How to use Proprietors in a sentence
The proprietors struggled in vain to bring about a closer union.
But for both proprietors and Jesuits a surprise was in store.
The reformers of the previous reign had endeavoured to make the emancipated peasantry administratively and economically independent of the landed proprietors; the conservatives of this later era, proceeding on the assumption that the peasants did not know how to make a proper use of the liberty prematurely conferred upon them, endeavoured to re-establish the influence of the landed proprietors by appointing from amongst them " land-chiefs," who were to exercise over the peasants of their district a certain amount of patriarchal jurisdiction.
But these constitutions, several times revised, actually served only as a theoretical standard for the proprietors and were abrogated altogether in 1693, and the colonists were governed by instructions which granted them much greater privileges.
The class of coloni appears to have been composed partly of tenants by contract who had incurred large arrears of rent and were detained on the estates as debtors (obaerati), partly of foreign captives or immigrants who were settled in this condition on the land, and partly of small proprietors and other poor men who voluntarily adopted the status as an improvement in their position.Advertisement
The planters and mine proprietors cried out against this as a national calamity.
But it is a good thing for proprietors who perish morally, bring remorse upon themselves, stifle this remorse and grow callous, as a result of being able to inflict punishments justly and unjustly.
The Roman Catholic landowners lost their estates, all or part according to their degree of guilt, and these were distributed among Cromwell's soldiers and the creditors of the government; Cromwell also invited new settlers from home and from New England, two-thirds of the whole land of Ireland being thus transferred to new proprietors.
At Saluzzo in Piedmont there is a stock with hanging ears, arched face and tall stature, kept for its dairy qualities; and in the Biellese the merino breed is maintained by some of the larger proprietors.
With the aid of Sella he concluded conventions for the redemption of the chief Italian railways from their French and Austrian proprietors.Advertisement
Polish proprietors settled in large numbers on the Cossack territory, and great efforts were made, with the assistance of the Jesuits, to bring the Orthodox population under papal authority.
In that year an act was passed by parliament establishing an agreement with seven of the Lords Proprietors for the surrender of their claims to both provinces.
At the beginning of the 19th century a subscription was raised by the proprietors of land in the neighbourhood for improving the harbour, and an act was obtained by which they were incorporated under the title "The Grimsby Haven Co."
The Peloponnesian War introduced a change; s and after that time the proprietors resided at Athens, and the cultivation was in the hands of slaves.
The latter, however, were to be maintained at the expense of the proprietors up to their eighteenth year, and during that time to be kept, as apprentices, to such work as was suitable for their age.Advertisement
In the 18th century we find the distinction between the three classes named above effaced and all of them merged in the class of serfs, who were the property either of the landed proprietors or of the state.
They were not even adscripti glebae, though forbidden to migrate; an imperial ukase of 1721 says, " the proprietors sell their peasants and domestic servants, not even in families, but one by one, like cattle."
Peter the Great imposed a poll-tax on all the members of the rural population, making the proprietors responsible for the tax charged on their serfs; and the " free wandering people " who were not willing to enter the army were required to settle on the land either as members of a commune or as serfs of some proprietor.
The proprietors could transport without trial their unruly serfs to Siberia or send them to the mines for life, and those who presented complaints against their masters were punished with the knout and condemned to the mines.
For about a century and a half before that time, levee building had been undertaken in a more or less spasmodic and tentative way, first by riparian proprietors, then by local combinations of public and private interests, and finally by the state, acting through levee districts, advised by a Board of Engineers.Advertisement
Governors were appointed by the lords proprietors, and there are copious records in the state papers of the attempts made to develop the resources of the islands.
In 1784 and 1786 sums were voted in parliament to indemnify the descendants of the old lords proprietors, and the islands.
Cicero speaks of it as a prcsperous country town, which had not as yet fallen into the hands of large proprietors; and inscriptions show that under the empire it was still flourishing.
The counties were, it appears, farmed out; but in the 7th century the royal choice became restricted to the larger landed proprietors, who gradually emancipated themselves from royal control, and in.
Nearly all the land is in the hands of peasant proprietors, who cultivate sweet potatoes, peas, beans, corn, &c., and rear sheep and goats.Advertisement
Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg or Durban.
He laid out the ground of the several proprietors in the rebuilding of the city, and had no rest early or late from persons soliciting him to set out their ground for them at once.
When centrifugals were adopted for purging the whole crop (they had long been used for curing the second or third sugars), the system then obtaining of running the sugar into wagons or coolers, which was necessary for the second and third sugars' cooked only to string point, was continued, but latterly " crystallization in movement, a development of the system which forty years ago or more existed in refineries and in Cuba, has come into general use, and with great advantage, especially where proprietors have been able to erect appropriate buildings and machinery for carrying out the system efficiently.
In 1659 the elder Mayhew sold a joint interest in the greater part of the island of Nantucket for £ 3 0 and two beaver hats to nine partners; early in the following year the first ten admitted ten others as equal proprietors, and later, in order to encourage them to settle here, special half-grants were offered to tradesmen.
The original twenty proprietors, however, endeavoured to exclude the tradesmen from any voice in the government, and this caused strife.
