), two girls' high schools, a girls' middle-class school, a large number of popular schools, a mechanics' and polytechnic school, a school of mechanics, an industrial drawing school, a commercial school, and a school for the deaf and dumb.
The majority of the inhabitants are Protestant, with a strong tendency towards Pietism; but the Roman Catholics number upwards of 40,000, forming about one-fourth of the total population.
Theodorus Aemilius, a priest, who had turned Protestant, adopting Jakob, sent him to school at Utrecht, but died when his charge was in his fifteenth year.
The original aim was to influence the old Nestorian Church rather than to set up a new religious body, but the wide difference between Presbyterians and an Oriental Church rendered the attempt abortive, and the result of the labours of the Americans has been the establishment since 1862 of a Syrian Protestant community in Persia, with some adherents in Turkey.
This mission enrolled a very large number of adherents drawn from the old Church, the Protestant Nestorians, and the UniatChaldeans, but it can hardly be said to have commenced any active work, although the Anglican mission withdrew from competition by closing its schools in the dioceses occupied by the Russians.
He had an important share also in the formation of the Protestantenverein, or Protestant association, in September 1863.
There are missions, both Protestant and Roman Catholic; and an important hospital under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society.
There are also four other Protestant churches (of which the town church, dedicated to St Wenceslaus and restored in 1892-1894, possesses two pictures by Lucas Cranach the elder), a Roman Catholic church, a gymnasium, a modern school, an orphanage and three hospitals.
Munich is the seat of the archbishop of Munich-Freising and of the general Protestant consistory for Bavaria.
The form Jehovah was used in the 16th century by many authors, both Catholic and Protestant, and in the 17th was zealously defended by Fuller, Gataker, Leusden and others, against the criticisms of such scholars as Drusius, Cappellus and the elder Buxtorf.
It appeared in the English Bible in Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch (1530), and is found in all English Protestant versions of the 16th century except that of Coverdale ('' 1 535) In the Authorized Version of 161 i it occurs in Exod.
In the city there is a branch of the Ottoman bank, a government technical school, a French Catholic mission and a school, an Armenian Protestant school for boys, an American mission school for girls, mainly Armenian, and other educational establishments.
Adrian is the seat of Adrian College (1859; co-educational), controlled by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in 1859-1867 and since 1867 by the Methodist Protestant Church, and having departments of literature, theology, music, fine arts, commerce and pedagogy, and a preparatory school; and of St Joseph's Academy (Roman Catholic) for girls; and 1 m.
She ostentatiously exhibited her contempt for the Protestant religion.
Wuchang is not open to foreign trade and residence, but a considerable number of missionaries, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, live within the walls.
The best known are the Annales Ecclesiastici, written by Cardinal Baronius as a rejoinder to and refutation of the Historia ecclesiastica or "Centuries" of the Protestant theologians of Magdeburg (12 vols., published at Rome from 1788 to 1793; Baronius's work stops at the year 1197).
About this time, his father, a poor Protestant minister, died, and the family was left in straitened circumstances; but a small pension from the state allowed Abel to enter Christiania University in 1821.
Up to this time Protestant missions in India had been successful only in reaching low-caste and outcaste peoples, particularly in Tinevelly and south Travancore.
Among its many charitable institutions are a Masonic Home and School (1893), a Home for the Homeless (1867), St Elizabeth's Home (1886), St Luke's Home (1869), a Home for Aged Men and Couples (1879), Utica Orphan Asylum (1830), St Joseph's Infant Home (1893) and St John's Female Orphan Asylum (1834), both under the Sisters of Charity; the House of the Good Shepherd (1872; Protestant Episcopal); and the General (1873; City of Utica), Homeopathic (1895), St Luke's (1869; supported by the Protestant Episcopal Churches), St Elizabeth's (1866; Sisters of the Third Order of St Francis) and Faxton (1873) hospitals.
The first newspaper, the Gazette, began publication in the same year, and the first church, Trinity (Protestant Episcopal), was built.
Consequently tliey exclude once for all from political supremacy all the different servants of God - Catholic, Protestant or Deist - as being at once behindhand and a cause of disturbance."
There were 15,443 Protestant Episcopalians, 9858 Congregationalists, 7892 Methodists.
