Maecenas himself wrote in both prose and verse.
Her prose was quite lyrical, almost poetic in a way.
Usually I prefer poetry, but this prose was beautifully written.
English readers, who know the story only through the medium of Malory's noble prose and Tennyson's melodious verse, carry away an impression entirely foreign to that produced by a study of the original literature.
After reading Linda's most recent novel, I was so inspired that I began to write prose myself.
The most effective characteristic of Mr Austin's poetry, as of the best of his prose, is a genuine and intimate love of nature.
A true work of art is incomparably greater than the sum of its ideas; apart from the fact that, if its ideas are innumerable and various, prose philosophers are apt to complain that it has none.
He was a man of considerable intellectual attainments, of prodigious memory, master of both Latin and Greek, and wrote prose and verse with equal facility.
The language of the prose Lancelot is good, easy and graceful, but the adventures lack originality and interest, and the situations repeat themselves in a most wearisome manner.
A little later, when the rush and heat of achievement relax, we can begin to expect the appearance of grand men to celebrate in glorious poetry and prose the deeds and triumphs of the last few centuries.
In the same year the Lutheran reformation took hold of him, and he began to issue appeals in prose and verse against the Mass and against the pope as antichrist.
The literatures of all Moslem peoples are largely inspired by Arabic, which has produced a voluminous collection of works in prose and poetry.
French, as a separate tongue from Latin, already existed as a literary speech, and no people had done more than the Normans to spread it as a literary speech, in both prose and verse.
In the prose version, Lancelot, from his first appearance at court, conceives a passion for the queen, who is very considerably his senior, his birth taking place some time after her marriage to Arthur.
His prose idylls, The Garden that I love and In Veronica's Garden, are full of a pleasant, open-air flavour, which is also the outstanding feature of his English Lyrics.
Nowhere is he treated with anything approaching the importance assigned to him in the prose versions.
With all the majesty and stately elaboration and musical rhythm of Milton's finest prose, Taylor's styleis relieved and brightened by an astonishing variety of felicitous illustrations, ranging from the most homely and terse to the most dignified and elaborate.
Bax (1897); translation (mixed prose and verse) by H.
Rivers was one of the purest writers of English prose of his time.
If we are to follow von Sybel rather than Kugler, this saga of the First Crusade found one of its earliest expressions (c. 1120) in the prose work of Albert of Aix (Historia Hierosolymitana) - genuine saga in its 1 His somewhat legendary treatise, De liberatione civitatum Orientis, was only composed about 1155.
The Itinerarium Peregrinorum, a work in ornate Latin prose, is (except for the first book) a translation of the Carmen masquerading under the guise of an independent work.
The book is written in prose, some of which is rhythmical, with bits of verse here and there: thus i.
25 simple prose, vii.
Pollard's Fifteenth Century Prose and Verse, Westminster, 1903).1903).
The earliest "Garland" was printed in 1670, and in 1678 appeared a prose version which was reprinted by W.
During this period most of his prose works - including Oper and Drama, Ober das Dirigieren, Das Judentum in der Musik - were given to the world.
But so long as we treat Wagner like a prose philosopher, a librettist, a poet, a mere musician, or anything short of the complex and many-sided artist he really is, we shall find insuperable obstacles to understanding or enjoying his works.
If we wish to know what Wagner means, we must fight our way through his drama to his music; and we must not expect to find that each phrase in the mouth of the actor corresponds word for note with the music. That sort of correspondence Wagner leaves to his imitators; and his views on " Leit-motifhunting," as expressed in his prose writings and conversation, are contemptuously tolerant.
The prose works have been translated into English by W.
A man of literary taste and culture, familiar with the classics, a facile writer of Latin verses' as well as of Ciceronian prose, he was as anxious that the Roman clergy should unite human science and literature with their theological studies as that the laity should be educated in the principles of religion; and to this end he established in Rome a kind of voluntary school board, with members both lay and clerical; and the rivalry of the schools thus founded ultimately obliged the state to include religious teaching in its curriculum.
A collected edition of his works of fiction, both in prose and verse, has reached twenty-one volumes (Leipzig, 1898), and a new edition was published in 1901.
The preface to the prose life of Cuthbert proves that he had stayed at Lindisfarne prior to 721, while the Epistle to Egbert shows that he had visited him at York in 733.
Other historical works of Bede are the History of the Abbots (of Wearmouth and Jarrow), and the lives of Cuthbert in verse and prose.
The History of the Abbots and the prose life of Cuthbert were based on earlier works which still survive.
The two parts are distinguished by difference of style; the Hebrew principle of parallelism of clauses is employed far more in the first than in the second, which has a number of plain prose passages, and is also rich in uncommon compound terms. In view of these differences there is ground for holding that the second part is a separate production which has been united with the first by an editor, an historical haggadic sketch, a midrash, full of imaginative additions to the Biblical narrative, and enlivened by many striking ethical reflections.
While conspicuously lacking in creative genius, the Ottomans have always shown themselves possessed of receptive and assimilative powers to a remarkable degree, the result being that the number of their writers both in prose and verse is enormous.
It ought to be premised that the poetry of the old school is greatly superior to the prose.
The most notable prose work of this period is an old collection of stories, the History of the Forty Vezirs, said to have been compiled by a certain Sheikh-zada and dedicated to Murad II.
was the legist Kemal Pasha-zada, frequently called Ibn-Kemal, who distinguished himself in both prose and verse.
Besides his Divan, he left a beautiful mesnevi on the story of Leyli and Mejnun, as well as some prose works little inferior to his poetry.
We will now glance at the prose writers of this period.
Several monthly publications had come into existence since 1681, but perhaps the first germ of the magazine is to be found in the Gentleman's Journal (1691-1694) of Peter Motteux, which, besides the news of the month, contained miscellaneous prose and poetry.
Dawson, Prose Writers of Canada (1901).
PHILOXENUS (Syriac, Aksenaya), of Mabbog, one of the best of Syriac prose writers, and a vehement champion of Monophysite doctrine in the end of the 5th and beginning of the 6th centuries.
Many editions exist of his prose works.
She, too, had found love in huts where poor men dwell, and her miller, her bagpipers, her workers in mosaic are as faithful renderings in prose of peasant life and sentiment as Wordsworth's leechgatherer and wagoners and gleaners are in verse.
Prose translations: P. J.
An English prose romance, Helyas Knight of the Swan, translated by Robert Copland, and printed by W.
The prose comedy, El Café ó la comedic nueva, given at the same theatre six years afterwards, at once became popular.
to) declared to be worthy of Sophocles, and a prose history of the civil wars of his time from the first triumvirate (60) down to the death of Cicero (43) or later.
His German sermons, of which seventy-one have been preserved, are among the most powerful in the language, and form the chief monuments of Middle High German prose.
Chaucer translated it into English prose before the year 1382; and this translation was published by Caxton at Westminster, 1480.
His Essais en vers et en prose (1797) contains the Marseillaise, a prose tale of the sentimental kind called Adelaide et Monville, and some occasional poems.
For the popular legend see Famous Histcrie of Fryer Bacon (London, 1615; reproduced in Thoms, Early Prose Romances, iii.); R.
It is not improbable that it represents a free and individual working over of the original Fescamp version, and that in its later shape it was intended to form, and did at one time form, the Quest section of the cyclic redaction of the Arthurian prose romances, being dislodged from this position by the Galahad Quese.
Her work was a prose epic of real life, the life of her hero, Genji.
The vast myth of the Ring is related in full several times in each of the three main dramas, with ruthless disregard for the otherwise magnificent dramatic effect of the whole; hosts of original dramatic and ethical ideas, with which Wagner's brain was even more fertile than his voluminous prose works would indicate, assert themselves at all points, only to be thwarted by repeated attempts to allegorize the philosophy of Schopenhauer; all efforts to read a consistent scheme, ethical or philosophical, into the result are doomed to failure; but all this matters little, so long as we have Wagner's unfailing later resources in those higher dramatic verities which present to us emotions and actions, human and divine, as things essentially complex and conflicting, inevitable as natural laws, incalculable as natural phenomena.
The style found no imitator; history passed from Greece to Rome in the guise of rhetoric. In Dionysius of Halicarnassus the rhetoric was combined with an extensive study of the sources; but the influence of the Greek rhetoricians upon Roman prose was deplorable from the standpoint of science.
As the greatest of all masters of Greek prose style, Plato lifted his favourite instrument, the dialogue, to its highest splendour, and to this day he remains by far its most distinguished proficient.
His prose works, with the exception of the slender volume entitled Nature (1836), were collected and arranged from the manuscripts of his lectures.
In the political writings of Reshid and `Akif Pashas we have the first clear note of change; but the man to whom more than to any other the new departure owes its success is Shinasi Effendi, who employed it (1859) for poetry as well as for prose.
