Proteins sentence example

proteins
  • They are essentially instructions on how to make proteins, which are what build and regulate your body.

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  • The food is alike in both cases; it consists of water, certain inorganic salts, carbohydrates and proteins.

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  • The structure of proteins enables scientists to understand the function they perform.

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  • This essential amino acid is vital in the make up of critical body proteins.

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  • This hapten can conveniently be coupled to carriers such as soluble proteins, cell membrane proteins or to membrane soluble lipid anchors.

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  • It was discovered that leukemia cells need an external supply of a compound called asparagine to make proteins.

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  • In vitro binding assays revealed that the ALK portion of NPM-ALK mediates interaction of the two proteins.

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  • The most significant chromophore for proteins is the amide group of the polypeptide backbone.

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  • Two fluorescent, protein-based biosensors have been developed by the Division of Physical Biochemistry at NIMR, as part of research into motility proteins.

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  • An area of research for several years has been proteins and enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis.

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  • The copy numbers of these Che proteins were accurately determined by quantitative western blot.

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  • Proteins are modified to be mis-folded by making new links between otherwise remote amino acids with disulfide bonds.

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  • In brains affected by PD, proteins that are not broken down properly clump together inside brains affected by PD, proteins that are not broken down properly clump together inside brain cells.

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  • To become infectious, it has to rid itself of Gag by splitting these proteins into smaller ones, called capsid.

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  • Such enzymes include cellulases for cellulose, amylases for starch and proteinases for proteins.

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  • Proteins are composed of complex polypeptide chains with unique 3-dimensional structures.

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  • The eukaryotic solution to the compaction problem is called chromatin, a complex of DNA and structural proteins.

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  • Each chromosome is really a very long molecule of DNA wound up and coiled around special proteins to form chromatin.

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  • It is thought that the loops are formed by special DNA-binding proteins that are attached to specific regions of the 30 nm chromatin fiber.

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  • A controlled virus taxonomical and functional classification has been used for all the proteins and protein families in the database.

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  • Many of these proteins are also cleaved by proteases, and these enzyme activities are targets of drugs that stop invasion.

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  • The proteins coagulate, producing a soft cheese-like product.

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  • The excess cortisol causes the breakdown of proteins contained in muscle tissue.

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  • Electron transfer through proteins (e.g. cytochrome c ).

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  • These proteins fill the cytoplasm of the highly organized eye lens fiber cells.

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  • However, in redox proteins with strong oxidizing centers oxidative decarboxylation of nearby ionized carboxylic groups may be expected to occur to some degree.

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  • Haemostatic mechanisms control blood flow by regulating platelet adherence and fibrin deposition and various haemostatic proteins have been shown to regulate angiogenesis.

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  • Proteins which interact with lipid components can be eluted by non-ionic detergents or organic solvents.

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  • Nonetheless the proteins retain sufficient mobility to allow the organization into crystalline two-dimensional arrays by lateral diffusion.

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  • The proteins were cleaved by chemical or enzymatic digestion to produce peptide maps, which were analyzed by pulsed delayed extraction MALDI-MS.

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  • Vitamin A prompts the secretion of gastric juices necessary for proper digestion of proteins.

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  • A common way in which proteins are degraded is by ' enzyme digestion ' .

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  • Targets for drugs designed to treat many human diseases will often be such human proteins.

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  • With extracellular domains of the integrins linked to matrix proteins, a cell is firmly attached to the external matrix.

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  • Two small GTP-binding proteins are known to be involved in modulating actin dynamics.

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  • In biological systems the reference values are often encoded genetically, in the binding constants of proteins for their allosteric effectors.

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  • The proteins are analyzed using gel electrophoresis to produce a protein profile.

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  • Using 2-D electrophoresis, followed by autoradiography, brain proteins which react with a tritium-labelled organophosphate, can be rapidly imaged.

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  • Proteins in the growing ridge (dark band) of a limb bud in a chick embryo.

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  • Control is exerted within a network of membranes called endoplasmic reticulum (ER ), which transports proteins throughout the cell.

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  • The product of this reaction, RsbV, liberates B from its inactive complex with RsbW and induces expression of the general stress proteins.

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  • For example, precursors of SREBP (sterol response element binding protein) transcription factors are integral proteins embedded in endoplasmic reticulum membranes.

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  • Factorial screening techniques, either full factorial screening techniques, either full factorial or sparse matrix approaches, have proved successful in the crystallization of many proteins.

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  • Hay fever is another reaction of the immune system to proteins, sometimes fatal like asthma.