Of the Protestant churches the oldest is the Nikolaikirche, which dates from the 13th century; the fine cast-iron spire erected in 1843 had to be taken down in 1901.
The Katharinenkirche, built 1678-1681 on the site of an older building, is famous in Frankfort history as the place where the first Protestant sermon was preached in 1522.
Among the more noteworthy of the newer Protestant churches are the Peterskirche (1892-1895) in the North German Renaissance style, with a tower 256 ft.
It has a Protestant and a Roman Catholic church, and is the seat of considerable industries; notably wool-combing, weaving, jute-spinning and the manufacture of linoleum.
The grand-duke is a Protestant; under him the Evangelical Church is governed by a nominated council and a synod consisting of the " prelate," 48 elected, and 7 nominated lay and clerical members.
The upper chamber is composed of all the princes of the reigning family who are of full age; the chiefs of the mediatized families; the archbishop of Freiburg; the president -of the Protestant Evangelical church; a deputy from each of the universities and from the technical high school, eight members elected by the territorial nobility for four years, three representatives of the chamber of commerce, two of that of agriculture, one of that of trades, two mayors of municipalities, one burgomaster of lesser towns, one member of a district council, and eight members (two of them legal functionaries) nominated by the grand-duke.
At times he had the sagacity to recognize the utility of alliances, as was shown by those he concluded with the Porte and with the Protestant princes of Germany.
From that time, in spite of occasional indulgences shown to the Reformers, due to his desire to conciliate the Protestant powers, Francis gave a free hand to the party of repression, of which the most active and most pitiless member was Cardinal de Tournon; and the end of the reign was sullied by the massacre of the Waldenses (1545) Francis introduced new methods into government.
Of the total about 45% are Roman Catholics, 32% Protestant Episcopalians, and 16% Presbyterians, the Roman Catholic faith prevailing in the mountainous districts and the Protestant in the towns and lowlands.
Armagh is divided into eight baronies, and contains twenty-five parishes and parts of parishes, the greater number of which are in the Protestant and Roman Catholic dioceses of Armagh, and a few in the Roman Catholic diocese of Dromore.
The Protestant Reformation met an early and general welcome in Styria, but the dukes took the most stringent measures to stamp it out, offering their subjects recantation or expatriation as the only alternatives.
The town is timber-built and modern; and the Protestant church, town-hall, and schools were all rebuilt after fire in 1890.
The Memoirs of Literature, the first English review consisting entirely of original matter, published in London from 1710 to 1714, had for editor Michel de la Roche, a French Protestant refugee, who also edited at Amsterdam the Bibliotheque angloise (1717-1719), and subsequently Memoires litte'raires de la Grande Bretagne (1720-1724).
Other serials of this class are the Protestant Episcopal Quarterly Review (1854), the Presbyterian Magazine (1851-1860), the Catholic World (1865), the Southern Review (1867), the New' Jerusalem Magazine (1827), American Baptist Magazine (1817), the Church Review (1848), the Christian Review (1836), the Universalist Quarterly (1844).
This was the origin of the clandestine press of Holland, and it was that country which for the next hundred years supplied the ablest periodical criticism from the pens of French Protestant refugees.
The Annales des travaux publics (1843), the Bulletin de l'industrie (1842), the Journal des beaux-arts (1858), and the Catholic Precis historiques (1852), the Protestant Chretien belge (1850), are other examples.
Of those founded in the 19th century may be mentioned the Recensent (1803), and Nieuwe Recensent; the Nederlandsch Museum (1835); the Tijdstroom (1857); the Tijdspiegel, a literary journal of Protestant tendency; the Theologisch Tijdschrift (1867), the organ of the Leiden school of theology; and the Dietsche Warande, a Roman Catholic review devoted to the national antiquities.
The Roman Church anathematized, in the council of Trent, all the distinctive doctrines of the Protestant Reformation.
Among Protestant churches again there are minor doctrinal differences, which are held with various degrees of exclusiveness or liberality according to the degree of departure from the Roman Catholic Church.
In 1544 the Reformation was introduced, and in the following years numerous Protestant refugees from the Low Countries found their way to the town.