He is at home alike in the epic and the lyric, the tragic and the comic poets, and his knowledge of the prose writers is very extensive.
In the autumn of this year he received a visit 'at Vailima from the countess of Jersey, in company with whom and some others he wrote the burlesque extravagance in prose and verse, called An Object of Pity, privately printed in 1893 at Sydney.
In verse he had a touch far less sure than in prose.
He published his first volume of Poems in 1827, and in 1833 appeared his Poems and Prose Writings, republished in 1850 in two volumes, in which were included practically all of his poems and of his prose contributions to periodical literature.
The chief authorities for Willibrord's life are Alcuin's Vita Willibrordi, both in prose and in verse, and Bede's Hist.
The chansons de geste of the cycle of Guillaume are: Enfances Garin de Monglane (15th century) and Garin de Monglane (13th century), on which is founded the prose romance of Guerin de Monglane, printed in the 15th century by Jehan Trepperel and often later; Girars de Viane (13th century, by Bertrand de Barsur-Aube), ed.
P. Tarbe (Reims, 1850); Hernaut de Beaulande (fragment 14th century); Renier de Gennes, which only survives in its prose form; Aymeri de Narbonne (c. 1210) by Bertrand de Bar-sur-Aube, ed.
None of these poems show any very patriotic feeling, though Chartier's prose is evidence that he was not indifferent to the misfortunes of his country.
Rendel Harris (1899) advocated the view that the Gospel of Nicodemus, as we possess it, is merely a prose version of the Gospel of Nicodemus written originally in Homeric centones as early as the 2nd century.
Szekely wrote in prose, with verse introduction, a " Chronicle of the World " under the title of Cronica ez vildgnac yeles dolgairol (Cracow, 1559).
Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
On account of the classic purity of his style in prose, Faludi was known as the " Magyar Cicero."
Other precursors of the modern school were the poet and philologist Francis Verseghy, whose works extend to nearly forty volumes; the gifted didactic prose writer, Joseph 'Carman; the metrical rhymster, Gideon Raday; the lyric poets, Ssentjebi Szabo, Janos Bacsanyi, and the short-lived Gabriel Dayka, whose posthumous " Verses " were published in 1813 by Kazinczy.
Izidore Guzmics, the translator of Theocritus into Magyar hexameters, is chiefly noted for his prose writings on ecclesiastical and philosophical subjects.
The Evlapok uj folyama, or " New Series of Annuals," from 1860 (Budapest, 1868, &c.), is a chrestomathy of prize orations, and translations and original pieces, both in poetry and prose.
To this list we must add the short but incomparable feuilletons (tdrezalevelek) of Dr Adolf Agai (writing under the nom de plume of Porz6), whose influence on the formation of modern Hungarian literary prose is hardly less important than the unique esprit and charm of his writings.
He followed as his chief source the prose history of Myron of Priene, an untrustworthy writer, probably of the 2nd century B.C.; hence a good deal of his story must be regarded as fanciful, though we cannot distinguish accurately between the true and the fictitious.
His works bear the title "operas" because, though written mainly in prose, they contain songs which Silva introduced in imitation of the true operas which then held the fancy of the public. He was also a lyric poet of real merit, combining correctness of form with a pretty inspiration and real feeling.
In the literature as it survives many different branches of writing are represented - homilies in prose and verse, hymns, exposition and commentary, liturgy, apocryphal legends, historical romance, hagiography and martyrology, monastic history and biography, general history, dogmatics, philosophy and science, ecclesiastical law, &c. But the whole is dominated by the theological and ecclesiastical interest.
When we put aside one or two exceptionally fine pieces, like the hymn of the soul in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas, the highest degree of excellence in style is perhaps attained in staightforward historical narrative - such as the account of the PersoRoman War at the beginning of the 6th century by the author who passes under the name of Joshua the Stylite, or by romancers like him who wrote the romance of Julian; by biographers like some of those who have written lives of saints, martyrs and eminent divines; and by some early writers of homilies such as Philoxenus (in prose) and Isaac of Antioch (in verse).
latter qualities are even more apparent in poetry than in prose.
The one wrote mainly in verse, the other in prose.
But as an example of Syriac prose style it is of the best, and the author at times shows considerable dramatic power.
Some of the sermons in the second series had been written in a kind of rhythmical, alliterative prose, and in the Lives of the Saints (ed.
The lofty symbolism of his prose is frequently obscure, but his lyrical verses are distinguished for their rapturous ecstasy and beauty of expression.
c. 1208/9), medieval ecclesiastic, author and wit, to whose authority the main body of prose Arthurian literature has, at one time or another, been assigned, flourished in the latter part of the 12th and early years of the 3th centuries.
The Mort Artus, however, we know to be the prose working over of an earlier and independent poem.
Now this incident of the "Three Days' Tournament" is found alike in the prose Lancelot and in the German Lanzelet, this latter translated from a French poem which, in 1194, was in the possession of Hugo de Morville.
The I pomedon was written somewhere in the decade 1180-1190, and there is no evidence of the prose romance having then been in existence.
We have no manuscript of any prose Arthurian romance earlier than the 13th century, to which period Gaston] Paris assigned them; they are certainly posterior to the verse romances.
Neither of these passages would fit the prose romance, as we know it, but both might well suit the lost French source of the Lanzelet; where we are in a position to compare the German versions of French romances with their originals we find, as a rule, that the translators have followed their source faithfully.
Thereafter he spoke constantly, and acquired considerable reputation as an orator, - bringing out, moreover, many books in prose and verse.
He set about his greatest prose work, the Histoire des Girondins, which at first appeared periodically, and was published as a whole in 1847.
As a prose writer Lamartine was very fertile.
His characteristics in his prose fiction and descriptive work are not very different from those of his poetry.
He is always and everywhere sentimental, though very frequently, as in his shorter prose tales (The Stone Mason of Saint-Point, Graziella, &c.), he is graceful as well as sentimental.
Of other Greek prose writers he knew Thucydides and Hippocrates; while of the poets he expresses in more than one passage the highest admiration of Homer, whom he imitated in several places.
The rise of speculative philosophy in Greece was coincident with the beginning of prose composition, and many of the earliest philosophers wrote in the prose of the Ionic dialect; others, however, and especially the writers of the Greek colonies in Italy and Sicily, expounded their systems in continuous poems composed in the epic hexameter.
Munro (4th ed., 1886) with a prose translation.
The third division of Voltaire's works in a rational order consists of his prose romances or tales.
Almost all his more substantive works, whether in verse or prose, are preceded by prefaces of one sort or another, which are models of his own light pungent causerie; and in a vast variety of nondescript pamphlets and writings he shows himself a perfect journalist.
There are several lives of St Cuthbert, the best of which is the prose life by Bede, which is published in Bede's Opera, edited by J.
And, apart from their value as historical documents, Gentz's writings are literary monuments, classical examples of nervous and luminous German prose, or of French which is a model for diplomatic style.
His prose works include sermons, treatises on vices and on baptism, a penitential, capitularies and exhortations to bishops, priests and judges.
Hawkins, his relative and executor, in 1721; his prose ' The fact, however, that in 1712 - only a year after Ken's death - his publisher, Brome, published the hymn with the opening words "All praise," has been deemed by such a high authority as the 1st earl of Selborne sufficient evidence that the alteration had Ken's authority.
BODHI VAMSA, a prose poem in elaborate Sanskritized Pali, composed by Upatissa in the reign of Mahinda IV.
It is impossible that a scholar of the 16th century could have been acquainted with this word, and internal evidence shows clearly that both the prose and the verse are of early origin.
The simplest form of this in Arabian literature is the saf or rhymed prose, in which the sentences are usually (though not always) short and end in a rhyme or assonance.
Hamadhani was also the first to write in this rhymed prose a new form of work, the MYlagama (" assembly ").
Baudry's prose works are more important.
This last poem, like the two preceding ones written in hexameters, was composed at the command of "Father" Adalgisus, and based upon the prose narrative of Heto, abbot of .Reichenau from 806 to 822.
treats of the virtues, each of which has two chapters of quotations allotted to it, one in prose and the other in verse.
In 1850 appeared two volumes of More Prose and Verse by the Corn-Law Rhymer.
Three considerable fragments of a prose description of Greece (Muller, i.
Gaston Paris, Paris, 1897), and in the Latin prose version known as the Itinerarium O.
Yet we cannot help feeling that it is a grotesque and unseemly anachronism to apply in grave prose, addressed to the whole world, those terms of saint and angel which are touching and in their place amid the trouble and passion of the great mystic poet.
At a very early age he began to write in prose and verse.