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  • Equivalent enzymes for shorter chain fatty acids are soluble proteins of the mitochondrial matrix.

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  • In these disorders, normally soluble proteins fold abnormally and become insoluble fibrils that damage tissue.

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  • These proteins convert plasminogen to plasmin, which in turn degrades fibrin, the main component of the clot.

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  • These proteins include fibrinogen, serum amyloid A, caeruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and several others.

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  • Within the brewing industry, isinglass finings are added to the cask in liquid form to assist sedimentation of yeast and proteins.

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  • The E coli flagellum has about 40 different kinds of proteins to make it work.

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  • Some proteins fluoresce naturally, because the fluoresce naturally, because the fluorescent molecule is actually a part of the protein.

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  • Our main focus of interest is in understanding the assembly and activation of membrane-bound proteins using single-molecule fluorescence.

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  • New genetic techniques allow the precise decoration of tissues or sub-cellular compartments with intrinsically fluorescent proteins.

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  • Increased breakdown of skin proteins makes the skin more fragile.

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  • During the test, an electric current is used to move the proteins across a thin layer of agarose gel.

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  • We showed that one or more proteins encoded by gene 1 of infectious (IB) virus have a dominant impact on pathogenicity.

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  • Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is one of the proteins produced by the liver.

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  • In the nucleus, there are globular proteins called histones, which the DNA wraps itself around.

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  • From bacterial to human models The majority of membrane protein structures are of bacterial homologues of membrane proteins.

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  • Many signal proteins bind via lipid anchors and/or pleckstrin homology domains to the cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane.

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  • Clues to the normal function of MLL in mammalian haematopoiesis have come from the identification of domains that share homology with other known proteins.

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  • Serum analysis revealed that all proteins were highly immunogenic.

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  • Hwa says that the work could also have implications for proteins implicated in many other degenerative diseases.

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  • These antibodies bind to the surface proteins but do not inactivate the virus.

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  • Stinging nettle infusion replaces the nutrients and proteins that Kundalini uses up.

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  • Some of these proteins belong to a group called the tyrosine kinases.

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  • These include components of signaling pathways and ubiquitin ligase proteins that regulate signal receptor trafficking.

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  • The cells also localize proteins at the cellular interface.

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  • Cholesterol is transported in blood bound to proteins called low-density lipoproteins (LDL ).

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  • The transit peptide is very similar in structure to a family of nuclear proteins imported into the thylakoid lumen.

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  • The Cry gene toxins target specific insect cell receptor proteins and create pores that lead to osmotic lysis of the insect gut cells.

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  • This definition yielded a conservative assignment as several protein with distinct lobes (e.g. hen lysozyme and subtilisin) were classed as single-domain proteins.

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  • On your chromosomes are specific sections called genes, which code for proteins and enzymes and so on - the cellular machinery.

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  • The skin and tissues change in response to the build up of fluid, proteins and other macromolecules.

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  • To study meiosis, it is necessary to investigate the consequences to chromosome segregation of altering particular proteins.

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  • Two carrier proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane are required for this metabolic cycle.

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  • The Center has a major program of structural and functional studies on several classes of membrane proteins, including membrane transporters and ion channels.

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  • The capsules, or bioreactors, permit the release of recombinant proteins that may assert their effects in the tumor microenvironment.

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  • Proteins are long chains, or polymers, of single monomers called amino acids.

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  • We use site-directed mutagenesis to couple this information to structural features of the proteins.

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  • Biochemists call these thick muscle fibers myosin heavy chain proteins (MHC ).

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  • There is a joint program with cardiovascular medicine on the molecular genetics of myocardial contractile proteins, and on integrated cardiac neurobiology.

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  • The nitrogen can also transform into nitrites, which can combine with the proteins in food to form nitrosamines, which are carcinogenic.

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  • Fixed in formalin, as pathologists prefer, tissue is useless for extracting nucleic acids and proteins.

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  • Another use of reporter genes is to look at the localisation of proteins within different cell types or subcellular organelles.

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  • Biochemical and molecular approaches are used to assay mediator release and to identify and manipulate proteins required for movement and exocytosis of secretory organelles.

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  • Nucleus a cell organelle which contains the chromosomes whose genes control the structure of proteins within the cell.

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  • His main research interest is the molecular pathology of cancer particularly the differential expressions of proteins.

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  • In the stomach, the gastric gland produces gastric juices that contain the enzyme pepsin that breaks down proteins.

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  • In peptide mass mapping the resolved proteins are digested with trypsin and the derived peptides accurately sized using mass spectrometry.