In May he had charge of the bill for securing the Protestant succession; he took part in the impeachment of the Whig lords for their conduct concerning the Partition treaties, and opposed the oath abjuring the Pretender.
He was educated at the Protestant academy of Saumur, and in 1679 became an advocate, but soon afterwards entered the army.
In his addresses on the future of the Protestant Church (Reden fiber die Zukunft der evangelischen Kirche, 1849), he finds the essence of Christianity in Jesus's conceptions of the heavenly Father, the Son of Man and the kingdom of Heaven.
On the 18th of December a new censorship law was issued, to secure the orthodoxy of all published books; and finally, in 1791, a sort of Protestant Inquisition was established at Berlin (Immediat-Examinationscommission) to watch over all ecclesiastical and scholastic appointments.
In the Protestant churches of continental Europe the title of archbishop has fallen into almost complete disuse.
He removed to Brunswick on the 15th of December 1554, and there spent the remainder of his life, refusing subsequent offers of important offices from various Protestant princes of Germany.
This sermon had much annoyed Newman and his more advanced disciples, but it was a proof that at that date Manning was loyal to the Church of England as Protestant.
During his visits to England he was at the disposal of Cardinal Wiseman, who through him, at the time of the Crimean War, was enabled to obtain from the government the concession that for the future Roman Catholic army chaplains should not be regarded as part of the staff of the Protestant chaplain-general.
At Bologna he read Melanchthon's Loci communes theologiae and was so impressed by it that in 1549 he went to Wittenberg to see the author, and shortly afterwards became a Protestant.
Financial embarrassment and disgust at the Protestant controversies in which he was forced to participate caused him to seek recall from the imperial court.
The French king treated Victor Amadeus almost as a vassal, and obliged him to persecute his Protestant (Waldensian) subjects.
The Presbyterians and Protestant Episcopalians each outnumber the Roman Catholics in Belfast, and these three are the chief religious divisions.
The most prominent buildings are the new town-hall (1893); the castle of Count Clam Gallas, built in the 17th century, with additions dating from 1774 and 1850; the Erzdekanatskirche, of the 16th century; the Protestant church, a handsome modern Romanesque edifice (1864-68) and the hall of the cloth-workers.
Among its ecclesiastical edifices (nine Roman Catholic and four Protestant churches) the most noteworthy is the Roman Catholic cathedral, with huge pointed windows, slender columns and numerous flying buttresses, which, begun in the 13th century and consecrated in 1546, belongs to the period of the decadence of the Gothic style.
The Gothic churches of St Vincent and St Eucharius, and the handsome Protestant garrison church, completed in 1881, also deserve mention.
It contains a fine Gothic Protestant church (St Mary's) dating from the 13th century and has several educational establishments, notably a school of seamanship. Its industries comprise iron-founding, ship-building, brewing, and the manufacture of cigars, leather and tinned fish.
Hugh James Rose had published in England (1825) a volume of sermons on the rationalist movement (The State of the Protestant Religion in Germany), in which he classed Bretschneider with the rationalists; and Bretschneider contended that he himself was not a rationalist in the ordinary sense of the term, but a "rational supernaturalist."
He devoted himself to the support of the Protestant interest in France.
It is the seat of the Columbia Institute for girls (under Protestant Episcopal control), founded in 1836, and of the Columbia Military Academy.
In 1545 he became minister of the Italian Protestant congregation at Augsburg, which he was compelled to forsake when, in January 1547, the city was occupied by the imperial forces in the Schmalkaldic War.
Ochino was banished from Zurich, and, after being refused a shelter by other Protestant cities, directed his steps towards Poland, at that time the most tolerant state in Europe.
The general tendency of his mind ran counter to tradition, and he is remarkable as resuming in his individual history all the phases of Protestant theology from Luther to Socinus.
His principal work, Wahres Christentum (1606-1609), which has been translated into most European languages, has served as the foundation of many books of devotion, both Roman Catholic and Protestant.
He entered public life in 1849 as Liberal member for the county of Sherbrooke, but opposed the chief measure of his party, the Rebellion Losses Bill, and in the same year signed a manifesto in favour of union with the United States, believing that in no other way could Protestant and AngloSaxon ascendancy over the Roman Catholic French majority in his native province be maintained.