In 1786 the proprietors had the manor surveyed.
The Connecticut grantees were incorporated in 1803 as "the proprietors of the half-million acres of land lying south of Lake Erie."
The Palazzo del Tribunale (law courts) is a fine building, and the upper town contains several good houses of rich proprietors of the province; while the lower portion is unhealthy.
Notwithstanding the alarm occasioned by Braddock's defeat, the old quarrel between the proprietors of Pennsylvania and the assembly prevented any adequate preparations for defence; " with incredible meanness " the proprietors had instructed their governors to approve no act for levying the necessary taxes, unless the vast estates of the proprietors were by the same act exempted.
As to the proprietors Franklin succeeded in 1760 in securing an understanding that the assembly should pass an act exempting from taxation the unsurveyed waste lands of the Penn estate, the surveyed waste lands being assessed at the usual rate for other property of that description.
Thus the proprietors finally acknowledged the right of the assembly to tax their estates.
Franklin, appealed to by the governor, raised a troop sufficient to frighten away the " Paxton boys," and for the moment there seemed a possibility of an understanding between Franklin and the proprietors.
But the question of taxing the estates of the proprietors came up in a new form, and a petition from the assembly was drawn by Franklin, requesting the king " to resume the government " of Pennsylvania.
In the autumn election of 1764 the influence of the proprietors was exerted against Franklin, and by an adverse majority of 25 votes in 4000 he failed to be re-elected to the assembly.
The settlers by degrees threw off the control of the proprietors who had received grants from the crown and had promoted the first settlements.
The class of peasant proprietors being restricted to a small number of wealthy peasants, the bulk have remained tenants at will; they are very miserable, and about one-fourth of them are continually wandering in search of work.
In eight years of hard work as director of a special land commission he settled the titles of land acquired by the French nation at the Revolution, and placed on an unassailable basis the rights of the proprietors who had bought this land from the government.
The forests of Saxony are extensive and have long been well cared for both by government and by private proprietors.
The first chamber consists of the adult princes of the blood, two representatives of the Lutheran and one of the Roman Catholic Church, a representative of Leipzig university, the proprietor (or a deputy) of the Herrschaft of Wildenfels, a proprietor of the mediatized domains, two of Standesherrschaften, one of those of four estates in fee, the superintendent at Leipzig, a deputy of the collegiate institution at Wurzen, 12 deputies elected by owners of nobiliar estates, ten landed proprietors and five other members nominated by the king and the burgomasters of eight towns.
Its object was to exhibit by means of certain formulas the way in which the products of agriculture, which is the only source of wealth, would in a state of perfect liberty be distributed among the several classes of the community (namely, the productive classes of the proprietors and cultivators of land, and the unproductive class composed of manufacturers and merchants), and to represent by other formulas the modes of distribution which take place under systems of Governmental restraint and regulation, with the evil results arising to the whole society from different degrees of such violations of the natural order.
The Ardennes are the holiday ground of the Belgian people, and much of this region is still unknown except to the few persons who by a happy chance have discovered its remoter and hitherto well-guarded charms. There is still an immense quantity of wild game to be found in the Ardennes, including red and roe deer, wild boar, &c. The shooting is preserved either by the few great landed proprietors left in the country, or by the communes, who let the right of shooting to individuals.
Lord Beaverbrook became one of the chief proprietors of the London Daily Express, and in 1916-7 published Canada in Flanders.
He came of a family of small farmer proprietors, who had held land during three centuries.
Since the landed proprietors disposed of churches and convents, and the kings of bishoprics and abbeys, it became possible for them too to commit the sin of simony; hence a final expansion, in the iith century, of the meaning of the term.
Though a word of not very strict application, it is now frequently used of the rural population of such countries as France, where the land is chiefly held by small holders, "peasant proprietors."
The country is essentially agricultural, and owes its political stability to the presence of a large class of peasant proprietors, who number more than two-thirds of the population.
Owing to the great pressure on the soil from the density of the population, to the reluctance to part with land characteristic of small proprietors, to the generally great productiveness of land and to the very light assessment of government revenue, land in Ballia, for agricultural purposes merely, has a market value higher than in almost any other district.
The number of peasant proprietors is proportionately greater than in any other part of Prussia, and as a class they are well-to-do.
As one of the largest proprietors in the Ukraine he suffered severely from Cossack depredations and offered many concessions to them.
Consequently the United States claimed a right to restrain such practices, both as proprietors of the seals and as proprietors and trustees of the legitimate industry.
The forests are extensive and fine, and are now superintended by government officials, called 8avod, XaKEs, in spite or with the connivance of whom the timber is being rapidly destroyed - partly from the merciless way in which it is cut by the proprietors, partly from its being burnt by the shepherds, for the sake of the rich grass that springs up after such conflagrations, and partly owing to the goats, whose bite kills all the young growths.
Taking advantage of a petition presented by the Polish landed proprietors of the Lithuanian provinces, praying that their relations with the serfs might be regulated in a more satisfactory way - meaning in a way more satisfactory for the proprietors - he authorized the formation of committees "for ameliorating the condition of the peasants," and laid down the principles on which the amelioration was to be effected.
