With more eloquence than judgment, he propounded theses bringing into relief the points in which the new doctrines clashed with the old.
Sooner probably than anybody else he realized the far-reaching implications of the theory propounded by Planck.
It is only in the institutes of Manu, where we find the system of castes propounded in its complete development, that Brahma has his definite place assigned to him in the cosmogony.
Its success greatly helped to break down the old prejudices, and to bring home to the minds of ordinary men the truth of the new ideas propounded by Galileo and Torricelli.
No speculation of hypothesis has been propounded to account satisfactorily for the origin of the Australian flora.
These speculations may be said to have formed the foundation on which the theory of the sacrifice, as propounded in the Brahmanas, has been reared.
that body of doctrines and related facts which God Himself has propounded for dogmatic faith.
Several theories have been propounded by ethnologists.
Investigations of every kind which have been based on original sources of knowledge may be styled "research," and it may be said that without "research" no authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value propounded; but the word also has a somewhat restricted meaning attached to it in current usage.
To enter here into an exhaustive account of the various theories which even before, though especially after, the appearance of the Constitution of Athens have been propounded as to the chronology of the Peisistratean tyranny, is impossible.
Many of the subjects of discussion were drawn from Hume's speculations; and during the last years of his stay in Aberdeen Reid propounded his new point of view in several papers read before the society.
It was at a later period of his life that he propounded schemes for cutting canals through the isthmus of Suez and the isthmus of Panama.
His principles, however, are those which must still guide taxonomers, notwithstanding that they have in so great a degree overthrown the entire scheme which he propounded.
This theory, as originally propounded by Macleay, was said by Swainson in 1835 (Geogr.
Carrying on the work from the anatomical point at which he had left it, correcting his errors, and utilizing to the fullest extent the observations of Keyserling and Blasius, to which reference has already been made, Muller, though hampered by mistaken notions of which he seems to have been unable to rid himself, propounded a scheme for the classification of this group, the general truth of which has been admitted by all his successors, based, as the title of his treatise expressed, on the hitherto unknown different types of the vocal organs in the Passerines.
The views of Bonaparte were, it appears, also shared by an ornithological amateur of some distinction, John Hogg, who propounded a scheme which, as he subsequently stated (Zoologist, 1850, p. 2797), was founded strictly in accordance with them; but it would seem that, allowing his convictions to be warped by other considerations, he abandoned the original " physiological " basis of his system, so that this, when published in 1846 (Edinb.
The controversy between nominalists and realists arose from a passage in Boethius' translation of Porphyry's Introduction to the Categories of Aristotle, which propounded the problem of genera and species, (1) as to whether they subsist in themselves or only in the mind; (2) whether, if subsistent, they are corporeal or incorporeal; and (3) whether separated from sensible things or placed in them.
Three theories have been propounded to account for this pressure: 1.
The theories propounded may be divided into two groups, namely, those ascribing to petroleum an inorganic origin, and those which regard it as the result of the decomposition of organic matter.
The new essays in this volume were mostly critical, but one of them, in which perhaps his guessing talent is seen at its best, "The Divisions of the Irish Family," is an elaborate discussion of a problem which has long puzzled both Celtic scholars and jurists; and in another, "On the Classificatory System of Relationship," he propounded a new explanation of a series of facts which, he thought, might throw light upon the early history of society, at the same time putting to the test of those facts the theories he had set forth in Primitive Marriage.
As a complete fusion between dramatic and musical movement, its very crudities point to its immense advance towards the solution of the problem, propounded chaotically at the beginning of the i 7th century by Monteverde, and solved in a simple form by Gluck.
So that we are not disposed to accept a recently propounded theory 22 that a certain King Manium of Magan who was overthrown by the Akkadian king Naram-Sin about 2850 B.C., was none other than Merles, the earliest king of Egypt, who is generally identified with Narmerza.
