Protectorate Sentence Examples
During Somerset's protectorate he entered public life and was made a secretary of state, being sent on an important diplomatic mission to Brussels.
Protectorate, issued by the Colonial Office, London.
This donation of Pippin in 756 confirmed the papal see in the protectorate of the Italic party, and conferred upon it sovereign rights.
Revoil, had (1878-1881) made three journeys in the north-east corner of the protectorate, especially in the Darror valley.
A little south is the mouth of the Darror, a usually dry watercourse with a length of over 200 m., which rises, as the Gebi, in the north-east of the British protectorate.Advertisement
On the 26th of April the island of Tabarca was occupied by the French, Bizerta was seized on the 2nd of May, and on the 12th of May the hey signed the treaty of Bardo accepting the French protectorate.
The negus, however, conformed to article 17 of the treaty of IJccialli by requesting Italy to represent Ahyssinia at the Brussels anti-slavery conference, an act which strengthened Italian illusions as to Meneleks readiness to submit to their protectorate.
On the 28th of October 1890 Count Antonelli, negotiator of the treaty, was despatched to settle the controversy, but on arriving at Adis Ababa, the new residence of the negus, found agreement impossible either with regard to the frontier or the protectorate.
With the establishment of a British protectorate at Zanzibar, and of British and German protectorates on the mainland of East Africa and in the region of the head-waters of the Nile, the East African slave trade received its death-blow.
Between August 1897 and May 1898 he travelled through Cape Colony, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Rhodesia and Basutoland.Advertisement
He demanded the recognition of the status quo in the holy places, and of the tsar's right, under the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji, to the protectorate of all Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman dominions.
On the 22nd of April the French, Russian and British ministers came to an agreement on the question of the holy places; with the result that, when the question of protectorate was raised, Menshikov found himself opposed by the ambassadors of all the other powers.
In August a conference of the four powers assembled at Vienna, but the settlement they proposed, which practically conceded everything demanded by Russia except the claim to the protectorate, though accepted by the tsar, was rejected by the Porte, now fallen into a mood of stubborn resentment at the Russian invasion.
The town has a small trade with the Hereros of the adjoining German protectorate.
The resident superior is assisted by the protectorate council, consisting of heads of French administrative departments (chief of the judicial service, of public works, &c.) and one native "notable," and the royal orders must receive its sanction before they can be executed.Advertisement
In 1863, in order to counteract Siamese influence there, Doudart de Lagree was sent by Admiral la Grandiere to the court of King Norodom, the successor of Ang-Duong, and as a result of his efforts Cambodia placed itself under the protectorate of France.
In 1867 a treaty between France and Siam was signed, whereby Siam renounced its right to tribute and recognized the French protectorate over Cambodia in return for the provinces of Battambang and Angkor, and the Laos territory as far as the Mekong.
It is officially known as the Abeokuta province of the Southern Nigeria protectorate.
They are very tenacious of their independence, but accepted without opposition the establishment of a British protectorate, which, while putting a stop to inter-tribal warfare, slave-raiding and human sacrifices, and exercising control over the working of the laws, left to the people executive and fiscal autonomy.
After arranging at Hue with the king of Annam the condition of the French protectorate, he proceeded to Shanghai to settle with China the difficulties which had arisen over the evacuation of Tongking by the Chinese troops.Advertisement
Next year Patenotre signed with Li Hung Chang a treaty of peace at Tien-tsin, by which the French protectorate in Annam and Tongking was recognized, and both parties agreed to remain within their own borders in the future.
But he was not brought forward by his father or prepared in any way for his future greatness, and lived in the country occupied with field sports, till after the institution of the second protectorate in 16J7 and the recognition of Oliver's right to name his successor.
But the whole of this latter structure was destroyed by fire in 1650 while in occupation by the soldiers of Cromwell; and the more modern parts were begun during the Protectorate, and completed in the reign of Charles II.
The lake forms part of the (British) Uganda Protectorate, but the north-west shores were leased in 1894 to the Congo Free State during the sovereignty of king Leopold II.
In the same year a British protectorate was declared over Tongaland.Advertisement
During the protectorate all patent rights virtually lapsed, and mirrors and drinking-glasses were once more imported from Venice.
At the same time they purchased from the Tarlati the protectorate over Arezzo for ten years.
He directed the negotiations which led to the establishment of a French protectorate in Tunis (1881), prepared the treaty of the 17th of December 1885 for the occupation of Madagascar; directed the exploration of the Congo and of the Niger region; and above all he organized the conquest of Indo-China.
Manzoni in 1887 have led to a fairly complete knowledge of all that part of the province west of the capital Sana; while in 1902-1904 the operations of the Anglo-Turkish boundary commission permitted the execution of a systematic topographical survey of the British protectorate from the Red Sea to the Wadi Bana, 30 m.
From 1655 to 1850 Great Britain claimed a protectorate over the Mosquito Indians; but little success attended the various endeavours to plant colonies, and the protectorate was disputed by Spain, the Central American republics, and the United States.
But by the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 both powers pledged themselves not to fortify, colonize or exercise dominion over any part of Central America; and in November 1859 Great Britain delegated its protectorate to Honduras.
British trade with Tunisia has nearly tripled since the establishment of the French protectorate.
After the Franco-German War the embarrassed Bey turned towards Great Britain for advice, and a British protectorate - suggested by the proximity of Malta - was not an impossibility under the remarkable influence of the celebrated Sir Richard Wood, British diplomatic agent at the court of Tunis from 1855 to 1879.
In 1881 a French force crossed the Algerian frontier under pretext of chastising the independent Khmir or Kroumir tribes on the north-east of the regency, and, quickly dropping the mask, advanced on the capital and compelled the Bey to accept the French protectorate.
In 1883 the new situation under the French protectorate was recognized by the British government withdrawing its consular jurisdiction in favour of the French courts, and in 1885 it ceased to be represented by a diplomatic official.
The other powers followed suit, except Italy, which did not recognize the full consequences of the French protectorate until 1896.
The French protectorate over Tunisia, based on the treaty signed by the Bey at Bardo on the 12th of May 1881 and confirmed by the treaty of La Marsa (June 8, 1883), was With not recognized by Turkey, which claimed the regency Turkey.
Frontier troubles had however little effect on the remainder of the protectorate.
On the 10th of September 1822 San Martin resigned the protectorate, with which he had been invested, and on the same day the first Viceroyalty.