By his father's side, who followed the occupation of a tanner, he was descended from a family long known in the district, and the purity of whose Scottish lineage had been tinged by alliance with French Protestant refugees; but it was from his mother's race, the Lowthers, farmers or small proprietors in Annandale, that he seems to have derived the most distinctive features of his personality.
After the proprietors subscribed £5000 for the protection of the colony the assembly momentarily gave up its contest for a tax on the proprietary estates and consented to pass a money bill, without this provision, for the expenses of the war.
But in 1760 the assembly, with the help of Benjamin Franklin as agent in England, won the great victory of forcing the proprietors to pay a tax (£566) to the colony; and thereafter the assembly had little to contest for, and the degree of civil liberty attained in the province was very high.
The inhabitants are peasant proprietors, mainly engaged in raising cattle and in burning charcoal, but some are fishermen and boatmen.
In 1710, after the lords proprietors had issued directions for "the building of a town to be called Beaufort Town," in honour of Henry Somerset, duke of Beaufort (1629-1700), the first permanent settlement was established on the island.
In the civil wars of Sulla the younger Marius was blockaded in the town by the Sullans (82 B.C.); and on its capture Marius slew himself, the male inhabitants were massacred in cold blood, and a military colony was settled on part of its territory, though, possibly owing to the extravagance of the new coloni, we find that in 63 B.C. this was already in the possession of large proprietors.
The greater proportion of the land throughout the kingdom is in the hands of peasant proprietors, the extent of the separate holdings differing very much in different districts.
What had previously, it seems, been a well-peopled region, with peasant proprietors, kept healthy by careful drainage, became in the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. a district consisting in large measure of huge estates (latifundia) owned by the Roman aristocracy, cultivated by gangs tion, of slaves.
The land is for the most part let by the proprietors to mercanti di Campagna, who employ a subordinate class of factors (fattori) to manage their affairs on the spot.
The great bulk of the soil is in the hands of small proprietors, and this is alleged to have had the effect of somewhat retarding the progress of scientific agriculture.
Both, however, greatly declined in the 18th century; and towards the beginning of the 19th, the peasants, ruined by their proprietors, 'or abandoned to the Jews, were in a more wretched condition than even their Russian neighbours.
Pursuing a policy intended to reconcile the peasantry to Russian rule and to break the power of the Polish nobility, the Russian government promulgated, during the outbreak in 1864, a law by which those peasants who were holders of land on estates belonging to private persons, institutions (such as monasteries and the like), or the Crown were recognized as proprietors of the soil-the state paying compensation to the landlords in bonds, and the peasants having to pay a yearly annuity to the state until the debt thus contracted had been cleared off.
The duchies had always been under a government of fetidal character, the grand dukes having the executive entirely in their hands (though acting through ministers), while the duchies shared a diet (Landtag), meeting for a short session each year, and at other times represented by a committee, and consisting of - the proprietors of knights estates (Rittergitter), known as the Ri.iterschaft, and the Landschaft or burgomasters of certain towns.
There are now many large collections of hardy trees and shrubs in private parks and gardens throughout the British Islands, the interest taken in them by their proprietors having largely increased in recent years.
After purchasing lands from the Indians, Fenwicke attempted to maintain an independent government, but in 1682 he submitted to the authority of the proprietors of West Jersey.
Where the land is held by small peasant proprietors, they display a certain activity; where there are large greund landlords, these usually control them absolutely.
Besides the imperial cities, and the princes and other immediate nobles, there were the mediate nobles, the men who held land in fief of the highest classes of the aristocracy, and who, in virtue of this feudal relation, looked down upon the allodial proprietors or freemen, and upon the burghers.
It has merely caused great bitterness among the Polish peasants, and the effect on the population is also counteracted by the fact that the large proprietors in purely German districts continue to import Polish laborers to work on their estates.
Two days later the Peasants League, or Deutsche Bauernbund, which had been founded in 1885 and included some 44,000 members, chiefly from the smaller proprietors in Pomerania, Posen, Saxony and Thuringia, merged itself in the new league.
It became, with the Social Democrats, the most influential society which had been founded in Germany for defending the interests of a particular class; it soon numbered more than 200,000 members, including landed proprietors of all degrees.
The decision between the two races turned on the vote of the feudal proprietors, and in order to win this a society was formed among the German capitalists of Vienna (to which the name of Chabrus was popularly given) to acquire by real or fictitious purchase portions of those estates to which a vote was attached.
The proportion of members assigned to the towns was increased, the special representatives of the chambers of commerce and of the landed proprietors were retained, and the suffrage was not extended.
Against them were 227 Constitutionalists, and it seemed to matter little that they were divided into three groups; there were 105 in the Liberal Club under the leadership of Herbst, 57 Constitutionalists, elected by the landed proprietors, and a third body of Radicals, some of whom were more democratic than the old Constitutional party, while others laid more stress on nationality.