These accessories are indispensable if it be proposed to solve the problems usually propounded in books on the " use of the globes," but can be dispensed with if the globe is to serve only as a map of the world.
and the early Reformers were alike captivated by the charms of the Kabbalah as propounded by Reuchlin, and not only divines, but statesmen and warriors, began to study the Oriental languages in order to be able to fathom the mysteries of Jewish theosophy.
A commission composed of British, French and Russian officials held an inquiry into the events which had occurred, and early in 1895 England, France and Russia entered actively into negotiations with a view to the institution of reforms. The scheme propounded by the three powers encountered great objections from the Porte, but under pressure was accepted in October 1895.
Elie de Beaumont's name is widely known to geologists in connexion with his theory of the origin of mountain ranges, first propounded in a paper read to the Academy of Sciences in 1829, and afterwards elaborated in his Notice sur le systeme des montagnes (3 vols., 1852).
More intimately connected with the progress of philosophical thought was the tritheistic view of the Trinity propounded by Roscellinus as one of the results of his Nominalistic theory of knowing and being.
Although relegated to a note (vii.), and propounded "Avec la defiance que doit inspirer tout ce qui n'est point un resultat de l'observation ou du calcul," it is plain, from the complacency with which he recurred to it 3 at a later date, that he regarded the speculation with considerable interest.
Another important factor in the present condition of zoological knowledge as represented by classification is the doctrine of degeneration propounded by Anton Dohrn.
John Fleischer (sometimes incorrectly named Fletcher), of Breslau, propounded the same view in a pamphlet, De iridibus doctrina Aristotelis et Vitellonis (1574) the same explanation was given by Franciscus Maurolycus in his Photismi de lumine et umbra (1575) The most valuable of all the earlier contributions to the scientific explanation of rainbows is undoubtedly a treatise by Marco Antonio de Dominis (1566-1624), archbishop of Spalatro.
Very beautiful was the lifelong friendship of these three remarkable men, who collaborated in the Theses Salmurienses, a collection of theses propounded by candidates in theology prefaced by the inaugural addresses of the three professors.
Thus all historians are agreed with regard to the Babylonian chronology back to the year 747 B.C., and with regard to that of Assyria back to the year 911 B.C. It is in respect of the periods anterior to these two dates that different writers have propounded differing systems of chronology, and, as might be imagined, the earlier the period we examine the greater becomes the discrepancy between the systems proposed.
Such are the principles underlying the various chronological schemes which had, until recently, been propounded.
Stahl, as late as 1702, quoted the formation of brass as a case of the union of a metal with an earth into a metallic compound; but he subsequently adopted the view propounded by Kunckel in 1677, that "cadmia" is a metallic calx, and that it dyes the copper yellow by giving its metal up to it.
This theory has been propounded in many forms, but the central idea is that the universe of individuals consists of the involuntary "outpourings" of the ultimate divine essence.
And so he even propounded a scheme, which fell still-born, that would have 8 Ibid.
The remaining years of his life he devoted to theological speculation and ecclesiastical reforms. His religious enthusiasm led him to oppress his Jewish subjects; on the other hand he sought to reconcile the Christian sects, and to this effect propounded in his Ecthesis a conciliatory doctrine of monothelism.
" In ancient times Democritus was the founder of the atomic theory, while Anaxagoras propounded that of continuity, under the name of the doctrine of homoeomeria ('OAotop.pia), or of the similarity of the parts of a body to the whole.
This was the state of opinion when the celebrated arguments against the possibility of motion, of which that of Achilles and the tortoise is a specimen, were propounded by Zeno, and such, apparently, continued to be the state of opinion till Aristotle pointed out that time is divisible without limit, in precisely the same sense that space is.
He emphasized the importance of our active experiences of movement and effort, and though his theory of a central innervation sense is no longer held as he propounded it, its value as a suggestion to later psychologists is great.
4 An explanatory hypothesis, propounded by him in 1892, 5 is still on its trial.
This theory of the independence of the episcopate with regard to the Roman bishop was first propounded by Cyprian, in his treatise De unitate ecclesiae.