It contains a Roman Catholic and three Protestant churches, a museum and several schools.
The Gothic cathedral (now Protestant), dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, is remarkable for the majestic impression made by the great height of the interior, with its slender columns and lofty, narrow aisles.
The principal churches, in order of their membership were, in 1890, the Methodist Episcopal, Presbyterian, Protestant Episcopal, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Quaker and Lutheran.
The Austrians had long tried to obtain influence in the town, especially when its support of the Protestant cause attracted the sympathy of the Swiss.
It was not only that she lost many thousands of her best citizens, but this blow against Protestantism deprived her of those Protestant alliances in Europe which had been in the past her great diplomatic support.
This interpretation was introduced into Protestant exegesis by Corrodi.
There is a tradition that here or in England he embraced the Protestant faith; nothing in his writings would lead one to suppose so.
But, having failed to crush the Protestant rebellion by arms, she resumed in 1570 the policy of peace and negotiation.
He became assistant bishop of Virginia in 1829; was pastor of Christ Church, Norfolk, in 1834-1836; in 1841 became bishop of Virginia; and in1842-1862was president of the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary in Virginia, near Alexandria, delivering an annual course of lectures on pastoral theology.
Of these 401,720 were Baptists; 3 1 7,495 Methodists; 308,356 Roman Catholics; 62,090 Presbyterians; 39,550 Disciples of Christ; 34,006 members of the Churches of Christ; 27,437 Lutherans; 14,246 Protestant Episcopalians; 7745 members of the German Evangelical Synod of North America, and 1856 Congregationalists.
In 1906 it was estimated that there were 788,667 communicants of all religious denominations; of these 207,607 were Roman Catholics; 164,329 Methodists; 117,668 Lutherans; 60,081 Presbyterians; 55,948 Disciples of Christ; 44,096 Baptists; 37,061 Congregationalists; 11,681 members of the German Evangelical Synod; and 8990 Protestant Episcopalians.
It contains a handsome town hall, three Protestant and two Roman Catholic churches.
But Jansen, as he said, did not mean to be a school-pedant all his life; and there were moments when he dreamed political dreams. He looked forward to a time when Belgium should throw off the Spanish yoke and become an independent Catholic republic on the model of Protestant Holland.
The elder Franklin was born at Ecton in Northamptonshire, England, where the strongly Protestant Franklin family may be traced back for nearly four centuries.
There are five churches, four Protestant and one Catholic. The Evangelical Liebfrauenkirche, a Romanesque building (mainly 12th-century), has two octagonal towers and a loth-century porch.
The task of civilizing the natives is undertaken in various ways by the numerous Protestant and Roman Catholic missions established in the colony, and by the government.
Lugard, by introducing the names " Protestant " and " Catholic " - till then unknown - and by insisting that all religion.
On the 22nd of January the killing of a Protestant at the capital (Mengo) pro- Civil War, 1891.
The population is almost wholly Protestant.
The name was particularly used of the supporters of the Exclusion Bill in 1680, with the meaning of "sham Protestant."
The chapel was allocated as a place of worship by Queen Elizabeth to certain Protestant Walloon refugees.
These agreed in repudiating certain of the doctrines, rites and practices of the medieval Church, especially the sacrifice of the Mass and the headship of the bishop of Rome, and, whatever their official designations, came generally to be known as " Protestant."
The heat of controversy is, however, abating, and during the past thirty or forty years both Catholic and Protestant investigators have been vying with one another in adding to our knowledge and in rectifying old mis takes; while an ever-increasing number of writers pledged to neither party are aiding in developing an idea of the scope and nature of the Reformation which differs radically from the traditional one.
The first step in clarifying the situation is to come to a full realization that the medieval Church was essentially an international state, and that the character of the Protestant secession from it was largely determined by this fact.
Protestant writers once contented themselves with a brief caricature of the Church, Position of Object.
Singularly enough it is the modern Catholic scholars, Johannes Janssen above all, who, in their efforts further to discredit the Protestant revolt by rehabilitating the institutions which the reformers attacked, have done most to explain the success of the Reformation.