The island became a British protectorate on the 10th of April 1900, and was made a dependency of New Zealand in October 1900, the native government, of an elected "king" and a council of headmen, being maintained.
He took no part in politics till the assembling of the first protectorate parliament, on the 3rd of September 1654, in which he sat as member for Oxfordshire.
In the second protectorate parliament, summoned by Cromwell on the 17th of September 1656, Lenthall was again chosen member for Oxfordshire, but had some difficulty in obtaining admission, and was not re-elected speaker.
The close approach of the great political crisis in which Cromwell expelled the Long Parliament and established the Protectorate (17th of April 1653), may have had some influence.
In the same year the patriarch of Jerusalem sent him the keys of the Holy Sepulchre; and in 807 Harun not only sent further gifts, but appears to have confirmed the emperor's rights in Jerusalem, which, however, probably amounted to no more than an undefined protectorate over the Christians in that part of the world.
In the region of Somaliland, now the western part of the British protectorate of that name, the Arabs established the Moslem state of Adel or Zaila, with their capital at Zaila on the Gulf of Aden.
The same name was originally applied to the Bantu kingdom of Buganda, which is one of the five provinces of the protectorate, but which is now styled officially by the correct native name of " Buganda."
Speke in 1862, and in time came to include the large protectorate which grew out of the extension of British influence over Buganda.
On the east the limit of the Uganda Protectorate in 1901 was the thalweg of Lake Rudolf and a line drawn from the south-eastern coast of that lake south along the edge of the Laikipia and Kikuyu escarpments to the frontier of German East Africa.
Germany was interested in the dispute, inasmuch as the southern frontier of the Uganda Protectorate coincided with the northern frontier of German East Africa.
From Mt Sabyino the frontier between Belgian Congo and the Uganda Protectorate goes in a direct line north to Mt Nkabwe, and thence along the Ishasha River, to its mouth on the S.E.
The surface of the protectorate is diversified.
Until recent years the Baganda and most of the other Bantu peoples of the protectorate worshipped ancestral and nature spirits who had become elevated to the rank of gods and goddesses.
For the six years1903-1904to1908-1909the imports increased from £147,000 to £419,000, and the exports - produce of the protectorate - from £43, 000 to £127,000.
The protectorate is divided into five provinces - Rudolf, Eastern (formerly central), kingdom of Buganda, Western, and Northern (formerly Nile) - and these again into a number of administrative districts.
The protectorate is administered by a governor and commanderin-chief, under the colonial office, residing at Entebbe, on the northwestern coast of the Victoria Nyanza.
By this agreement the king and his people pledged themselves to pay hut and gun taxes to the administration of the protectorate.
In this year also the protectorate was extended over Unyoro and Busoga.1 In the middle of 1897 this era of peace was rudely interrupted.
The men, too, resented the fact that their pay was but a fifth of that given to Zanzibari porters and to those of their own body enlisted in the adjoining protectorate.
Colonel Martyr at the close of the year (1899) undertook an expedition up the Nile, and extended the limits of the protectorate in that direction.
In 1900, the Uganda Protectorate was divided into six provinces, but in 1903 the Eastern and part of the Central provinces were transferred to the British East Africa Protectorate.
The ravages of sleepingsickness between 1901 and 1909 destroyed upwards of a quarter of a million people, and the whole of the native population had to be removed from the lake shores and the Sese Islands; but nevertheless the protectorate continued to make steady progress in civilization and in the development of its material resources.
Cordeaux, who became governor of the protectorate in 1910.
Finally, however, in 1884 a British protectorate was authoritatively proclaimed by Commodore Erskine over the region " lying between the 141st meridian eastward as far as East Cape, with the adjacent islands as far as Kosman Island."
German New Guinea The German protectorate of New Guinea, so called after the island which contributes the greatest area, comprehends, besides Kaiser Wilhelms Land, the islands which are now commonly called the Bismarck Archipelago - viz.
The protectorate is included in the Universal Postal Union; each harbour has its post office, also a leading official with a number of assistants to control the natives and the revenue.
During the Protectorate, with its practical establishment of Presbyterians, Independents and Baptists, the position of Congregationalism was really anomalous, in so far as any of its pastors became parish ministers,' and so received " public mainfenance " and were expected to administer the sacraments to all and sundry.
Between 1887 and 1889 Captain Binger (an officer of marine infantry, and subsequently director of the African department at the colonial ministry) traversed the whole region between the coast and the Niger, visited Bontuku and the Kong country, and signed protectorate treaties with the chiefs.
In 1898 the Free State also acquiesced in the new convention arranged with regard to the Customs Union between the Cape Colony, Natal, Basutoland and the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
Tupper, in his Our Indian Protectorate, refers to "the double allegiance of the subjects of native states" in India; and he explains that the native rulers are themselves subject to the Indian government.
This, however, latterly became displeasing to the French, now in Cochin China, and Siam was ultimately obliged to recognize the protectorate forced on Cambodia by that power.
In 1907 a further convention was made with France, Siam returning to the French protectorate of Cambodia the province of Battambang conquered in 181r, and in compensation receiving hack from France the maritime province of Krat and the district of Dansai, which had been ceded in 1904.
The most important event of his administration was the annexation of Tunis under the form of a French protectorate, which he actively promoted.
The seat of government of the German protectorate of Kaiser Wilhelm's Land (New Guinea) is Herbertshohe in the Bismarck Archipelago.
On the 12th of December 1859 the M`Lean-Juarez treaty was concluded, which gave the United States a sort of disguised protectorate over Mexico, with certain rights of way for railroads over the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and between the Rio Grande and Pacific. The American Senate, however, did not ratify the treaty, and a motion for its reconsideration late in 1860 came to nothing, owing to the approach of the War of Secession.
The Bechuanaland Protectorate, the northern part of the country, governed on the lines of a British crown colony.
It is the headquarters of the Barolong tribe, and although within the Cape border is the seat of the administration of the protectorate.
The last named is the chief township in the Tati concession, the centre of a gold-mining region, and the most important white settlement in the protectorate.
The protectorate is a.
The value of the goods imported into the protectorate in 1906 was £118,322; the value of the exports was £77,736.
The protectorate is administered by a resident commissioner, responsible to the high commissioner for South Africa.