Parliament was dissolved in the summer, and Taaffe, by private negotiations, first of all persuaded the Bohemian feudal proprietors to give the Feudalists, who had long been excluded, a certain number of seats; secondly, he succeeded where Potocki had failed, and came to an agreement with the Czechs; they had already, in 1878, taken their seats in the diet at Prague, and now gave up the policy of " passive resistance," and consented to take their seats also in the parliament at Vienna.
Taaffe's bill, while keeping the curiae of the feudal proprietors and the chambers of commerce as they were, and making no change in the number of members, proposed to give the franchise in both towns and rural districts to every one who could read and write, and had resided six months in one place.
The United German Left had almost disappeared; it was represented only by a few members chosen by the great proprietors; in its place there were the three parties - the German Popular party, the German Nationalists, and the German Radicals - who all put questions of nationality first and had deserted the old standpoint of the constitution.
The Constitutional Landed Proprietors who had played so large a part in Austrian politics since the 'sixties, and had for a generation held the leadership of the German element in parliament and in the country, saw themselves doomed and the leadership of the Germans given to the Christian Socialists.
None of the representatives of the curia system fought so tenaciously for their privileges as did the German nominees of the curia of large landed proprietors.
Their proprietors alternate the cultivation of wheat with that of barley and beans.
He showed generosity in assigning a considerable income to be divided annually among the peasant proprietors of upper Guienne.
Out of 1,153,759 proprietors of land in 1905, 1,005,705 owned less than 5 feddans.
The number of proprietors owning over 50 feddans was 12,475.
The policy of the government is to maintain the small proprietors, and to do nothing tending to oust the native in favor of European landowners.
A commission appointed in 1757 worked zealously for the repeal of many agricultural abuses; and several great landed proprietors introduced hereditary leaseholds, and abolished the servile tenure.
The casualty lists were rigidly and, no doubt, properly suppressed, but owing to the representations of the Newspaper Proprietors' Association they were supplied periodically for the confidential information of editors.
These regulations called forth an angry protest from the Newspaper Proprietors' Association.
It was only after continued protests by the Newspaper Proprietors' Association that publicity was given to the gigantic achievements of the Ministry of Munitions, and the manufacturers and millions of workers associated with it.
Upon his retirement in 1881 he removed to New York City, and from the summer of 1881 to the autumn of 1883 was editor-in-chief and one of the proprietors of the New York Evening Post.
These pools, artificially created, date in many cases from the 15th century, some to earlier periods, and were formed by landed proprietors who in those disturbed times saw a surer source of revenue in fish-breeding than in agriculture.
In 1846 its proprietors bought the Monkland canal, and in 1867 the combined undertaking passed into the hands of the Caledonian Railway Company.
It was under the Anglo-Saxon kings that the distinction between the higher and lower chase first came to be made - the former being expressly for the king or those on whom he had bestowed the pleasure of sharing in it, while only the latter was allowed to the proprietors of the land.
The land is held by a few proprietors, and caste sentiment is strong among those who claim unmixed European descent; consequently the mestizos have limited opportunities to improve their condition.
The proprietors secured in 1856 the construction of a military road to St Paul, Minnesota, 160 m.
Land is held from the proprietors on the terms of receiving seed from them and returning half the produce, the landlord paying the taxes.
His civil reforms include the abolition of the system of prepaying taxes which had weighed heavily upon the wealthier proprietors, the elevation of the serfs into a class of free tenants, the remodelling of family and of maritime law.
It was laid out as a town in 1864 and was named in honour of Oakes Ames, at the time one of the proprietors of the Cedar Rapids & Missouri River railway (now part of the Chicago & North-Western); five years later it was incorporated.
Before 1622 there was a population of more than 4000 in Virginia, and the many tribes of Indians who were still the proprietors of the soil over a greater portion of the country naturally became jealous, and on the 22nd of March of that year fell upon the whites and slew 350 persons.
The bulk of the wine is made in vineyards belonging to small peasant proprietors, who sell their produce to the great mercantile houses.
The latter blend the wines received from the various proprietors, and the chief aim in this blending is to maintain the character of the wine which is sold under a particular trade mark or brand.
By a treaty of the 19th of October 1818, negotiated by General Andrew Jackson and General Isaac Shelby, the Chickasaws ceded all their claims east of the Mississippi, and early in 1819 Memphis was laid out in accordance with an agreement entered into by John Overton (1766-1833), Andrew Jackson and James Winchester (1752-1826), the proprietors of the land.
Subsequently the proprietors of The Times made various experiments with a view to making a rotary perfecting press, and as a result started the first one about 1868.
In Athens about the time of Solon's legislation (594 B.C.) the bulk of the population, who had originally been small proprietors or metayers, became gradually indebted to the rich to such an extent that they were practically slaves.
Peculiar forms of the evil, such as mortgaging to excessive amounts in countries largely occupied by peasant proprietors, may be met by particular measures, as, for example, by forbidding the accumulation of arrears.
In 1838 a theatre was opened, one of whose proprietors was Joseph Jefferson, the father of the celebrated actor of that name.