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  • The numbers of identified tryptic peptides (longer than five amino acids) of the five proteins ranged from 12 to 47.

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  • Figure 5. Salmonella produces Actin Binding Proteins to induce phagocytosis.

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  • The general principle appears to be that two (or more) early proteins co-operate to give a transforming phenotype.

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  • Compound lipids contain phosphoric acid, sugars, nitrogenous bases or proteins, and include the phospholipids, glycolipids and lipoproteins.

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  • Plants use the sunâs energy to fix carbon by photosynthesis and dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen to help build proteins.

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  • Other companies may well produce vegan pizzas -- just watch out that there's no milk or milk proteins in the base.

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  • Cells cannot function without the ability to traffick proteins, carbohydrates and fats across the external membrane, called the plasma membrane.

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  • Two non-structural proteins, L and NS, are associated with the nucleocapsid and act in concert as the viral polymerase.

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  • The genetic manipulation of poxvirus genomes can be used to engineer recombinant poxvirus genomes can be used to engineer recombinant poxviruses that express foreign proteins.

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  • The ultimate aim is to estimate the possibility of correctly predicting the function of unknown proteins using these features.

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  • It is a type of protein, called a protease, which acts like a pair of biological scissors to break down other proteins.

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  • We are developing new methods, for instance using cleavage by highly specific proteases, to inactivate proteins in fission yeast.

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  • In both cases, protein of Mr ca 10,000 constituted approximately 40% of these secreted proteins.

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  • The remaining portion is made up from whey proteins.

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  • Some enzymes may not participate directly in the cleavage of matrix proteins but instead are capable of activating other proteinases which degrade the matrix.

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  • Increased circulation brings vital nutrients and proteins to the sub dermal layers, leaving skin radiant, cleaner and healthier looking.

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  • However, he should avoid unrefined rapeseed or vegetable oils, because these may still contain the proteins that sensitive people can react to.

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  • Compare the nucleotide-binding sites of these two proteins that may be very distantly related.

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  • In addition to the complexes referred to above, the MBD proteins might associate with several other complexes involved in transcriptional repression.

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  • Identification of tertiary structure resemblance in proteins using a maximal common subgraph isomorphism algorithm.

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  • We are investigating the role of conserved residues in proteins.

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  • For example, tetracycline binds to bacterial ribosomes, which make proteins, and in doing so hinders protein production.

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  • Index to Course Material Index to Section 4 The destination of proteins synthesized by ribosomes obviously depends on their function.

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  • Researchers transplanted retinal cells into adult mice lacking the genes for two proteins important in glial scar formation.

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  • None of the 25 negative control sera analyzed showed the presence of specific IgE antibodies against milk proteins.

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  • This suggests that the female sex hormones alter the collagen proteins.

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  • The flow and pressure changes in the vessels allow fluid, smaller solutes, and plasma proteins to pass into the tissue spaces.

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  • Proteins with highly similar structures and functions are classed into four main areas (class, architecture, topology, homologous superfamily ).

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  • Bt toxins encompass a large superfamily of Cry proteins made by different strains of B. thuringiensis.

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  • Density of newly synthesized plasma membrane proteins in intracellular membranes.

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  • The proteins examined are relevant pharmacological targets in field of cancer therapeutics.

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  • However, DNA binding proteins without transcriptional activation domains may function as competitors, binding promoter sequences without the ability to activate transcription.

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  • Proteins; Ligands; Heme; ChloroP prediction server ChloroP is a neural network-based method for predicting chloroplast transit peptides and their cleavage sites.

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  • We then use trypsin to ' shave ' the solvent exposed peptides from the integral PM proteins.

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  • Irish Moss A seaweed that is added to boiling wort to filter proteins.

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  • Over 2000 enzymes are known and several hundred proteins have been crystallized and their detailed 3D structure determined by X-ray crystallography.

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  • These proteins appears as a fine, slightly yellowish powder and have a typical wheat taste.

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  • Both viruses contain genes encoding proteins related to the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family of transcription factors.

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  • Caspases, Key Apoptotic Proteins Virtually all animal cells contain caspases, but they occur as inactive zymogens that can do no harm.

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  • It is believed rather that the condition is due to deleterious toxic substances which act for prolonged periods on the tissue elements and so alter their histon proteins that they combine in situ with other protein substances which are brought by the blood or lymph.

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  • Ling's answer is that purified isolated proteins are not at all what they are like within the cell.

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  • We set out to determine the spatial expression pattern of several thousand genes encoding putative regulatory proteins.

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  • Quaternary structure Not all proteins have a quaternary level of structure.