The natives cheerfully accepted this new departure in British policy, and from this time forward Khama's country was known as the British protectorate of Bechuanaland.
In 1891 the northern frontier of the protectorate was extended to its present boundaries, and the whole of it placed P P under the administration of a resident commissioner, a protest being made at the time by the British South Africa Company on the ground that the protectorate was included in the sphere of their charter.
In December 1895 the occurrence of the Jameson Raid, which started from these territories, prevented the completion of negotiations, and the administration of the protectorate remained in the hands of the imperial government.
Anxiety was caused on the western frontier during the German campaigns against the Hottentots and Herero (1903-1908), many natives seeking refuge in the protectorate.
Shippard in British Africa (London, 1899), give the story of the beginnings of British rule in the protectorate.
The mountainous interior was occupied by the tribes known as Oenotrians and Chones, while the coasts on both sides were occupied by powerful Greek colonies which doubtless exercised a protectorate over the interior (see Magna Graecia).
During the Protectorate they were visited by a detachment of Cromwell's troops, who initiated the inhabitants into various industrial arts and new methods of agriculture.
It is the residence of the commissioner of the protectorate and the headquarters of the Somaliland battalion of the King's African Rifles.
The fact that he was a Lorrainer prejudiced public opinion in his favour, and his popularity was increased by his' foreign policy - especially the successful establishment of the French protectorate over Morocco and the conclusion of the naval agreement with Russia.
The discussion on the question of the " opendoor " in connexion with the Morocco difficulty was useful in calling general public attention once more to the undesirability of allowing any single power to exclude other nations from trading on territory over which it may be called to exercise a protectorate, especially if equality of treatment of foreign trade had been practised by the authority ruling over the territory in question before its practical annexation under the name of protectorate.
In pursuance of this policy, two commissioners were sent to the Gilbert Islands in 1883 to prepare the way for a Hawaiian protectorate.
The city is the seat of a Greek and a Roman Catholic archbishop; and it possesses a gymnasium, a theatre, an agricultural and industrial society, and a library and museum preserved in the buildings formerly devoted to the university, which was founded by Frederick North, 5th earl of Guilford (1766-1827, himself the first chancellor in 1824) in 1823, but disestablished on the cessation of the English protectorate.
When, by the treaty of Paris of November 5,18'5, the Ionian Islands were placed under the protectorate of Great Britain, Corfu became the seat of the British high commissioner.
He was deprived by Henry of the English protectorate; and when sentence was finally given against the divorce, Campeggio was deprived of the see of Salisbury as a non-resident alien, by act of parliament (11th of March 1535); but his rich benefices in the Spanish dominions made ample amends.
It is the capital of the eastern province of the protectorate, and is in regular steamship and telegraphic communication with Europe.
In 824 a kind of protectorate was organized, and serious guarantees were conceded to the lay aristocracy.
The Hittite king's interference restored the Mitannite state as a protectorate, but with a smaller territory, probably in the north-west, where it may have survived long.
The archipelago was named in honour of the first chancellor of the German empire, after a German protectorate had been declared in 1884.
From Leiden he wrote (9 June 1585) to Lord Burghley advising the assumption of the protectorate of the Low Countries by Elizabeth.
The " most distinguished " Order of St Michael and St George was founded by the prince regent, afterwards George IV., in 1818, in commemoration of the British protectorate of the Ionian Islands, " for natives of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, and for such other subjects of his majesty as may hold high and confidential situations in the Mediterranean."
After the repudiation of the British protectorate of the Ionian Islands, the order was placed on a new basis, and by letters patent of 1868 and 1877 it was extended and provided for such of " the natural born subjects of the Crown of the United Kingdom as may have held or shall hold high and confidential offices within her majesty's colonial possessions, and in reward for services rendered to the crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire."
In 1896 a British protectorate was established over Unyoro, which now forms the S.W.
During the Protectorate, in 1649, an ordinance was passed for " the promoting and propagating of the gospel of Jesus Christ in New England " by the erection of a corporation, to be called by the name of the President and Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England, to receive and dispose of moneys for the purpose, and a general collection was ordered to be made in all the parishes of England and Wales; and Cromwell himself devised a scheme for setting up a council for the Protestant religion, which should rival the Roman Propaganda, and consist of seven councillors and four secretaries for different provinces.'
The first converts were baptized in 1882 and the establishment of a British Protectorate (1884-1888) gave the work a new impetus.
Between the mainland dependency of the RiouwLingga residency and the residency of Palembang lies Jambi, an extensive sultanate, of which a portion belongs to the residency of Palembang as a protectorate, the sultan having in his capital (also called Jambi) a Dutch " comptroller," who represents the resident of Palembang; another portion is claimed by a quasi-independent sultan who reigns in the interior.
The king (Kwaka Dua I.), who had succeeded Osai Okoto in 1838, was a peace-loving monarch who encouraged trade, but in 1852 the Ashanti tried to reassert authority over the Fanti in the Gold Coast protectorate, and in 1863 a war was caused by the refusal of the king's demand for the surrender by the British of a fugitive chief and a runaway slave-boy.
However, on the 22nd of January 1873 an Ashanti force crossed the Prah and invaded the British protectorate.
However in 1893 there was fresh trouble between Ashanti and the tribes of the protectorate, and the roads were closed to traders by Prempeh's orders.
A mission was despatched to Prempeh, calling upon him to fulfil the terms of the 1874 treaty, and further, to accept a British protectorate and receive a resident at Kumasi.
To the demands of the British mission relative to the acceptance of a protectorate and other matters, Prempeh made no reply in the three weeks' grace allowed, which expired on the 31st of October 1895.
He supported his assumption of the protectorate and his dismissal of the parliaments.
In this region British opposition had to be considered, but in February 1885 a German protectorate over the territory acquired by Peters was proclaimed.
The settlement in East Africa menaced the old-established British influence over Zanzibar, which was all the more serious because of the close connection between Zanzibar and the rulers of the Persian Gulf; and Australia saw with much concern the German settlement in New Guinea, especially as a British Protectorate (which in the view of Australians should have included the whole of what Germany was allowed to take) had previously been established in the island.
Dakar was originally a dependency of Goree and was founded in 1862, a year after the declaration of a French protectorate over the mainland.
The protectorate has an area of about 190,000 sq.
On their acquisition of the country in 1884 the Germans extended the use of the name in its Teutonic formKamerun - to the whole protectorate.
