Propositions Sentence Examples
As early as the 28th of May 1403, it is true, there had been held a university disputation about the new doctrines of Wycliffe, which had resulted in the condemnation of certain propositions presumed to be his; five years later (May 20, 1408) this decision had been refined into a declaration that these, forty-five in number, were not to be taught in any heretical, erroneous or offensive sense.
President Kruger, however, soon brushed these propositions aside, and responded by stating that, in consideration of the common enemy and the dangers which threatened the Republic, an offensive and defensive alliance must be preliminary to any closer union.
In 1327 the opponents of the Beghards laid hold of certain propositions contained in Eckhart's works, and he was summoned before the Inquisition at Cologne.
Further appeal, perhaps at his own request, was made to Pope John XXII., and in 1329 a bill was published condemning certain propositions extracted from Eckhart's works.
The "axioms" of geometry are the fixed conditions which occur in the hypotheses of the geometrical propositions.Advertisement
Accordingly, it is a fallacy for any determination of x to consider "x is an x" or "x is not an x" as having the meaning of propositions.
The Inquisition, by its decree Lamentabili sane (2nd of July 1907), condemned sixty-five propositions concerning the Church's magisterium; biblical inspiration and interpretation; the synoptic and fourth Gospels; revelation and dogma; Christ's divinity, human knowledge and resurrection; and the historical origin and growth of the Sacraments, the Church and the Creed.
Theophrastus (in Simplicius's Ad Physica, 5) sums up Xenophanes's teaching in the propositions, "The All is One and the One is God."
Broussais had done much to destroy the notion of fever as an entity, but by extravagances in other directions he had discredited the value of his main propositions.
John was forced to withdraw to Burgundy (August 1413), and the university of Paris and John Gerson once more censured Petit's propositions, which, but for the lavish bribes of money and wines offered by John to the prelates, would have been solemnly condemned at the council of Constance.Advertisement
The various hypotheses, dogmas, proposals, as to the family, to capital, &c., are merely propositions measurable by considerations of utility and a balance of expediencies.
A curious survival of the old system exists in the provision that only those who pay taxes on $134 worth of property may vote for members of city -councils or on propositions to levy taxes or to expend public money.
Autograph copies of his work De Ecclesia and of the controversial tracts which he had written against Paletz and Stanislaus of Znaim having been acknowledged by him, the extracted propositions on which the prosecution based their charge of heresy were read; but as soon as the accused began to enter upon his defence, he.
The propositions which had been extracted from the De Ecclesia were again brought up, and the relations between Wycliffe and Huss were discussed, the object of the prosecution being to fasten upon the latter the charge of having entirely adopted the doctrinal system of the former, including especially a denial of the doctrine of transubstantiation.
On the 8th of June the propositions extracted from the De Ecclesia were again taken up with some fulness of detail; some of these he repudiated as incorrectly given, others he defended; but when asked to make a general recantation he steadfastly declined, on the ground that to do so would be a dishonest admission of previous guilt.Advertisement
Among the propositions he could heartily abjure was that relating to transubstantiation; among those he felt constrained unflinchingly to maintain was one which had given great offence, to the effect that Christ, not Peter, is the head of the church to whom ultimate appeal must be made.
Greeley dissented from many of Fourier's propositions, and in later years was careful to explain that the principle of association for the common good of working men and the elevation of labour was the chief feature which attracted him.
Certain propositions are often stated with respect to sovereignty.
A system of emanations of this kind, in its purest form, is set forth in the expositions coming from the school of Basilides, which are handed down by Irenaeus, while the propositions which are set forth in the Philosophumena of Hippolytus as being doctrines of Basilides represent a still closer approach to a monistic philosophy.
He hastened back to Stockholm, after burying his father, summoned a Riksdag, which met at Arboga on the 15th of April 1561, and adopted the royal propositions known as the Arboga articles, considerably curtailing the authority of the royal dukes, John and Charles, in their respective provinces.Advertisement
Each class based its position on Scripture, but the latter (which prevailed) had the advantage of being able easily to combine with cosmological and theological propositions current in the religious philosophy of the time.
Having employed the circle for the construction and demonstration of several propositions in Books I.
Euclid devotes his third book entirely to theorems and problems relating to the circle, and certain lines and angles, which he defines in introducing the propositions.
Apollonius' genius takes its highest flight in Book v., where he treats of normals as minimum and maximum straight lines drawn from given points to the curve (independently of tangent properties), discusses how many normals can be drawn from particular points, finds their feet by construction, and gives propositions determining the centre of curvature at any point and leading at once to the Cartesian equation of the evolute of any conic.