Building upon the foundations laid by Hasak and other Catholic writers who have been too much neglected by Protestant historians, Janssen produced a monumental work in defence of the German Church before Luther's defection.
Wholly novel and distinctive it is not, for the rulers of Catholic countries, like Spain and France, and of England (before the publication of the Act of Supremacy) could and did limit the pope's claims to unlimited jurisdiction, patronage and taxation, and they introduced the placet forbidding the publication within their realms_ of papal edicts, decisions and orders, without the express sanction of the government - in short, in many ways tended to approach the conditions in Protestant lands.
Martin Luther was beyond doubt the most important single figure in the Protestant revolt.
Luther, however, possessed resources of style which served to render his version far superior to the older one, and to give it an important place in the development of German literature, as well as in the history of the Protestant churches.
Thus the agreement of Regensburg is of great moment in the development of the Protestant revolt in Germany.
Their refutation of the Protestant positions seemed needlessly sharp to the emperor, and five drafts were made of it.
Consequently, at the diet of Nuremberg (1532) a recess was drafted indefinitely extending the religious truce and quashing such cases in the Reichskammergericht as involved Protestant ' In 1527 the pope's capital was sacked by Charles's army.
This was, of course, but an incident in the purely political relations of the European powers with the pope, and really has no bearing upon the progress of the Protestant revolt.
The conservatives refused to ratify the recess, which was not published, but the Protestant states declared that they would accept the emperor's word of honour, and furnished him with troops for repelling the Mahommedans.
The fact that the conservative princes, especially the dukes of Bavaria, were opposed to any strengthening of the emperor's power, and were in some cases hereditary enemies of the house of; Habsburg, served to protect the Protestant princes.
In 1 534 the Schmalkaldic League succeeded in restoring the banished duke of Wurttemberg, who declared himself in favour of the Lutheran reformation, and thus added another to the list of German Protestant states.
In 1539 George of Saxony died, and was succeeded by his brother Henry, who also accepted the new faith, and in the same year the new elector of Brandenburg became a Protestant.
For four years Charles, backed by the Spanish troops, made efforts to force the Protestant towns to observe the Interim, but with little success.
The Church and the civil government had been closely associated with one another for centuries, and the old system was perpetuated in the Protestant states.
Elizabeth, who succeeded her sister Mary in 1558, was suspected to be Protestant in her leanings, and her adviser, Cecil, had received his training as secretary of the Protector Somerset; but the general European situation as well as the young queen's own temperament precluded any abrupt or ostentatious change in religious matters.
On Easter Sunday the queen ventured to display her personal preference for the Protestant conception of the eucharist by forbidding the celebrant in her chapel to elevate the host.
Scottish Calvinism was destined to exercise no little influence, not only on the history of England, but on the form that the Protestant faith was to take in lands beyond the seas, at the time scarcely known to the Europeans.
While France was deeply affected during the 16th century by the Protestant revolt, its government never undertook any thoroughgoing reform of the Church.
Over a the Protestant revolt would be complete without some allusion to the contrast between the course of affairs in France and in the neighbouring countries.
The Sorbonne also drew up a list of prohibited books, including those of Calvin, Luther and Melanchthon; and the parlement issued a decree against all printing of Protestant literature.
Bern formally sanctioned becomes the innovations advocated by the Protestant preachers, a centre and although predominantly German assumed the of propa- role of protector of the reform party in the Pays ganda.
Geneva, however, with its most distinguished of Protestant theologians, became a school of Protestantism, which sent its trained men into the Netherlands, England and Scotland, and especially across the border into France.
In spite of continued persecution a national synod was assembled in Paris in 1559, representing at least twelve Protestant churches in Normandy and central France, which drew up a confession of faith and a book of church discipline.
Public worship was permitted everywhere where it had existed in 1596-1597, in two places within each bailliage and senechaussee, and in the châteaux of the Protestant nobility, with slight restrictions in the case of lower nobility.
Contemporaneously with the Wars of Religion in France a long and terrible struggle between the king of Spain and his Dutch and Belgian provinces had resulted in the formation of a Protestant state - the United Nether- United lands, which was destined tola an important role play p in the history of the Reformed religion.