This part of the protectorate is known as Adamawa.
They brought horses and horned cattle, unknown in these regions until then, and they founded well-organized states, like that of Adamawa, now divided between Cameroon and the British protectorate of Nigeria.
Ngoko is a trading station on the Dscha, in the south-east of the protectorate, near the confluence of that river with the Sanga.
The protectorate belongs to the Postal Union, and is connected by cable with the British telegraph station at Bonny in the Niger delta.
The governor is assisted by a chancellor and other officials and an advisory council whose members are merchants resident in the protectorate.
The local revenue (£131,000 in 1905) is supplemented by an imperial grant, the protectorate in the first twenty-one years of its existence never having raised sufficient revenue to meet its expenditure, which in 1905 exceeded £230,000.
The settlement of the English Baptists at Victoria, Ambas Bay, was at first excluded from the German protectorate, but in March 1887 an arrangement was made by which, while the private rights of the missionaries were maintained, the sovereignty of the settlement passed to Germany.
In 1904 and again in 1905 there were native risings in various parts of the protectorate.
Collisions on the southern border of the protectorate between French and German troops led in 1905-1906 to an accurate survey of the south and east frontier regions and to a new convention (1908) whereby for the straight lines marking the frontier in former agreements natural features were largely substituted.
The Niger (q.v.), which enters the protectorate at its N.W.
North of this point are hills forming the walls of the plateau which extends over the centre of the protectorate and is part of the great plateau of North Africa.
The western portion of Lake Chad (q.v.) belongs to the protectorate, which contains no other large lake.
The great rise of the Niger within the protectorate takes place in August and September and there is a second rise about the beginning of the year.
Along the northern border of the protectorate this has resulted in the encroachment of the Saharan desert over once fertile districts.
On the Niger at the head of the delta are Asaba (west bank) and Onitsha (east bank); Iddah (Ida), in the palm-oil zone; Lokoja on the west bank opposite the confluence with the Benue, and the headquarters of the protectorate's military force; Baro, on the east bank, 70 m.
Other steamers ply between the ports named (and others in the protectorate) and London and Hamburg.
At the Berlin Conference held in1884-1885the British representative was able to state that Great Britain alone possessed trading interests on the Lower Niger, and in June 1885 a British protectorate was notified over the coast lands known as the Oil Rivers.
Germany had in the meantime established itself in Cameroon, and the new British protectorate extended along the Gulf of Guinea from the British colony of Lagos on the west to the new German colony on the east, where the Rio del Rey marked the frontier.
In 1893, when the title Oil Rivers Protectorate was changed to that of Niger Coast Protectorate, a regular administration was established (subject to the Foreign Office in London) under Sir Claude Macdonald, who was succeeded as commissioner and consul-general in 1896 by Sir Ralph Moor (1860-1909).
In 1900, as stated, the southern portion of the Niger Company's territories was added to the protectorate, the change in administration being effected without difficulty of any kind.
Trade steadily developed, and owing to the large sums paid as duty on imported spirits, the revenue of the protectorate was sufficient to cover the expenditure.
Neither Jebba nor Lokoja was considered suitable for the permanent capital of the protectorate, and survey parties were sent out, with strict orders to avoid conflict with the nominally friendly natives, to find a more suitable site.
By the end of the year 1902 British administration had been extended to the whole of the provinces in the south, east and west of the protectorate.
In these courts native law and customs (principally the Mahommedan law) were administered with the proviso that no penalty could be enforced which was contrary to the laws of humanity or opposed to any specific proclamation of the protectorate.
The imposition of this tax involved a rough and ready assessment of every village in the protectorate.
This was followed in February 1906 by the amalgamation of the two administrations under the style of " the Colony and Protectorate of Southern Nigeria," with headquarters at Lagos town.
The former colony and protectorate of Lagos (q.v.) became the western or Lagos province of the new administration.
In Northern Nigeria, which continued for the time to be a separate protectorate, Sir Frederick Lugard was, at the beginning of 1907, succeeded as high commissioner by Sir Percy Girouard.
Lugard, and recommended " a declaration in favour of the nationalization of the lands of the Protectorate."
The first prefect, Cornelius Gallus, tamed the natives of Upper Egypt to the new yoke by force of arms, and meeting ambassadors from Ethiopia at Philae, established a nominal protectorate of Rome over the frontier district, which had been abandoned by the later Ptolemies.
Whatever popularity might have been gained by these measures was counteracted by his declaration of a French protectorate over Egypt, which was to count as a French colony.
Great Britain, he declared, had no intention of proclaiming a protectorate over Egypt; on the other hand, recent events in Turkey in no way affected the question of self-government in Egypt.
Distrust in his policy, however, was excited by the publication of some of his private correspondence, in which he spoke favourably of a French protectorate, and the army which he sent under Flores to resist the encroachments of Mosquera, the president of New Granada, was completely routed.
Under his government the new fortifications of Corfu and some of the most important public works which still do honour to the English protectorate were undertaken.
But after a tour through the principal islands Gladstone came to the conclusion that the abolition of the protectorate was not the wish of the mass of the people.
The contest continued between the assembly and the protectorate.
The rejection of one of those conditions - the demolition of the fortifications of Corfu - led to a new prorogation; but none the less (on March 29, 1864) the plenipotentiaries of the five great powers signed the treaty by which the protectorate was brought to a close.
The islands retain the exemption from direct taxation which they enjoyed under the British protectorate; in lieu of this there is an ad valorem tax of 202% on exported oil and a tax of 6% on wine exported to Greek ports; these commodities are further liable to an export duty of 12%, which is levied on all agricultural produce and articles of local manufacture for the maintenance and construction of roads.
But their influence, especially that of the missionaries, is felt in every part of the protectorate, and in few parts of equatorial Africa have the natives more readily responded to European influences.
Exports of produce of the protectorate increased in value from £97,000 to £200,000, imports for home consumption from £111,000 to £189,000, the transit trade from £20,000 to £34,000.
Manning, the officer who had raised the Central Africa regiment and had already served as acting-governor of the protectorate.
Early in 1915, while the situation in the protectorate was still perilous, a revolt of natives occurred in the Shire Highlands.
To the westward, after various disagreements and two military expeditions, the territories comprising the Zhob, Barhan and Bori valleys, occupied by Pathan tribes, were in 1890 finally incorporated in the general system of the Trans-Indus protectorate.