De Locis Planis is a collection of propositions relating to loci which are either straight lines or circles.Advertisement
Afterwards (chap. so) proceeding to the opposition of propositions, he adds the form called tertii adjacentis, in a passage which is the first appearance, or rather adumbration, of the verb of being as a copula.
Nor does the work get further than the analysis of some propositions into noun and verb with " is " added to the predicated verb; an analysis, however, which was a great logical discovery and led Aristotle further to the remark that " is " does not mean " exists "; e.g.
It is not necessary in every proposition, but it is necessary in the arrangement of a syllogism, to extricate the terms of its propositions from the copula; e.g.
He got so far as gradually to write short discourses and long treatises, which we, not he, now arrange in the order of the Categories or names; the De Interpretatione on propositions; the Analytics, Prior on syllogism, Posterior on scientific syllogism; the Topics on dialectical syllogism; the Sophistici Elenchi on eristical or sophistical syllogism; and, except that he had hardly a logic of induction, he covered the ground.
The last of these propositions is adversely criticized by P. Mantegazza as a truism, but it may be allowed to stand with the qualification that we are ignorant concerning the nature of the influence called " nerve-force."
It follows from these propositions that the expression of emotion is, for the most part, not under control of the will, and that those striped muscles are the most expressive which are the least voluntary.
Illustrations of these theoretic propositions are to be found in the works of Bell, Duchenne and 'Darwin, and in the later publications of Theodor Piderit, Mimike and Physiognomik (1886) and Mantegazza, Physiognomy and Expression (1890), to which the student may be referred for further information.
The true interpretation of Grotius's mind appears to be an indifference to dogmatic propositions, produced by a profound sentiment of piety.
It pointed out distinctly and temperately the grounds of the right of punishment, and from these principles deduced certain propositions as to the nature and amount of punishment which should be inflicted for any crime.
At different times propositions have been made to win the metal from its sulphide.
The propositions of mathematics seem to be independent of this or that special fact of experience, and to remain unchanged even when the concrete matter of experience varies.
The rough appearances of physical facts, their outlines, surfaces and so on, are the data of observation, and only by a method of approximation do we gradually come near to such propositions as are laid down in pure geometry.
That the propositions are hypothetical in this fashion does not imply any distinction between the abstract truth of the ideal judgments and the im p erfect correspondence of concrete material with these abstract relations.
It is an experimental or observational science, founded on primary or immediate judgments (in his phraseology, perceptions), of relation between facts of intuition; its conclusions are hypothetical only in so far as they do not imply the existence at the moment of corresponding real experience; and its propositions have no exact truth.
He opposed the policy of protective duties, but supported Pitt's famous commercial propositions in 1785 for establishing free trade between Great Britain and Ireland, which, however, had to be abandoned owing to the hostility of the English mercantile classes.
Accordingly, by the spring of 1660, he had managed to put his criticism and assertions into five dialogues under the title Examinatio et emendatio mathematicae hodiernae qualis explicatur in libris Johannis Wallisii, with a sixth dialogue so called, consisting almost entirely of seventy or more propositions on the circle and cycloid.'
The propositions on the circle, forty-six in number (shattered by Wallis in 1662), were omitted by Hobbes when he republished the Dialogues in 1668, in the collected edition of his Latin works from which Molesworth reprints.
There are wonderful stories on record of his precocity in mathematical learning, which is sufficiently established by the well-attested fact that he had completed before he was sixteen years of age a work on the conic sections, in which he had laid down a series of propositions, discovered by himself, of such importance that they may be said to form the foundations of the modern treatment of that subject.
Macaulay's prediction that the interest in the man would supersede that in his "Works" seemed and seems likely enough to justify itself; but his theory that the man alone mattered and that a portrait painted by the hand of an inspired idiot was a true measure of the man has not worn better than the common run of literary propositions.
On the 10th of October a deputation from the clergy and burgesses proceeded to the Council House where the Rigsraad were deliberating, to demand an answer to their propositions.
By a codification we understand the reduction of the whole pre-existing body of law to a new form, the re-stating it in a series of propositions, scientifically ordered, which may or may not contain some new substance, but are at any rate new in form.
Not long afterwards, his attention having been called to the spread of Origenistic opinions in Syria, he issued an edict condemning fourteen propositions drawn from the writings of the great Alexandrian, and caused a synod to be held under the presidency of Mennas (whom he had named patriarch of Constantinople), which renewed the condemnation of the impugned doctrines and anathematized Origen himself.
These are really conflicting propositions.
When several of these, almost always those that contain propositions of a similar kind, are collected together in the framework of one dialogue, it is called a suttanta.
