She was under the protection of the Others.
Craftsmen and industrious artisans, return to your work, your houses, your shops, where the protection of guards awaits you!
Maybe he's in some witness protection program.
It's for protection from all the wild animals.
Previously, the child was under the protection of her mother.
This sort of thing is usually done via the witness protection program but I once heard of a situation where fake papers were assembled independent of any government agency.
Besides, it will offer better protection than the others.
imbricata, and requires protection during winter.
For my own part, I should not like to think that I ever rely on the protection of the State.
It's important whatever garments you wear, that you get good protection against the elements.
How do we get protection without going public?
She released his neck and snuggled in the protection of his arms.
Of course, privacy protection will be key.
Domestic protection fell to PMF.
In the twenty years since she took him in, she was the only one to offer him protection and respect.
It requires protection in England during the winter.
It wasn't the brightest thing to walk all the way out to that shed without any protection after seeing the bear last night, either.
Understanding they were for Elisabeth's protection comforted him.
Demon Law offers you no protection, Death's mate or not.
Of course, she was going to be a pet, but a pet that size would also provide protection to a degree.
Reluctantly, he accepted the fact that he needed the protection of the Immortals to keep Katie safe.
Large shade trees and bamboo cabanas provided seating and protection from the sun.
It cannot be grown in the open air in Britain, as it requires protection from frost, and is more tender than the Brazilian pine.
The viscid pulp soon hardens, affording a protection to the seed; in germination the sucker-root penetrates the bark, and a connexion is established with the vascular tissue of the first plant.
On the 7th of May 1451 Waynflete, from "le peynted chambre" in his manor house at Southwark, asserting that his bishopric was canonically obtained and that he laboured under no disqualification, but feared some grievous attempt against himself and his see, appealed to the protection of the pope.
Calling at Talamone to embark arms and money, he reached Marsala on the 11th of May, and landed under the protection of the British vessels "Intrepid" and "Argus."
What might have happened we cannot tell; but Descartes threw himself on the protection of the French ambassador and the prince of Orange, and the city magistrates, from whom he vainly demanded satisfaction in a dignified letter,2 were snubbed by their superiors.
He was their protection against Tulsa riffraff - a parental request.
While helmets provide little protection in a serious fall, they're a must to shield you from junk dropped or dislodged from above you.
Charles took Florence and the Medici family under his protection and promised to punish all enemies of the Catholic faith.
Emerging from his solitude Rienzi journeyed to Prague, which he reached in July 1350, and threw himself upon the protection of the emperor Charles IV.
Rather than face this ordeal Alexius fled to Vienna and placed himself under the protection of his brother-in-law, the emperor Charles VI., who sent him for safety first to the Tirolean fortress of Ahrenberg, and finally to the castle of San Elmo at Naples.
That I, the daughter of Prince Nicholas Bolkonski, asked General Rameau for protection and accepted his favor!
They institute legal protection for copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
He swung down, clenched her body between his thighs, and pulled her into the protection of the tree.
We're close enough, and our camp sight will give us a little protection from the coming storm.
Elisabeth sighed, "Samantha thinks you may be right about the whole protection thing."
Edmund Burke had taken the subject races of India under the protection of his eloquence.
"She'll probably have an issue with being under the protection of the PMF," Tim said.
If you … when you find her, I'm assigning you as her personal protection and sending you both somewhere safe.
Ivan intervened in 1558 and quickly captured Narva, Dorpat and a dozen smaller fortresses; then, in 1560, Livonia placed herself beneath the protection of Poland, and King Sigismund II.
I'd say you have few choices; get protection, get a gun or head for the hills.
An unbound Immortal.s mate had no protection from demon or Immortal Code.
She turned to Ryland, who looked like he wanted to volunteer for disappearance in the witness protection program.
is said to have granted letters of protection to John Kemp, a Flemish weaver who settled in the town; and, although the coarse cloth known to Shakespeare as "Kendal green" is no longer made, its place is more than supplied by active manufactures of tweeds, railway rugs, horse clothing, knitted woollen caps and jackets, worsted and woollen yarns, and similar goods.
Chait Sing, raja of Benares, the greatest of the vassal chiefs who had grown rich under the protection of the British rule, lay under the suspicion of disloyalty.
A phÅ“be soon built in my shed, and a robin for protection in a pine which grew against the house.
Petya too would have run there, but the clerk who had taken the young gentleman under his protection stopped him.
In Petersburg she had enjoyed the special protection of a grandee who occupied one of the highest posts in the Empire.
when receiving letters of protection on the, 5th of July 1429 (Proc. P.C. iii.
On the east and west the ravines already mentioned afforded, in the main, a sufficient protection, so that a massive wall was unnecessary, while near the south-eastern angle a breastwork was formed by the excavation of the natural rock, 2 which in later times was honeycombed with tombs.
I do not seek your protection.
He was forced to abandon all attempts at reconquest, but proposed to decide the question by single combat between himself and Peter, to take place at Bordeaux under English protection.
We do not smell like other wolves for protection.
I wasn't thinking about protection.
936, when Hywel Dda, prince of South Wales, enacted a law for their protection.
by which he accorded his protection to the monks when he became master of the country.
(I) In Homeric times all strangers without exception were regarded as being under the protection of Zeus Xenios, the god of strangers and suppliants.
Frederick the Great of Prussia, when he seized Silesia, extended his protection to those who remained in that province.
He wanted to warn the young man to wear a bulletproof vest and keep his hands in his lap for protection.
It seems to me, the jury is still out on this mess but if Shipton is stalking her, legally or not, she deserves reasonable protection until we know for sure.
She finished spreading her woodchips and watched him, taking refuge against the drizzle in the protection of one column.
It also told me he was willing to make a sacrifice for her protection.
If you come under attack, you'll need an alternate identity... something similar to witness protection.
I'm just wondering if we should tell them, for their own protection.
I just told her about the soul-mate thing, and protection.
166 a verse from the oracle was used as an amulet and was inscribed over the doors of houses as a protection, and an oracle was sent, at Marcus Aurelius' request, by Alexander to the Roman army on the Danube during the war with the Marcomanni, declaring that victory would follow on the throwing of two lions alive into the river.
20-23, Zerubbabel is assured of God's special love and protection in the impending catastrophe of kingdoms and nations to which the prophet had formerly pointed as preceding the glorification of God's house on Zion.
Protestants were granted full civil rights and protection, and were permitted to hold their ecclesiastical assemblies - consistories, colloquies and synods, 1 Lindsay, Hist.
Under the protection of the edict the Huguenot Church of France flourished.
The Reformed churches had established themselves in independence of the state when that state was Catholic; when the government became Protestant the Church had protection and at the same time became dependent.
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
The elections were controlled for a few years, and violence was checked, but the Ku Klux movement went on until it accomplished its object by giving protection to the whites, reducing the blacks to order, replacing the whites in control of society and state, expelling the worst of the carpet-baggers and scalawags, and nullifying those laws of Congress which had resulted in placing the Southern whites under the control of a party composed principally of ex-slaves.
Laws and penalties in protection of property were enforced by the tribe.
A military station having been fixed by the British government at Port Victoria, on the coast of Arnheim Land, for the protection of shipwrecked mariners on the north coast, it was thought desirable to find an overland route between this settlement and Moreton Bay, in what then was the northern portion of New South Wales, now called Queensland.
Naturally, however, as the ideals of the members of the party are the same, the members of the Labour party will be generally found voting together on all important divisions, the chief exception being with regard to free trade or protection.
Politically the Malay Peninsula is divided into four sections: the colony of the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States; the independent Malay State of Johor, which is within the British sphere of influence; the non-federated states under British protection; and the groups of states to the north of Perak and Pahang which are now recognized as lying within the sphere of influence of Siam.
The Federated Malay States under British protection consist of the sultanates of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sambilan on the west coast, and the sultanate of Pahang on the east coast.
under British protection (since 1909) are Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah and Perlis (Palit).
Federated Malay under British Protection.......
asking him in the name of religion and peace to accept Italian protection instead of the temporal power, to which the pope replied that he Italian would only yield to force.
Inspectors and tax-gatherers did their work under police protection, and in several parts of the country riots had to be suppressed menu inililari.