Erasmus did nothing to solve the problem, but to him belongs the honour of having first propounded it.
- In his various books on the Acts and third gospel Blass has propounded a new theory as to the " Western " text.
were propounded in that year in the Political Discourses of Hume.
While establishing the historic divisions of the Silurian in Bohemia, Barrande also propounded his famous theory of " colonies," by which he attempted to explain the aberrant occurrence of strata containing animals of a more advanced stage among strata containing earlier and more primitive faunas; his assumption was that the second fauna had migrated from an unknown neighbouring region.
About the year 260 it was again propounded within the Church by Paul of Samosata, who held that, by his unique excellency, the man Jesus gradually rose to the Divine dignity, so as to be worthy of the name of God.
After Macpherson's death, Malcolm Laing, in an appendix to his History of Scotland (1800), propounded the extreme view that the so-called Ossianic poems were altogether modern in origin, and that Macpherson's authorities were practically non-existent.
Some observations, however, of Guy Marshall on the inedibility of certain birds suggest that the resemblance between cuckoos a'nd hawks on the one hand and cuckoos and drongos on the other may be susceptible of another explanation in full agreement with the theory of mimicry as propounded by Bates.
Before he had propounded the atomic theory he had already attained a considerable scientific reputation.
Kleiner propounded a cryolite method which was worked for a time by the Aluminium Syndicate at Tyldesley near Manchester, but was abandoned in 1890.
the summer is propagated by the mosquito (Anopheles claviger) marks a new epoch; the most diverse theories as to its origin had hitherto been propounded, but it is now possible to combat it on a definite plan, by draining the marshes, protecting the houses by fine mosquito-proof wire netting (for Anopheles is not active by day), improving the water supply, &c., while for those who have fever, quinine (now sold cheaply by the state) is a great specific. A great improvement is already apparent; and a law carried in 1903 for the Bonifica dell' Agro Romano compels the proprietors within a radius of some 6 m.
The mathematical theory of probability and the allied theory of the combinatorial analysis were in effect created by the correspondence between Pascal and Fermat, concerning certain questions as to the division of stakes in games of chance, which had been propounded to the former by the gaming philosopher De Mere.
Johnson hated to be questioned; and Boswell was eternally catechizing him on all kinds of subjects, and sometimes propounded such questions as, "What would you do, sir, if you were locked up in a tower with a baby ?"
In not a few definite questions are answered which had actually been propounded to the Prophet by believers or infidels.
His most important polemical work is an answer (1528) to twelve questions on the religious question propounded by Gustavus I.
In 1560 John Knox propounded in his First Book of Discipline a comprehensive scheme of education from elementary to university, but neither this proposal nor an act passed by the privy council in 1616 for the establishment of a school in every parish was carried into effect.
C. Wells definitely propounded the theory of natural selection, but applied it only to certain human characters.
Although the pre-Darwinian writers amongst them invoked nearly every principle that Darwin or his successors have suggested, they failed to carry conviction with regard to evolution, and they neither propounded a coherent philosophy of variation nor suggested a mechanism by which variations that appeared might give rise to new species.
And if in the Augustana the expression of this conviction was suppressed for political reasons, in the Articles of Schmalkalden, drawn up by him, Luther propounded it in the most uncompromising fashion.
The view propounded by Clarke may have been derived from the Midrash, the Kabbalah, Philo, Henry More, or Cudworth, but not from Newton.
In one of his numerous incidental essays he propounded, in 1776, a theory of the solar constitution similar to that developed in 1795 by Sir William Herschel.
Sombart (Der moderne Kapitalismus, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1902), have propounded the doctrine of one gradual progression from an agricultural state to modern capitalistic conditions.
A still more sweeping theory of the same nature is propounded by the Rev. C. J.
The number of speculations as to the nature of this distinction has been, it is said, well-nigh doubled since Drelincourt, in the r8th century, brought together 262 "groundless hypotheses," and propounded on his own part a theory TABLE I.