Kant still further narrowed the meaning to include only self-evident (intuitive) synthetic propositions, i.e.
Continental Congress, taking with him fresh credentials of radicalism in the shape of Virginia's answer, which he had drafted, to Lord North's conciliatory propositions.
Jefferson soon drafted the reply of Congress to the same propositions.
Manifestly all three propositions are antecedently improbable.
The first contains a collection and exegesis of all the texts in the New Testament relating to the doctrine of the Trinity; in the second the doctrine is set forth at large, and explained in particular and distinct propositions; and in the third the principal passages in the liturgy of the Church of England relating to the doctrine of the Trinity are considered.
The propositions maintained in the argument are - "(1) That something has existed from eternity; (2) that there has existed from eternity some one immutable and independent being; (3) that that immutable and independent being, which has existed from eternity, without any external cause of its existence, must be self-existent, that is, necessarily existing; (4) what the substance or essence of that being is, which is self-existent or necessarily existing, we have no idea, neither is it at all possible for us to comprehend it; (5) that though the substance or essence of the self-existent being is itself absolutely incomprehensible to us, yet many of the essential attributes of his nature are strictly demonstrable as well as his existence, and, in the first place, that he must be of necessity eternal; (6) that the self-existent being must of necessity be infinite and omnipresent; (7) must be but one; (8) must be an intelligent being; (9) must be not a necessary agent, but a being endued with liberty and choice; (to) must of necessity have infinite power; (I I) must be infinitely wise, and (12) must of necessity be a being of infinite goodness, justice, and truth, and all other moral perfections, such as become the supreme governor and judge of the world."
When Erigena starts with such propositions, it is clearly impossible to understand his position and work if we insist on regarding him as a scholastic, accepting the dogmas of the church as ultimate data, and endeavouring only to present them in due order and defend them by argument.
In each of these kinds of inference there are three mental judgments capable of being expressed as above in three linguistic propositions; and the two first are the premises which are combined, while the third is the conclusion which is consequent on their combination.
The De Interpretatione opens with a reference to this psychological distinction, implying that names represent conceptions, propositions represent combinations of conceptions.
The history of logic shows that the linguistic distinction between terms and propositions was the sole analysis of reasoning in the logical treatises of Aristotle; that the mental distinction between conceptions (g vvocac) and judgments (a uiwara in a wide sense) was imported into logic by the Stoics; and that this mental distinction became the logical analysis of reasoning under the authority of St Thomas Aquinas.
St Thomas made a great advance by making logic throughout a rationalis scientia; and logicians are now agreed that reasoning consists of judgments, discourse of propositions.
This distinction is, moreover, vital to the whole logic of inference, because we always think all the judgments of which our inference consists, but seldom state all the propositions by which it is expressed.
Hence the linguistic expression is not a true measure of inference; and to say that an inference consists of two propositions causing a third is not strictly true.
Inference, in short., consists of actual judgments capable of being expressed in propositions.
It was natural enough that the originators of conceptual logic, seeing that judgments can be expressed by propositions, and conceptions by terms, should fall into the error of supposing that, as propositions consist of terms, so judgments consist of conceptions, and that there is a triple mental order - conception, judgment, reasoning - parallel to the triple linguistic order - term, proposition, discourse.
They overlooked the fact that man thinks long before he speaks, makes judgments which he does not express at all, or expresses them by interjections, names and phrases, before he uses regular propositions, and that he does not begin by conceiving and naming, and then proceed to believing and proposing.
It is not the second business of logic to direct us how out of conceptions to form judgments signified by propositions, because the real causes of judgments are sense, memory, experience and inference.
These theories are of varying value in proportion to their proximity to Aristotle's point that predication is about things, and to Mill's point that judgments and propositions are about things, not about ideas.
Taking the carelessly expressed propositions of ordinary life, they do not perceive that similar judgments are often differently expressed, e.g.
But of these universal propositions the first imperfectly expresses a categorical belief in existing things, the second in thinkable things, and the third in nameable things, while the fourth is a slipshod categorical expression of the hypothetical belief, " If any candidates arrive late they are fined."
The four judgments are different, and therefore logically the propositions fully expressing them are also different.
It is remarkable that in Barbara, and therefore in many scientific deductions, to think the quantity of the predicate is not to the point either in the premises or in the conclusion; so that to quantify the propositions, as Hamilton proposes, would be to express more than a rational man thinks and judges.
In judgments, and therefore in propositions, indefinite predicates are the rule, quantified predicates the exception.
Consequently, A E I 0 are the normal propositions with indefinite predicates; whereas propositions with quantified predicates are only occasional forms, which we should use whenever we require to think the quantity of the predicate, e.g.