This large class of " dissenters " found themselves as little at home under a Protestant as under a Catholic regime, and have until recently been treated with scant sympathy by historians of the Church.
Long before the Protestant revolt, simple, obscure people, under the influence of leaders whose names have been forgotten, lost confidence in the official clergy and their sacraments and formed secret organizations of which vague accounts are found in the reports of the 13th-century inquisitors, Rainerus Sacchoni, Bernard Gui, and the rest.
The terrible events in Minster, which was controlled for a short time (1533-34) by a group of Anabaptists under the leadership of John of Leiden, the introduction of polygamy (which appears to have been a peculiar accident rather than a general principle), the speedy capture of the town by an alliance of Catholic and Protestant princes, and the ruthless retribution inflicted by the victors, have been cherished by ecclesiastical writers as a choice and convincing instance of the natural fruits of a rejection of infant baptism.
The modern scholar as he reviews the period of the Protestant Revolt looks naturally, but generally in vain, for those rationalistic tendencies which become so clear in the Soc latter part of the 17th century.
The anti-Trinitarian path was one which opened invitingly before a considerable class of critical minds, seeming as it did to lead out into Reformed Church In America a sunny open, remote from the unfathomable depths of mystery and clouds of religious emotion which beset the way of the sincere Catholic and Protestant alike.
The effects of the Protestant secession on the doctrines, organization and practices of the Roman Catholic Church are difficult to estimate, still more so to substantiate.
It is clear that the doctrinal conclusions of the council of Trent were largely determined by the necessity of condemning Protestant tenets, and that the result of the council was to give the Roman Catholic faith a more precise form than it would otherwise have had.
In any attempt to determine the relative importance of Protestant and Catholic countries in promoting modern progress it must not be forgotten that religion is naturally conservative, and that its avowed business has never been to forward scientific research or political reform.
The Reformation was, fundamentally, then, but one phase, if the most conspicuous, in the gradual decline of the majestic medieval ecclesiastical State, for this decline has gone on in France, Austria, Spain and Italy, countries in which the Protestant revolt against the ancient Church ended in failure.
This is the standard Catholic treatment of the Reformation, and is being supplemented by a series of monographs, Ergcinzungen zu Janssens Geschichte des deutschen Volkes, which have been appearing since 1898 and correspond with the Protestant Schriften des Vereins fur Reformationsgeschichte (1883 sqq.).
There are schools, of theology at Cambridge (Protestant Episcopal), Newton (Baptist) and Waltham (New Church), as well as in connexion with Boston University (Methodist), Tufts College (Universalist) and Harvard (non-sectarian, and the affiliated Congregational Andover Theological Seminary at Cambridge).
Coeffeteau won considerable distinction in the controversy against the Protestant reformers and also wrote a History of Rome from Augustus to Constantine.
Out of this grew the Free Church Federation, which secures a measure of co-operation between the Protestant Evangelical churches throughout England.
This doxology is also used in the Protestant Episcopal and Methodist Episcopal churches of America, as indeed in most Protestant churches at the eucharist.
The result was a structure which is well named the Protestant scholasticism.
Schweizer's Protestant Central Dogmas (1854-1856) was an historical study of Reformed, i.e.
The Council will rely chiefly upon Scripture s in reformandis dogmatibus et instaurandis in ecclesia moribus; the Roman reply to the two sets of articuli of Augsburg, and the Roman counterpart to the (later) Protestant assertion that the Bible 7 is the " only rule of faith and practice."
On the Protestant side the identity is still clear in the Lutheran Formula of Concord (1577).
That characteristic Protestant assertion had been still earlier pushed to the front in " Reformed " creeds, e.g.
Here then, under Protestant scholasticism (Lutheran and Reformed), we have the first perfectly definite conception of dogma, and the most definite ever reached.
Hence in Chrismann (who is in other respects the most definite of the three) we have a view of dogma almost as clear-cut as that of the Protestant schoolmen.
This whole period of theology, Protestant and Roman Catholic, is statical.
Again, the assertion that the church is infallible upon some questions, not belonging to the area of revelation (properly so-called in Roman Catholic theology), destroys the identification of " dogmas " with " infallible certainties " which we noted both in the Protestant schoolmen and in Chrismann.