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  • The laboratory 's interests are wide and range from proteins involved in cell signaling and cellular adhesion to redox enzymes involved in drug action.

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  • Repressor proteins bind at the promoter DNA thus preventing RNA polymerase from initiating the transcription process.

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  • A similar treatment may be applied to the recognition sequences for other DNA binding proteins such as repressor molecules.

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  • Her particularly interest is in reversible phosphorylation of proteins, the main regulatory mechanism in signal transduction pathways.

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  • Whole ribosomes and their individual subunits can be crystallized in the same way as proteins.

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  • These proteins are extruded into the lumen of the E.R. as they are synthesized by ribosomes bound to docking proteins on the cytoplasmic surface.

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  • The proteins synthesized on ribosomes attached to the ER, are then transported to the Golgi, and packaged for secretion.

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  • Where are proteins of the large ribosome subunit located?

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  • There, he suspected, it enmeshed other scaffolding proteins, preventing their proper integration into the lamina.

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  • These are proteins secreted by cells of the immune system to signal other cells of the immune system.

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  • Kath 's group are interested in the mechanism a cell uses to direct proteins into the regulated secretory pathway.

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  • Abnormal serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor or insulin receptor substrate proteins is a prime candidate.

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  • Instead, chemists studied the structure of the proteins from the snake venom.

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  • Knowledge of the structure of proteins enables scientists to understand the function they perform.

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  • Sequence analyzes of LRR proteins suggested the existence of several different subfamilies of LRRs.

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  • However, they have been chosen as very common patterns which are found as substructures in real proteins.

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  • Comparison of the transition states for folding of two Ig-like proteins from different superfamilies.

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  • The homologous superfamilies cluster proteins with highly similar structures and functions.

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  • Induction of a protective response in swine vaccinated with DNA encoding foot-and mouth disease virus empty capsid proteins and the 3D RNA polymerase.

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  • The liver uses vitamin K to synthesize blood-clotting proteins.

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  • Excessive ingestion of tartaric acid results in laxative effects Taurine Another amino acid which is not found in proteins.

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  • User interfaces to this database allow searches for proteins containing specific combinations of domains in defined taxa.

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  • Genetic engineering is being used to make thermostable proteins that can be used in hot washes.

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  • A tie-up with a biotech company will also see the researchers trying to get rabbit clones to produce pharmaceutically useful proteins in their milk.

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  • Transcription factors are proteins which bind to control regions of DNA.

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  • Such errors are common in proteins where multiple domains are prevalent e.g. extracellular receptor signal transduction proteins.

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  • His current research includes extracellular matrix proteins and transmembrane cellular receptors.

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  • Studies of the three dimensional structure of a few of these trefoil proteins have been completed in the past few years.

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  • These cells appear to depend heavily on an internal system of cross-linked proteins, called the tubulin cytoskeleton, to maintain their shape.

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  • Regulation of plaque size and host range by a vaccinia virus gene related to complement system proteins.

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  • In the absence of three-dimensional structures for variola proteins, it should be possible to substitute those obtained from the highly similar vaccinia virus.

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  • Searches for host cell receptors to which virion membrane proteins bind.

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  • Vitamin K is essential in the synthesis of at least six of 13 proteins needed for coagulation.

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  • We will apply a procedure that has been developed for water-soluble proteins; that of phi value analysis.

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  • During injury repair, they add the sugar fucose to the proteins that allow white blood cells to bind to the sites of damage.

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  • Over 2000 enzymes are known and several hundred proteins have been crystallized and their detailed 3D structure determined by x-ray crystallography.

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  • These formulas are best for infants who have protein allergies because they are made hydrolysate proteins.

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  • The milk-based Carnation infant formula Good Start Supreme is specially formulated and contains gentle 100 per cent whey comfort proteins.

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  • These proteins have already been broken into easy-to-digest smaller pieces.

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  • To better understand comfort proteins, Nestle offers an online video on the subject.

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  • Iron fortified formulas like Nestle Good Start Supreme have cow's milk-based proteins and are made with lactose.

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  • On the other side, soy infant formula like Nestle Good Start Supreme Soy is a good choice for infants who can't tolerate lactose or milk proteins.

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  • To this end, the company states that they use only 100 percent fresh, human-grade ingredients in their mixes in order to provide the most usable proteins, vitamins and minerals for your pet.

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  • Their bodies are uniquely created to function on a diet made up of proteins and fats.

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  • The Devon Rex, the Cornish Rex and the LaPerm Rex have fewer coat hairs, providing less area for the Fel D 1 proteins to become trapped.