Finally, the great difficulty of the logic of judgment is to find the mental act behind the linguistic expression, to ascribe to it exactly what is thought, neither more nor less, and to apply the judgment thought to the logical proposition, without expecting to find it in ordinary propositions.
All M is P. Proceeding from one order to the other, by converting one of the premises, and substituting the conclusion as premise for the other premise, so as to deduce the latter as conclusion, is what he calls circular inference; and he remarked that the process is fallacious unless it contains propositions which are convertible, as in mathematical equations.
By the categorical he means the ancient analysis from a given proposition to more general propositions.
By the hypothetical he means the new-fangled analysis from a given proposition to more particular propositions, i.e.
But his account of the first is imperfect, because in ancient analysis the more general propositions, with which it concludes, are not mere consequences, but the real grounds of the given proposition; while his addition of the second reduces the nature of analysis to the utmost confusion, because hypothetical deduction is progressive from hypothesis to consequent facts whereas analysis is regressive from consequent facts to real ground.
Reduction he defines as " the framing of possible premises for given propositions, or the construction of a syllogism when the conclusion and one premise is given."
Inference is a deeper thinking process from judgments to judgment, which only occasionally and partially emerges in the linguistic process from propositions to proposition.
It is an attribute of judgments and derivatively of propositions.
Propositions analytical of a combination in the sense alleged do not give knowledge.
In these truths predicates are accepted or rejected by subjects, and therefore depend on the reflection of fact in Xoyot (propositions).
If we abstract from any actual combination of subject and predicate and proceed to determine the types of predicate asserted in simple propositions of fact, we have on the one hand a subject which is never object, a " first substance " or concrete thing, of which may be predicated in the first place " second substance " expressing that it is a member of a concrete class, and in the second place quantity, quality, correlation, action and the like.
It is a mechanical combination of propositions as these of terms which are counters to express concepts often ill-defined.
The flight from a cursory survey of facts to wide so-called principles must give way to a gradual progress upward from propositions of minimum to those of medium generality, and in these consists the fruitfulness of science.
He alone is capable of truth in the due conjunction or disjunction of names in propositions.
Syllogism is simply summation of propositions, its function being communication merely.
So again in determining the " import " of propositions, it is no accident that in all save existential propositions it is to the familiar rubrics of associationism - co-existence, sequence, causation and resemblance - that he refers for classification, while his general formula as to the conjunctions of connotations is associationist through and through.
Yet Mill's view of the function of " universal " propositions had been historically suggested by a theory - Dugald Stewart's - of the use of axioms!'
The propositions which deal with actual existence are still of a unique type, with whatever limitation to the calculus.
He brought existential propositions, indeed, within a rational system through the principle that it must be feasible to assign a sufficient reason for them, but he refused to bring them under the conception of identity or necessity, i.e.
Propositions concerning the possible existence of individuals put Leibnitz to some shifts, and the difficulty accounts for the close connexion established in regard to our actual world between the law of sufficient reason and the doctrine of the final cause.
The two positions that a subject contains all its predicates and that all non-contingent propositions - i.e.
His problem was the claim to arrive at propositions universally valid, and so true of the object, whosoever the individual thinker.
This was condemned by certain archbishops and theologians as the repetition of the five condemned propositions of Jansen, and Gerberon defended it, under the name of "Abbe Valentin" in Le Miroir sans tache (Paris, 1680).
To them it seemed the substitution of the authority of the Church for the authority of a living experience and of intellectual adherence to theological propositions for faith.
The Roman Catholic Church uncompromisingly reasserts its ancient propositions, political and theological.
The Greek Church remains untouched by the modern spirit, and the Protestant Churches also are bound officially to the The Greek scholastic philosophy of the 17th century; their con- and Pro- fessions of faith still assert the formation of the world testant in six days, and require assent to propositions which Churches.
By a fortunate power of mind they are able to believe as truths mutually inconsistent propositions.
For a syllogism consists of propositions, propositions of words, and words are the symbols of notions.
It flies off at once from experience and particulars to the highest and most general propositions, and from these descends, by the use of middle terms, to axioms of lower generality.
This elimination of the non-essential, grounded on the fundamental propositions with regard to forms, is the most important of Bacon's contributions to the logic of induction, and that in which, as he repeatedly says, his method differs from all previous philosophies.
In July 1907 the Holy Office published its decree condemning certain modernist propositions, and in September the pope issued his encyclical Pascendi Gregis.
At the opening of every session, the king submitted to the estates " royal propositions," or bills, upon which each estate proceeded to deliberate in its own separate chamber.