It is odd that this irregular poem, with its copious and varied music, its splendid sweep of emotion, its unfailing richness of texture - this poem in which Tennyson rises to heights of human sympathy and intuition which he reached nowhere else, should have been received with bitter hostility, have been styled "the dead level of prose run mad," and have been reproved more absurdly still for its "rampant and rabid bloodthirstiness of soul."
Besides the poems, we have also two prose Perceval romances, the relative position of which has not yet been satisfactorily determined.
In both cases the romance follows the prose rendering of Borron's Joseph of Arimathea and Merlin, and precedes a Mort Artus, thus forming part of a complete cycle.
Later, however, stories which certainly derive from an early non-Grail tradition are introduced, and there are references which imply a knowledge of the prose Lancelot and of Chretien's poem.
The other prose romance, the Perlesvaus, is decidedly superior in literary form, but here too we have a mingling of old and new elements.
His works include: Mes Loisirs (1863); La Voix d'un exile (1867), a satire against the Canadian government; boreales, and Les Oiseaux de neige (1880), crowned by the French academy; La Legende d'un peuple (1887); two historical dramas, Papineau (1880) and Felix Poutre (1880); La Noel au Canada (1900), and several prose works and translations.
They may have contributed to the formation of the style of comedy which appears at the very outset much more mature than that of serious poetry, tragic or epic. They gave the name and some of the characteristics to that special literary product of the Roman soil, the satura, addressed to readers, not to spectators, which ultimately was developed into pure poetic satire in Lucilius, Horace, Persius and Juvenal, into the prose and verse miscellany of Varro, and into something approaching the prose novel in Petronius.
He strove to make literature ancillary to politics and to objects of practical utility, and thus started prose literature on the chief lines that it afterwards followed.
Sulpicius Galba and others, and along with it the development of prose composition, went on with increased momentum till the age of Cicero.
The only extant prose work which may be assigned to the end of this period is the treatise on rhetoric known by the title Ad Herennium (c. 84) a work indicative of the attention bestowed on prose style and rhetorical studies during the last century of the republic, and which may be regarded as a precursor of the oratorical treatises of Cicero and of the work of Quintilian.
In history, regarded as a great branch of prose literature, it is not probable that much was accomplished, although, with History.
It is the age of purest excellence in prose, and of a new birth of poetry, characterized rather by great original force and artistic promise than by perfect accomplishment.
The five chief representatives of this age who still hold their rank among the great classical writers are Cicero, Caesar and Sallust in prose, Lucretius and Catullus in verse.
The works of other prose writers, Varro and Cornelius Nepos, have been partially preserved; but these writers have no claim to rank with those already mentioned as creators and masters of literary style.
It shows how flexible an instrument Latin prose had become in his hand, when it could do justice at once to the ample and vehement volume of his oratory, to the calmer and more rhythmical movement of his philosophical meditation, and to the natural interchange of thought and feeling in the everyday intercourse of life.
In his Commentaries, by laying aside the ornaments of oratory, he created the most admirable style of prose narrative, the style which presents interesting events in their sequence of time and dependence on the will of the actor, rapidly and vividly, with scarcely any colouring of personal or moral feeling, any oratorical passion, any pictorial illustration.
marked contrast to another prose writer of that age - the historian C. Sallustrius Crispus or Sallust (c. 87-36).
His Menippeae Saturae, miscellanies in prose and verse, of which unfortunately only fragments are left, was a work of singular literary interest.
Hence the two great forms of prose literature which drew their nourishment from the struggles of political life, oratory and contemporary history, were arrested in their development.
One great work had still to be done in prose - a retrospect of the past history of the state from an idealizing and romanticizing point of view.
The prose style of Rome, as a vehicle for the continuous narration of events coloured by a rich and picturesque imagination and instinct with dignified emotion, attained its perfection in Livy.
In prose the old forms - oratory, history, the epistle, treatises or dialogues on ethical and literary questions - continue to be cultivated.
The old Roman satura is developed into something like the modern prose novel.
The language of literature, in the most elaborate kind of prose as well as poetry, loses all ring of popular speech.
Of the prose writers C. Velleius Paterculus, the historian, and Valerius Maximus, the collector of anecdotes, are the most important.
The vitality of the prose literature was not much greater though its complete extinction was from the nature of the case impossible.
The last pagan prose writer who need be mentioned is Q.
Ambrosius Macrobius Theodosius (c. 400) wrote a treatise on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis and seven books of miscellanies (Saturnalia); and Martianus Capella (c. 430), a native of Africa, published a compendium of the seven liberal arts, written in a mixture of prose and verse, with some literary pretensions.
Sir Thomas Malory paraphrased and arranged the best episodes of these romances in English prose.
SOPHRON, of Syracuse, writer of mimes, flourished about 43 o B.C. He was the author of prose dialogues in the Doric dialect, containing both male and female characters, some serious, others humorous in style, and depicting scenes from the daily life of the Sicilian Greeks.
Although in prose, they were regarded as poems; in any case they were not intended for stage representation.
In the earlier form of the prose romances, e.g.
There is a great gap in style, though none in subject, between the really poetical prose of the first historian of the fifth crusade and the Latin empire and the awkward mannerism (so awkward that it has been taken to represent a "disrhymed" verse chronicle) of his follower.
Some: light is thrown upon the lost plays by Dio Chrysostom, who in one of his discourses (52) describes his reading of the three tragedies, and in another (59) gives a prose version of the opening of the Philoctetes of Euripides.
In 1834 Hallam published The Remains in Prose and Verse of Arthur Henry Hallam, with a Sketch of his Life.
He was probably the first to attempt a serious prose history and to employ critical method to distinguish myth from historical fact, though he accepts Homer and the other poets as trustworthy authority.
The old tales, very much distorted in the 15th-century prose versions, were to undergo still further degradation in 18th-century compilations.
1486) is the same work as the prose compilation of Fierabras (pr.
Thanks to his father's excellent advice, he gave up writing doggerel verse (much of which had been printed by his brother and sold on the streets) and turned to prose composition.
This included A Priest to the Temple; or, The Country Parson, his Character, and Rule of Holy Life, in prose; Jacula prudentum, a collectioia,of proverbs with a separate title-page dated 1651, which had appeared in a shorter form as Outlandish Proverbs in 1640; and some miscellaneous matter.
His curious encyclopaedic work, entitled Satyricon, or De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii et de septem Artibus liberalibus libri novem, is an elaborate allegory in nine books, written in a mixture of prose and verse, after the manner of the Menippean satires of Varro.
His prose resembles that of Apuleius (also a native of Madaura), but is even more difficult.
Sifrit), the hero of the Nibelungenlied, and of a number of Scandinavian poems included in the older Edda, as well as of the prose V iilsunga Saga, which is based upon the latter.
In the middle ages Phaedrus exercised a considerable influence through the prose versions of his fables which were current, though his own works and even his name were forgotten.
Of these prose versions the oldest existing seems to be that known as the "Anonymus Nilanti," so called because first edited by Nilant at Leiden in 1709 from a MS. of the 13th century.
But the largest and most influential of the prose versions of Phaedrus is that which bears the name of Romulus.
It contains eighty-three fables, is as old as the 10th century, and seems to have been based on a still earlier prose version, which, under the name of "Aesop," and addressed to one Rufus, may have been made in the Carolingian period or even earlier.
These three prose versions contain in all one hundred distinct fables, of which fifty-six are derived from the existing and the remaining forty-four presumably from lost fables of Phaedrus.
Muller, have tried to restore these lost fables by versifying the prose versions.
The collection bearing the name of Romulus became the source from which, during the second half of the middle ages, almost all the collections of Latin fables in prose and verse were wholly or partially drawn.
About 1200 a collection of fables in Latin prose, based partly on Romulus, was made by the Cistercian monk Odo of Sherrington; they have a strong medieval and clerical tinge.
From this she passed to prose histories, written in a simple style for the young.
The poetical literature of Greece was already large; the prose literature was more extensive than is generally supposed; yet Herodotus shows an intimate acquaintance with the whole of it.
Don Enrique de Villena took from Les Prouesses his prose Los Doze Trabajos de Hercules (Zamora, 1483 and 1499), and Fernandez de Heredia wrote Trabajos y afanes de Hercules (Madrid, 1682), which belies its title, being a collection of adages and allegories.
Le Fatiche d'Ercole (1475) is a romance in poetic prose by Pietro Bassi, and the Dodeci Travagli di Ercole (1544) a poem by J.
He has not the excessive classicism of style which mars even the fine prose of Jean Calvin, and which makes that of some of Calvin's followers intolerably stiff.
But the principal characteristic of Montaigne's prose style is its remarkable ease and flexibility.
His exploits and adventures form the theme of a number of the Eddaic poems, and also of several stories in the prose Edda.