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  • However, they don't do well on plant based proteins.

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  • Proteins are provided from natural meats like smoked venison, chicken and salmon.

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  • Many companies use soy and other plant based proteins that are not beneficial for cats.

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  • Many of the less expensive foods are too high in carbohydrate content, too low in moisture content and not high enough in the right types of proteins to meet your cat's very unique nutritional needs.

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  • All proteins are from within the United States except some lamb and some venison which is from USDA approved sources in New Zealand.

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  • Animal-based proteins are complete versus plant-based ones which may be incomplete.

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  • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

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  • Foods that deserve a glowing review when it comes to cat food ratings should be made using high-quality animal proteins formed from cuts of meat that would be considered safe for human consumption.

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  • They suggest changing your diet to foods rich in proteins, soy, whole grain cereals, foods that contain high levels of vitamins A and B, zinc, iron, and copper.

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  • Often the proteins in the urine exacerbate the urinary tract symptoms and the tannins found in slippery elm help filter the proteins out of the system quicker.

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  • These Milk Proteins and Demake Up Wipes by Korres are ideal for individuals with parched skin.

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  • Milk proteins are naturally nourishing, while aloe and pro-vitamin B5 soothe and eliminate redness.

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  • Application is smooth and light thanks to silk proteins that have been added to the product.

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  • People avoiding carbs and focusing on proteins alone can overlook the fact that the foods they are eating can be high in fat, saturated fat and cholesterol.

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  • In regards to their nutritional components (proteins, carbohydrates, etc) they are the same.

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  • Two of the main proteins in cow's milk are casein and whey.

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  • Both proteins are refined, dried, and used in various baked goods and products.

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  • In 1936, the first soy proteins were isolated by an American chemist named Percy Lavon Julian.

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  • In the 1960's, soy proteins were introduced into foods, including pet foods.

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  • Early studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1995 linked soy proteins with a decrease in serum cholesterol and LDL's, the so-called 'bad' cholesterol.

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  • People who eat meat obtain complete proteins, replete with all the amino acids they need, from poultry, beef, pork, and other meats.

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  • Cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, milk, and eggs all contain large amounts of protein, and most are complete proteins (providing all of the essential amino acids that the body requires).

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  • Legums form complete proteins when eaten in combination with nuts, grains, or seeds.

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  • The Vegan Resource Group offers ideas on how to achieve your proteins while remaining truly vegan!

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  • Also, individuals with digestive impairments may have a difficult time breaking down proteins in sunflower seeds.

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  • Variety is not only the spice of life, it's the best way to ensure adequate intake of all vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

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  • In fact, a diet filled with abundant, healthy plant-based proteins may be healthier for you.

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  • Proteins are formed from about 20 amino acids that combine in different ways to form protein molecules.

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  • Some plant foods contain complete proteins, while others contain only some of the amino acids necessary to link up with others and form protein.

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  • If you incorporate cheese and milk into your diet, you can rely on their natural proteins and other vitamins and minerals.

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  • Ideally, proteins should make up approximately fifty percent of your dog's diet.

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  • During that recall, Hill's tested its own products for traces of melamine, the substance found in rice and wheat proteins that was identified as the contaminent in a number of the recalled brands.

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  • Proteins can be lamb, ground beef, ground turkey, ground chicken, ground pork and fish.

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  • However, these glutens provide inferior proteins that are difficult for dogs to digest.

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  • The dog food is made with high quality proteins, which are whole meats, grains and vegetables, not rendered meats or by-products.

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  • Organic Shea butter is loaded with vitamins, minerals and proteins.

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  • This line is enriched with plant proteins that nourish and repair hair scales to invigorate the hair and tame its volume, leaving it resilient and manageable.

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  • Chamomile and Honey Shampoo - This eight-ounce bottle of organic shampoo is rich with proteins and made with honey and full of amino acids and vitamins A and E, this shampoo is good for all types of hair.

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  • Allergy Issues - By drawing out proteins from foods and modifying other foods with them, there is a much greater chance of cross contamination of allergens.

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  • Organic dog foods contain high quality proteins.

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  • Some manufacturers use plant proteins because they are cheaper to use than animal proteins.

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  • These specifications are in addition to a balanced diet of nutrient-dense foods including a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, reduced-fat and fat-free dairy products, and lean proteins.

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  • This bubbling action both cleans your contacts, and eliminates any proteins that are lingering on the contacts.

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  • Water is not contained in gas permeable lenses so lipids and proteins found in tears do not stick to them as they do to soft lenses.