The Sacred College having decided to hold the conclave abroad, Crispi assured them of absolute freedom if they remained in Rome, or of protection to the frontier should they migrate, but warned them that, once evacuated, the Vatican would be occupied in the name of the Italian government and be lost to the Church as headquarters of the papacy.
This pertinacity engendered a belief in France that Italy was about to undertake in Tunisia a more aggressive policy than necessary for the protection of her commercial interests.
in regard to interests outside its scope, especially as there was no possibility of obtaining protection for such interests from those who by the alliance had not undertaken to protect them.
Soon after the accession of Nero, Vologaeses (Vologasus), king of Parthia, overran Armenia, drove out Rhadamistus, who was under the protection of the Romans, and set his own brother Tiridates on the throne.
The protection of Syria in the meantime claimed all Corbulo's attention.
are for the protection of the widows of tenants-in-chief.
made the royal courts of law a lucrative source of revenue, but he gave protection to suitors.
Under his sons justice was equally, perhaps more, costly, while adequate protection was much harder to obtain.
When, however, he was again attacked by Charles Martel, the Saracens renewed their ravages, and Odo was defeated near Bordeaux; he was compelled to crave protection from Charles, who took up this struggle and gained his momentous victory at Poitiers in 732.
Under their protection, and favoured by its site, the city rapidly grew in wealth and population, the zenith of its power and prosperity being reached between the 13th and 15th centuries, when it was the emporium of the trade of Germany and the Low Countries, the centre of a great cloth industry, and could put some 20,000 armed citizens into the field.
Delfzyl, which was formerly an important fortress for the protection of the ancient sluices on the little river Delf (hence its name), has greatly benefited by the construction of the Ems (Eems) shipcanal connecting it with Groningen, and has a good harbour with a considerable import trade in wood.
The manor was granted by King Offa to the bishopric of Worcester; and it was under the protection of the bishops of Worcester, who were granting them privileges as early as the reign of Richard I., that the inhabitants of the town assumed burghal rights at an early date.
The sporogonium of the liverworts is in the simpler forms simply a spore-capstile with arrangements for the development, protection and distribution of the spores.
Here came under the protection of the peace of God the tribes and clans which otherwise lived apart from one another and only knew peace and security within their own frontiers."
The seeds are sown in April, and come up in three or four weeks; the plants require protection from frost during their first winter.
The object of this gathering was to frame a government for the settlers, as the seat of the Territorial government of Utah was too remote to afford protection for life and property.
The influence of Demeter, however, was not limited to corn, but extended to vegetation generally and all the fruits of the earth, with the curious exception of the bean, the use of which was forbidden at Eleusis, and for the protection of which a special patron was invented.
He believes the United States to be a unified republic, a sovereign nation; and not a federation of independent states united only for mutual benefit and protection.
Special protection is given to small holders.
"Only the Ancients can offer any protection," she murmured with a frown.
The advantages thus obtained by the guest were, the right of hospitality when travelling and, above all, the protection of his host (representing him as his patron) in a court of law.
At last Artabanus defeated his rival completely and occupied Ctesiphon; Vonones fled to Armenia, where he was acknowledged as king, under the protection of the Romans.
Youssouff acknowledged this protection given by a Frenchman by distinguishing himself in the ranks of the French army at the time of the conquest of Algeria.
Nominally they were taken under the protection of the empire, in reality they were its masters and defenders.
The first successful attempt to convert them was made, under the powerful protection of Pippin of Heristal, by Willebrord, a Northumbrian monk, who became, A.D.
Alexander Ghent had fallen into the hands of John Casimir, Farnese and under his armed protection a fierce and intolerant governor= Calvinism reigned supreme in that important city.
In 1874 the Malay state of Perak was placed under British protection by a treaty entered into with its sultan; and this eventually led to the inclusion in a British protectorate of the neighbouring Malay States of Selangor, Sungei Ujong, the cluster of small states called the Negri Sembilan and Pahang, which now form the Federated Malay States.
On the outbreak of the Pindari War in 1817 the British government offered its protection.
For protection from lightning each pole has an " earth wire " running from the top, down to the base.
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
Again in 1488, Matthias took Ancona under his protection for a time and occupied it with a Hungarian garrison.
In Sicily and the provinces of Reggio, Catanzaro, Cosenza and Lecce this tree flourishes without shelter; as far north as Rome, Aquila and Teramo it reqtiires only the slightest protection; in the rest of the peninsula itruns the risk of damage by frost every ten years or so.
Italian charity legislation was reformed by the laws of 1862 and 1890, which attempted to provide efficacious protection for endowments, and to ensure the application of the ir.come to the purposes for which it was intended.
The juntas are in this respect organs of~the administrative jurisprudence created in Italy by the law of the 1st of May 1890, in order to provide juridical protection for those rights and interests outside the competence of the ordinary tribunals.
From the first great encounter, in 1355, Venice retired we]l-nigh exhausted, and Genoa was so crippled that she placed, herself under the protection of the Visconti.
The duchy of Modena was placed under the protection of the French.
The Bourbon courl sailed away to Palermo, where it remained for eight years under the protection afforded by the British fleet and a British army of occupation.
The lonian Islands, formerly belonging to Venice, were, by a treaty signed at Paris on the 5th of November 1815, placed under the protection of Great Britain.
The defeat of General Pepe by the Austrians at Rieti (March 7, 1821) and the re-establishment of King Ferdinands autocratic power under the protection of Austrian bayonets were the effective assertion of this principle.
These words, which revealed the absence of any stipulation in regard to the protection of Italian interests in the Mediterranean, created lively dissatisfaction in Italy and corresponding satisfaction in France.
Robilant, for whom the Skiernie~vice pact was no secret, followed a firmly independent policy throughout the Bulgarian crisis of 1885-1886, declining to be drawn into any action beyond that required by the treaty of Berlin and the protection.
On the 20th of September 1881 Beheran formally accepted Italian protection, and in the following February an Anglo-Italian convention established the Italian title to Assab on condition that Italy should formally recognise the suzerainty of the Porte and of the khedive over the Red Sea coast, and should prevent the transport of arms and munitions of war through the territory of Assab.
Measures, apparently successful, were taken to reassure the negus, but shortly afterwards protection inopportunely accorded by Italy to enemies of Ras Alula, induced the Abyssinians to enter upon hostilities.
French government, in view of the rupture between Church and State in France, formally asked to be placed under Italian protection, which was granted in January 1907.
hydrocaulus, and forms a cup, the hydrangium or hydrotheca (h, t), standing off from the body, into which the hydranth can be retracted for shelter and protection.
56); when complete it is an open cup, in which the hydranth develops and can be protruded from the opening for the capture of food, or is withdrawn into it for protection.
During the Thirty Years' War the elector Philip Christopher von Sotern favoured France, and accepted French protection in 1631.
assimilative layer, and may also by the production of mucilage be of use in the protection of the body in various ways.
Besides absorption, assimilation, conduction and protection there is another very important function for which provision has to be made in any plant-body of considerable size, especially when raised into the air, that of support.
In relation to its characteristic function of protection, the epidermis, which, as above defined, consists of a single layer of cells has typically thickened and cuticularized outer walls.
The significance of these phenomena, which present many minor modifications in different cases, is nol fully understood, but one purpose of the formation of phloem promontories and islands seems to be the protection of the sieve-tubes from crushing by the often considerable peripheral pressure that is e~ercised on the stems of these lianes.
The formation and gradually increasing thickness of its bark are explained by the continually increasing need of adequate protection to the living cortex, under the strain of the increasing framework which the enormous multiplication of its living protoplasts demands, and the development of which leads to continual rupture of the exterior.
No doubt the primary object of the cell-wall of even the humblest protoplast is protection, and this too is the meaning of the coarser tegumentary structures of a bulkier plant.
the numerous galls on the oakbut the gall itself furnishes well adapted protection and abundant stores of nutriment to its particular larva, and often appears to be borne without injury to the plant.
der Pflanzen; Fischer, Forest Protection, iv.
Similarly, the small amount of cuticular and of epidermal protection, and of lignification in succulent halophytes may also be related to the same circumstance.
The sepals are generally organs for the protection of the flower-bud; the petals, for attracting insects by their conspicuous form and color; the foliage-leaves, for the assimilation of carbon dioxide and other associated functions.