Adrar Suttuf is a hilly region forming the southern part of the Spanish protectorate of the Rio de Oro.
The assumption of a protectorate over another state, or of a sphere of influence, is not strictly annexation, the latter implying the complete displacement in the annexed territory of the government or state by which it was previously ruled.
Annexation may be the consequence of a voluntary cession from one state to another, or of conversion from a protectorate or sphere of influence, or of mere occupation in uncivilized regions, or of conquest.
Under the treaty of the 17th of December 1885, between the French republic and the queen of Madagascar, a French protectorate was established over this island.
In 1896 this protectorate was converted by France into an annexation, and Madagascar then became "French territory."
Between 1883 and 1888 various treaties were concluded with the sultan of Aussa ceding the Danakil coast to Italy and recognizing an Italian protectorate over the whole of his country - through which passes the trade route from Assab Bay to Shoa.
It included, in addition to Cilicia proper, Isauria, Lycaonia, Pisidia, Pamphylia and Cyprus, as well as a protectorate over the client kingdoms of Cappadocia and Galatia.
Already in 1848 treaty relations had been entered into with the Nalu, and between that date and 1865 treaties of protectorate were signed with several of the coast tribes.
The right of France to the littoral as far south as the basin of the Melakori was recognized by Great Britain in 1882; Germany (which had made some attempt to acquire a protectorate at Konakry) abandoned its claims in 1885, while in 1886 the northern frontier was settled in agreement with Portugal, which had ancient settlements in the same region (see Portuguese Guinea).
In 1909 he published The Last Years of the Protectorate.
Arrangements were perfected for the termination of the American military occupation of Cuba and the inauguration of a Cuban Republic as a virtual protectorate of the United States, the American government having arranged with the Cuban constitutional convention for the retention of certain naval stations on the Cuban coast.
Gunong Tebur, Tanjong, and Bulungan had made nominal submission to them in 1834, and in 1844 the sultan of Kutei acknowledged their protectorate, a treaty of a similar character being concluded about the same time with Pasir.
In 1888, by an agreement with the "State of North Borneo," the territory of the company was made a British protectorate, but its administration remained entirely in the hands of the company, the crown reserving only control of its foreign relations, and the appointment of its governors being required to receive the formal sanction of the secretary of state for the colonies.
But at the end of the year the king's sudden recovery brought York's protectorate to an end.
The period of the Commonwealth was filled with the strife between these two parties, its bitterness not lessened by the fact that the assembly dissolved in 1653 by Cromwell's soldiers was not allowed to meet again in his protectorate.
On the 24th of April 1884 Luderitz transferred his rights to the German imperial government, and on the following 7th of August a German protectorate over the district was proclaimed.
In 1884 the natives of Boma granted a protectorate of their country to the International Association of the Congo.
The population of the protectorate is estimated at from r,000,000 to 1,500,000.
The plateau which forms the greater part of the protectorate has an altitude varying from 800 to 3000 ft.
The most fertile parts of the protectorate are Sherbro and Mendiland in the south-west.
The cotton plant grows freely throughout the protectorate and the cloth manufactured is of a superior kind.
The development of commerce with the rich regions north and east of the protectorate has been hindered by the diversion of trade to the French port of Konakry, which in 1910 was placed in railway communication with the upper Niger.
In the protectorate a house tax is imposed.
The protectorate is divided for administrative purposes into districts, each under a European commissioner.
Throughout the protectorate native law is administered by native courts, subject to certain modifications.
In 1896 the frontier was delimitated, and in the same year (26th of August 1896) a proclamation of a British protectorate was issued.
The abolition of the slave trade followed; and with the introduction of the protectorate ordinance in 1897 a house tax of 5s.
With the proclamation of a British protectorate over the coast of Pondoland in January 1885 the coast-line from the Frere sailed for England on the 15th of September.
During the British protectorate the island made undoubted advances in material prosperity, but was several times the scene of political disturbances.
It was sold during the Protectorate, but after the Restoration the queen mother resumed possession of it.
It is the headquarters of the principal trading firms and missionary societies in the protectorate.
Egypt has been variously described as a vassal state or as a protectorate.
Thus Mommsen (History of Rome) indiscriminately describes the supremacy of Rome over Armenia as " suzerainty " or " protectorate."
They form the principal watershed not only of the province of Bauchi, but of the protectorate of Northern Nigeria.
The Fula portion of this province, held like the other Hausa states under a feudal system of large landowners or fief-holders, has been organized and assessed for taxation on the system accepted by the emirs throughout the protectorate, and the populations are working harmoniously under British rule.
Bauchi is a province of special importance from the European point of view because, with free communication from the Benue assured, it is probable that on the Kibyen and Sura plateaus, which are the healthiest known in the protectorate, a sanatorium and station for a large civil population might be established under conditions in which Europeans could live free from the evil effects of a West African climate.
His first occupation of Palestine was in 318, and he established at the same time a protectorate over the petty kings of Cyprus.
He seems also to have claimed a kind of protectorate over the Teutonic powers generally, and indeed to have practically exercised it, except in the case of the Franks.
When York's protectorate was ended by Henry's recovery in January 1455, Margaret, not content with the restoration of Somerset and her other friends to liberty and office, pushed her politics to extremes.
After the establishment of the Commonwealth he was chosen, on the 17th of January 1652, a member of the committee for legal reforms. In 1653 he became a member of the Protectorate council of state, and a commissioner of the treasury, and was appointed one of the four generals at sea and a commissioner for the army and navy.
It is the headquarters of the Northern Province of the (British) Uganda protectorate, is 1070 m.
Engelhardt (Les Protectorats anciens et modernes) and other writers on the subject have collected a large number of instances in antiquity in,which a true protectorate existed, even though the name was not used.
The latter created a form of protectorate.
What the idea of a protectorate excludes, and the idea of annexation, on the other hand, would include, is that absolute ownership which was signified by the word dominium in Roman law, and which, though not quite satisfactorily, is sometimes described as ` territorial sovereignty.'
The creation of a protectorate is convenient for the superior and the inferior; it relieves the former from the full responsibilities incident to annexation; it spares to some extent the feelings of the latter.
The establishment of a protectorate may be akin to a guarantee.
Generally, however, the former implies a closer relation than a guarantee; and the two relations may be widely different, as may be seen by comparing treaties of guarantee with the treaty establishing the protectorate of Tunis.