Hence although Maxwell's theory of electrical action when first propounded found many adherents in Great Britain, it did not so much dominate opinion on the continent of Europe.
" I find that even those that have sought knowledge for itself, and not for benefit or ostentation, or any practical enablement in the course of their life, have nevertheless propounded to themselves a wrong mark, namely, satisfaction (which men call Truth) and not operation."
Various schemes had been propounded with a view of increasing the output of the hand-press, and in 1790 William Nicholson (1753-1815) evolved his ideas on the subject, which were suggestions rather than definite Cylinder inventions.
Another theory, propounded by Captain Bazeries (La Masque de fer, 1883), identified the prisoner with General du Bulonde, punished for cowardice at the siege of Cuneo; but Bulonde only went to Pignerol in 1691, and has been proved to be living in 1705.
We will take first a theory propounded by Andrew Lang in The Valet's Tragedy (1903).
An interesting specimen of such difficulties propounded by Simon de Vries and resolved by Spinoza in accordance with his own principles, is preserved for us in Spinoza's correspondence.
a single man, who, having pondered long and deeply the problems of existence and the world, propounded the solution he found as a divine revelation.
Union between Greeks, voluntary or compulsory, and an offensive war against Persia, was the programme they propounded.
Jevons arrived quite early in his career at the doctrines that constituted his most characteristic and original contributions to economics and logic. The theory of utility, which became the keynote of his general theory of political economy, was practically formulated in a letter written in 1860; and the germ of his logical principles of the substitution of similars may be found in the view which he propounded in another letter written in 1861, that "philosophy would be found to consist solely in pointing out the likeness of things."
Mr Chamberlain still desired Kruger to grant immediate reforms and propounded a scheme of " Home Rule " for the Rand.
The next controversialist who appeared on the scene was the famous Dr Stukely (1740) who propounded the theory that Stonehenge, the stone circle at Avebury (Abury), &c., were temples for serpent worship, "Dracontia" as he called them, the serpent worshippers being the Druids.
Possessed of great political sagacity and knowledge of the lessons of history, Vieira used the pulpit as a tribune from which he propounded measures for improving the general and particularly the economic condition of Portugal.
held very nearly in its original purity from the time when it was propounded by Gotama in the 6th century B.C. to the period in which northern India was conquered by the Huns about the commencement of the Christian era.
The older school had taught that Gotama, who had propounded the doctrine of Arahatship, was a Buddha, that only a Buddha is capable of discovering that doctrine, and that a Buddha is a man who by self-denying efforts, continued through many hundreds of different births, has acquired the so-called Ten Paramitas or cardinal virtues in such perfection that he is able, when sin and ignorance have gained the upper hand throughout the world, to save the human race from impending ruin.
But before such an amalgam of paganism and Christianity could be propounded, it is evident that Christianity must have been for some little time before the world, and that the system cannot possibly be traced back to Simon Magus.
St George Mivart (Genesis of Species) propounded a theory of a natural evolution of man as to his body, combined with a supernatural creation as to his soul; but this attempt to meet the difficulties on both sides seems to have satisfied neither.
Kant, however, protested strongly against this development when it was propounded by Fichte, and held that he had precluded it by his "refutation of idealism": he stood unshakably to the belief in an absolutely real world behind phenomena.
Xenocrates's theory of inorganic nature was substantially identical with the theory of the elements which is propounded in the Timaeus, 53 C seq.
self-government, and the new parliament at Cape Town resented the manner in which Lord Carnarvon propounded his suggestions.
At this conference it is worthy of note that Mr Hofmeyr propounded a sort of " Zollverein " scheme, in which imperial customs were to be levied independently of the duties payable on all goods entering the empire from abroad.
Oscil., a copy being presented to me, in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy, and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness, in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth, and earth from the sun; in determining a problem about the moon's phase, and putting a limit to the sun's parallax, which shews that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion, and understood it; so that a while after, when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly, in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth, if I had not known the duplicate proportion before, I could not but have found it now.