Those of warmer countries cannot be cultivated in British gardens without protection from the rigours of winter; still less are they able to hold their own unaided in an unfavourable climate.
Its commander, Priscus, declared himself emperor under Gothic protection.
Ptolemy Euergetes (247-222 B.C.) rendered the greatest service to geography by the protection and encouragement of Eratosthenes, whose labours gave the first ap proximate knowledge of the true size of the spherical The .
The first requisites of all human beings are food and protection, in their search for which men are brought into intimate relations with the forms and productions of the earth's surface.
They hunt the beasts of prey destructive to their flocks, and form armed bands for protection against marauders or for purposes of aggression on weaker sedentary neighbours.
There is no other protection, but slight, imperfectly movable folds of skin arise from the outer rim.
The largest ear-opening is met with in the owls, with correspondingly larger folds of skin, the function of which is less that of protection than, probably, the catching of sound.
The special character of Norman rule in Sicily was that all these various races flourished, each in its own fashion, each keeping its own creed, tongue and manners, under the protection of a common sovereign, who belonged to none of them, but who did impartial justice to all.
the culture of men who were either Greeks or "semi-Graeci" by birth and education, and the protection and favour bestowed upon them by the more enlightened members of the Roman aristocracy.
Many of the Hydrophilidae construct, for the protection of their eggs, a cocoon formed of a silky material derived from glands opening at the tip of the abdomen.
Organized as they are into a kind of community for mutual protection and mutual help, they soon become masters of the trade wherever they penetrate.
On the other hand, the khans of the Crimea were able, partly from their geographical position and partly from having placed themselves under the protection of the sultans of Turkey, to resist annexation for more than two centuries and to give the Muscovites a great deal of trouble, not only by frequent raids and occasional invasions, but also by allying themselves with the Western enemies of the tsars.
Finding himself unable to resist the Muscovites, the grand master of the Order put himself under Polish protection, and this led to a seven years' war (1563-70) with Poland, during which the Swedes and Danes intervened on their own account.
Like his predecessor, he enjoyed the protection and support of the Polish king, Sigismund III., and was strong enough to ii., compel Shuiski to abdicate; but as soon as the throne was vacant Sigismund put forward as a candidate his own son, Wladislaus.
It was proposed, therefore; in 1576, that 6000 families should be registered as a militia under a Polish Hetman for the protection of the country against Tatar raids, and that the remainder of the inhabitants should be assimilated to the ordinary peasants of Poland.
For some time Tsar Alexius hesitated, because he knew that intervention could entail a war with Poland, but after consulting a National Assembly on the subject, he decided to take Little Russia under his protection, and in January 1654 a great Cossack assembly ratified the arrangement, on the understanding that a large part of the old local autonomy should be preserved.
Within a few months of her accession, having heard that the publication of the famous French Encyclopedie was in danger of being stopped by the French government on account of its irreligious spirit, she proposed to Diderot that he should complete his great work in Russia under her protection.
After proclaiming his intention of conferring on his subjects the blessings of peace, he joined in 1798 an Anglo-Austrian coalition against France; but when Austria paid more attention to her own interests than to the interests of monarchical institutions in general, and when England did not respect the independence of Malta, which he had taken under his protection, he succumbed to the artful blandishments of Napoleon and formed with him a plan for ruining the British empire by the conquest of India.
When the British government seemed disposed to use coercive measures for the protection of the Armenians, he gave it clearly to be understood that any such proceeding would be opposed by Russia.
The Baltimore & Ohio railroad was built to protect and further the commercial interests of the city of Baltimore; the Cincinnati Southern railway is still owned by the city of Cincinnati, which built the line in the 'seventies for commercial protection against Louisville, Ky.
This is in line with the provisions in the Constitution of the United States regarding the protection of property, but the difficulty in applying the principle to the railway situation lies in the fact that costs have to be met by averaging the returns on the total amount cf business done, and it is often impossible, in specific instances, to secure a rate which can be considered to yield a fair return on the specific service rendered.
Those who travelled at the cheaper rates had at the beginning to be content with open carriages having little or no protection from the weather.
It is under British protection, being annexed in 1892.
Experiments in protection on a larger scale, and under more ordinary conditions, have been carried out with equal success by Professor Celli and other Italian authorities.
In two peasants' cottages in the Campagna, protected with wire netting by Professor Celli, all the inmates-10 in number - escaped, while the neighbours suffered severely; and three out of four persons living in a third hut, from which protection was removed owing to the indifference of the inmates, contracted malaria.
Failing such protection mosquito curtains should be used.
There remains the question of protection against the parasite.
He was brought up in London, but returned to Ireland in 1567 after the death of Shane, under the protection of Sir Henry Sidney.
The author of 2 Maccabees infers from his success that the nation had forfeited all right to divine protection for the time (2 Macc. v.
prohibited interference with the synagogue worship ("Judaeorum sectarn nulla lege prohibitam satis constat "), and in 412 a special edict of protection was issued.
The English Jews " gradually substituted for the personal protection of the crown, the sympathy and confidence of the nation " (L.
By the law " De Judaeis " passed by the Diet in 1791 the Jews were accorded protection, but half a century passed before their tolerated condition was regularized.
Mr Basil Thomson (who after Baker's deportation had carried out reforms which the natives, when left alone, were incapable of maintaining) was sent in 1900 to conclude the treaty by which the king placed his kingdom under British protection.
There is more vegetation on this coast, and the bays of Chetumal, Espiritu Santo, Ascencion and San Miguel (on Cozumel Island) afford good protection for shipping.
These aguadQS were huge basins, paved and cemented, with underground cisterns, also lined with stone and cement, which may have been used for the protection of water against heat when the principal supply had become exhausted.
The citizens of London having suffered from the depredations of thieves and felons who escaped into Southwark, petitioned parliament for protection.
Deprived of the protection of religion as well as of justice, David tried his fortune among the Philistines at Gath.
high, on the southern bank of the Illinois, about midway between Ottawa and La Salle, the French explorer La Salle, assisted by his lieutenant Henri de Tonty and a few Canadian voyageurs and Illinois Indians, established (in December 1682) Fort St Louis, about which he gathered nearly 20,000 Indians, who were seeking protection from the Iroquois.
He opposed the tariff bill of 1816 and in 1824, and he repudiated the name of "American system," claimed by Clay for his system of protection.
When, however, the tariff bill of 1828, which was still more protective, came up for discussion, Webster had ceased to oppose protection; but he did not attempt to argue in favour of it.
He stated that his people, after giving warning in 5824 that they would consider protection the policy of the Government, had gone into protected manufactures, and he now asked that that policy be not reversed to the injury of his constituents.
In later speeches, too, he defended protection rather as a policy under which industries had been called into being than as advisable if the stage had been clear for the adoption of a new policy.
He therefore placed himself under British protection, and this led to the great Mahratta War, in which the Marquis Wellesley displayed those talents for military and political combination which rendered him illustrious.
During the previous war the peshwa had been the protege and ally of the British; and since the war he had fallen more completely than before under British protection - British political officers and British troops being stationed at his capital.
Archbishop Laud sent for Taylor to preach before him at Lambeth, and took the young man under his special protection.
Above all, there arose in 1440 the Prussian League (Preussischer Bund), in which the nobles and towns joined together, nominally for common protection of their rights, but really against the Order.
In 1678 it was captured by the elector of Brandenburg, but was restored to the Swedes in the following year; in 1713 it was desolated by the Russians; in 1715 it came into the possession of Denmark; and in 1721 it was again restored to Sweden, under whose protection it remained till 1815, when, along with the whole of Swedish Pomerania, it came into the possession of Prussia.
At the close of the war with Tippoo Sultan in 1792, these territories fell to the share of the nizam of Hyderabad, by whom they were ceded to the British in 1800, in return for protection by a force of British troops to be stationed at his capital.
It was under the protection of Siena till 1202, when it declared for Florence and thenceforward passed from one mistress to the other, until early in the 16th century when it finally became Florentine.
Gregory, still supported by Naples, Hungary, Bavaria, and by Rupert, king of the Romans, found protection with Ladislaus, and in a synod at Cividale del Friuli banned Benedict and Alexander as schismatical, perjured and scandalous.