Strictly speaking, a protectorate cannot exist over a domain uninhabited or ruled by no organized state; in such cases the elements of the true protectorates are wanting.
There is the interesting case of Papua (formerly British New Guinea), over which a protectorate was established in 1884, but which became in 1906 a territory of the Australian Commonwealth.
The second class of protectorates consists of those exercised by one civilized state over an uncivilized people, sometimes called a " Colonial Protectorate " or " pseudo-protectorate," and usually the preparatory step to annexation.
Some treaties establishing protectorates provide for direct interference with internal affairs; for example, the treaty of 1847 creating a French protectorate over Tahiti, and that of 1883 as to Tunis.
At the same time, the question whether a particular protectorate forms part of the " dominion " or " territory " of the Crown for any purposes or within the meaning of any statute cannot be regarded as wholly free from doubt; its terms and intention must be examined.
In one view, for the purpose of municipal law, the territory of a protectorate is not, but for the purposes of international law is, within the territory of the protecting state.
The older view of the position of a protectorate according to international law is contained in the decision of Dr Lushington in the case of the " Leucade " (8 S.T., N.s., 432), to the effect that, the declaration of war by Great Britain against Russia notwithstanding, the Ionian Islands, which were then under the protectorate of Great Britain, remained neutral.
It was proposed by some of the powers represented that effective occupation should be a condition to the creation of a protectorate on the coast of Africa.
The distinct tendency, especially as to protectorates over uncivilized countries, is to treat, for purposes of international law, the territory of a protectorate as if it belonged to the protecting state.
Mr Hall remarks (International Law, 6th ed., p. 126 n.) that " all the states represented at the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885, with the exception of Great Britain, maintained that the normal jurisdiction of a protectorate includes the right of administering justice over the subjects of other civilized states."
To check his indiscretion the council, in November 1429, had the king crowned, and so put an end to Humphrey's protectorate.
It is now divided between the British protectorate of Nigeria (which includes the chief town Yola, q.v.) and the German colony of Cameroon.
By the terms of an Anglo-French-Italian agreement, signed in London on the 13th of December of that year, it was decided that the French company should build the railway as far as Adis Ababa, while railway construction west of that place should be under British auspices, with the stipulation that any railway connecting Italy's possessions on the Red Sea with its Somaliland protectorate should be built under Italian auspices.
He is the historian of the Puritan revolution, and has written its history in a series of volumes, originally published under different titles, beginning with the accession of James I.; the seventeenth (the third volume of the History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate) appeared in Igor.
John of Brabant now mortgaged the two counties of Holland and Zeeland to Philip, who assumed their protectorate.
Bassaraba, besides reforming the canon law, issued a similar criminal code, with a number of civil enactments, based on Roman law, and regulating testaments, guardianship, &c. The next great advance began with the Russian protectorate over.
On the approach of the Russian army the prince issued a proclamation containing the terms of the Russian protectorate and calling on the boiars and people to aid their Orthodox deliverers.
This, it will be seen, was a veiled Russian protectorate.
Still the geographical results, though not in extent to be compared to those of his first and his final expeditions, were of high importance, as were those in various departments of science, and he had unknowingly laid the foundations of the British protectorate of Nyasaland.
The Molopo and Nosob mark the frontier between the Bechuanaland Protectorate and the Cape; the Kuruman lies wholly within the colony.
The revolt in the German protectorate had been, nearly a year before the death of Morenga, the indirect occasion of a " Boer raid " into Cape Colony.
The influence of the princes of Mecca has varied from time to time, according to the strength of the foreign protectorate in the Hejaz or in consequence of feuds among the branches of the house; until about 1882 it was for most purposes much greater than that of the Turks.
In the circumstances de Winton considered a British protectorate inadvisable and impracticable.
Most of all did he show his sincere wish for peace by twice laying down the protectorate when the king was restored to sanity.
Briefly stated, these acts, which had been originated during the Protectorate of Cromwell, and continued after the Restoration, reserved the whole coasting trade of the country for British vessels and British seamen, and much of the foreign trade for British vessels, commanded and chiefly manned by British subjects.
There is more force in the charge that his Hellenic sympathies prevented him from seeing the innate weakness and mutual jealousies of the Greek states of that period, whose only hope of peace and safety lay in submitting to the protectorate of the Roman republic. But if the event proved that the liberation of Greece was a political mistake, it was a noble and generous mistake, and reflects nothing but honour on the name of Flamininus, "the liberator of the Greeks."
The treaty of the United States in 1846 with New Granada, granting transportation facilities on the Isthmus to the United States, then preparing for war with Mexico, and guaranteeing on the part of the United States the sovereignty of New Granada in the Isthmus, has been considered the first step toward the establishment of an American protectorate over the Isthmus.
In 1904 the town was placed in telegraphic communication with the rest of the protectorate and with Europe.
The province is heavily forested, and is estimated to be one of the richest of the protectorate in natural products.
The Bassas are a very remarkable pagan race who permeate the entire protectorate of Northern Nigeria, and are to be found in small colonies in almost every province.
The western portion of the province, occupied by friendly and peaceful tribes upon the Niger, has been organized for administration on the same system as the rest of the protectorate.
The existence of " Amazons " (in the sense of fighting women) in the army of Dahomey in modern times is an undoubted fact, but they are said to have died out during the French protectorate.
Ibadan long had a feud with Abeokuta, but on the establishment of the British protectorate the intertribal wars were stopped.
The tradition of their former settlements in and influence over the island was strong; in 1840 they had taken under their protection the Sakalava ruler of the small island of Nossi-be, off the north-west coast, and in virtue of that act claimed a vague protectorate over the adjacent shores of the mainland.
This dispute was the occasion of further intervention on the part of the French, for the Paris government supported the claims of Laborde's heirs, and revived their claim to a protectorate over the Sakalava of the north-west coast, as based on their agreement with them in 1840, ceding Nossi-be to France.
The word " protectorate " was carefully excluded from the treaty, although doubtless the French envoys intended that this should be its practical issue.
Although the British government, in return for concessions in Zanzibar, had consented, in 1890, to recognize a French protectorate over Madagascar, the Malagasy prime minister, Rainilaiarivony, was not disposed to give any advantage to France and continued to arm and train, by the help of British officers, a large body of native soldiers.