The prose literature of Siam consists largely of mythological and historical fables, almost all of which are of Indian origin, though many of them have come to Siam through Cambodia.
The educational department has done good work in compiling volumes of prose and verse which have found much favour with the public. All the laws, edicts and regulations at present in force are to be had in print at popular prices.
The excellence of its form is matched by the beauty of its style, for Froude was a master of English prose.
The youngest literary generation in Czechoslovakia was represented in 1921 in particular by three leading poets: So y a, a writer of delicate lyrics; Bezruc, who sings of social and national oppression, and Bi'ezina, a profound visionary and pantheistic mystic. Among prose writers the leading contemporary names are Svobodova, apek, a robust realist, and Sramek, who has also met with success as a dramatist.
His speech against peace with Pyrrhus was the first that was transmitted to writing, and thereby laid the foundation of prose composition.
He has plenty of legends to tell us, and writes altogether in a poetical style, so that his prose seems to fall into rhythm unconsciously.
Besides the poems, we possess the prose Tristan, an enormous compilation, akin to the prose Lancelot, where the original story, though still to be traced, is obscured by a mass of later Arthurian adventures.
Certain points of difference between the poetical and the prose versions should be noted.
103), the majority represent him as having been stabbed in the back by Mark in the presence of the queen, as we find in Malory, who drew the larger portion of his compilation from the prose Tristan.
The Italian prose text, La Travola ritonda differs from the French in adhering to the original version, and is classed by N.
Gottfried's Tristan and Isolde has been several times published; the best editions are those of Bechstein (1890) and Golther (1889); modern German versions by Kurz, Simrock and Hertz; English prose rendering, J.
There is no modern edition of the prose romance, but a detailed analysis of the contents, compiled from the numerous manuscripts in the Paris Library, was published by E.
Loseth in Le Roman en prose de Tristan (1890).
The extant works of Churchyard, exclusive of commendatory and occasional verses, include: - A lamentable and pitifull Description of the wofull warres in Flanders (1578); A general rehearsall of warres, called Churchyard's Choise (1579), really a completion of the Chippes, and containing, like it, a number of detached pieces; A light Bondel of livelie Discourses, called Churchyardes Charge (1580); The Worthines of Wales (1587), a valuable antiquarian work in prose and verse, anticipating Michael Drayton; Churchyard's Challenge (1593); A Musicall Consort of Heavenly harmonie ...
In 1888 she received the Prix Botta, a prize awarded triennially by the French Academy, for her volume of prose aphorisms Les Pensees d'une reine (Paris, 1882), a German version of which is entitled Vom Amboss (Bonn, 1890).
The principal prose authors were Thucydides, parts of Plato and Demosthenes, with Aristotle, Plutarch's Lives, and, above all, Lucian, who is often imitated in the Byzantine age.
While Aldhelm is known as "the father of AngloLatin verse," Latin prose was the literary medium used by Bede in his celebrated Ecclesiastical History of England (731).
In the same century the monastery of Gandersheim, south of Hanover, was the retreat of the learned nun Hroswitha, who celebrated the exploits of Otho in leonine hexameters, and composed in prose six moral and religious plays in imitation of Terence.
Discussions on set subjects were held, select passages from the classics learned by heart, while written exercises in prose and verse were founded on the best ancient models.
During the middle ages Latin prose never dies out.
His standard authors in Latin prose are Cicero, Livy, Pliny, Frontinus and Orosius.
A comprehensive scheme for translating the principal Greek prose authors into Latin was carried out at Rome by the founder of the manuscript collections of the Vatican, Nicholas V.
It will be observed that the study of Greek had been resumed in Florence half a century before the fall of Constantinople, and that the principal writers of Greek prose had been translated into Latin before that event.
The Latin poets to be studied include Virgil, Lucan, Statius, Ovid's Metamorphoses, and (with certain limitations) Horace, Juvenal and Persius, as well as Plautus, Terence and the tragedies of Seneca; the prose authors recommended are Cicero, Livy and Sallust.
1431), who introduced a new style of epistolary Latin; by Paolo Cortesi, who discovered the importance of a rhythmical structure in the composition of Ciceronian prose (1490); and by the accomplished secretaries of Leo X., Bembo and Sadoleto.
An educational aim is also apparent in his editions of Terence and of Seneca, while his Latin translations made his contemporaries more familiar with Greek poetry and prose, and his Paraphrase promoted a better understanding of the Greek Testament.
He is more original when he insists on the value of translation and retranslation for acquiring a mastery over Latin prose composition, and when he protests against compelling boys to converse in Latin too soon.
against compulsory Latin conversation, and only slightly modifies his predecessor's method of teaching Latin prose.
Between Luther and Lessing there was no great writer of German prose.
In these schools the subjects of study included mathematics and natural sciences, geography and history, and modern languages (especially French), with riding, fencing and dancing; Latin assumed a subordinate place, and classical composition in prose or verse was not considered a sufficiently courtly accomplishment.
The leaving examination (Abgangspriifung), instituted in that year, required Greek translation at sight, with Greek prose composition, and ability to speak and to write Latin.
Ludwig Wiese's scheme of 1856 insisted on the retention of Latin verse as well as Latin prose, and showed less favour to natural science, but it awakened little enthusiasm, while the attempt to revive the old humanistic Gymnasium led to a demand for schools of a more modern type, which issued in the recognition of the Realgymnasium (1859).
In two romances, the prose Tristan and the Parzival, the place of the Round Table proper is taken, on a journey, by a silken cloth laid on the ground, round which the knights are seated.
The most important contribution to Urania was his sentimental novel, Fanni Hagyomanai, much in the style of La nouvelle Héloise and Werther, the most exquisite product of Hungarian prose in the 18th century and one of the finest psychological romances in the literature.
About 1240 Jehan de Tuim composed a prose Hystore de Julius Cesar (ed.
A prose compilation by an unknown author, Les Faits des Romains (c. 1225), has little resemblance to the last two works, although mainly derived from the same sources.
His Works in Verse and Prose (Boston, 1812) contains a biographical sketch.
The first prose rendering of any part of the Bible - and with these we are mainly concerned in the present inquiry -.
Biilbring, The Earliest Complete English Prose Psalter (E.E.T.S., No.
As a prose writer he is chaste and elegant, generally just, and realistically descriptive.
He wrote a number of works both in prose and verse, of which two are preserved.
Among his lost works may be mentioned: Aetolica, a prose history of Aetolia; Heteroeumena, a mythological epic, used by Ovid in the Metamorphoses and epitomized by Antoninus Liberalis; Georgica and Melissourgica, of which considerable fragments are preserved, said to have been imitated by Virgil (Quintilian x.
Not only were the forms of classical poetry to be imitated, but a separate poetic language and style, distinct from those employed in prose, were to be used.
His reputation as a writer among his own countrymen was early assured, and the 30 poetical and 28 prose works composed by him in Bengali are now regarded as classics.
Il Lasca ranks as one of the great masters of Tuscan prose.
His principal works are Le Cene (1756), a collection of stories in the manner of Boccaccio, and a number of prose comedies, La Gelosia (1568), La Spiritata (1561), I Parentadi, La Arenga, La Sibilla, LaPinzochera, L'Arzigogolo.
Dawson'S Prose Writers Of Canada (1901); " Canadian Poetry," By J.
But His Fame Rests On Jean Rivard (1874), The Prose Bucolic Of The Habitant.
1) by "membre" in the Italian prose version made by Shelley himself: and similarly in 1.52 "looks" (not "locks") by the rendering "sguardi."
The weakest parts of a MS. book were the outer margins; and hence the beginnings and the ends of lines, whether of verse or prose, were specially liable to injury.
the first letters of poems in verse and of paragraphs in prose usually, and the initial letters of lines in verse occasionally, were written separate and by another person than the scribe (who was called the rubricator), and hence were apt to be omitted.
He was able to speak and write Greek, and gives evidence of familiarity alike with its prose and with its poetry; and his excellent memory - though he himself complains about it - enabled him always to bring in at the right place an appropriate, often brilliant, quotation or some historical allusion.
Ruins are also seen of a Franciscan foundation attributed to the 13th century; it was a celebrated seat of learning and an extant memorial of the work of its monks is the Book of Ballymote (c. 1391) in the possession of the Royal Irish Academy, a miscellaneous collection in prose and verse of historical, genealogical and romantic writings.
In the prose romances he is a monarch, the splendour of whose court, whose riches and generosity, are the admiration of all; but morally he is no whit different from the knights who surround him; he takes advantage of his bonnes fortunes as do others.
for Early English Text Society), gives an expanded account of the passing of Arthur; in the French prose form it is now always found incorporated with the Lancelot, of which it forms the concluding section.