This tract he named " Nonesuch," and here he attempted to establish a small body of soldiers who had occupied a less favourable site in the vicinity; but they objected to the change and, being attacked by the Indians, sought the protection of Smith, who made prisoners of their leaders, with the result, apparently, that the settlement was abandoned.
He was a prominent opponent of the oligarchical party in the revolution which took place on the approach of Napoleon; and he was one of the envoys sent to seek the protection of the French.
It also provides penalties for breaches of duty by the seller, but grants him protection in cases where he is not morally responsible.
Hundreds of acres of wheat are lost annually in America by the ravages of the Hessian fly; the fruit flies of Australia and South Africa cause much loss to orange and citron growers, often making it necessary to cover the trees in muslin tents for protection.
- See also FREE TRADE; PROTECTION; TARIFF; COMMERCIAL.
During the 19th century numerous forts have been constructed for the protection of the Haven and of the royal dockyard at Pembroke Dock.
Firdousi directed his steps to Mazandaran, and took refuge with Kabus, prince of Jorjan, who at first received him with great favour, and promised him his continued protection and patronage; learning, however, the circumstances under which he had left Ghazni, he feared the resentment of so powerful a sovereign as Mahmud, who he knew already coveted his kingdom, and dismissed the poet with a magnificent present.
Thus, when the men of Reggio and Modena overthrew the rule of their duke, he at once accorded protection to them, as also to the inhabitants of the cities of Bologna and Ferrara when they broke away from papal authority.
This action was due in large measure to the protection of Bonaparte.
He refused to put the vote of outlawry, uttered a few passionate words, cast off his official robes, declared the session at an end, and made his way out under protection of a squad of grenadiers.
This charge he resigned in the next year, and, after making arrangements for the protection of his northern diocese from an expected inroad of the Scots, he proceeded in July 1336 to France to attempt a settlement of the claims in dispute between Edward and Philip. In the next year he served on three commissions for the defence of the northern counties.
Deeming it wise to suppress his name, he adopted the pseudonym Ursinus, with reference to his protection by Bern.
There are some ruins of a castle erected as a protection against the Scots.
Propagation facilities are being greatly improved, and there are stringent laws for the protection of immature fish.
Its political importance really was that it transferred the protection of the constitution from the Areopagus to the Ecclesia.
The second step in the evolution of spinning instincts was probably the making of a silken chamber for the reception of the cocoon itself and for the protection of the mother while guarding it and her newly-hatched young.
There is no doubt that the primary influence that has guided the evolution of the architecture of the burrowing spiders has been that great necessity for the preservation of life, avoidance of enemies and protection from adverse physical conditions like rain, cold or drought.
In these spiders, too, the newly-hatched young shift for themselves as soon as they emerge from the cocoon; in others that guard the cocoon the young stay for a longer or shorter time under their mother's protection, those of the wandering Lycosidae climbing on her back to be carried about with her wherever she goes.
Before the battle of Culdremne (561) a Druid made an airbe druad (fence of protection?) round one of the armies, but what is precisely meant by the phrase is obscure.
His first sojourn was in Vienna, where the friendship of Gentz and the protection of Metternich opened to him the Venetian archives, of which many were preserved in that city - a virgin field, the value of which he first discovered, and which is still unexhausted.
At the capture of Constantinople by the Turks (1453) he fell into their hands, but managed to escape to Peloponnesus, where he obtained protection at the court of Thomas Palaeologus, despot of Achaea.
The culture developed in the West during the 13th century was not only permitted to develop by the protection of the Crusades, it grew upon materials which the Crusades enabled it to import from the East.
The latter applied to Sir Philip Wodehouse at the Cape for protection, but he declined to interfere.
Seeing that the struggle against the Boers was hopeless, no fewer than 2000 Basuto warriors having been killed, Moshesh again appealed for protection to the British authorities, saying: "Let me and my people rest and live under the large folds of the flag of England before I am no more."
He was kindly dismissed by the pope not long after, with a letter recommending him to the protection of the bishops of Tours and Angers, and another pronouncing anathema on all who should do him any injury or call him a heretic. He returned home, overwhelmed with shame and bowed down with sorrow for having a second time been guilty of a great impiety.
The societies which Bourne formed were for a time allowed to go under (Wesleyan) Methodist protection, but the crisis came in 1810, when the Stanley class of ten members declined to wash their hands of the Camp-Meeting Methodists, and so were refused admission.
The community at Alexandria lived in mean and scattered houses, near enough to afford protection, without depriving the members of the solitude which they prized.
While under the protection of the grand prince, Andronicus brought about an alliance between him and the emperor Manuel, and so restored himself to the emperor's favour.
Charles's protection, as he himself confessed, made possible his great career.
One of the most important results of the struggle was the defection of the pope, who sought and obtained protection from Pippin, king of the Franks.
1 whose protection he still cherished when he named his sons Ahaziah and Jehoram ("Yahweh] holds," "Y.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
The introduction of trades-union representatives on the Supreme Labour Council, the organization of local labour councils, and the instructions to factory inspectors to put themselves in communication with the councils of the trades-unions, were valuable concessions to labour, and he further secured the rigorous application of earlier laws devised for the protection of the working-classes.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
Caves occur in the slight cliffs, and protection against the attacks of the waves has been found necessary.
The police station is partly accommodated in an ancient square tower, once the stronghold of the Johnstones, for a long period the ruling family under whose protection the town gradually grew up. At Dryfe Sands, about 2 m.
More than a modicum of rusticity is needed as a protection to a man who attempts such colossal reforms. This necessity had its consequences in the disquieting inequalities of Wagner's early work, and the undeniable egotism that embittered his fiery nature throughout his life; while the cut-and-dried system of culture of later Wagnerian discipleship has revenged him in a specially sacerdotal type of tradition, which makes progress even in the study of his works impossible except through revolt.
In this festival Pales was invoked to grant protection and increase to flocks and herds; the shepherds entreated forgiveness for any unintentional profanation of holy places of which their flocks might have been guilty, and leaped three times across bonfires of hay and straw (Ovid, Fasti, iv.
Giessen, part of Schmalkalden, Ziegenhain, Nidda and, after a long struggle, Katzenelnbogen were acquired, while in 1432 the abbey of Hersfeld placed itself under the protection of Hesse.
In 1667 he returned to Messina, but in 1674 was obliged to retire to Rome, where he lived under the protection of Christina, queen of Sweden, and died on the 31st of December 1679.
In 808 Charlemagne took the abbey of St-Gilles under his protection, and it is mentioned among the monasteries from which only prayers for the prince and the state were due.
The order founded by Jehonadab must from its constitution have soon become a sort of hereditary clan, and as such the "house of Rechab" appears in Judah after the fall of the northern kingdom and continued to observe the ordinance of Jehonadab till the approach of Nebuchadrezzar drove them for protection into Jerusalem (Jer.
It was the Alexandrian theology that superseded them; that is to say, NeoPlatonic mysticism triumphed over the early Christian hope of the future, first among the "cultured," and then, when the theology of the "cultured" had taken the faith of the "uncultured" under its protection, amongst the latter also.
Instances of dogs having saved the lives of their owners by that strange intuition of approaching danger which they appear to possess, or by their protection, are innumerable: their attachment to man has inspired the poet and formed the subject of many notable books, while in Daniel's Rural Sports is related a story of a dog dying in the fulness of joy caused by the return of his master after a two years' absence from home.
During 1884, 1885, 1886 treaties guaranteeing British protection were concluded with various Somali tribes and in 1888 the limits of the British and French spheres were defined, all claims to British jurisdiction in the Gulf of Tajura and the islands of Musha and Bab being abandoned.
The tribes hostile to the mullah sought British protection, and Colonel (afterwards Sir) E.
He was ordained priest on the 31st of December 1837, and a few weeks later was made apostolic delegate of the small papal territory of Benevento, where he had to deal with brigands and smugglers, who enjoyed the protection of some of the noble families of the district.
Nor did Athenian law leave the slave without protection.
of the mosque is Kom edDik, garrisoned by British troops, one of several forts built for the protection of the city.
He is the exact opposite of the miraculous personage of later legend - a mere man, standing always on the solid ground of reality, whose only arms are trust in his God and the protection of his powerful allies.
In the relation between Zoroaster and Vishtaspa already lies the germ of the state church which afterwards became completely subservient to the interests of the dynasty and sought its protection from it.