In " Opinion " he propounded a theory of the world of seeming and its development, pointing out however that, in accordance with the principles already laid down, these cosmological speculations do not pretend to anything more than probability.
Next day the rebel leaders again invited the king to a conference, in the open space of Smithfield, and laid before him a programme very different from that propounded at Mile End.
The view which Disraeli thus propounded in defiance of his previous opinions was confirmed by the electors on the dissolution of parliament.
Years before he had propounded in Tancred the theory that England should aim at eastern empire.
This work propounded for the first time the so-called "collegial" theory of church government (Kollegialsystem), which, developed later by the learned Lutheran theologian Christoph Mathaus Pfaff (1686-1760), formed the basis of the relations of church and state in Germany and more especially in Prussia.
In an ensuing book - Ithaka, der Peloponnes, and Troja - he propounded two theories which he was destined eventually to test in practice, viz.
And it is perhaps unfortunate that metaphysical doctrines enunciated chiefly for the purposes of criticism not in themselves vitally necessary to the theory of morality propounded should have been.
In 1650-54 he published the work which was long accounted his most important production, the Annales Veteris et Novi Testamenti, in which he propounded a now disproved scheme of Biblical chronology, whose dates were inserted by some unknown authority in the margin of reference editions of the Authorized Version.
Having become a minister in the church of Scotland, he propounded a scheme in 1742 for providing pensions for the widows of ministers.
The view at one time most generally accepted was that first propounded by Karl Lachmann in his "Kritik der Sage von den Nibelungen" (Rheinisches Museum fur Philologie, Num.
Secondly, there is the more complex technique of presenting counterarguments to the thesis propounded, and then offering arguments which defeat those counterarguments.
Most of the doctrines propounded in the evangelical portion of the series may be found in the formerly published discourses of Dr. Chalmers.
propounded the view that the mass of the people was already organized in a multitude of organizations.
One idea propounded is the removal of import tariffs on goods produced in poor countries.
The theorem was first propounded by F Guthrie in 1853.
You would have much to regret had you not propounded it.
In the whole range of controversy, religious or secular, was there ever propounded a theory more utterly incredible and preposterous!
Darwin had just propounded his Origin of the Species and his theory of the survival of the fittest.
And then the Question formerly propounded was put: And It was thereupon resolved, &c.
Geulincx was thus the first definitely to systematize the theory' called Occasionalism, which had already been propounded by Gerauld de Cordemoy (d.
As the sum total of the wisdom propounded in the mystery of Agni, the searcher after truth is exhorted to meditate on that Self, made up of intelligence, endowed with a body of spirit, a form of light, and of an ethereal nature; holding sway over all the regions and pervading this All, being itself speechless and devoid of mental states; and by so doing he shall gain the assurance that "even as a grain of rice, or the smallest granule of millet, so is the golden Purusha in my heart; even as a smokeless light, it is greater than the sky, greater than the ether, greater than the earth, greater than all existing things; - that Self of the Spirit is my Self; on passing away from hence, I shall obtain that Self.
Elaborate doctrines of emanation, largely based on Neoplatonic ideas, are also propounded by some of the Arabic philosophers, as by Farabi and Avicenna.
Similar views were arrived at by Goethe, though by the deductive rather than the inductive method, and were propounded in his famous pamphlet, Versuch die Metamorphose der Pfianzen zu erklren (1790), from which the following is a quotation: The underlying relationship between the various external parts of the plant, such as the leaves, the calyx, the corolla, the stamens, which develop one after the other and, as it were, out of one another has long been generally recognized by investigators, and has iii fact been specially studied; and the operation by which onc and the same organ presents itself to us in various forms has been termed Metamorphosis of Plants.
Summary.The general theory of differentiation propounded in this article is an attempt at an analysis of the factors termed by Darwin the nature of the organism and the nature of the conditions.
His immediate successors, being men of humble origin and submissive character, made no pretensions to such an exalted position, but when the haughty, ambitious and energetic Nikon, who enjoyed in large measure the affection and favour of the devout Tsar Alexius, became patriarch, he took Philaret as his model, and propounded, like the popes in western Europe, the doctrine that the spiritual is higher than the temporal power, the former corresponding to the sun and the latter to the moon in the firmament.