A Hundred Meditations of the Love of God, in prose, was first printed from a MS. at Stonyhurst College in 1873.
In childhood also he began a systematic practice of composition, both in prose and verse.
English classics; and his attention was especially turned to the formation of sentences and to the rhythm of prose.
He began to compose both in prose and verse as soon as he had learned to read and write, both of which arts he taught himself by the eye.
But in the incessant travelling, drawing, collecting specimens and composition in prose and verse he had gained but a very moderate classical and mathematical knowledge when he matriculated at Oxford; nor could he ever learn to write tolerable Latin.
In mastery of prose language he has never been surpassed, when he chose to curb his florid imagination and his discursive eagerness of soul.
To these must be added a large number of Old Norse writings including the older Edda and the prose Edda (the chief authorities for Northern mythology), Islands Landnamabok and many sagas dealing with the history of families in Iceland (such as Eyrbyggia Saga) or with the lives of Norwegian and other kings, both historical and legendary (in Heimskringla, Fornmanna Sogur and Rafn's Fornaldar Sogur Norr landa).
It is in prose; but the dialogue, interspersed with songs, is metrical, and is much more extensive than the prose framework.
Perhaps the most famous are a little treatise on Italian prose, and a dialogue entitled Gli Asolani, in which Platonic affection is explained and recommended in a rather longwinded fashion, to the amusement of the reader who remembers the relations of the beautiful Morosina with the author.
In 1761 he announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal, and in December he published Fingal, an Ancient Epic Poem in Six Books, together with Several Other Poems composed by Ossian, the Son of Fingal, translated from the Gaelic Language, written in the musical measured prose of which he had made use in his earlier volume.
This includes many English prose treatises by Rolle, some beautiful examples of his lyric poems, and other treatises in prose and verse from northern MSS., some of which are attributed to Rolle, and others to his followers.
Ten prose treatises by Richard Rolle from the Thornton MS.(c. 1440, Lincoln Cathedral Library) were edited by Canon George Perry for the Early English Text Society in 1866.
2 In a series of writings, however, extending over so long a period as those of the Old Testament, some variation or development in language is to be expected apart from the natural differences between the poetic (or prophetic) and prose styles.
Demetrius of Phalerum (345-283 B.C.) made a collection in ten books, probably in prose (AOXCw Aiucnrï¿½Lwv avvaycoyai) for the use of orators, which has been lost.
His prose writings gained great reputation in their own day, and long afterwards, but are disfigured by apparent straining after effect, and by frequent puerility and circumlocution.
Ross, The Voice of the Mountains (1905, an anthology in verse and prose); A.
Quinet published a prose epic on the subject in 1833, and Eugene Sue, in his best-known work, Le Juif errant (1844), introduces the Wandering Jew in the prologues of its different sections and associates him with the legend of Herodias.
In Nathan der Weise, written in the winter of 1778-1779, he gave poetic form to the ideas which he had already developed in prose.
He succeeded more nearly than any of his predecessors in expressing or suggesting ideas and emotions which might have been supposed to be capable of translation only in terms of music. " The unconscious self, or rather the sub-conscious self," says Emile Verhaeren, " recognized in the verse and prose of Maeterlinck its language or rather its stammering attempt at language."
Icelandic literature consists mainly of the so-called "sagas," or prose narratives, and is rich in historical lore.
Of the works he probably wrote one was a treatise advocating the Madhyamaka views of which he is the reputed founder; another a long and poetical prose work on the stages of the Bodhisattva career; and a third a voluminous commentary on the Mahaprajna-paramita Sutra.
The following is a list of Kingsley's writings: - Saint's Tragedy, a drama (1848); Alton Locke, a novel (1849); Yeast, a novel (1849) Twenty-five Village Sermons (1849); Phaeton, or Loose Thoughts for Loose Thinkers (1852); Sermons on National Subjects (1st series,1852); Hypatia, a novel (1853); Glaucus, or the Wonders of the Shore (1855); Sermons on National Subjects (2nd series, 1854); Alexandria and her Schools (1854); Westward Ho I a novel (1855); Sermons for the Times (1855); The Heroes, Greek fairy tales (1856); Two Years Ago, a novel (1857); Andromeda and other Poems (1858); The Good News of God, sermons (1859); Miscellanies (1859); Limits of Exact Science applied to History (Inaugural Lectures, 1860); Town and Country Sermons 0860; Sermons on the Pentateuch (1863); Water-babies (1863); The Roman and the Teuton (1864); David and other Sermons (1866); Hereward the Wake, a novel (1866); The Ancient Regime (Lectures at the Royal Institution, 1867); Water of Life and other Sermons (1867); The Hermits (1869); Madam How and Lady Why (1869); At last (1871); Town Geology (1872); Discipline and other Sermons 1872); Prose Idylls (1873); Plays and Puritans (1873); Health and Education (1874); Westminster Sermons (1874); Lectures delivered in America (1875).
He was a large contributor to periodical literature; many of his essays are included in Prose Idylls and other works in the above list.
No definite conclusion can be drawn from the fact that the language stands in marked contrast to that of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, &c., since writings presumably more or less contemporary did not necessarily share the same characteristics (observe, for example, the prose parts of Job).
His best prose work is the Historic Proof of the Doctrinal Calvinism of the Church of England (London, 1774).
The Provincial Letters are the first example of French prose which is at once considerable in bulk, varied and important in matter, perfectly finished in form.
His three diwans (1479-1491) contain his lyrical poems and odes; among his prose writings the chief is his Baharistan (" Spring-garden") (1487); and his collection of romantic poems, Haft Aurang (" Seven Thrones"), contains the Salaman wa Absal and his Yusuf wa Zalikha (Joseph and Potiphar's wife).
Johnson's prose is not extensively read.
But the same is true of nearly all the great prose masters of the 18th century.
His prose, though not nearly so uniformly monotonous or polysyllabic as the parodists would have us believe, was at one time greatly overpraised.
But he contributed both dignity and dialectical force to the prose movement of his period.
His purpose to cross the Alps at the head of a great force was hailed with delight by the Ghibellines, whose aspirations found utterance in Dantes noble prose, but his life was too short for him to fulfil the hopes of his friends.
The Welsh triads know no fewer than three Gwenhwyfars; Giraldus Cambrensis, relating the discovery of the royal tombs at Glastonbury, speaks of the body found as that of Arthur's second wife; the prose Merlin gives Guenevere a bastard half-sister of the same name, who strongly resembles her; and the Lancelot relates how this lady, trading on the likeness, persuaded Arthur that she was the true daughter of Leodegrance, and the queen the bastard interloper.
Nor was it oratory alone to which Lysias rendered service; his work had an important effect on all subsequent Greek prose, by showing how perfect elegance could be joined to plainness.
Of prose writers we have Geoffrey Malaterra, Alexander abbot of Telesia, Romuald archbishop of Salerno, Falco of Benevento, and above all Hugo Falcandus, one of the very foremost of medieval writers.
In Athens the Hellenic genius was focussed, its tendencies drawn together and combined; nor was it a circumstance of small moment that the Attic dialect attained, for prose, a classical authority; for if Hellenism was to be propagated in the world at large, it was obviously convenient that it should have some one definite form of speech to be its medium.
Rhymed prose was a favourite form of composition among the Arabs of that day, and Mahomet adopted it; but if it imparts a certain sprightliness to some passages, it proves on the whole a burdensome yoke.
For although there was at that time a recognized poetical style, already degenerating to mannerism, a developed prose style did not exist.
All beginnings are difficult; and it can never be esteemed a serious charge against Mahomet that his book, the first prose work of a high order in the language, testifies to the awkwardness of the beginner.
It is for the most part pure prose, enriched by occasional rhetorical embellishments.
In 1892 he published another volume of verse, including The Countess Kathleen (a romantic drama), which gave the book its title, and in 1893 The Celtic Twilight, a volume of essays and sketches in prose.
In 1897 appeared The Secret Rose, a collection of Irish legends and tales in prose, with poetry interspersed, containing the stories of Hanrahan the Red.
In 1902 he published his own first original play in prose, Cathleen ni Houlihan, which was printed in Samhain in October that year.
A library edition of his collected works in prose and verse was issued by Mr Bullen from the Shakespeare Head Works, Stratford-on-Avon, in 8 vols., 1908.
Simple prose narrative is here quite exceptional.
In old Egyptian tales the narrative portions are frequently in prose; New Egyptian and demotic contain as a rule little else.
Amongst others, Byron came, and has left a record of his impressions in " Childe Harold's Pilgrimage," less interesting and vivid than the prose accounts of Pouqueville, T.