To these ecclesiastical precepts and expiations belong in particular the numerous ablutions, bodily chastisements, love of truth, beneficial works, support of comrades in the faith, alms, chastity, improvement of the land, arboriculture, breeding of cattle, agriculture, protection of useful animals, as the dog, the destruction of noxious animals, and the prohibition either to burn or to bury the dead.
Thus prepared, the specimens are placed on shelves or movable trays, at intervals of about 6 in., in an air-tight cupboard, on the inner side of the door of which, as a special protection against insects, is suspended a muslin bag containing a piece of camphor.
Their funerals were as much under the protection of the law, which not only invested the tomb itself with a sacred character, but included in its protection the area in which it stood, and the cella memoriae or chapel connected with it, as those of their heathen fellow-citizens, while the same shield would be thrown over the burial-clubs, which, as we learn from Tertullian 2 Cicero is our authority for the burial of Marius, and for Sulla's being the first member of the Gens Cornelia whose dead body was burnt (De Legg.
There is thus a minimum circulation in the greater depths causing there uniformity of temperature, an absence of the circulation of oxygen by other means than diffusion, and a protection of the sulphuretted hydrogen from the oxidation which takes place in homologous situations in the open ocean.
Nearly all of this vast flood-plain lies below the level of high water in the Mississippi, and, but for the protection afforded by the levees, every considerable rise of its waters would inundate vast areas of fertile and cultivated land.
By these Cuba was bound not to incur debts her current revenues will not bear; to continue the sanitary administration undertaken by the military government of intervention; to lease naval stations (since located at Bahia Honda and Guantanamo) to the United States; and finally, the right of the United States to intervene, if necessary, in the affairs of the island was explicitly affirmed in the provision, " That the government of Cuba consents that the United States may exercise the right to intervene for the protection of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property and individual liberty, and for discharging the obligations with respect to Cuba imposed by the treaty of Paris on the United States, now to be assumed and undertaken by the government of Cuba."
In 1815 Surat Singh's tyranny led to a general rising of his thakurs, and in 1816 the maharaja again applied for British protection.
Ragusa furnished him with money and a fleet, in return for a guarantee of protection; commercial treaties with Venice further strengthened his position; and the Vatican, which had instigated the Croats to invade the dominions of their heretical neighbour (1337-40), was conciliated by his conversion to Roman Catholicism.
The Serb and Moslem delegates, who had started on the same day for Budapest, to present their petition to the emperor, learned from the rescript that the government intended to concede to their compatriots "a share in the legislation and administration of provincial affairs, and equal protection for all religious beliefs, languages and racial distinctions."
He managed to get into the Fourth Duma through the joint protection of Bieletzky, the Russian Fouche, and Lenin.
Egypt, though nominally under Turkish suzerainty, has formed a practically independent principality since 1841, and has been de facto under British protection since 1881.
Under such a system, and the legal protection enjoyed through it by Ottoman functionaries against evil consequences of their own misdeeds, corruption was rife throughout the empire.
Reform of this system, and, further, very necessary reforms of the methods of collection of the wines and spirits revenue (which is protection turned upside down, the home-growers being far more heavily taxed than importers), and of the customs (in which almost every possible administrative sin was exemplified), were also undertaken.
The siege was raised, however, not owing to the bravery of the defence, but because the appearance of another pretender, in the person of Murad's thirteen-year-old brother Mustafa, under the protection of the revolted princes of Karamania and Kermian, called the sultan to Asia.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
The result was that the Turks in retaliation deprived the Catholics, always under the protection of France, of some of their privileges in connexion with the holy places, which were now granted to the Orthodox Church.
However, Michael Wiesnowiecki, king of Poland, considering the Ukraine as under his protection, sought to intervene, with the result that Turkey declared war against him (1672).
Moldavia and Walachia were likewise restored, but under conditions which practically raised the41 to the position of semi-independent principalities under Russian protection (art.
In 1844 he took advantage of his visit to England to propose to British ministers a plan of partition, under which Great Britain was to receive Egypt and Crete, Constantinople was to be erected into a free city, and the Balkan states were to become autonomous under Russian protection.
" emperor of France, " not only French pilgrims to Jerusalem, but all members of " Christian and hostile nations " visiting Holy g the Ottoman Empire, had been placed under the protection of the French flag, and by a special article the Frank, i.e.
Concessions were made to one side and the other; and the question of the right of " protection " was solved by the Turkish government itself undertaking the duty.
divested of their right to the protection of their own authorities in every respect concerning such property.
Saumarez, and driven to seek the protection of the Spanish batteries in Algeciras.
In place of the movements of great fleets to a single end, we have a nine years' story (1805-1814) of cruising for the protection of commerce, of convoy, of colonial expeditions to capture French, Dutch or Spanish possessions and of combined naval and military operations in which the British navy was engaged in carrying troops to various countries, and in supporting them on shore.
Under the native regime the common people attached themselves to one or other of the mandarins, who in return granted them the protection of his influence.
Peachtrees require protection, especially at the period of blossoming, particularly in the north of England and in Scotland.
Under Venetian protection, freely accepted in 1401, the inhabitants maintained their municipal independence and commercial prosperity down to the destruction of the Venetian republic in 1797, though on two occasions, in 1500 and 1560, their city was burned by the Turks.
The attempts of Ali Pasha of Iannina to make himself master of the place were thwarted partly by the presence of a French garrison in the citadel and partly by the heroic attitude of the Pargiotes themselves, who were anxious to have their city incorporated with the Ionian Republic. To secure their purpose they in 1814 expelled the French garrison and accepted British protection; but the British Government in 1815 determined to go back to the convention of 1800 by which Parga was to be surrendered to Turkey, though no mosque was to be built or Mussulman to settle within its territory.
It was through his means that lightning-conductors were first introduced into Italy for the protection of buildings.
Fortifications have been built for the protection of the port.
It is significant in this connexion that there were two cities named Sippar, one under the protection of Shamash, the sun-god, and one under this Anunit, a fact which points strongly tothe probable proximity of Sippar and Agade.
Two of his speeches in particular attracted attention, one against the policy of protection (16th of March 1892), and the other against the repeal of the silver purchase clause of the Sherman Act (16th of August 1893).
for the protection of the shipping.
The temperature of Cutch during the hot season is high, the thermometer frequently rising to roo° or 105° F.; and in the months of April and May clouds of dust and sand, blown about by hurricanes, envelop the houses, the glass windows scarcely affording any protection.
He was at once public prosecutor and judge, was responsible for the execution of the sentences of the courts, and as the king's representative exercised the royal right of protection (mundium regis) over churches, widows, orphans and the like.
Considerable protection was afforded to many of these industries by the customs tariff of that time, but protection did not become an acknowledged national policy until after 1889.
Fortunately, however, a shipwrecked Portuguese, who had lived many years under the protection of the principal chief, was successful in concluding a treaty of perpetual alliance between his countrymen and the natives.
The chiefs of these colonies were invited to place them under the protection of the Portuguese crown, but these at first affecting loyalty to Spain declined the offer, then threw off the mask and declared themselves independent, and the Spanish governor, Elio, was afterwards defeated by Artigas, the leader of the independents.
Admiral da Gama, unable to leave the Bay of Rio de Janeiro on account of lack of transport for the sick and wounded and the civilians claiming his protection, could do no more than wait for Admiral Mello to return from Desterro.
Under the protection of the hill-fort, a native settlement was established on the ridge running down to the valley at the foot of Salisbury Crags, and another hamlet, according to William Maitland (1693-1757), the earliest historian of Edinburgh, was founded in the area at the northwestern base of the rock, a district that afterwards became the parish of St Cuthbert, the oldest in the city.
The noveschi, being "fat burghers" with powerful connexions, abilities and traditions, gained increased strength and influence in exile; and five years later, on 22nd July 1487, they returned triumphantly to Siena, dispersed the few adherents of the popolo who offered resistance, murdered the captain of the people, reorganized the state, and placed it under the protection of the Virgin Mary.
The city then placed itself under the protection of the emperor .Charles V., created a magistracy of "ten conservators of the liberties of the state" (December 1524), united the different monti in one named the "monte of the reigning nobles," and, rejoicing to be rid of the last of the Petrucci, dated their public books, ab instaurata libertate year I., II., and so on.