The consequence was that nearly all the royal propositions were either rejected outright or so modified that Gustavus himself withdrew them.
The truth of the counter propositions, that man is that the full development of his being is impossible apart from society, becomes manifest on examination of the facts.
For the second of these propositions there is no evidence, while the first proposition is now everywhere discredited.
In 1300 the theological professors of Paris agreed in the rejection of sixteen propositions taken from Lombard, but their decision was far from obtaining universal currency.
These propositions may be derived from the formulae given above, or proved directly by purely geometrical methods.
Another discussed conduction in curved sheets; a third the distribution of electricity in two influencing spheres; a fourth the deter mination of the constant on which depends the intensity of induced currents; while others were devoted to Ohm's law, the motion of electricity in submarine cables, induced magnetism, &c. In other papers, again, various miscellaneous topics were treated - the thermal conductivity of iron, crystalline reflection and refraction, certain propositions in the thermodynamics of solution and vaporization, &c. An important part of his work was contained in his Vorlesungen fiber mathematische Physik (1876), in which the principles of dynamics, as well as various special problems, were treated in a somewhat novel and original manner.
To refute the predestinarian heresy Hincmar composed his De praedestinatione Dei et libero arbitrio, and against certain propositions advanced by Gottschalk on the Trinity he wrote a treatise called De una et non trina deitate.
His extant works consist of two treatises; the one, Hcpi ravovj.thv s v4aipas, contains some simple propositions on the motion of the sphere, the other, IIEpi EirtroXWV Kai Sbo €wv, in two books, discusses the rising and setting of the fixed stars.
His Elements of Geometry first appeared in 1795 and have passed through many editions; his Outlines of Natural Philosophy (2 vols., 1812-1816) consist of the propositions and formulae which were the basis of his class lectures.
He therefore bought an English edition of Euclid with an index of propositions at the end of it, and, having turned to two or three which he thought likely to remove his difficulties, he found them so selfevident that he put aside Euclid " as a trifling book," and applied himself to the study of Descartes's Geometry.
In a small commonplace book, bearing on the seventh page the date of January 1663/1664, there are several articles on angular sections, and the squaring of curves and " crooked lines that may be squared," several calculations about musical notes, geometrical propositions from Francis Vieta and Frans van Schooten, annotations out of Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities, together with observations on refraction, on the grinding of " spherical optic glasses," on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them, and on the extraction of all kinds of roots, particularly those " in affected powers."
It occupies twenty-four octavo pages, and consists of four theorems and seven problems, some of which are identical with some of the most important propositions of the second and third sections of the first book of the Principia.
Some new propositions I have since thought on, which I can as well let alone.
In autumn last I spent two months in calculations to no purpose for want of a good method, which made me afterwards return to the first book, and enlarge it with divers propositions, some relating to comets, others to other things, found out last winter.
The principle of reason and consequent, the necessity of thinking each given fact of perception as conditioned, impels understanding towards an endless series of identical propositions, the records of successive comparisons and abstractions.
These propositions having been reached, apart from particular experience, by reflection upon the fundamental principle, we have in them, Parmenides conceived, a body of information resting upon a firm basis and entitled to be called " truth."
His defence of Catholic relief - and it had been the conviction of a lifetime - was very properly founded on propositions which were true of Ireland, and were true neither of France nor of the quality of parliamentary representation in England.
Yet Burke threw such breadth and generality over all he wrote that even these propositions, relative as they were, form a short manual of statesmanship.
When men heard that there were propositions that could not be doubted, it was a short and easy way to assume that what are only arbitrary prejudices are " innate " certainties, and therefore must be accepted unconditionally.
Its members did not suspect how limited is the usefulness of general propositions in practical life.
These three propositions were further developed by his followers, who maintained that God revealed Himself in a threefold revelation, the first in Abraham, marking the epoch of the Father; the second in Christ, who began the epoch of the Son; and the third in Amalric and his disciples, who inaugurated the era of the Holy Ghost.
The only instances which he gives of intuitive moral truths are the purely formal propositions, " No government allows absolute liberty," and " Where there is no property there is no injustice," - neither of which has any evident connexion with the general happiness.
The parts of logic which he treated with most minuteness are modal propositions and modal syllogisms. In commenting on Aristotle's Ethics he dealt in a very independent manner with the question of free will, his conclusions being remarkably similar to those of John Locke.
His objections to the fundamental propositions of Descartes were published in 1642; they appear as the fifth in the series contained in the works of Descartes.
These propositions appeared to Zeno to be irreconcilable.