Among prose writers should be mentioned the grammarian Peder Syv,5 (1631-1702); Bishop Erik Pontoppidan (1616-1678), whose Grammatica Danica, published in 1668, is the first systematic analysis of the language; Birgitta Thott (1610-1662), a lady who translated Seneca (1658); and Leonora Christina Ulfeld, daughter of Christian IV., who has left a touching account of her long imprisonment in her Jammersminde.
To the same period belong a few prose writers of eminence.
But while poetry languished, prose, for the first time, began to flourish in Denmark.
P. Jacobsen (q.v.; 1847-1885) Denmark was now taught to welcome the greatest artist in prose which she has ever possessed; his romance of Marie Grubbe led off the new school with a production of unexampled beauty.
Meanwhile prose imaginative literature was ably supported by Sophus Schandorph (1836-1901), who had been entirely out of sympathy with the idealists, and had taken no step while that school was in the ascendant.
In one of these the poems with which the original is interspersed are rendered into prose, in the other into alliterating verse.
A prose version of the first fifty Psalms has been attributed to him; and the attribution, though not proved, is perfectly possible.
Nobody can now read his verses, but his prose writings have a certain calm simplicity and dignity, without, however, giving evidence of the splendid mental qualities which he revealed in practical life.
Butcher in a prose translation (1879) of the Odyssey, and with E.
Myers and Walter Leaf in a prose version (1883) of the Iliad, both of them remarkable for accurate scholarship and excellence of style.
His Homer and the Epic appeared in 1893; a new prose translation of The Homeric Hymns in 1899, with essays literary and mythological, in which parallels to the Greek myths are given from the traditions of savage races; and his Homer and his Age in 1906.
His story is told in one of the oldest songs of the Edda, the V OlundarkiOda and, with considerable variations, in the prose P13rekssaga (Thidrek's sage), while the Anglo-Saxon Beowulf and Deor's Lament contain allusions to it.
He began an English prose version of Dante's Divine Comedy - which has earned him the name of " Dante Carlyle "- but only completed the translation of the Inferno (1849).
Considered as a " prose epic," or a vivid utterance of the thought of the period, it has a permanent and unique value.
BALTASAR GRACIAN Y MORALES (1601-1658), Spanish prose writer, was born at Calatayud (Aragon) on the 8th of January 1601.
Our knowledge of this non-Chaucerian material, as of the Chaucerian, is chiefly derived from the MS. collections of Asloan, Bannatyne (q.v.) and Maitland (q.v.), supplemented by the references to " fugitive " and " popular " literature in Dunbar, Douglas, Lyndsay and, in especial, the prose Complaynt of Scotlande.
Vernacular prose was, as might be expected, and especially in Scotland, late in its appearance.
The author's confession that, being " thretty 3eris nurist in Fraunce, and in the noble study of Paris in Latin toung," he " knew nocht the gret eloquens of Chauceir," and again that he had written another work in Latin, " the tounge that I knaw better," is valuable testimony to the difficulties in the way of a struggling Scots prose.
Of the prose books named the Complaynt of Scotlande is the most remarkable example of aureate Middle Scots, the prose analogue of the verse of the " Chaucerians."
This characteristic is by no means strong in Scots prose, even at this time: the last, and most extravagant, example is the Rolment of Courtis by Abacuck Bysset, as late as 1622.
So far in our treatment of the Middle Period we have taken account of the " Chaucerian " and more popular verse and of the prose.
In the centre of this group is King James (q.v.) himself, poet and writer of prose; but he yields in literary competence to Alexander Scott and Alexander Montgomerie.
ANCREN RIWLE, a Middle English prose treatise written for a small community of three religious women and their servants at Tarent Kaines (Tarrant Crawford), at the junction of the Stour and the Tarrant, Dorset.
Against the Portuguese claim it is argued that the Villancico corresponding to Joao de Lobeiro's poem is an interpolation in the Spanish text, that Portuguese prose was in a rudimentary stage of development at the period when--ex hypothesi - the romance was composed, and that the book was very popular in Spain almost a century before it is even mentioned in Portugal.
It is the prose epic of feudalism, and its romantic spirit, its high ideals, its fantastic gallantry, its ingenious adventures, its mechanism of symbolic wonders, and its flowing style have entranced readers of such various types as Francis I.
The immense vivaria or theriotropheia, in which various wild animals, such as boars, stags and roe-deer, were kept in a state of semidomestication, were developments which arose at a comparatively late period; as also were the venationes in the circus, although these are mentioned as having been known as early as 186 B.C. The bald and meagre poem of Grattius Faliscus on hunting (Cynegetica) is modelled upon Xenophon's prose work; a still extant fragment (315 lines) of a similar poem with the same title, of much later date, by Nemesianus, seems to have at one See Layard (Nineveh, ii.
And gladness springs up within him on his realizing that, and joy arises to him thus gladdened, and so rejoicing all his frame becomes at ease, and being thus at ease he is filled with a sense of peace, and in that peace his heart is stayed."9 To have realized the Truths, and traversed the Path; to have broken the Bonds, put an end to the Intoxications, and got rid of the Hindrances, is to have attained the ideal, the Fruit, as it is called, of Arahatship. One might fill columns with the praises, many of them among the most beautiful passages in Pali poetry and prose, lavished on this condition of mind, the state of the man made perfect according to the Buddhist faith.
Parallel with this evolution, so to say, of the suttas, the short statements of doctrine, in prose, ran the treatment of the verses.
And even then they are so difficult to understand, so much like puzzles, that they were probably accompanied from the first by a sort of comment in prose, stating when, and why, and by whom they were supposed to have been uttered.
As a general rule such a framework in prose is actually preserved in the old Buddhist literature.
These ecstatic utterances and deep sayings are attributed to the Buddha himself, and accompanied by the prose framework.
The prose framework is in this case preserved only in the commentary, which also gives biographies of the authors.
Here again the prose is preserved only in the commentary.
But this book, like all the ancient books, was composed, not in the north, in Nepal, but in the valley of the Ganges, and it is partly in prose, partly in verse.
The older one contains still a good deal of prose, the gist of it being often repeated in the verses.
In adopting verse instead of prose as a medium of expression, Schiller showed that he was prepared to challenge comparison with the great dramatic poets of other times and other lands; but in seeking a model for this higher type of tragedy he unfortunately turned rather to the classic theatre of France than to the English drama which Lessing, a little earlier, had pronounced more congenial to the German temperament.
Evans in Bohn's Classical Library (prose, with Juvenal and Persius) and by J.
He translated into Italian Plutarch's Lives of Cinna and Lucullus, and was the author of some poetical pieces, amatory and religious - strambotti and canzonetti - as well as of rhetorical prose compositions.
Meanwhile the literary instinct had begun to show itself; we hear of a novel in letters - a kind of linguistic exercise, in which the characters carried on the correspondence in different languages - of a prose epic on the subject of Joseph, and various religious poems of which one, Die Hollenfahrt Christi, found its way in a revised form into the poet's complete works.
This I phigenie was, however, in prose; in the following year Goethe remoulded it in iambics, but it was not until he went to Rome that the drama finally received the form in which we know it.
Prose works like the Unterhaltungen deutscher Ausgewanderten (1795) were unworthy of the poet's genius, and the translation of Benvenuto Cellini's Life (1796-1797) was only a translation.
Goethe could fill his prose with rich wisdom, but he was only the perfect artist in verse.
A collection of oracles, a theogony, an epic poem on the Argonautic expedition, prose works on purifications and sacrifices, and a cosmogony, were attributed to him.
The story of the defeat of Sisera appears in two distinct forms, an earlier, in poetical form (v.), and a later, in prose (iv.).
A striking exception to the lack of unity among the tribes is afforded by the account of the defeat of Sisera, and here the old poem represents a combined effort to throw off the yoke of a foreign oppressor, while the later prose version approximates the standpoint of Josh.
In a prose narrative discovered and printed by M.
Whereas, when sophistry began, prose composition was hardly practised in central Greece, the sophists were still the leaders in literature and oratory when Plato wrote the Republic, and they had hardly lost their position when Demosthenes delivered the Philippics.
While studying for his profession, however, he contributed poems and prose articles to various magazines.
He contributed poems to the daily press, called out by the Slavery question; he was, early in 1846, a correspondent of the London Daily News, and in the spring of 1848 he formed a connexion with the National Anti-Slavery Standard of New York, by which he agreed to furnish weekly either a poem or a prose article.
The poems were most frequently works of art, occasionally they were tracts; but the prose was almost exclusively concerned with the public men and questions of the day, and forms a series of incisive, witty and sometimes prophetic diatribes.
They returned in November 1852, and Lowell published some recollections of his journey in the magazines, collecting the sketches later in a prose volume, Fireside Travels.