The so-called free government subject to the empire lasted for twenty-seven years; and the desired protection of Spain weighed more and more heavily until it became a tyranny.
The government was now reconstituted under the protection of the French agents; the balia was abolished, its very name having been rendered odious by the tyranny of Spain, and was replaced by a similar magistracy styled capitani del popolo e reggimento.
The town dates from the 13th century, being originally a fortress built for protection against the Bohemians.
To his insistence in 1860 that the Democratic party should support his claim to the protection of slavery in the territories by the Federal government, the disruption of that party was in large measure due.
Smellekamp (a man who subsequently played a part in the early history of the Transvaal and Orange Free State), concluded a treaty with the volksraad assuring them of the protection of Holland.
The burghers represented that they were under the protection of Holland, but this plea was peremptorily rejected by the commander of the British forces.
In 1843, for instance, no fewer than 50,000 Zulus crossed the Tugela seeking the protection of the white man.
But it contained also a bold indictment of the whole system of foreign policy then in vogue, founded on ideas as to the balance of power and the necessity of large armaments for the protection of commerce.
I feel that I could succeed in making out a stronger case for the prohibitive nations of Europe to compel them to adopt a freer system than I had here to overturn our protection policy."
Thus the Kumanian colonists, mostly pagans, whom he settled in vast numbers on the waste lands, threatened to overwhelm the Christian population; while the numerous strongholds, which he encouraged his nobles to build as a protection against future Tatar invasions, subsequently became so many centres of disloyalty.
In their misery the cities frequently appealed for protection to the emperor and other foreign potentates, as no redress was attainable at home.
But the opposition, while unable to deny the recuperation of Hungary, shut their eyes to everything but Tisza's " tyranny, " and their attacks were never so savage and unscrupulous as during the session of 1889, when threats of a revolution were uttered by the opposition leaders and the premier could only enter or leave the House under police protection.
But more important than his own efforts as an author were his protection and patronage of literary men, especially of Corneille, and his creation of the French Academy in 1635.
Sechele's power was not broken, and he appealed for British protection, which was not then granted.
They urged, among other things, due enforcement of the liquor law, more police protection, the abolition of the dynamite concession, and that foodstuffs should be duty free.
The police afford no adequate protection to the lives and property of the inhabitants of Johannesburg; they are rather a source of danger to the peace and safety of the Uitlander population.
The halt at Bloemfontein was marked by the publication of proclamations, offering protection to the burghers, which, however, the invaders had not yet the power to fulfil.
Large forces had been left behind during the advance on Johannesburg for the protection of the railway and the conquered terri tory, and these were now reinforced from Kimberley and elsewhere as well as from detachments of the main army.
K i tchener an idea, and he resolved upon the scheme of fencing in areas by chains of blockhouses such as those already constructed for the protection of the railways.
end of the island affords some further protection.
In the words of Westermarck: " The facts appear to prove that the feeling of shame, far from being the cause of man's covering his body, is, on the contrary, a result of this custom; and that the covering, if not used as a protection from the climate, owes its origin, at least in a great many cases, to the desire of men and women to make themselves mutually attractive."
It must be remembered that the Arabs, who inhabit an extremely hot country, are very fully clothed, while the Fuegians at the extremity, of Cape Horn, exposed to all the rigours of an antarctic climate, have, as sole protection, a skin attached to the body by cords, so that it can be shifted to either side according to the direction of the wind.
The simplest of all coverings is the loin-cloth characteristic of warm climates, and a necessary protection where there are trying extremes of temperature.
Special protection for the feet was chiefly necessary in rocky districts or upon long journeys.
Another resolution, of importance for the history of the treatment of heresy, was the canon which decreed that armed force should be employed against the Cathari in southern France, that their goods were liable to confiscation and their persons to enslavement by the princes, and that all who took up weapons against them should receive a two years' remission of their penance and be placed - like the crusaders - under the direct protection of the church.
The action of the sun's rays stimulates the cells of the skin to increase the pigment as a protection to the underlying tissues, e.g.
Each organism possesses within itself the means of protection against its parasitical enemies, and these properties are more in evidence when the organism is in perfect health than when it is debilitated.
The succeeding period of Byzantine history was so little favourable to science that no name worthy of note occurs again (though many medical works of this period are still extant) till the 13th century, when we meet with a group of writers: Demetrius Pepagomenus, Nicolaus Myrepsus and Johannes, called Actuarius, who flourished under the protection of the Palaeologi.
Apart from the City an interesting ecclesiastical survival is the name Broad Sanctuary, Westminster, recalling the place of sanctuary which long survived the monastery under the protection of which it originally existed.
The brigade was confined to the central part of the metropolis; for the rest, the parochial authorities had charge of protection from fire.
This is most probable, because the Romans naturally required a special protection on the river at the west as well as at the east.
The Thames formed the natural barrier on the south, but the Romans do not appear to have been content with this protection, for they built a wall here in addition, which remained for several centuries.
addressed the representatives of the city in these words: " I have lately been made sensible of what consequence the city of London is, and therefore shall be sure to take all their privileges and interests into my particular protection."
The former, visits paid in accordance with a vow, were very frequent in the middle ages, and were under the special protection of the pope, who put the ban upon any who should molest pilgrims "who go to Rome for God's sake."
Large pillars of mineral should be left for the protection of the main openings, whether these be shafts or adits.
In the systematic mining of larger deposits, the simplest plan consists in mining large areas by means of numerous working-places under the protection of pillars of mineral left for the purpose, and later mining these pillars systematically, allowing the overlying rock beds to fall and fill the abandoned workings.
This mat of timber forms a roof under the protection of which the mining of the ore proceeds downward floor by floor.
Under favourable conditions mining may be conducted under the protection of a few yards of solid rock only, as in the submarine work for the removal of reefs in the harbours of San Francisco and New York.
At Silver Islet, Lake Superior, mining was successfully carried on for years under the protection of a coffer dam and an arch of rich silver ore less than 20 ft.
He then passed the laws on the press, suppressing the censorship. By reorganization of the finances, the protection of industry and the carrying out of great public works, France regained its economic prosperity, and the ministry became popular.
It happened, accordingly, that the Burmese, carrying their arms into Assam and Manipur, penetrated to the British border near Sylhet, odthe north-east frontier of Bengal, beyond which were the possessions of the chiefs of Cachar, under the protection of the British government.
In this same year Henry of Luxemburg was elected king of the Romans and with the pope's favour he came to Italy in 1310; the Florentine exiles and all the Ghibellines of Italy regarded him as a saviour and regenerator of the country, while the Guelphs of Florence on the contrary opposed New both him and the pope as dangerous to their own liberties and accepted the protection of King Robert of Naples, disregarding Henry's summons to submission.
In 1351 Giovanni Visconti, lord and archbishop of Milan, having purchased Bologna and allied himself with sundry Ghibelline houses of Tuscany with a view to dominating Florence, the city made war on him, and in violation of its Guelph traditions placed itself under the protection of the emperor Charles IV.
In 1 404 their attempt to capture Pisa single-handed Attempts to acquire failed, and Gabriele Maria placed himself under the Pisa protection of the French king.
It existed as a town as early as the 11th century, and in 1259 it was sold by the abbot of Fulda to the bishop of Minden, afterwards passing under the protection of the dukes of Brunswick.
The protection afforded to the planters by their government, however, enables them to pursue the industry with considerable profit, notwithstanding the poor return for their labour in saleable produce.
Delbriick, however, began to feel himself uneasy under Bismarck's leanings towards protection and state control.
Medieval gilds were voluntary associations formed for the mutual aid and protection of their members.
When the old kin-bond or maegth was beginning to weaken or dissolve, and the state did not yet afford adequate protection to its citizens, individuals naturally united for mutual help.
With the expansion of trade and industry the number of artisans increased, and they banded together for mutual protection.
In the last year of Peter's reign fresh frauds and defalcations of Menshikov came to light, and he was obliged to appeal for protection to the empress Catherine.
In Lycia graves are frequently placed under her protection, and she is also known as a goddess of fertility and as Kouporp60os.
The allprevailing need of the later Roman and early medieval society was protection - protection against the sudden attacks of invading tribes or revolted peasants, against oppressive neighbours, against the unwarranted demands of government officers, or even against the legal but too heavy exactions of the government itself.