The distinction of moods is according to the quantity or quality of the propositions of the syllogism (universal, particular, affirmative, negative, in all the possible combinations).
The term syllogism has been extended to cover certain forms of ratiocination which are not based on categorical propositions.
Wylie, "contains some acute reasoning in support of the propositions laid down, but the doctrine of faith in Christ is very slightly touched upon.
The real grandeur of Averroes is seen in his resolute prosecution of the standpoint of science in matters of this world, and in his recognition that religion is not a branch of knowledge to be reduced to propositions and systems of dogma, but a personal and inward power, an individual truth which stands, distinct from, but not contradictory to, the universalities of scientific law.
In 1270 Etienne Tempier, bishop of Paris, supported by an assembly of theologians, anathematized thirteen propositions bearing the stamp of Arabian authorship; but in 1277 the same views and others more directly offensive to Christians and theologians had to be censured again.
On the 24th of February 1616 the consulting theologians of the Holy Office characterized the two propositions - that the sun is immovable in the centre of the world, and that the earth has a diurnal motion of rotation - the first as "absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical, because expressly contrary to Holy Scripture," and the second as "open to the same censure in philosophy, and at least erroneous as to faith."
In that year the Paris University condemned five propositions from Jansen's Augustinus, all relative to predestination.
This decree placed the Jansenists between two fires; for although the five propositions only represented one side of Jansen's teaching, it was recognized by both parties that the whole question was to be fought out on this issue.
Firstly, they denied that Jansen had meant the propositions in the sense condemned.
The pope's choice of a book to condemn fell on Quesnel's Reflexions; in 1713 appeared the bull Unigenitus, anathematizing no less than one-hundredand-one of its propositions.
This property is true for all conics, and it served as the basis of most of the constructions and propositions given by Apollonius.
Starting from simple elementary propositions, Steiner advances to the solution of problems which analytically require the calculus of variation, but which at the time altogether surpassed the powers of that calculus.
The same fundamental axioms, the logical principles of identity and sufficient reason, are applicable in explanation of all given propositions.
To inquire how synthetic a priori j udgments are possible, or how far cognition extends, or what worth attaches to metaphysical propositions, is simply to ask, in a specific form, what elements are necessarily involved in experience of which the subject is conscious.
Kant is here able to resume, with fresh insight, his previous discussions regarding the synthetic character of mathematical propositions.
He stressed, in particular, that the integration of reflections, suppositions and propositions collectively should remain coherent.
We can then deliver value propositions to your client based on the knowledge gained.
Aunt Sally ' propositions were discussed in the morning session.
Brentano's much stronger claim is however that no propositions at all are accepted in such judgements, not even existential ones.
Instead, young readers are fed a relentless diet of self-evident, unproved, implausible, and in some cases manifestly false propositions.
It may be a useful exercise to ask ourselves which are the propositions of great generality in cybernetics?
Original, also preliminary, theoretical ideas or experimental studies and propositions of new heuristics when they support or point toward theoretically grounded principles.
The Holy Father will evaluate the propositions the synod fathers have presented and make the decisions he considers opportune.
Other writers hold that (successful) declarative sentences express propositions; and formulas of formal languages somehow display the forms of these propositions.
Those that wouldn't would certainly be negative propositions and possibly existential propositions.
The palette of propositions and transformational techniques give students a (floating) knowledge base for making claims recognizable as good contract arguments.
Now begins a series of adventures (the propositions ).
A separate concluding chapter pulling together the various strands of the book would have added force to the propositions for change.
A papal bull of the 15th of June 1520, which condemned forty-one propositions extracted from Luther's teachings, was taken to Germany by Eck in his capacity of apostolic nuncio, published by him and the legates Alexander and Caracciola, and burned by Luther on the 10th of December at Wittenberg.
Propositions I-II are preliminary, 13-20 contain tangential properties of the curve now known as the spiral of Archimedes, and 21-28 show how to express the area included between any portion of the curve and the radii vectores to its extremities.
This consists of two books, and may be called the foundation of theoretical mechanics, for the previous contributions of Aristotle were comparatively vague and unscientific. In the first book there are fifteen propositions, with seven postulates; and demonstrations are given, much the same as those still employed, of the centres of gravity (I) of any two weights, (2) of any parallelogram, (3) of any triangle, (4) of any trapezium.
The second book in ten propositions is devoted to the finding the centres of gravity (I) of a parabolic segment, (2) of the area included between any two parallel chords and the portions of the curve intercepted by them.
The first (a mechanical proof) begins, after some preliminary propositions on the parabola, in Prop. 6, ending with an integration in Prop. 16.