Finally we have to glance at a new list of definitions which perhaps in some cases seek more or less to formulate modern Protestant ideas, but which in general represent rather the world of disinterested historical scholarship.
That world of the learned offers us non-dogmatic definitions, drawn up from the outside; definitions which do not share the root assumptions either of Catholicism or of post-Reformation Protestant orthodoxy.
He places himself in a sense within the dogmatic circle by his declaration that guidance is to be expected from developments - in a " free Protestant evangelical spirit " - out of the old confessions of the Protestant churches.
This is a radical version of the early Protestant idea of faith, and yields a theory of what in English we call " doctrine."
From 1654 to 1658 Pell acted as Cromwell's political agent to the Protestant cantons of Switzerland.
It was declared to be unlawful for the regent to make war or peace, or ratify any treaty with any foreign power, or prorogue, adjourn or dissolve any parliament without the consent of the majority of the council of regency, or give her assent to any bill for repealing or varying the Act of Settlement, the Act of Uniformity, or the Act of the Scottish parliament for securing the Protestant religion and Presbyterian church government in Scotland (1707, c. 6).
In the Rue d'Italie, running south from the Avenue de France, are the post office, market buildings, and French Protestant church.
East of the mosque, which dates from the 17th century, and just without the inner city walls, here demolished, is the Protestant cemetery of St George, used during the 17th, 18th and the greater part of the 19th centuries.
P. Schaff, Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches, p. 197.
The landgrave of Hesse brought the two Reformers together in vain at Marburg in October 1529, and the whole Protestant movement broke into two camps, with the result that the attempt made at Schmalkalden in 1530 to form a comprehensive league of defence against all foes of the Reformation was frustrated.
In February 1531 Zwingli himself urged the Evangelical Swiss to attack the Five Cantons, and on the oth of October there was fought at Kappel a battle, disastrous to the Protestant cause and fatal to its leader.
Kirche, and Zwingliana, P. Schaff, Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches, p. 211.
The hymns are largely used in Protestant collections.
Gouverneur Morris's father, Lewis Morris (1698-1762), closed a long public career as judge of the vice-admiralty court of New York; his mother was descended from a French Protestant refugee, who had come to America to escape the persecution of Louis XIV.
The "Leislerians" pretended greater loyalty to the Protestant succession.
They treated the people with horrible barbarity, so that the conscience of Europe was aroused, and England under Cromwell called on the Protestant powers to join in remonstrance to the duke of Savoy and the French king.
From that time onwards the Vaudois became the objects of much interest in Protestant countries.
Large sums of money were collected to build hospitals and churches among their valleys, and they were looked upon as the possible centre of a Protestant church in Italy.
The church of St Michael, founded by Bishop Bernward early in the 11th century and restored after injury by fire in 1186, contains a unique painted ceiling of the 12th century, the sarcophagus and monument of Bishop Bernward, and a bronze font; it is now a Protestant parish church, but the crypt is used by the Roman Catholics.
It contains four Protestant churches, among them the German church, with a handsome steeple, and the curious circular Lithuanian church, a Roman Catholic church, a Jewish synagogue and a classical school (Gymnasium).
Then, during Mary's reign, secret congregations met under the leadership of Protestant clergy, and, when these were lacking, even of laymen.
Of these it is enough to name John Cotton, able both as a divine and as a statesman, potent in England by his expositions and apologies of the " New England way," potent in America for his organizing and administrative power; Thomas Hooker, famed as an exponent and apologist of the " New England way "; John Eliot, famous as the " apostle of the Indians," first of Protestant missionaries to the heathen; Richard Mather, whose influence and work were carried on by his distinguished son, and his still more distinguished grandson, Cotton Mather.
Of 3,591,974 members of all religious denominations in 1906, 2,285,768 were Roman Catholics, 313,689 Methodist Episcopalians, 199,923 Presbyterians, 193,890 Protestant Episcopalians, 176,981 Baptists, 124,644 Lutherans, 57,351 Congregationalists, 35,34 2 Jews (heads of families only), 26,183 members of the German Evangelical Synod, 19,302 members of Eastern Orthodox churches and 10,761 Universalists.