I have entered into a significant proposition bet with a friend.
I do not accept the general proposition.
The proposition came in a tempting hour.
The true proposition cannot be derived because of its popularity.
The "brand proposition" was for a more natural product for the target market of "chefs who aim to please."
"I have had a proposition made me concerning you," he said with an unnatural smile.
Preparatory work on the franchise proposition is under way to facilitate the franchising process.
Last night a proposition was made me on your account and, as you know my principles, I refer it to you.
It is the proposition, something predicated about something, that conveys an idea.
Each proposition of the decree is carefully tracked to its probable source, and is often found to modify the latter's meaning.
In either case the proposition must be ratified by popular vote at the next general election.
To every proposition in electrostatics there is thus a corresponding one in the hydrokinetic theory of incompressible liquids.
By taking fixed conditions for the hypothesis of such a proposition a definite department of mathematics is marked out.
Why Bedford was not chosen is not stated, but it seems an attractive proposition, especially if it is also free!
A further proposition often stated with respect to sovereignty is that it is unlimited: a proposition which is not true of the legal or political sovereign.
But although mature study has established the truth of this proposition it was not always so.
The Cala Finance funding option continues to prove highly attractive proposition for growing the business.
But it required the arduous labours of the archaeologist to prove a proposition that, once proven, seems self-evident.
Another deduction from the same proposition is that any corporation or private body which appears to exercise sovereign powers together with the state does so only by delegation.
Similar illustrations are used to prove the second proposition, that a visible object, as such, is not external.
This last proviso, however, as we shall see, takes away almost all practical importance from the proposition.
We cannot write a history of the varied origin of logic, beyond putting the rudimentary logic of the proposition in the De Interpretatione before the less rudimentary theory of categories as significant names capable of becoming predicates in the Categories, and before the maturer analysis of the syllogism in the Analytics.
Short lead times for delivery and flexible contract terms drive a compelling proposition within key market sectors, such as retail.
A prenup might not be the most romantic proposition, but for those with assets, it couldn't hurt.
The economic crisis has made finding sailings on the Mighty Mississippi from Memphis an extremely challenging proposition.
This may sound like a bit of a squeamish proposition, but it's not as bad as it sounds, especially if your vet is good at keeping your dog calm.
Where you learn to play Brazilian guitar chords isn't an either/or proposition.
Checking the site is sometimes a hit-or-miss proposition, but with the handy "Fly View" button you can quickly see if the shirt you like is in the size you want.
Senior living is not a one-size-fits-all proposition.
This seemed like a fair proposition for gamers, considering that other games without accessories were easily selling in the $50 to $60 range on the Wii.
If you are interested in buying this fitness game, it may be a better proposition to buy the updated version instead.
If at all possible, try some before buying more than a single bottle, and realize that if you do purchase a bottle without tasting first, it could be a risky proposition.
A news article from the Arizona Daily Star affirms this proposition, saying that buyers of bulk cell phones are likely using them to resell for profit.
In 1986 California voters passed Proposition 63 that made English the state's official language.
In 1998 Californians passed Proposition 227, a referendum that attempted to eliminate bilingual education by allowing only one year of structured English immersion, followed by mainstreaming.
For this reason there is much interest in the proposition that a calcium intake over 1,500 mg per day may build a greater skeletal mass.
This proposition, however, in the early 2000s favored in the United States, is met with great skepticism in the United Kingdom.
Most homeowners do not realize they can actually end up losing money on the proposition.
Swimsuits, however, are items that almost always should be tried on first, so it's a tricky proposition.
These designs are often perfect for engagement rings, however actually buying and wearing antique jewelry isn't always a practical or an attractive proposition.
However, convincing the general population might be a more difficult proposition.
Showing someone that you care doesn't have to be an expensive proposition.
Certainly, the government once thought this was a worthwhile proposition.
Since these sites often get many as a million hits during that period, your ad is not going to be shown to everyone unless you purchase as many impressions as the site has hits, a very expensive proposition.