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  • Coagulation, or clotting, is a complex process in which specific proteins found in blood plasma combine with other blood components, including platelets, to form clots and prevent blood loss.

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  • The platelet plug then binds coagulation proteins to form a clot that stops bleeding.

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  • Human milk is rich in proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, hormones, enzymes, growth factors, and many types of protective agents.

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  • Genes make proteins, which are the ultimate workhorses of the cells, responsible for the many processes that permit humans to breathe, think, and move, among other functions.

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  • Some of these proteins control the orderly growth, division, and reproduction of normal tissue cells.

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  • Gene mutations can produce faulty proteins, which in turn produce abnormal cells that no longer divide and reproduce in an orderly manner.

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  • Tumor markers, specific proteins released by certain types of cancer cells, can be detected by performing a test on venous blood.

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  • The developing science of proteomics studies specific proteins in cells and may someday be able to provide detailed assessment of cancer cells.

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  • Tumor-specific proteins that are part of unique genetic mutations in pediatric cancer, for example, are believed to be ideal targets for anti-tumor immune processes.

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  • Chromosome-A microscopic thread-like structure found within each cell of the human body and consisting of a complex of proteins and DNA.

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  • These granules contain special proteins (enzymes) and several other substances that can break down chemicals and destroy microorganisms, such as bacteria.

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  • The B cells protect the body by making antibodies, which are proteins that can attach to the surfaces of bacteria and viruses.

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  • When a virus enters a cell, it produces certain proteins that are projected onto the surface of the infected cell.

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  • The T cells recognize these proteins and make certain chemicals that are capable of destroying the virus-infected cells.

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  • Antibodies are specific proteins the immune system manufactures to bind to corresponding molecules (antigens) on the cell surfaces of foreign organisms in an attempt to render them harmless.

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  • Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to infectious agents that are foreign to the body, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or toxins.

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  • Examples of nutrients are vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

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  • Plasma-A watery fluid containing proteins, salts, and other substances that carries red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets throughout the body.

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  • Children with sickle cell anemia produce two abnormal hemoglobin proteins (inheriting one from each parent), which makes their red blood cells easily destructible while giving them a sickle-like shape.

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  • Breastfed babies may be less likely to become infected, because breast milk contains antibodies (proteins produced by the white blood cells of the immune system) that fight the illness.

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  • Complement-One of several proteins in the blood that acts with other proteins to assist in killing bacteria.

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  • Genes, found in the nucleus of all the body's cells, control cell function by serving as the blueprint for the production of proteins.

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  • Proteins carry out a wide variety of functions within cells.

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  • Mucus is a complex mixture of salts, water, sugars, and proteins that cleanses, lubricates, and protects many passageways in the body, including those in the lungs and pancreas.

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  • While the intestines themselves also provide some digestive enzymes, the pancreas is the major source of enzymes for the digestion of all types of foods, especially fats and proteins.

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  • Most of these people do not have the delta-F508 mutation but a different one, which presumably allows at least some of their CFTR proteins to function normally in the pancreas.

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  • The major human growth hormone is a protein made up of 191 amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

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  • Because it circulates in the bloodstream bound to long-lasting proteins, it is more stable than hGH.

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  • Amino acids are the basic building blocks of proteins.

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  • Researchers have discovered that there are several endogenous pyrogens, each made up of small groups of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

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  • The triplet repeat expansion seems to interfere with the normal assembly of amino acids into proteins, significantly reducing the amount of frataxin that is made.

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  • In A-T children, B-cell responses are very weak, and levels of immunoglobulins, the proteins that B-cells make to fight infection by specific recognition of invading organisms, may also be low.

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  • The ATM protein does this by sending signals and modifying other proteins in the cell, which then changes the function of the proteins.

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  • The ATM protein also interacts with other special proteins when DNA is damaged as a result of exposure to some type of radiation.

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  • If the strands of DNA are broken, the ATM protein coordinates DNA repair by activating repair proteins, which helps to maintain the stability of cells.

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  • Alpha-fetoproteins are fetal proteins that are usually produced during fetal development but may persist at high blood levels after birth.

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  • Amyloidosis is a potentially serious condition in which proteins called amyloids are mistakenly produced and deposited in organs and tissues throughout the body.

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  • Acute phase reactants-Blood proteins whose concentrations increase or decrease in reaction to the inflammation process.

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  • Ketones are acid compounds that form in the blood when the body breaks down fats and proteins for energy.

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  • The central nervous system in humans and other mammals contains five different types of opioid receptor proteins, located primarily in the brain, spinal cord, and digestive tract.