The peasant proprietors, who, under the name of the " Landtmanna" party,' formed a compact majority in the Second Chamber, pursued a consistent policy of class interests in the matter of the taxes and burdens that had, as they urged, so long oppressed the Swedish peasantry; and consequently when a bill was introduced for superseding the old system of army organization by general compulsory service, they demanded as a condition of its acceptance that the military burdens should be more evenly distributed in the country, and that the taxes, which they regarded as a burden under which they had wrongfully groaned for centuries, should be abolished.
It consisted mostly of the larger and smaller peasant proprietors, who at the time of the old " Standers Riksdag " were always opposed to the nobility and the clergy.
The object of the party was to bring about a fusion between the representatives of the large landed proprietors and the regular peasant proprietors, to support the interests of landed proprietors in general against those of the town representatives, and to resist Crown interference in the administration of local affairs.
The former includes the landed proprietors, professional men and a part of those engaged in commercial and industrial pursuits.
Many of them, especially the landed proprietors, are descendants of the original Spanish settlers and are celebrated for their politeness and hospitality.
The number of landed proprietors, professional men, merchants, &c., is comparatively small (about one-sixth), and a part of these are of mixed blood; the remaining five-sixths own no property, pay no taxes, and derive no benefits from the social and political institutions about them beyond the protection of the proprietors upon whose estates they live, the nominal protection of the state, and an occasional day's wage.
It retained longer than the sister islands traces of feudal influence exerted by the landed proprietors, but has been gradually becoming more democratic. Under the Venetians it was divided into eight districts, and an elaborate system of police was in force; since its annexation to Greece it has been broken up into twenty demarchies, each with its separate jurisdiction and revenues, and the police system has been abolished.
The cultivation is carried on, both on the more elevated and lower lands, chiefly by peasant proprietors.
In order to attract immigrants, the proprietors in February 1665 published their " Concession and Agreement," by which they made provision for a governor, a governor's council, and an assembly chosen by the freemen and having the power to levy taxes.
Moreover, when he had learned that the duke had parted with New Jersey he convinced him that it was a great loss, and in the effort to save what was possible, Staten Island was taken from the proprietors on the plea that one arm of the Hudson flowed along its western border.
At the next session, in the following November, the towns of Shrewsbury and Middletown declared that they held their grants from Governor Nicolls, and that they were consequently exempt from any quit-rents the proprietors might claim.
Philip Carteret returned to England and laid the case before the proprietors; they ordered President Carteret to continue on his way to Carolina and confirmed as governor John Berry, whom Governor Carteret had left behind as deputy.
The duke of York declared that the grants made by Nicolls were null and void; the king enjoined obedience to the proprietors, and quiet was restored.
The crown lawyers decided that the rights of the proprietors of New York and New Jersey had been extinguished by the conquest, and that by treaty the lands had been reconveyed, not to the proprietors, but to the king.
A very liberal frame of government for West Jersey, drafted presumably by William Penn, and entitled " the Concessions and Agreements of the Proprietors, Freeholders and Inhabitants of West Jersey in America," was adopted in March 1677.
But the new colony was never actually governed under " the Concessions and Agreements "; for from the beginning until the first assembly was called in November 1681 its affairs were managed by commissioners named by the proprietors and when in 1680 the duke of York confirmed the title to the land to Byllynge and his associates he conveyed the right to govern to Byllynge alone.
Although he was one of the signers of " the Concessions and Agreements " Byllynge now commissioned Samuel Jennings as governor of the province, and the other proprietors acquiesced, appointing Byllynge governor and permitting Jennings to serve as his deputy.
Later each of these twelve sold onehalf of his share to another associate, thus making twenty-four proprietors; and on the 14th of March the duke of York confirmed the sale, and gave them all the powers necessary for governing the province.
Robert Barclay, one of the proprietors, was chosen governor for life, with the privilege of performing his duties by deputy, and as his deputy he sent over Thomas Rudyard.
This instrument, which was designed to replace the Concessions, provided for the government of the province by a governor chosen by the proprietors, a common council consisting of the proprietors or their proxies together with 12 freemen, and a great council consisting of the proprietors or their proxies together with 144 freemen chosen by a mixed system of elections and the casting of lots.
The government of the twenty-four proprietors, however, was liberal.
Recognizing the necessity of some one in the province with full power " to do all things that may contribute to the good and advancement of the same," they directed the appointment of the American Board of Proprietors - a body of men identified with the province, who with the deputy-governor were to look after the proprietary interests in such matters as the approval of legislation and the granting of lands, and thereby prevent the delay caused by the transmission of such matters to England for approval.
In 1686 another effort was made to put the Fundamental Constitutions in force, but when the deputies and the council rejected the instrument, the proprietors did not force the matter.
In order, therefore, to save their rights in the soil, the proprietors of East and West Jersey offered to surrender their claims to jurisdiction, and to this arrangement the king consented.
The seizure of Andros by the people of Boston in April 1689, following the news of the revolt in England against James II., gave the Jersey proprietors an opportunity to resume their rights, but the proprietary governments regained their former footing very slowly.
The proprietors were widely separated - some being in America, some in England and others in Scotland - and unity of action was impracticable.
These disorders, and especially complaints against the Jerseys as centres of illegal trade, were brought to the attention of King William and his lawyers contended that as only the king could convey powers of government those exercised by the Jersey proprietors, derived as they were from the duke of York, were without sufficient warrant.