The protection which normally it is the business of government to furnish he could no longer obtain.
He must seek protection elsewhere wherever he could get it, and pay the price demanded for it.
The institutions which the need of protection seized upon when it first began to turn away from the state were twofold.
It created a relationship of protection and support on one side, and of free service on the other.
Even a definite understanding at the outset that the lease might be enjoyed to a specified date was no protection.'
As used for protection in later Roman days the precarium gave rise to what was called the commendation of lands, patrocinium fundorum.
Of necessity the poor man must surrender to his powerful neighbour the ownership of his lands, which he then received back as a precarium - gaining protection during his lifetime.
The motive was too strong on both sides - the need of protection on one side, the natural desire to increase large possessions and means of self-defence on the other.
The new German government furnished no better protection from local violence, nor was it able any more effectively to check the practices which were creating feudalism; indeed for a long time it made no attempt to do so.
As in the last days of the Roman empire the poor landowner had found his only refuge from the exactions of the government in the protection of the senator, who could in some way obtain exemptions, so the poor Frank could escape the ruinous demands of military service only by submitting himself and his lands to the count, who did not hesitate on his side to force such submission.
His smaller neighbours who needed protection came to him for it.
His right to exact military, financial and judicial duties for the state he had used to force men to become his dependants, and then he had stood between them and the state, freeing them from burdens which he threw with increased weight upon those who still stood outside his personal protection.
The chief of these are the following: the relation of vassal and lord; the principle that every holder of land is a tenant and not an owner, until the highest rank is reached, sometimes even the conception rules in that rank; that the tenure by which a thing of value is held is one of honourable service, not intended to be economic, but moral and political in character; the principle of mutual obligations of loyalty, protection and service binding together all the ranks of this society from the highest to the lowest; and the principle of contract between lord and tenant, as determining all rights, controlling their modification, and forming the foundation of all law.
When the function of protection and local supervision could be resumed by the general government the feudal age ended.
Under Turkish protection, he visited the territory of the Hashid and Bakil tribes north-east of Sana, and though their hostile attitude compelled him to return after reaching their first important town, Khamr, he had time to reconnoitre the plateau lying between the two great wadis Kharid and Hirran, formerly covered with Himyaritic towns and villages; and to trace the course of these wadis to their junction at El Ish in the Dhu Husen country, and thence onward to the Jauf.
Hirsch under the protection of the sultan of Mukalla, the head of the Kaiti family, and practically ruler of all Hadramut, with the exception of the towns of Saiyun and Tarim, which belong to the Kathiri tribe.
Under the protection of a sheikh of the Fukara Bedouin he wandered over the whole of the borderland between Hejaz and Nejd.
Returning to Hail in the absence of the amir, he was expelled by the governor; he succeeded, however, in finding protection at Aneza, where he spent several months, and eventually after many hardships and perils found his way to the coast at Jidda.
In the desert, too, there is a widely scattered tribe, the Salubi, which from its name (Salib, cross) is conjectured to be of early Christian origin; they are great hunters, killing ostriches and gazelles; the Arabs despise them as an inferior race, but do not harm them; they pay a small tax to the tribe under whose protection they live, and render service as labourers, for which they receive in the spring milk and cheese; at the date harvest they get wages in kind; with this, and the produce of the chase, they manage to exist in the desert without agriculture or flocks.
apart, each furnished with a well and reservoir, and for the further protection of the haj, payments are made to the Bedouin tribes through whose territories the route passes.
Byzantium); others as in the Hejaz were ruled in smaller communities by members of leading families, while in various parts of the peninsula were wandering Arabs still maintaining the traditions of old family and tribal rule, forming no state, sometimes passing, as suited them, under the influence and protection of one or another of the greater powers.
Kuwet was not formally placed under British protection, but it was officially announced by the government on the 5th of May 1903 " that the establishment of a naval base or fortified port in the Persian Gulf by any other power would be regarded as a very grave menace to British interests which would certainly be resisted with all the means at its disposal."
The necessity of seeking protection from the sea-rovers and pirates who infested these waters during the whole period of Hanseatic supremacy, the legal customs, substantially alike in the towns of North Germany, which governed the groups of traders in the outlying trading posts, the establishment of common factories, or "counters"(Komtors) at these points, with aldermen to administer justice and to secure trading privileges for the community of German merchants - such were some of the unifying influences which preceded the gradual formation of the League.
Under their protection, the three remaining counters lingered on until their buildings were sold at Bergen in 1775, at London in 1852 and at Antwerp in 1863.
It is to have no walls, that its population may not be limited, and it needs none, for Yahweh is its protection.
Merchants from every nation found protection and good faith in the Khazar cities.
TUNISIA (Regency of Tunis), a country of North Africa, under the protection of France, bounded N.
The Spanish colonies suffered from the strict system of monopoly and protection, which was only slightly relaxed by the later Bourbon kings, and from the arbitrary proceedings of the Inquisition.
The southern coast in particular is deeply indented; and there two bold peninsulas, extending for several miles into the sea, form two capacious natural harbours, namely, Deep Water Bay, with the village of Stanley to the east, and Tytam Bay, which has a safe, well-protected entrance showing a depth of 10 to 16 fathoms. An in-shore island on the west coast, called Aberdeen, or Taplishan, affords protection to the Shekpywan or Aberdeen harbour, an inlet provided with a granite graving dock, the caisson gate of which is 60 ft.
The chief peculiarities that distinguish Trematodes from their free-living allies, the Turbellaria, are the development of adhering organs for attachment to the tissues of the host; the replacement of the primitively ciliated epidermis by a thick cuticular layer and deeply sunk cells to ensure protection against the solvent action of the host; and (in one large order) a prolonged and peculiar life-history.
For the next 180 years its history consists chiefly of a series of conflicts with this city, which were finally put an end to by Trieste placing itself in 1382 under the protection of Leopold III.
It can hardly be doubted that the function of these avicularia is the protection of the tentacles and compensation-sac. The suggestion that they are concerned in feeding does not rest on any definite evidence, and is probably erroneous.
This overthrow of Byzantium was a great loss to the empire, since it might have served as a protection against the Goths, who afterwards sailed past it into the Mediterranean.
The emperor Charles the Fat took Louis under his protection on the death of Boso in 887; but Provence was in a state of wild disorder, and it was not until 890, when Irmengarde had secured the support of the Bavarian king Arnulf and of Pope Stephen V., that Louis was recognized as king.
Queretaro has one of the oldest and largest cotton factories in Mexico, employing about 2000 operatives, and maintaining a small private military force for protection.
After the Portuguese, from about 1518 onwards, had attempted many times to establish themselves on the islands by force, and after the Maldivians had endured frequent raids by the Mopla pirates of the Malabar coast, they began to send tokens of homage and claims of protection (the first recorded being in 1645) to the rulers of Ceylon, and their association with this island has continued practically ever since.
But its chief development took place under the direction of Igarashi J izaemon, an amateur ceramist, who, happening to visit Chikuzen about 1620, was taken under the protection of the chief of the fief and munificently treated.
After conquering the Ordovices in North Wales and the island of Mona (Anglesey), during the next two years he carried his victorious arms to the Taiis (Tay; others read Tanaus, perhaps the north Tyne), and in his fourth campaign fortified the country between Clota and Bodotria (the firths of Clyde and Forth) as a protection against the attacks of the Caledonians.
AGA KHAN I., HIS HIGHNESS THE (1800-1881), the title accorded by general consent to Hasan Ali Shah (born in Persia, 1800), when, in early life, he first settled in Bombay under the protection of the British government.
He fled from Persia and sought protection in British territory, preferring to settle down eventually in India, making Bombay his headquarters.
From that time until his death in 1881 the Aga Khan, while leading the life of a peaceful and peacemaking citizen, under the protection of British rule, continued to discharge his sacerdotal functions, not only among his followers in India, but towards the more numerous communities which acknowledged his religious sway in distant countries, such as Afghanistan, Khorasan, Persia, Arabia, Central Asia, and even distant Syria and Morocco.
The efforts to subdue or restrain these marauders proved fruitless, till Augustus Cleveland won them by mild measures, and successfully made over the protection of the district to the very hill people who a few years before had been its scourge.
in questions of copyright) they have refused protection to persons promulgating irreligious or blasphemous opinions.