Buying birthday cards, thank-you notes, or party invitations can easily become an expensive proposition.
It's no surprise, then, that a necklace made of nothing but Swarovski is a pretty pricey proposition.
Buying health insurance on your own can be an expensive proposition, but sometimes it is your only option.
Insuring your art can be a tricky proposition, especially if you are not yet an established artist and therefore do not have a track record of appraisals of your work.
However, the basic set-up of the iTunes file system makes this a difficult proposition.
It's also one of three ingredients - the others are toluene and phthalates - that are recognized by California's Proposition 65 as "known to cause cancer or developmental toxicity."
This proves the proposition.
Under the inappropriate title Sketches of History (1784) he published under his own name six sermons on the characters of Aaron, Hazael and Jesus, in which, though writing in the character of an orthodox Calvinist, he enunciates the proposition "God Himself has no right to be a tyrant."
But the normal judgment, and therefore the normal proposition, do not require the quantity of the predicate.
On the one hand, assuming the quartic to have the form 4xix 2, we find i=j=o, and on the other hand, assuming i=j=o, we find that the quartic must have the form a o xi+4a 1 xix 2 which proves the proposition.
This view prevailed, and the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution was substantially Blaine's proposition.
The most fundamental experimental confirmation that the theory of the aether has received on the optical side in recent years has been the verification of Maxwell's proposition that radiation exerts mechanical force on a material system, on which it falls, which may be represented in all cases as the resultant of pressures operating along the rays, and of intensity equal at each point of free space to the density of radiant energy.
This at once led to an explosion, and at the diet of Piotrkow, 1J52, the szlachta accepted a proposition of the king, by way of compromise, that the jurisdiction of the clerical courts should be suspended for twelve months, on condition that the gentry continued to pay tithes as heretofore.
Dollinger, however, voted against the proposition, and withdrew from any further steps towards the promotion of the movement.
The proposition holds, in its general sense, for sea plants likewise.
In 1783 a convention of delegates from all the volunteer corps in Ireland assembled in Dublin for the purpose of procuring a reform in parliament; but the House of Commons refused to entertain the proposition, and the convention separated without coming to any practical result.
At the instance of the emperor Justinian he adopted the proposition unus de Trinitate passus est in carne as a test of the orthodoxy of certain Scythian monks accused of Nestorian tendencies.
a state or city to submit a proposition to all the registered voters of the state (or city) for their approval.
To compare it on this score with the fundamental proposition of Archimedes, the latter must be put into a form similar to Snell's.
In a very curious manner, by viewing the circle y= (1 - x2): as a member of the series of curves y= (I -x 2 )', y = (I -x 2) 2, &c., he was led to the proposition that four times the reciprocal of the ratio of the circumference to the diameter, i.e.
In 1873 Charles Hermite proved that the base of the Napierian logarithms cannot be a root of a rational algebraical equation of any degree.3 To prove the same proposition regarding 7r is to prove that a Euclidean construction for circle-quadrature is impossible.
The categories then are names signifying things capable of becoming predicates in a proposition.
In other words, to him subject meant real as well as nominal subject, and predicate meant real as well as nominal predicate; whereas modern logic has gradually reduced both to the nominal terms of a proposition.
Its point is to separate the enunciative sentence, or that in which there is truth or falsity, from other sentences; and then, dismissing the rest to rhetoric or poetry (where we should say grammar), to discuss the enunciative sentence(it r04avTLKOs X6yos), or enunciation (air04avvts), or what we should call the proposition (De Int.
Here Aristotle, starting from the previous grammar of sentences in general, proceeded, for the first time in philosophical literature, to disengage the logic of the proposition, or that sentence which can alone be true or false, whereby it alone enters into reasoning.
But in spite of this great logical achievement, he continued throughout the discourse to accept Plato's grammatical analysis of all sentences into noun and verb, which indeed applies to the proposition as a sentence but does not give its particular elements.