The result was that the protectorate of France was re-established in the central provinces, but the queen was allowed to retain her position.
The colony, with the protectorate dependent upon it, has an area of about 4000 sq.
The protectorate consists of a strip of land extending ten kilometres (about 6 m.) on each side of the river to a distance of about 200 m.
Within the protectorate are various petty kingdoms, such as Barra, to the north of the Gambia, and Kommbo, to the south.
The extent of French influence is indicated by the fact that the five-franc piece, locally known as a dollar, is largely circulated throughout the protectorate, and is accepted as legal tender, although the currency in the colony proper is the English coinage.
Travelling commissioners visit the five districts into which, for administrative purposes, the protectorate is divided, and in which the native form of government prevails.
This document fixed the frontier of the British protectorate inland at a radius of 10 m.
Since 1871 the colony had been self-supporting, but on the acquirement of the protectorate it was decided, in order to balance increasing expenditure, to impose a "hut tax" on the natives.
In 1894 another slaveraider, Fodi Silah, gave much trouble to the protectorate.
The people of the protectorate are in general peaceful and contented, and slave trading is a thing of the past.
Provision was moreover made by an ordinance of 1906 for the extinction of slavery itself throughout the protectorate, it being enacted that 1 Extract from a despatch of Lord Salisbury to the British ambassador to France, dated 30th of March 1892.
Pippins donation was restored, but the protectorate was no longer so distant, respectful and intermittent as the pope liked.
Up to the period of inclusion within the protectorate of Nigeria little or nothing was known of the country, though there were interesting legends of the antiquity of its history.
The second group of Sudanese states Em,YYWatker sc is almost entirely within the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria.
As thus constituted the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan forms a compact territory which, being joined southwards by the Uganda Protectorate, brings the whole of the Nile valley from the equatorial lakes to the Mediterranean under the control of Great Britain.
Steamers run on the Nile between Kerma and Kareima, and above Khartum the government maintains a regular service of steamers as far south as Gondokoro in the Uganda Protectorate.
The province of Sokoto occupies the north-west corner of the British protectorate, and is bounded west and north by French territory.
South and east it adjoins other parts of the British protectorate.
In this century arose a dynasty of the Habe, a name now believed to be identical with Hausa, who obtained power over a large area of the northern portion of the present British protectorate.
From that day British authority was substituted for Fula authority throughout the protectorate.
The emir of Sokoto took an oath of allegiance to the British Crown and Sokoto became a British province, to which at a later period Gando was added as a subprovince - thus making of Sokoto one of the double provinces of the protectorate.
But it has been demonstrated again and again that, directly the company's interests begin to clash with those of foreign powers, the home government must assume a protectorate over its territories in order to simplify the situation and save perhaps disastrous collisions.
Her kindness and warmth endeared her to the Protectorate court, where she often interceded for Royalist prisoners.
When you receive the Foundation documents, you will appoint the protector, by signing the Private Protectorate Document.
Due to these tensions, France declared a protectorate over the country in 1912.
In 1894 he established a protectorate over Uganda, from which Gladstone had wished to withdraw all British influence.
In 1898 Southern Rhodesia became a British protectorate administered by the British South Africa Company.
In 1888 the Cook Islands were made a protectorate of Great Britain, and in 1901 they were annexed to New Zealand.
As Richard of York assumed the protectorate after Edward's death in 1383, rumors were already surrounding the fate of the Princes.
The plan failed because many officers and men still supported the republican " Good Old Cause " rather than the Cromwellian protectorate.
I¹ve suggested in Parliament that we may need a form of UN protectorate.
Walter Harris's account of the years leading up to the French protectorate, in Morocco That Was, is hard to put down.
Bolivia was created out of the former Spanish protectorate of Peru during this period.
The plan failed because many officers and men still supported the republican " Good Old Cause " rather than the Cromwellian Protectorate.
The following table gives the name, area and population of each colony and protectorate as well as the date of acquisition or establishment of a protectorate.
Several colonies, however, elect members of the French legislature, in which body is the power of fixing the form of government and the laws of each colony or protectorate.
The republicans hostile to the Protectorate, excluded before, now returned, took the places vacated by strong supporters of Cromwell who had been removed to the Lords, and attacked the authority of the new chamber, opened communications with the disaffected in the city and army, protested against unparliamentary taxation and arbitrary imprisonment, and demanded again the supremacy of parliament.
The pope was confirmed in his rectorship of the cities ceded by Aistolf, with the further understanding, tacit rather than expressed, that, even as he had wrung these provinces for the Italic people from both Greeks and Lombards, so in the future he might claim the protectorate of such portions of Italy, external to the kingdom, as he should be able to acquired This, at any rate, seems to be the meaning of that obscure re-settlement of the peninsula which Charles effected.
By their settlement in Avignon, the popes relinquished their protectorate of Italian liberties, and lost their position as Italiar potentates.
Venice hoped to intervene in Romagna and establish her protectorate over the principalities, but this Julius was determined to prevent, and after trying in vain to use Cesare as a means of keeping out the Venetians, he had him arrested.
In these two incidents the tsar perceived a diminution of Russian prestige and influence in Turkey, and Prince Menshikov was sent on a special mission to Constantinople to obtain reparation in the form of a treaty which should guarantee the rights of the Orthodox Church with regard to the Holy Places and confirm the protectorate of Russia over the Orthodox rayahs, established by the treaties of Kainarji, Bucharest and Adrianople.
The Rahanwin, with numerous but little-known sub-groups, including, however, the powerful and warlike Abgals, Barawas, Gobrons, Tuni, Jidus and Kalallas, occupy in part the region between the Webi-Shebeli and Juba, but chiefly the territory extending from the Juba to the Tana, where they have long been in contact, mostly hostile, with the Wa-Pokomo and other Bantu peoples of the British East Africa Protectorate.
By treaties with Somali sultans in 1889 and by subsequent agreements with Great Britain, Zanzibar and Abyssinia, the coast east of the British Somali protectorate fell within the Italian sphere of influence (see Africa, § 5).
The mullah also attacked tribes living in the British protectorate (see § 2).
The question of the holy places was insignificant in itself - it might be settled if France were granted political compensation elsewhere; that of the protectorate claimed by Russia over the Christians involved the integrity of the sultan's sovereignty.
The island of Mafia (see below) is included in the protectorate.