The settlement was sacked by the French in 1792, and in the following year a fort was built for its protection.
The lord of Rappoltstein was the king or protector of the wandering minstrels of the land, who purchased his protection by paying him a tax.
In 1595 Emden became a free imperial city under the protection of Holland, and was occupied by a Dutch garrison until 1744 when, with East Friesland, it was transferred to Prussia.
The gain would be the addition to the kingdom of a new and fertile province of the area of North Brabant, a saving of expenses on dikes, diminution of inundations, improvement of communication between the south and the north of the kingdom, protection of isles of the sea, &c. The costs were calculated as follows: (I) enclosing dike, sluices, and regulation of Zwolsche Diep, £1,760,000; (2) reclamation of four polders, £5,200,000; (3) defensive works, £400,000; (4) indemnity to fishermen, £180,000; total, £7,540,000.
This confederacy, which after many modifications and vicissitudes was finally broken up by the capture of Athens by Sparta in 404, was revived in 378-7 (the "Second Athenian Confederacy") as a protection against Spartan aggression, and lasted, at least formally, until the victory of Philip II.
The league was, therefore, specifically a free confederation of autonomous Ionian cities founded as a protection against the common danger which threatened the Aegean basin, and led by Athens in virtue of her predominant naval power as exhibited in the war against Xerxes.
Athens might fairly insist that the protection of the Aegean would become impossible if some of the chief islands were liable to be used as piratical strongholds, and further that it was only right that all should contribute in some way to the security which all enjoyed.
The original purpose of the league - the protection of the allies from the ambitions of Sparta - was achieved.
An informal French protection had, however, been exercised over them for some time previously, and with it began the feud of Maronites and Druses, the latter incited and spasmodically supported by Ottoman pashas.
Through this temporary protection the active pupa, which closely resembles the mature insect, subsequently bites a way by means of its strong mandibles, and rising to the surface of the water casts the pupal integument and becomes sexually adult.
When the growth is complete, a half-shady place outdoors during August and September will be suitable, with protection from parching winds and hot sunshine.
The protection of naturalized citizens who, on return to their native land, were subject to prosecution on charges of disloyalty, enlisted his active interest and support, and the agitation, in which he was conspicuous, led to the treaty of 1870 between the United States and Great Britain, which placed adopted and native citizens on the same footing.
He was the earnest champion of the advancement of American shipping, and advocated liberal subsidies, insisting that the policy of protection should be applied on sea as well as on land.
His apprenticeship to politics was served in the Colonial Assembly of Bourbon, where he fought successfully to preserve the colony from the consequences of perpetual interference from the authorities in Paris, and on the other hand to prevent local discontent from appealing to the English for protection.
- grew up under its protection.
The next war in which he was called upon to take part was with Poland, in defence of the Cossacks, who had appealed to Turkey for protection.
By a treaty of 1819 Dhar passed under British protection, and bound itself to act in subordinate co-operation.
from the dangerous protection of Philip of Bresse and by death from that of the French king, crushed the rebellious nobles and seized Saluzzo (1487).
It was a post of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1828-1846, and was protected by a large stockade, to which settlers fled for protection when attacked by the Indians.
It was one of the cities of the Pentapolis under the exarchate of Ravenna, the other four being Fano, Pesaro, Senigallia and Rimini, and eventually became a semi-independent republic under the protection of the popes, until Gonzaga took possession of it for Clement Vii.
His zeal prompted him to undertake an embassy to the king of Ethiopia, in order to stimulate him against the converts whom he had taken under his protection, but he returned a convert to the Mahommedan faith and joined the fugitive prophet at Medina.
As they were dependent on the protection of the landlords, the Mahommedans were docile tenants, and their competition weighed heavily on the Christians.
The religious troubles drove him thence, and Rohan, the wen-known chief of the Huguenots, took him under his special protection.
Hostilities had already begun with the occupation of Diinaburg (Dvinsk) in Polish Livonia by the Swedes (July 1, 1655), and the Polish army encamped among the marshes of the Netze concluded a convention (July 25) whereby the palatinates of Posen and Kalisz placed themselves under the protection of the Swedish king.
So far the operations had been confined to commerce destroying, or to the protection of trade by convoy.
Reflection had further shown them that to hamper their fleets by imposing the direct protection of a great flock of merchant ships on them was not even an effectual way to protect commerce.
To him are due the introduction of the decimal system of currency and the adoption of a system of protection to Canadian manufactures.
Early in 1503 Machiavelli drew up for Soderini a speech, Discorso sull y provisione del danaro, in which the duty and necessity of liberal expenditure for the protection of the state were expounded upon principles of sound political philosophy.
She used all her influence in favour of the unfortunate Raleigh, answering his petition to her for protection with a personal letter of appeal to Buckingham to save his life.
Carloman's widow Gerberga had fled to the protection of the Lombard king, who espoused her cause and requested the new pope, Adrian I., to recognize her two sons as the lawful Frankish kings.
Louis XIII., hearing of the dangers to which the Syra priests were exposed, took the island under his especial protection, and since that time the Roman Catholic bishops of Syra have been elected by the pope.
On the outbreak of the war of Greek independence refugees from Chios, after being scattered throughout Tenos, Spezia, Hydra, &c., and rejected by the people of Ceos, took up their residence at Syra under the protection of the French flag.
Under the protection of the French ambassador, Michel de Castelnau, sieur de Mauvissiere, Bruno passed over in 1583 to England, where he resided for about two years.
For his services he received the kingdom of Syphax, and thus under Roman protection he became master of the whole of Numidia, and his dominions completely enclosed the Carthaginian territories, now straitened and reduced at the close of the Second Punic War.
The most remarkable of the works from this period are - (I) the Bestimmung des Menschen (Vocation of Man, 1800), a book which, for beauty of style, richness of content, and elevation of thought, may be ranked with the Meditations of Descartes; (2) Der geschlossene Handelsstaat, 1800 (The Exclusive or Isolated Commercial State), a very remarkable treatise, intensely socialist in tone, and inculcating organized protection; (3) Sonnenklarer Bericht an das grossere Publicum iiber die neueste Philosophie, 1801.
The object is the protection of widows and orphans, but the right has been very much abused, and its abuse is in part responsible for the high rate of interest which prevails.
The French in Louisiana proved to be peaceable neighbours, and that province, both under French (to 1763) and under Spanish rule (1763-1803) served as a protection against the English.
The journey, which appears to have been undertaken with the usual passport, and under the protection of several powerful Bohemian friends (John of Chlum, Wenceslaus of Duba, Henry of Chlum) who accompanied him, was a very prosperous one; and at almost all the halting-places he was received with a consideration and enthusiastic sympathy which he had hardly expected to meet with anywhere in Germany.
He resigned office on the proclamation of the republic after the flight of the pope to Gaeta in 1849, resumed it for a while when Pius returned to Rome with the protection of French arms, but when a reactionary and priestly policy was instituted, he went into exile and took up his residence at Turin.
His Wail of a Protected Manufacturer voices a protest against protection as raising the cost of living; and he hjld that free trade was based on a natural right.
After Luther's death (1546) and the battle of Miihlberg (1547) he had to yield to his rival, Julius von Pflug, and retire to the protection of the young duke of Weimar.
Its object is rather the protection of the church than the punishment of the sinner.
Other treaties followed, and on the 17th of February 1885, the German emperor granted a charter of protection to the Colonization Society.
For a time Jehoiakim remained under the protection of Necho and paid heavy tribute; but with the rise of the new Chaldean Empire under Nebuchadrezzar and the overthrow of Egypt at the battle of Carchemish (605 B.C.) a vital change occurred.
Such raids had been rather frequent, the invaders attacking the natives who live under British protection, burning their huts, murdering the men, carrying off the women and children as slaves, and returning to their own haunts laden with booty.
Moreover, the very fact of being under the protection and, as it were, in the pay of an absolute monarch was damaging to the character of their literature.
About 235 B.C. Mantineia entered the Achaean League, from which it had obtained protection against Spartan encroachments, but soon passed in turn to the Aetolians and to Cleomenes III.
Liturgical forms for consecrating marriage are of late development, and the Church took the institution under its protection through outside social pressure rather than of its own will and wish.