The proprietors of East Jersey had already offered to surrender their jurisdiction, in return for certain concessions by the royal government, but no action had been taken.
In 1701 the proprietors of both provinces made another proposal, which was accepted, and in April 1702 all rights of jurisdiction were transferred to the crown, while the rights to the soil remained in the proprietors.
The next four decades were years of development disturbed, however, by friction between the assembly and the royal governors, and by bitter disputes, accompanied by much rioting, with the proprietors concerning land-titles (1744-1749) Independence of the absentee landlords was again claimed by virtue of the grants made by Nicolls nearly a century before.
The constitution of Reuss-Greiz dates from 1867, and provides for a representative chamber of twelve members, of whom three are appointed by the prince, while two are chosen by the landed proprietors, three by the towns and four by the rural districts.
An urban council cFQ ' may also license proprietors, drivers and conductors of horses, ponies, mules or asses standing for hiring in the district in the same way as in the case of hackney carriages, and they may also license pleasure boats and vessels, and the boatmen or persons in charge thereof, and they may make by-laws for all these purposes.
The aloofness and sulkiness of the aristocrats and landed proprietors he deeply deplored.
By a law passed in 1899, the proprietors are bound to arrange for the safe outlet of the water from the mountains, keep the existing canals open, and reclaim the district exposed to inundation, within a period of twenty-four years.
In the 18th century it passed through the hands of various proprietors and was ultimately shorn of much of its original size and grandeur.
But the Cornwallis code, while defining the rights of the proprietors, failed to give adequate recognition to the rights of the undertenants and the cultivators.
There was also a small class of peasant proprietors, called mocheneni in Walachia, resechi in Moldavia, living and working in family communities; but the great mass of the peasantry cultivated the lands of the large proprietors, giving a certain number of days' work to their manorial lord, in addition to a tithe of the raw produce.
The limited size of their farms, and the necessity for buying wood and paying for pasturage, both of which were formerly free, prevented them from obtaining complete independence of the large proprietors, on whose estates they still had to work for payment in money or kind, while their improvidence soon got them into the hands of Jewish money-lenders, who, fortunately for the peasants, were by law unable to become proprietors of the soil.
In 1866 and 1872 laws were passed for still further improving the position of these small proprietors; and in 1879 a measure was carried for allotting lands to 48,000 recently married couples, and for restoring to many peasant families lands which had been alienated.
As a result of these measures the majority of Rumans are peasant proprietors; but the smallness of the holdings renders scientific farming difficult except by cooperation, and many proprietors can only live by working for the owners of large estates.
In many places they have the monopoly of the wine and spirit shops, and retail trade generally; and as they are always willing to advance money on usury, and are more intelligent and better educated than the ordinary peasant, there is little doubt that in a country where the large landowners are proverbially extravagant, and the peasant proprietors needy, the soil would soon fall into the hands of the Jews were it not for the stringent laws which prevent them from owning land outside the towns.
The flocks of sheep on the Kirghiz steppe are so large that the proprietors themselves do not know their exact numbers.
But on the union with Norway all this ceased, and there was left but a low dead level of poor peasant proprietors careless of all save how to live by as little labour as possible, and pay as few taxes as they could to their foreign rulers.
The duration of the legislature was extended from three to five years; the liberty of the press was curtailed by the enactment that proprietors of political papers must pay to the government a deposit of 5000 dinars (£Zoo), and that the editors must have completed their studies at a university; the laws on lese-majeste were made more severe.
To each of the fifteen original proprietors, except Van Corlaer, who received a double portion, was assigned a village lot 200 ft.
Religious houses were useful as abodes of peace in a turbulent country, and the lands attached were better cultivated than those of lay proprietors.
The proprietors were to legislate for the colony " by and with the advice, assent and approbation of the freemen."
Her political history during the colonial era is the story of a struggle between popular and prerogative interests, first between the people and the lords proprietors, later between the people and the Crown.
After a few years of peace and prosperity there came another attack upon the proprietors which culminated in the revolution of 1719 and the downfall of proprietary rule.
Acting on the advice of Chief Justice Nicholas Trott (1663-1740) the proprietors adopted a reactionary policy, vetoed several popular laws, and refused to afford protection from the attacks of the Indians.
The result of the revolution was accepted in England, and the colony at once came under royal control, although the rights of the proprietors were not extinguished by purchase until 1729.
From the 4th century onward the balance of classes was dis- Soclaidisturbed by the development of a landed aristocracy organizathat grew more powerful day by day, and by the tion of corresponding ruin of the small proprietors and in- GauL
The land is subdivided among a very large number of proprietors; over 3,400,000 farms or estates were assessed for taxation in 1905.
In his reign gelding is believed to have had its origin, on account of numerous herds of horses belonging to different proprietors grazing together, especially in time of harvest.
It was at first called Amboy after the original Indian name; in 1684 the proprietors named it Perth in honour of James, earl of Perth (1648-1716), one of their number, and a few years later the two names were combined.
We placed commensurate responsibility on the proprietors.