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  • When a narcotic medication stimulates these receptor proteins, the person typically experiences intense sensations of euphoria or well-being.

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  • Except for a few growing cells at the base of the root, hair, which is composed of keratin and other proteins, is dead tissue.

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  • It includes many classes of T-lymphocytes (white blood cells that detect foreign proteins called antigens).

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  • They involve mutations in the proteins that transport copper, that is, in special channels that allow the passage of copper ions through cell membranes.

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  • Cytokines are proteins associated with inflammation, such as from infection or autoimmune disorders, and they may be toxic to neurons in the fetal brain.

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  • Normally, the two genes produce proteins called hamartin and tuberin, respectively.

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  • These proteins seem to serve as inhibitors of tumor growth.

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  • When the TS genes are defective or absent, the proteins are either absent or deficient, which allows tumor growth.

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  • If mononucleosis is suspected, a physician will typically conduct a physical examination, including a "Monospot" antibody blood test that can indicate the presence of proteins or antibodies produced in response to infection with the EBV.

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  • The lymphatic system also participates in the transport of fluids, fats, proteins, and other substances throughout the body.

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  • They produce cells and proteins that fight infection and filter lymph.

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  • Meat and dairy products generally contain complete proteins, but most vegetarian foods such as grains and beans contain incomplete proteins, lacking one or more of the essential amino acids.

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  • However, vegetarians can easily overcome this by combining particular foods in order to create complete proteins.

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  • Eating dairy products or nuts with grains also makes proteins complete.

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  • Proteins do not necessarily need to be combined in the same meal, but generally within four hours.

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  • Persons who wear contact lenses may develop allergic conjunctivitis caused by various eye solutions used and the foreign proteins contained in them.

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  • Gram-negative-Refers tof bacteria that have a cell wall composed of a thin layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by an outer membrane made of polysaccharides and proteins.

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  • Among their many functions, genes are responsible for overseeing the production of proteins important in maintaining healthy cells.

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  • Muscle cells produce thousands of proteins.

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  • With each of the inherited myopathies, a genetic defect is linked to a lack of, or defect in, one of the proteins needed for normal muscle cell function.

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  • These are genetic disorders that result in defects in the production of specific proteins.

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  • These calcium ions then interact with muscle proteins within the cell, causing the proteins (actin and myosin) to slide past one another.

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  • A cell can contain several hundred peroxisomes, round or oval bodies with diameters of about 0.5 micron that contain proteins that function as enzymes in metabolic processes.

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  • Organelle-A specialized structure within a cell, which is separated from the rest of the cell by a membrane composed of lipids and proteins, where chemical and metabolic functions take place.

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  • Some researchers think that the tics develop when antibodies in the child's blood produced in response to the bacteria cross-react with proteins in the brain tissue.

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  • They interfere with important cell functions, including production of DNA and cell proteins.

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  • Individuals can develop reactions to certain proteins in the blood, called a transfusion reaction.

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  • Besides the factors, which are all proteins, plasma (the fluid component of the blood) carries a number of other proteins that regulate bleeding.

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  • What the underlying causes of DIC have in common is a dysfunction that involves proteins, platelets, or other clotting factors and processes.

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  • For example, uterine tissue can enter the mother's circulation during prolonged labor, introducing foreign proteins into the blood, or the venom of some exotic snakes can activate one of the clotting factors.

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  • Examination of fetal collagen proteins in the tissue can reveal information about the quantitative or qualitative collagen defects that leads to OI.

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  • Hemoglobin consists primarily of iron-bearing proteins called heme groups and moiety globin protein, which together give hemoglobin its ability to carry oxygen.

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  • These granules contain special proteins (enzymes) and several other substances that can break down chemicals and destroy microorganisms such as bacteria.

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  • The T cells can recognize these proteins and produce certain chemicals (cytokines) that are capable of destroying the virus-infected cells.

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  • Abnormal amounts of certain proteins in a pregnant woman's blood raise the probability of fetal defects.

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  • Human leukocyte antigens are genetically determined proteins that allow the body to distinguish between its own cells and those from an outside source.

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  • Several of the muscular dystrophies, including DMD, BMD, CMD, and most forms of LGMD, are due to defects in the genes for a complex of muscle proteins.

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  • They code for the production of proteins, and they are the material of inheritance.

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  • Parents pass along genes to their children, providing them with a complete set of instructions for making their own proteins.

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  • The muscle tissue can also be stained to detect the presence or absence of particular proteins, including dystrophin.