On the 9th of September Charles refused once mere the Newcastle Propositions offered him by the parliament, and Cromwell, together with Ireton and Vane, obtained the passing of a motion for a new application; but the terms asked by the parliament were higher than before and included a harsh condition - the he was blunt," says Waller, "he did not bear himself with pride or disdain.
Accordingly, when he denies the reality of Being, and declares Becoming, or eternal flux and change, to be the sole actuality, Heraclitus must be understood to enunciate not only the unreality of the abstract notion of being, except as the correlative of that of not-being, but also the physical doctrine that all phenomena are in a state of continuous transition from non-existence to existence, and vice versa, without either distinguishing these propositions or qualifying them by any reference to the relation of thought to experience.
How can such a huge mass of general propositions as are necessarily included in a system of economics ever be thoroughly tested by an appeal to facts ?
On the contrary, the premisses of arithmetic can be put in other forms, and, furthermore, an indefinite number of propositions of arithmetic can be proved directly from logical principles without mentioning them.
Thus, while arithmetic may be defined as that branch of deductive reasoning concerning classes and relations which is concerned with the establishment of propositions concerning cardinal numbers, it must be added that the introduction of cardinal numbers makes no great break in this general science.
Owing to the correspondence between the finite cardinals and the finite ordinals, the propositions of cardinal arithmetic and ordinal arithmetic correspond point by point.
And some forty of these propositions represent, more or less accurately, certain sentences or ideas of Loisy, when torn from their context and their reasons.
Modern medicine, like modern ?xperiscience, is as boldly speculative as it has been in mental any age, and yet it is as observant as in any naturalistic period; its success lies in the addition to these qualities of the method of verification; the fault of previous times being not the activity of the speculative faculty, without which no science can be fertile, but the lack of methodical reference of all and sundry propositions, and parts of propositions, to the test of experiment.
In 1871 the Anatomical Act of 1832 was amended; and in 1876 the Vivisection Act was passed, a measure which investigators engaged in the medical sciences of physiology and pathology resented as likely to prevent in England the advance of knowledge of living function, both in its normal balance and in its aberrancies, and moreover to slacken that habit of incessant reference of propositions to verification which is as necessary to the clinical observer as to the experimentalist.
Each of these two propositions must command assent as soon as uncritical ignorance gives place to philosophic reflection; but each may be exaggerated, indeed has currently been exaggerated, into falsity.
He accordingly hastily drafted ninety-five propositions relating to indulgences, and posted an invitation to those who wished to attend a disputation in Wittenberg on the matter, under his presidency.
To meet these difficulties and give back to us the assurance of the substantiality of the world without us it has therefore been thought necessary to maintain two propositions which are taken to be the refutation of idealism.
We proceed to summarize briefly the contents of that portion of the Collection which has survived, mentioning separately certain propositions which seem to be among the most important.
Aristotle apparently intended, or at all events has given logicians in general the impression, that he intended to analyse syllogism into propositions as premises, and premise into names as terms. His logic therefore exhibits the curious paradox of being an analysis of mental reasoning into linguistic elements.
We omit propositions, curtail them, and even express a judgment by a single term, e.g.
The estates could only assemble when summoned by him; he could dismiss them whenever he thought fit; and their deliberations were to be confined exclusively to the propositions which he might think fit to lay before them.
The first he is willing to accept without further inquiry, though it is an error to suppose, as Kant seems to have supposed, that he regarded mathematical propositions as coming under this head (see HuME); with respect to the second, he finds himself, and confesses that he finds himself, hopelessly at fault.
The teaching in these three propositions is virtually inexhaustible because their numberless aspects ramify into all departments of being at all levels.
It should be noted that many of these propositions resemble other more mainstream therapy approaches.
Its propositions are not philosophical in any self-conscious way.
Now begins a series of adventures (the propositions).
The form of these propositions collectively constitute a bridging process from the subjective expected utility theory of economics to the sociology of religion.
Two more unexceptionable propositions follow, both highly relevant to our discussions.
Heaven v. Pender 1 goes no further than this, tho it is often cited to support all kinds of untenable propositions.
According to the veridical reading,  the ' objects ' of belief and knowledge are best treated as propositions.
That the Propositions sent to his Majesty for a safe and well-grounded Peace be forthwith printed.
Aside from children using parental differences as a bargaining tool, they tend to lose faith in parents that flounder and don't follow through on plans and propositions.
Registering your e-mail address ensures you will receive updates on these propositions as soon as they become available.
Men who fit this description should realize that not every TS woman is looking for a sexual encounter and will be just as offended as a genetic woman who receives inappropriate propositions.