John and Olga, the proprietors of Glencroft, also did a sterling job of keeping us warm, fed and sane.
Individual proprietors, not uncommonly powerful families which were almost feudal in character, owned the great cotton and woolen mills of New England.
In conclusion, the Proprietors have to request the kind indulgence of the Subscribers with regard to any errors they may occasionally detect.
Accordingly it never sought to preserve the communal patrimony; but thought it more advantageous to increase the number of small proprietors.
If the tenant requires to cancel a reservation for any reason he must notify the proprietors by telephone and confirm it in writing.
The House of Commons, cried he, is a house of landed proprietors.
The reason for this is that the class interests of the proletariat and petty proprietors are opposed.
The medieval burgesses and the small peasant proprietors were the precursors of the modern bourgeoisie.
It seems possible that the provisions of this proposal could conflict with the ability of fishery proprietors to achieve that.
The passages sometimes extend over several miles, the beds sometimes occupying over 20 m., and, as there are many proprietors of cellars, the produce of mushrooms is so large that not only is Paris fully supplied, but vast quantities are forwarded to the different large towns of Europe; the mushrooms are not allowed to reach the fully expanded condition, but are gathered in a large button state, the whole growth of the mushroom being removed and the hole left in the manure covered with fine earth.
In conjunction with Messrs Burns of Glasgow and Messrs Maclver of Liverpool, proprietors of rival lines of coasting steamers between Glasgow and Liverpool, he formed a company, and the first voyage of a Cunard steamship was successfully made by the "Britannia" from Liverpool to Boston, U.S.A., between July 4 and 19, 1840 (see Steamship Lines).
The members of the Duma are elected by electoral colleges in each government, and these in their turn are elected, like the zemstvos (see below), by electoral assemblies chosen by the three classes of landed proprietors, citizens and peasants.
Moreover, many proprietors contrived to curtail seriously the allotments which the peasants had possessed under serfdom, and frequently they deprived them of precisely the parts which they were most in need of, namely, pasture lands around their houses, and forests.
The serfs were liberated entirely from the arbitrary rule of the landowners and became proprietors of the communal land; the old tribunals which could be justly described as " dens of iniquity and incompetence," were replaced by civil and criminal lawcourts of the French type, in which justice was dispensed by trained jurists according to codified legislation, and from which the traditional bribery and corruption were rigidly excluded; and the administration of local affairs - roads, schools, hospitals, &c. - was entrusted to provincial and district councils freely elected by all classes of the population.
For a time the propaganda had very little success, because the uneducated peasants and factory workers could not understand the phraseology and abstract principles of socialism; but when the propagandists descended to a lower platform and spread rumours that the tsar had given all the land to the peasants, and was prevented by the proprietors and officials from carrying out his benevolent intentions, there was a serious danger of agrarian disorders, and energetic measures were adopted by the authorities.
Owing to the havoc wrought during repeated insurrections, the impoverishment of the peasants, the desolation of the districts formerly inhabited by the Moslem agricultural population, and the drain of gold resulting from the sale of Moslem lands and emigration of the former proprietors, together with other causes, the financial situation has been unsatisfactory.
On the death of Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela (491 B.C.), Gelo, who had been his commander of cavalry, succeeded him; and in 485, his aid having been invoked by the Gamori (the oligarchical landed proprietors) of Syracuse who had been driven out by the populace, he seized the opportunity of making himself despot.
It is said that when the last of the governors appointed by the lords proprietors, in ignorance of the Spanish raid, arrived in New Providence, he found the island without an inhabitant.
Nominally the people are free and exercise sovereign rights in the choice of their representatives, but the ignorance of the masses, their apathy, poverty and dependence upon the great land proprietors and industrial corporations practically defeat these fundamental constitutional provisions.
Of this cession the part which lay in Pennsylvania was secured by purchase from the Indians for the proprietors Richard and Thomas Penn (see Pittsburg).
But the growing power of the Scotch-Irish, the resentment of the Quakers against the proprietors for having gone back to the Church of England and many other circumstances strengthened the anti-proprietary power, and the assembly strove to abolish the proprietorship and establish a royal province; John Dickinson was the able leader of the party which defended the proprietors; and Joseph Galloway and Benjamin Franklin were the leaders of the anti-proprietary party, which was greatly weakened at home by the absence after December 1764 of Franklin in England as its agent.
In 1765 he published a small pamphlet On the Flax Husbandry of Scotland; and, besides availing himself of his extensive acquaintance with the proprietors of Scotland to recommend the introduction of manufactures, he took a prominent part in furthering the project of the Forth and Clyde Canal.
The Decretum forbade their alienation to lay proprietors, denounced excommunication against those who refused to pay, and based the right of the Church upon scriptural precedents.6 The decretals contained provisions as to what was and what was not tithable property, as to those privileged from payment, as to sale or hypothecation to laymen, as to priority over state taxes, &c. 7 Various questions which arose later were settled by Boniface VIII.
In the elections which followed in Bohemia the influence of the government was sufficient to secure a German majority among the landed proprietors; the Czechs, who were therefore in a minority, declared the elections invalid, refused to take any part in electing deputies for the Reichsrath, and seceded altogether from the diet.