The lack of more rapid means of communication hindered the development of the colony and led to economic crises (1898-1902), which were intensified, and in part created, by the building of a railway in the adjacent British protectorate from Mombasa to Victoria Nyanza, the British line securing the trade with the lake.
Administratively attached to the protectorate is the Tati concession, which covers 2500 sq.
At the same time it was provisionally arranged that the Bechuanaland protectorate should pass under the administration of the British South Africa Company (see Rhodesia).
The Beni appear to have been the most powerful race at the time of the discovery of the coast by the Portuguese in the 15th century, and the kings of Benin in the 17th century ruled a large part of the south-western portion of the existing British protectorate (see Benin).
The operations were completely successful and the Benin country was added to the protectorate (see Benin).
He invaded Cappadocia, and married his daughter to the young king, Ariarathes Epiphanes; bought the succession from the last king of Paphlagonia, and obtained a kind of protectorate over Galatia.
After the destruction of the Mandist power in 1898 Gondokoro was occupied by British troops and has since formed the northernmost post on the Nile of the Uganda protectorate (see Sudan; Nile; and Uganda).
Many writers adhere to the doctrine that there is no impairment of sovereignty of the weaker state by the establishment of a protectorate.
Each colony and protectorate, including Algeria, has a separate budget.
In 1874 the Malay state of Perak was placed under British protection by a treaty entered into with its sultan; and this eventually led to the inclusion in a British protectorate of the neighbouring Malay States of Selangor, Sungei Ujong, the cluster of small states called the Negri Sembilan and Pahang, which now form the Federated Malay States.
Three separate capitals must be discriminated Pavia, the seat of the new Lombard kingdom; Ravenna, the garrison city of the Byzantine emperor; and Rome, the rallying point of the old nation, where the successor of St Peter was already beginning to assume that national protectorate which proved so influential in the future.
This is a vaguer form of control than a protectorate, and frequently amounts merely to an agreement amongst civilized powers to respect the right of one of their number to exercise government within a certain area, if it should decide to do so at any future time.
A conference between the three powers was thereupon held at Berlin, and a treaty was executed by those powers and by Samoa, on the 14th of June 1889, by virtue of which the independence and autonomy of the islands were guaranteed, Malietoa was restored as king, and the three powers constituted themselves practically a protectorate over Samoa, and provided a chief justice and a president of the municipality of Apia, to be appointed by them, to aid in carrying out the provisions of the treaty.
It is the headquarters of the Uganda railway, of the military forces in the protectorate, and of the Colonists' Association.
Topography, eec. - Physically the protectorate may be described as almost mountainous in contrast with the somewhat monotonous plains of the interior.
The other inland boundaries of the protectorate were defined by agreements with Italy (1894) and Abyssinia (1897).
In the autumn of 1900 the mullah was again harassing the tribes on the southern border of the British protectorate and the neighbouring Abyssinian districts.
From 1884 to 1898 the protectorate was attached for administrative purposes to Bombay, and was immediately dependent on Aden; in the last-named year it was transferred to the Foreign Office, and in 1905 passed under the control of the Colonial Office.
The climate of the protectorate is very hot, but not unhealthy for Europeans if reasonable precautions be taken.
But the value of the protectorate depends upon the carrying trade with Harrar and the supplying of victuals and coals to French warships.
On account, probably, of the inhospitable nature of the shore the northern portion of the protectorate appears to have been little subject to hostile invasion.
At the close of 1907 the Negus Menelik, in return for a pecuniary indemnity (£r20,000), agreed to a modification of the 1897 line, whereby the Italian protectorate was extended north of Lugh to Dolo.
There is a superior council for the whole of Indo-China on which the natives and the European commercial community are represented, while in Cochin-China a privy council, and in the protectorates a council of the protectorate, assists in the work of administration.
He also had authority to confer the protectorate of the federated provinces upon a foreign prince.
Bordeaux, the French envoy in England, wrote that, in spite of the severe laws, the Romanists received better treatment under the Protectorate than under any other government.
Meanwhile, the first parliament of the Protectorate had met in September 16J4.
In the next place, the antagonism of the popes to the emperors, whicl became hereditary in the Holy College, forced the former tc - assume the protectorate of the national cause.
It became the nobler ambition of Julius to aggrandize the church, and to reassume the protectorate of the Italian people.
Victor Emmanuel, at the request of the people, assumed the protectorate over Tuscany, where he was represented by the Sardinian minister Boncompagni.
The occupation, effected on the 5th of February, was accelerated by fear lest Italy might be forestalled by France or Russia, both of which powers were suspected of desiring to establish themselves firmly on the Red Sea and to exercise a protectorate over Abyssinia.
Upon this clause Italy founded her claim to a protectorate over Abyssinia.
Meanwhile the Italian mint coined thalers bearing the portrait of King Humbert, with an inscription referring to the Italian protectorate, and on the 1st of January 1890 a royal decree conferred upon the colony the name of Eritrea.
Under pressure from Treaty of England and France the Egyptians retreated and the Unklar- Russian forces were withdrawn, but the tsar had mean- Skelessl, while (July 8, 1833) concluded with the sultan the 1833' treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi, which constituted ostensibly a defensive and offensive alliance between the two Powers and established virtually a Russian protectorate over Turkey.
In this way the development of Russian policy with regard to Turkey was checked for some years, but the project of confirming and extending the Russian protectorate over the Orthodox Christians was revived in 1852, when Napoleon III.
In May 1900 the group became a British protectorate under the native flag, the appointment of the consul and agent being transferred to the government of New Zealand.
The headquarters of the administration for the Bechuanaland protectorate are in the town.
The fanaticism of the caliph Hakim destroyed the church of the Sepulchre and ended the Frankish protectorate (Ioio); and the patronage of the Holy Places, a source of strife between the Greek and the Latin Churches as late as the beginning of the Crimean War, passed to the Byzantine empire in 1021.
By May the mullah had been driven out of the British protectorate and became a refugee among the Mijertin.
The British government (the Asquith cabinet) came to the conclusion that another expedition against the mullah would be useless; that they must either build a railway, make roads and effectively occupy the whole of the protectorate, or else abandon the interior completely.
An agreement with Great Britain (February 1888) fixed the southern limits of the protectorate; protocols with Italy (January 1900 and July 1901) the northern limits.
In this direction the protectorate extends inland some 56 m.