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  • Proteins are one of the major food nutrients.

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  • The body breaks down proteins from food into individual amino acids and then reassembles them into human proteins.

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  • Proteins are needed for growth and repair of cells and tissues and are the key components of enzymes, antibodies, and other essential substances.

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  • These antibodies are specific proteins (immunoglobulins) produced by the immune system to respond to bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxins that invade the body.

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  • Chorionic villous sampling is a test that examines proteins for deficiencies or defects that are characteristic of hemophilia.

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  • Coagulation factors-Specific coagulation proteins in the blood required for clotting.

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  • Coagulation proteins are designated with roman numerals I through XIII.

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  • They differ by the proteins on their outer surface.

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  • Serum sickness also can be an allergic response to animal proteins present in an injected drug.

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  • Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy and, along with fats and proteins, one of the three major nutrients in the human diet.

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  • Maternal serum analyte screening-A medical procedure in which a pregnant woman's blood is drawn and analyzed for the levels of certain hormones and proteins.

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  • Antibodies are specific proteins (immunoglobulins) manufactured by the immune system to bind to corresponding molecules (antigens) on the cell surfaces of foreign organisms in an attempt to make them harmless.

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  • It is believed that whole food proteins are the most common triggers of an EG attack.

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  • The innate immune system is made up of the skin (which acts as a barrier to prevent organisms from entering the body); white blood cells called phagocytes; a system of proteins called the complement system; and chemicals called interferons.

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  • B lymphocytes manufacture proteins called antibodies (which are sometimes also called immunoglobulins).

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  • The infusions are given approximately once a month for life to compensate for the patients' inability to make these proteins.

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  • Among the essential nutrients required by the immune system are proteins, vitamins, iron, and zinc.

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  • B lymphocytes-Specialized blood cells that manufacture proteins called antibodies that attach themselves to invading foreign substances.

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  • Both diseases involve mutations in copper transport proteins, special channels that allow copper ions to pass through cell membranes.

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  • In humans, botulinum toxin latches onto specific proteins in nerve endings and irreversibly destroys them.

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  • These proteins control the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that stimulates muscle cells.

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  • Recovery depends on the nerve endings building new proteins to replace those destroyed by botulinum toxin.

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  • Insect venom is made up of proteins and other substances that usually only cause itching, pain, and swelling in those who are stung.

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  • Passive immunity-The body reception of proteins that act as antibodies instead of making the antibodies itself.

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  • Normally, the immune system responds to foreign microorganisms, or particles like pollen or dust, by producing specific proteins, called antibodies.

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  • One of these chemicals, histamine, binds to the surfaces of these other cells, through special proteins called histamine receptors.

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  • When these children are exposed to house dust mites, animal proteins, fungi, or other potential allergens, they produce a type of antibody that is intended to engulf and destroy the foreign materials.

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  • Acetylcholine receptors are integral proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine by opening a pathway in the membrane for ion diffusion across the cell membrane.

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  • Cells stop making certain proteins because their DNA is damaged by the ultraviolet rays.

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  • If specific proteins, called antibodies, that are produced only in response to the rabies virus are present, they will bind with the fluorescent dye and become visible.

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  • Breastfeeding mothers of highly allergic infants may need to eliminate suspected food allergens from their diets, because food proteins ingested by a mother can be transferred to the infant via breast milk.

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  • Red blood cells (RBCs) carry several types of proteins, called antigens, on their surfaces.

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  • If a radically different blood type is introduced into the bloodstream, the immune system produces antibodies, proteins that specifically attack and destroy any cell carrying the foreign antigen.

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  • Blood transfusions and injections of blood products may broadcast viral diseases like hepatitis that stress the immune system by flooding it with foreign proteins.

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  • Antibodies are specialized proteins produced by the immune system that seek out and destroy bacteria, viruses, and other invaders.

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  • Exudation-Leakage of cells, proteins, and fluids through the blood vessel wall into the surrounding tissue.

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  • Chamomile, lavender, aloe, clove, yarrow and wheat proteins can be found in a number of Big Sexy products, and when combined with light fragrances and soothing textures, provide an exemplary experience for hair.

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  • These formulations include heavy amounts of hydrolyzed wheat and jojoba proteins that coat the hair and work to seal the cuticle.

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  • This line packs its conditioners with soothing proteins that not only re-hydrate hair, but also coat and restore damaged hair by temporarily reinforcing the cuticle.

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  • More importantly, the formula contains botanicals, nutrients, antioxidants and special proteins called cytokines, which are applied to the scalp in order that they may permeate the hair follicle.

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