The most famous breeds of Spanish sheep are the merinos or migrating sheep, which once brought immense revenues to the state as well as to the large proprietors to whom they mostly belonged (see MERINO).
Please be punctual for appointments as agents and proprietors will be waiting for you.
Unsurprisingly, the track proprietors kept tight-lipped about the incident, but now the news has leaked out.
Proprietors cannot sell the property without full consent of the usufruct holders while they are still alive.
You'll find over 20 specialty shops owned by local proprietors as well as national brands.
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Small business owners, especially sole proprietors who are physically disabled and find traveling to client offices a challenge, will like the freedom and efficiency the tool provides.
While this is an easier system to use, favored by sole proprietors, it provides less information useful to managing your business or make forecasts.
This category includes sole proprietors, self-employed individuals and independent contractors.
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The directors of the Company were disposed to act upon this resolution; but in the court of proprietors, with whom the decision ultimately lay, Hastings always possessed a sufficient majority.
Two of the lots were immediately purchased by Captain Ephraim Williams (1715-1755), who was at the time commander of Fort Massachusetts in the vicinity; several other lots were bought by soldiers under him; and in 1 753 the proprietors organized a township government.
Two-fifths of the land belongs to the state, and two-fifths more to the various communes; the remaining fifth is minutely subdivided among a large number of small proprietors, many of whom have been expropriated from inability to pay the taxes, which, considering the low value of the land, are too heavy; while the state is unable to let a large proportion of its lands.
Institutions possessing a special character are the monti frumentarii, public grain deposits, founded for the purpose of supplying peasant proprietors with seed corn, debts being paid in kind with interest after harvest.
In the debate abolishing the court of wards he spoke, like most landed proprietors, in favour of laying the burden on the excise instead of on the land, and on the question of the restoration of the bishops carried in the interests of the court an adjournment of the debate for three months.
The proprietors of Queen's Hall, London, did much for it when they undertook the alteration, at great expense, of their large concert organ, which had only just been erected.
This has been due to speculation, to the unrestricted pasturage of goats, to the rights which many communes have over the forests, and to some extent to excessive taxation, which led the proprietors to cut and sell the trees and then abandon the ground to the Treasury.
In Venetia the lives of the small proprietors and of the salaried peasants are often extremely miserable.
The way in which the taxes press on the poor may be shown by the number of small proprietors sold up owing to inability to pay the,.
In 1882 the number of landed proprietors was 14.52% of the population, in 1902 only 1266, with an actual diminution of some 30,000.
Had the percentage of 1882 been kept up there would have been in 1902 600,000 more proprietors than there were.
These three bodies were to be chosen by three electoral colleges consisting of (a) landed proprietors, (b) learned men.
Such hints as we have, while they set before us, just as at Rome, a state of things in which small landed proprietors are burthened with debt, also set before us the Attic demos as, largely at least, a body of various origins which had grown up in the city.
In these assemblies the large proprietors sit in person, being thus electors in the second degree; the lesser proprietors are represented by delegates, and therefore elect in the third degree.
It was only as late as 1904, however, that the landed proprietors were forbidden by law to inflict corporal punishment upon the peasants.
Such had been for a considerable time the condition of Russia, and the small proprietors were now becoming so impoverished that they could no longer fulfil their duties to the state.
The remedy they proposed was that the labourers should be prohibited from migrating from one estate to another, and an order to that effect was issued, with the result that the peasants, being no longer able to change their domicile and seek new employers, fell practically under the unlimited power of the proprietors on whose land they resided.
Having thus gained the support of a large majority of the landed proprietors and the ecclesiastics, Boris Godunov increased his influence to such an extent that on the Boris death of Tsar Feodor without male issue in 1598 he Godunov, was elected his successor by a Great National Assembly.
Many believed, or affected to believe, in the pretender, and in a short time he gathered around him a large force of Cossacks, peasants, Tatars and Tchuvash, swept over the basin of the lower Volga, executed mercilessly the landed proprietors, seized and pillaged the town of Kazan, and kept the whole country in a state of alarm for more than a year.
The tithe had been replaced by an export tax on exported agricultural produce levied at the custom-houses, and the smaller peasant proprietors and shepherds of the mountainous districts were practically exempt from any contribution to the state.
The proprietors had all the powers of a county palatine and proposed to establish a feudal and aristocratic form of government.
In the Konkan there are some superior proprietors termed Khots.
Under them the cultivators are by British arrangements placed in the position of peasant proprietors.
In Turgot's proposed system landed proprietors alone were to form the electorate, no distinction being made between the three orders; the members of the town and country municipalites were to elect representatives for the district municipalites, which in turn would elect to the provincial municipalites, and the latter to a grande municipalite, which should have no legislative powers, but should concern itself entirely with the administration of taxation.
In the early days of the Roman republic land in Italy was held largely by small proprietors, and agriculture was highly esteemed and classed with war as an occupation becoming a free man.
His father belonged to the class of Dihkans (the old native country families and landed proprietors of Persia, who had preserved their influence and status under the A ab rule), and possessed an estate in the neighbourhood of Cus (in Khorasan).