He argued from past history that 2 Kautzsch, in his profoundly learned article on the " Religion of Israel," to which frequent reference has been made, exhibits (pp. 669-671) an excess of scepticism, in our opinion, towards the views propounded by Gunkel in 1895 (Schopfung and Chaos) respecting the intimate connexion between the early Hebrew cosmogonic ideas and those of Babylonia.
The use of the historical method has, in fact, raised more reputations than it has destroyed, because by keeping carefully in view the conditions in which economic works have been written, it has shown that many theories hastily condemned as unsound by a priori critics had much to be said for them atthe time when they were propounded.
seems to have attempted to found any scientific arrangement of birds on other than external characters until, in 1837, William Macgillivray issued the first volume of his History of British Birds, wherein, though professing (p. 19) " not to add a new system to the many already in partial use, or that have passed away like their authors," he propounded (pp. 16-18) a scheme for classifying the birds of Europe at least founded on a " consideration of the digestive organs, which merit special attention, on account, not so much of their great importance in the economy of birds, as the nervous, vascular and other systems are not behind them in this respect; but because, exhibiting great diversity of form and structure, in accordance with the nature of the food, they are more obviously qualified to afford a basis for the classification of the numerous species of birds " (p. 52).
Elias Hicks (q.v.), of Long Island, N.Y., propounded doctrines inconsistent with the orthodox views concerning Christ and the Scriptures, and a separation resulted in 1827-1828 (see above).
A comparison of the principal schemes of chronology that have been propounded may be made by means of the preceding table.
His " law of acceleration " together with the complementary " law of retardation," or the slowing up in the development of certain characters (first propounded by E.
This distinction agrees with that made by the gnostic Basilides no less strikingly than the Manichaean criticism of the Old Testament does with that propounded by the Marcionites (see the Acta Archelai, in which Mani is made to utter the antitheses of Marcion).
This liberal offer and their refusal to accept it counteracted all the political capital they hoped to make out of the case; and public opinion was still more powerfully influenced in behalf of the president's action, by the pathos of the query which he propounded in one of his letters: "Must I shoot the simple-minded soldier boy who deserts, while I must not touch a hair of a wily agitator who induces him to desert?"
With regard to painting and sculpture, however, Goethe felt that a protest was necessary, if the insidious ideas propounded in works like Wackenroder's Herzensergiessungen were not to do irreparable harm, by bringing back the confusion of the Sturm and Drang; and, as a rejoinder to the Romantic theories, Goethe, in conjunction with his friend Heinrich Meyer (1760-1832), published from 1798 to 1800 an art review, Die Propyliien.
The prevalent theory, universally accepted till a few years ago, was that of Vicomte Emmanuel de Rouge, first propounded to the Academie des Inscriptions in 1859, but unnoticed by the world at large till republished, after de Rouge's death, by his son in 1874.
When news of this affair had reached Paris, the pope sent the general of the Minorites, Gerard Odonis, accompanied by a Dominican, to sustain his doctrine in that city, but King Philip VI., perhaps at the instigation of the refugee Spirituals in Paris, referred the question to the faculty of theology, which, on the 2nd of January 1 333, declared that the souls of the blessed were elevated to the beatific vision immediately after death; the faculty, nevertheless, were of opinion that the pope should have propounded his erroneous doctrine only "recitando," and not "determinando, asserendo, sed etiam opinando."
The doctrine of Uniformitarianism, as propounded by Lyell, served to establish geology on a firmer and more rational basis than it had previously possessed; but latterly the tendency has been to modify the Lyellian view by an admission of the probability of a more intense action of groups of forces at certain stages of the earth's history.
And then the Question formerly propounded was put: And It was thereupon Resolved, &c.
A theory was therefore propounded that these known types were all derived from a continent which has been named Antarctica.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.