He held this position only till the spring of 1861, but he continued to make the magazine the vehicle of his poetry and of some prose for the rest of his life; his prose, however, was more abundantly presented in the pages of The North American Review during the years 1862-1872, when he was associated with Mr Charles Eliot Norton in its conduct.
Both his collegiate and editorial duties stimulated his critical powers, and the publication in the two magazines, followed by republication in book form, of a series of studies of great authors, gave him an important place as a critic. Shakespeare, Dryden, Lessing, Rousseau, Dante, Spenser, Wordsworth, Milton, Keats, Carlyle, Thoreau, Swinburne, Chaucer, Emerson, Pope, Gray - these are the principal subjects of his prose, and the range of topics indicates the catholicity of his taste.
Although the great bulk of his writing was now in prose, he made after this date some of his most notable ventures in poetry.
After his death his literary executor, Charles Eliot Norton, published a brief collection of his poems, and two volumes of added prose, besides editing his letters.
The literary refinement which marks his essays in prose is not conspicuous in his verse, which is of a more simple character.
MABINOGION (plural of Welsh mabinogi, from mabinog, a bard's apprentice), the title given to the collection of eleven Welsh prose tales (from the Red Book of Hergest) published (1838) by Lady Charlotte Guest, but applied in the Red Book to four only.
C'est proser de la rime et rimer de la prose."
His prose work is much more abundant, not less remarkable for care as to style and expression, and of greater positive value.
It will be convenient to mention here a feature of Ciceronian prose on which singular light has been thrown by recent inquiry.
173 sqq., he considers the element of rhythm or metre in prose, and in the Orator (174-226) he returns to the subject and discusses it at length.
His main point is that prose should be metrical in character, though it should not be entirely metrical, since this would be poetry (Orator, 220).
Greek writers relied for metrical effect in prose on those feet which were not much used in poetry.
philosophical writings and the more elaborate letters, and with modifications to other rhythmical prose, e.g.
His prose style was attacked by Pollio as Asiatic, also by his son, Asinius Gallus, who was answered by the emperor Claudius (Suet.
In 1399 she began to study the Latin poets, and between that time and 1405, as she herself declares, she composed some fifteen important works, chiefly in prose, besides minor pieces.
In 1871 appeared his prose volume called Democratic Vistas.
In 1876 he published a thin volume, called Two Rivulets, made up of prose and verse.
Specimen Days and Collect, also prose, appeared in 1882.
A final and complete edition of his works, including both prose and verse, was published in Philadelphia in 1889.
Stevenson's various occasional sallies in verse and prose - his Fables for Grown Gentlemen (1761-1770), his Crazy Tales (1762), and his numerous skits at the political opponents of Wilkes, among whose "macaronies" he numbered himself - were collected after his death, and it is impossible to read them without being struck with their close family resemblance in spirit and turn of thought to Sterne's work, inferior as they are in literary genius.
Boece's History of Scotland was translated into Scottish prose by John Bellenden, and into verse by William Stewart.
Earle (1892) in prose; W.
Tinker (1902) in prose.
Considering that the divergence of two alphabets (like the difference of two dialects) requires both time and familiar use, we may gather from these facts that writing was well known in Greece early in the 7th century B.e.2 The rise of prose composition in the 6th century B.C. has been thought to mark the time when memory was practically superseded by writing as a means of preserving literature - the earlier use of letters being confined to short documents, such as lists of names, treaties, laws, &c. This conclusion, however, is by no means necessary.
The preservation of this vast mass can only be attributed to writing, which must therefore have been in use for two centuries or more before there was any considerable prose literature.
Now in Homer there are upwards of 80 second aorists (not reckoning aorists of " Verbs in µc," such as i'ar,Y, i,3rpv), whereas in all Attic prose not more than 30 are found.
In Attic poets, it is true, the number of such aorists is much larger than in prose.
It is plain, in short, that the later poetical vocabulary was separated from that of prose mainly by the forms which the influence of Homer had saved from being forgotten.
Again, " with " is in Homer auv (with the dative), in Attic prose perec with the genitive.
- The critical study of Homer began in Greece almost with the beginning of prose writing.
Meanwhile the languages of Greece and Rome had been so thoroughly appropriated that a final race of scholars, headed by Politian, Pontano, Valla, handled once again in verse and prose both antique dialects, and thrilled the ears of Europe with new-made pagan melodies.
Petrarch and Boccaccio, though they both held the medieval doctrine that literature should teach some abstruse truth beneath a veil of fiction, differed from Dante in this that their poetry and prose in the vernacular abandoned both allegory and symbol.
The fascination of pure study was so powerful, the Italians at that epoch were so eager to recover the past, that during the 15th century we have before our eyes the spectacle of this great nation deviating from the course of development begun in poetry by Dante and Petrarch, in prose by Boccaccio ism to and Villani, into the channels of scholarship and anti- - quarian research.
They learned portions of the best authors by heart, exercised themselves in translation from one language to another, and practised composition in prose and verse.
Amyot's Plutarch and his Daphnis and Chloe rank among the most exquisite examples of beautiful French prose.
Prose had now the charm of simplicity combined with grace.
His prose treatises are more useful to students of manners than the similar lucubrations of Poggio.
Pontano's prose and poems were printed by the Aldi at Venice.
It was formerly maintained by some scholars that the extant Old English verses are not Baeda's original, but a mere retranslation from his Latin prose version.
But the form of the sentences in B eeda's prose shows a close adherence to the parallelistic structure of Old English verse, and the alliterating words in the poem are in nearly every case the most obvious and almost the inevitable equivalents of those used by Bwda.
Prose, Centennial Hist.
Reifzenstein (Der Anfang des Lexikons des Photius, 1907) has published a hitherto unedited MS. containing numerous fragments from various verse and prose authors.
OSCAR O'FLAHERTIE WILLS WILDE (1856-1900), English author, son of Sir William Wilde, a famous Irish surgeon, was born in Dublin on the 15th of October 1856; his mother, Jane Francisca Elgee, was well known in Dublin as a graceful writer of verse and prose, under the pen-name of "Speranza."
Prose mingles with poetry, wit with wisdom, the good with the bad, and as one thing goes on to suggest another, it makes the Talmud a somewhat rambling compilation.
Besides the Palingenesie, Ballanche wrote a poem on the siege at Lyons (unpublished); Du sentiment considers dans la littrature et dans les arts (i 80 i); Antigone, a prose poem (1814); Essai sur les institutions sociales (1818), intended as a prelude to his great work; Le Vieillard et le jeune homme, a philosophical dialogue (1819); L'Homme sans nom, a novel (1820).
He was also author of prose Lucubrationes and perhaps of an epic poem on Caesar's Gallic wars (Pragmatia Belli Gallici).
He found time, however, to write a Swedish Chronicle, which is the earliest prose history of Sweden, a mystery-play, Tobiae comedia, which is the first Swedish drama, and three psalm-books, the best known being published in 1530 under the title of Nagre gudhelige vijsor (" Certain Divine Songs ").
up to 1533, in excellent prose.
In prose the 17th century produced but little of importance in Sweden.
1 Both in verse and prose Olof von Dalin (q.v.; 1708-1763) takes a higher place than any writer since Stjernhjelm.
whether in prose or verse, was of a finished elegance.
As a prose writer Dalin is chiefly memorable for his History of the Swedish Kingdom (4 vols., 1746-1762).
In prose, as was to be expected, the first half of the 18th century was rich in Sweden as elsewhere.
One of his prose dramas, Siri Brahe och Johan Gyllenstjerna, held the stage for many years.
But his best work was his national drama of Gustaf Vasa (1783), written by the king in prose, and afterwards versified by Kellgren.
and inartistic versifier, and it is mainly as a prose writer, and especially as a very original and courageous critic, that he is now mainly remembered.
His prose writings, which include prefaces to the works of Kellgren and Lidner, and an eloquent argument against Rousseau's theory of the injurious influence of art and letters, rank with the best of the period.
Kellgren and Leopold were both of them important prose writers.
The two great lights of the Gothic school are Geijer, mainly in prose, and Tegner, in his splendid and copious verse.
majority distinguished themselves also in prose.
one in which Swedish prose shone with any special lustre.
In prose there was not even a Runeberg.
He was the earliest prose writer of Roman history.
The writer of the panegyric must be distinguished from Drepanius Florus, deacon of Lyons (c. 850), author of some Christian poems and prose theological works.
Tarikh-i- Tabari, the oldest prose work in modern Persian, is not merely remarkable from a philological point of view, it is also the classic model of an easy and simple style (French trans.
Where some slight historical records of the heroic age were still obtainable poetical imagination seized upon them at once; where no traditions at all were forthcoming fiction pure and simple asserted its right; and thus the national epopee gave way to the epic story, andsubstituting prose for verseto the novel and the fairy tale.