What's more, many online communities popular with tweens and teens are hotbeds of sexual innuendo, propositions, and suggestive photos.
Under him Avicenna read the Isagoge of Porphyry and the first propositions of Euclid.
Many of the propositions contained in his dissertation are general; but the demonstrations are not supplied for the case of seven squares.
In 1768 he had published Institutiones metallurgicae, intended to give a scientific form to chemistry by digesting facts established by experiment into a connected series of propositions.
Naturalists who deal specially with museum collections have been compelled, it is true, for other reasons to attach an increasing importance to what is called the type specimen, but they find that this insistence on the individual, although invaluable from the point of view of recording species, is unsatisfactory from the point of view of scientific zoology; and propositions for the amelioration of this condition of affairs range from a refusal of Linnaean nomenclature in such cases, to the institution of a division between master species for such species as have been properly revised by the comparative morphologist, and provisional species for such species as have been provisionally registered by those working at collections.
This pastoral was subsequently in 1786 annexed to the resolutions passed by the reforming synod of Pistoia, and was condemned with eighty-four other propositions by papal bull in 1794.
The two latter propositions were carried and "Tract XC."
The "Porisms" quoted are interesting propositions in the theory of numbers, one of which was clearly that the dif f erence between two cubes can be resolved into of two cubes.
The book is valuable also for the propositions in the theory of numbers, other than the "porisms," stated or assumed in it.
If we take the mere popular view of what is meant by the " old Political Economy," that is, that a generation or so ago economics was comprised in a neatly rounded set of general propositions, universally accepted, which could be set forth in a question we have really to determine is how we can make the best use of the accumulated knowledge of past generations, and to do that we must look more closely into the economic science of the 10th century..
He is lucky if he can throw new light on a few old propositions.
How can such a huge mass of general propositions as are necessarily included in a system of economics ever be thoroughly tested by an appeal to facts?
She informed Sadler that Arran had asked her whether Henry had made propositions of marriage to herself, and that she had stated that "if Henry should mind or offer her such an honour she must account herself much bounden."
The material is drawn from Scripture, but in such a way that the propositions of the regula fidei are respected.
In such propositions historical Christianity is stripped off as a mere husk.
Although the theology of Origen exerted a considerable influence as a whole in the two following centuries, it certainly lost nothing by the circumstance that several important propositions were capable of being torn from their original setting and placed in new connexions.
The synod of Reims in 1148 procured papal sanction for four propositions opposed to certain of Gilbert's tenets, and his works were condemned until they should be corrected in accordance with the principles of the church.
Gilbert seems to have submitted quietly to this judgment; he yielded assent to the four propositions, and remained on friendly terms with his antagonists till his death on the 4th of September 1154.
In the struggle against the Jansenists he used all the influence he had with the clergy to secure the passage of the apostolic constitution of the 31st of March 16 J3 (Relation de ce qui s'est fait depuis 1653 Bans les assemblies des iveques au sujet des cinq propositions, 1657); but in the rebellion raised by Retz, archbishop of Paris, against the king, he took the part of the king against the pope.
It was supposed to contain heretical propositions and caused a good deal of scandal, inciting Baluze against Faget, both of whom abused the other, to defend the memory of the prelate.
Clement reaffirmed the infallibility of the pope, in matters of fact (1705), and, in 1713, issued the bull Unigenitus, condemning ioi Jansenistic propositions extracted from the Moral Reflections of Pasquier Quesnel.
Both these propositions were, with some restrictions, secured.
But, though a Whig, alike by descent, by education and by conviction, Ashley could by no means be depended on to give a party vote; he was always ready to support any propositions, from whatever quarter they came, that appeared to him to promote the liberty of the subject and the independence of parliament.
Thus, 1 - x would represent the operation of selecting all things in the world except horned things, that is, all not horned things, and (1 - x) (1 - y) would give us all things neither horned nor sheep. By the use of such symbols propositions could be reduced to the form of equations, and the syllogistic conclusion from two premises was obtained by eliminating the middle term according to ordinary algebraic rules.
They are excellent principles of the highest value, but they are in no sense the necessary premisses which must be proved before any other propositions of cardinal numbers can be established.
When once the fixed conditions which any hypothetical group of entities are to satisfy have been precisely formulated, the deduction of the further propositions, which also will hold respecting them, can proceed in complete independence of the question as to whether or no any such group of entities can be found in the world of phenomena.
Given any propositions involving any number of terms, Boole showed how, by the purely symbolic treatment of the premises, to draw any conclusion logically contained in those premises.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
Of the propositions of sectarian theologians he said that confidence was the first, and the second, and the third part.