Models of the former class are the various Iskandarndmas, or Books of Alexander the Great, the oldest and most original of which is that of Nizaml of Ganja, the modern Elizavetpol (completed about 1202; 599 A.H.); the latter begins with the Kitab-i-Samak lyar, a novel in three volumes (about 1189; 585 A.H.), and reaches its climax in the Bstan-i-Khayal, or Garden of Imagination, a prose romance of fifteen large volumes, by Mahommed Tal~l Khayal, written between 1742 and 1756 (1155 and 1169 A.H.).
Some writers, both in prose and verse, turned from the exhausted fields of the national glory of Persia, and chose their subjects from the chivalrous times of their own Bedouin conquerors, or even from the Jewish legends of the Koran.
Of this description are the Anbiyanama, or history of the pre-Mahommedan prophets, by IIasanI Shabistarl Ayani (before the 8th century of the Hegira); Ibn 1-Iusams Khawartzama (1427; 830 A.11.), of the deeds of All; Badhils ~Iamla-i-Jjaidari, which was completed by Najaf (1723; 1135 A.H.), or the life of Mahommed and the first four caliphs; Ka~ims Fara~~inama-i-Fa4ima, the book of joy of Fatima, Mahomets daughter (1737; 1150 A.H.)all four in the epic metre of the Shahnama; and the prose stories of ~Iatim Tai, the famous model of liberality and generosity in preIslamitic times; of Am-Zr ~Iamzah, the uncle of Mahomet; and of the Mu~jizat-i-Ms?sa~wi, or the miraculous deeds of Moses, by MuIn-almiskin (died about 1501; 907 A.I-L).
This prolific writer, having performed the pilgrimage to Mecca, devoted himself to a stern ascetic life, and to the composition of Sufic works, partly in prose, as in his valuable Biography of Eminent Mystic Divines, but mostly in the form of mathnawis (upwards of twenty in number), among which the Pandndma, or Book of Counsels, and the Mantili-uf (air, ox the Speeches of Birds, occupy the first rank.
Next in importance to history rank geography, cosmography, and travels (for instance, the Nuzhat-uli~ulub, by liamdallah MustaufI, who died in 1349, and the translations of Istakhris and KazvInIs Arabic works), and the various tadhkiras or biographies of ~fis and poets, with selections in prose and verse, from the oldest of AufI (about 1220) to the last and largest of all, the Makhzan-ulg/zaraib, or Treasure of Marvellous Matters (completed 1803), which contains bi)graphies and specimens of more than 3000 poets.
He composed a considerable, quantity of poetry and several minor prose works, especially Notes on the Iroquois (1846); Scenes and Adventures in the Ozark Mountains (1853).
He embodied the first two lectures in his first prose publication, Conciones ad Populum (1795).
Seven years afterwards his most popular prose work - The Aids to Reflection - first appeared.
His most important extant works are: in prose, Gratiarum Actio, an address of thanks to Gratian for his elevation to the consulship; Periochae, summaries of the books of the Iliad and Odyssey; and one or two epistolae; in verse, Epigrammata, including several free translations from the Greek Anthology; Ephemeris, the occupations of a day; Parentalia and Commemoratio Professorum Burdigalensium, on deceased relatives and literary friends; Epitaphia, chiefly on the Trojan heroes; Caesares, memorial verses on the Roman emperors from Julius Caesar to Elagabalus; Ordo Nobilium Urbium, short poems on famous cities; Ludus Septem Sapientum, speeches delivered by the Seven Sages of Greece; Idyllia, of which the best-known are the Mosella, a descriptive poem on the Moselle, and the infamous Cento Nuptialis.
Seldom was Voltaire wider of the mark than when he called Telemaque a Greek poem in French prose.
There is a curious richness in this prose, so full of rhythm and harmony, that breaks at every moment into verse, as it drags itself along its slow and weary way, halffainting under an overload of epithets.
The difference between Tacitus and Juvenal in power of representation is that the prose historian is more of an imaginative poet, the satirist more of a realist and a grotesque humorist.
Lewis (1882, with a prose translation) and J.
Portuguese literature is distinguished by the wealth and variety of its lyric poetry, by its primacy in bucolic verse and prose, by the number of its epics and historical books, by the relative slightness of the epistolary element, and by the almost complete absence of the memoir.
Rich as its romanceiro is, its volume is far less than the Spanish, but the cancioneiros remain to prove that the early love songs of the whole Peninsula were written in Portuguese, while the primitive prose redaction of Amadis, the prototype of all romances of chivalry, was almost certainly made in Portugal, and a native of the same country produced in the Diana of Montemor (Montemayor) the masterpiece of the pastoral novel.
But notwithstanding all its dependence on classical and foreign authors, Portuguese literature has a distinct individuality which appears in the romanceiro, in the songs named cantares de amigo of the cancioneiros, in the Chronicles of Fernao Lopes, in the Historia tragico-maritima, in the plays of Gil Vicente, in the bucolic verse and prose of the early 16th century, in the Letters of Marianna Alcoforado and, above all, in The Lusiads.
The first frankly literary prose documents appear in the 14th century, and consist of chronicles, lives of saints and genealogical treatises.
The more important are the Chronica Early Prose,.
There exists a mid14th-century Historia do Santo Graal, and an unprinted Josep' ab Aramadia, while, though the MS. is lost, we have abundant evidence of the existence of a primitive Portuguese prose redaction of Amadis de Gaula anterior to the present Spanish text.
The age is noted for its chronicles, beginning with the anonymous life of the Portuguese Cid, the Holy Constable Nuno Alvares Pereira, told in charming infantile prose, the translated Chronica da fundirao do moesteyro de Sam Vicente, and the Vida Fernao Lopes (q.v.), the father of Portuguese history and author of chronicles of King Pedro, King Ferdinand and King John I., has been called by Southey the best chronicler of any age or nation.
His Amphitryons is a free imitation of the Latin, yet thoroughly national in spirit and cast in the popular redondilha; the dialogue is spirited, the situations comic. King Seleucus derives from Plutarch and has a prose prologue of real interest for the history of the stage, while Filodemo is a clever tragi-comedy in verse with prose dialogues interspersed.
He found the stage occupied mainly by religious plays in which there appeared no trace of the Greek or Roman theatre, and, admiring what he had seen in Italy, he and his followers protested against the name auto, restored that of comedy, and substituted prose for verse.
The revived classical comedy was thus so bound down by respect for authority as to have little chance of development, while its language consisted of a latinized prose from which the emotions were almost absent.
Jorge Ferreira de Vasconcellos, who produced in the Eufrosina the first prose play, really belongs to the Spanish school, yet, though he wrote under the influence of the Celestina, which had a great vogue in Portugal, and of Roman models, his types, language and general characteristics are deeply national.
So decisive was the success of Jorge Ferreira's new invention, notwithstanding its anonymity, that it decided SA de Miranda to attempt the prose comedy.
The principal form taken by prose writing in the 16th century was historical, and a pleiad of distinguished writers arose to narrate the discoveries and conquests in Asia, Africa and the ocean.
His first decade undoubtedly influenced Camoens, and together the two men fixed the Portuguese written tongue, the one by his prose, the other by his verse.
Like the preceding writers, Gaspar Correia or Correa lived long years in India and embodied his intimate knowledge of its manners and customs in the picturesque prose of the Lendas da India, which embraces the events of the years 1497 to 1550.
While Mendes Pinto and his book are typically Portuguese of that age, the Historia tragicomaritima, sometimes designated the prose epic of saudade, is equally characteristic of the race of seamen which produced it.
Among the moralists of the time three at least deserve the title of masters of prose style, Heitor Pinto for his Imagens da vida Christa, Bishop Arraez for his Dialogos, and Frei Thome de Jesus for his noble devotional treatise Trabalhos de Jesus, while the maxims of Joanna da Gama, entitled Ditos da Freira, though lacking depth, form a curious psychological document.
His contribution is a mass of legends destitute of foundation or critical sense, but both here and in the Chronica de Cister he writes a good prose.
The task of purifying and enriching the language and restoring the cult of the Quinhentistas was perseveringly carried out by Francisco Manoel de Nascimento (q.v.) in numerous compositions in prose and verse, both original and translated.
The Operas portuguezas of Antonio Jose da Silva, produced between 1733 and 1741, owe their name to the fact that arias, minuets and modinhas were interspersed with the prose dialogue, and if neither the plots, style, nor language are remarkable, they have a real comic force and a certain originality.
Figueiredo felt he had a mission to restore the drama, and wrote thirteen volumes of plays in prose and verse, but, though he chose national subjects, and could invent plots and draw characters, he could not make them live.