How then did Aristotle get further in the logical analysis of the proposition?
It is not necessary in every proposition, but it is necessary in the arrangement of a syllogism, to extricate the terms of its propositions from the copula; e.g.
Moreover we can make a history of Aristotle's thought and gradual composition thus: (s) Earlier acceptance in the De Interpretatione of Plato's grammatical analysis of the sentence into noun and verb (secundi adjacentis) but gradually disengaging the proposition, and after wards introducing the verb of being as a third thing added (tertium adjacens) to the predicated verb, for the purpose of opposition.
He gradually became a logician out of his previous studies: out of metaphysics, for with him being is always the basis of thinking, and common principles, such as that of contradiction, are axioms of things before axioms of thought, while categories are primarily things signified by names; out of the mathematics of the Pythagoreans and the Platonists, which taught him the nature of demonstration; out of the physics, of which he imbibed the first draughts from his father, which taught him induction from sense and the modification of strict demonstration to suit facts; out of the dialectic between man and man which provided him with beautiful examples of inference in the Socratic dialogues of Xenophon and Plato; out of the rhetoric addressed to large audiences, which with dialectic called his attention to probable inferences; out of the grammar taught with rhetoric and poetics which led him to the logic of the proposition.
the Categories earlier than some parts of the Metaphysics, because under the influence of Platonic forms it talks of inherent attributes, and allows secondary substances which are universal; the De Interpretatione earlier than the Analytics, because in it the Platonic analysis of the sentence into noun and verb is retained for the proposition; the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia earlier than the Nicomachean Ethics, because they are rudimentary sketches of it, and the one written rather in the theological spirit, the other rather in the dialectical style, of Plato; and the Rhetoric to Alexander earlier than the Rhetoric, because it contains a rudimentary theory of the rational evidences afterwards developed into a logic of rhetoric in the Rhetoric and Analytics.
Whether this phase is that of the morning sun or of the springtime with which beneficent qualities are associated, or that of the noonday sun or of the summer solstice, bringing suffering and destruction in its wake, is still a matter of dispute, with the evidence on the whole in favour of the former proposition.
The acceptance of the proposition to call the convention and the election of many conscientious and intelligent delegates were largely due to the influence of ex-Governor Brown, who was strongly convinced that the wisest course for the South was to accept quickly what Congress had offered.
Sunt Cogitationes has been regarded by thinkers who profess themselves Berkeleians as the one proposition warranted by consciousness; the empiricism of his philosophy has been eagerly welcomed, while the spiritual intuition, without which the whole is to Berkeley meaningless, has been cast aside.
Of less interest nowadays are Robins's more purely mathematical writings, such as his Discourse concerning the Nature and Certainty of Sir Isaac Newton's Methods of Fluxions and of Prime and Ultimate Ratios (1735), "A Demonstration of the Eleventh Proposition of Sir Isaac Newton's Treatise of Quadratures" (Phil.
(the former part of which is lost, the existing fragment beginning in the middle of the 14th proposition) related to a system of multiplication due to Apollonius of Perga.
Proposition 30 describes the construction of a curve of double curvature called by Pappus the helix on a sphere; it is described by a point moving uniformly along the arc of a great circle, which itself turns about its diameter uniformly, the point describing a quadrant and the great circle a complete revolution in the same time.
Proposition 14 shows how to draw an ellipse through five given points, and Prop. 15 gives a simple construction for the axes of an ellipse when a pair of conjugate diameters are given.
" Herein," says Wundt, " consists the imperishable truth of the Kantian proposition that the moral order of the world is the single real proof of the existence of God " (System, 405; cf.
It is true that as much might be inferred from Persons the testimony of the romance writers; historical empowered evidence, however, tends to limit the proposition, and to confer the sounder conclusion appears to be, as Sir Harris Knighthood.
The pope, who wanted more time for his devotions, offered to leave three cardinals in charge of affairs; but his proposition was rejected.
The first desideratum here mentioned - the want, namely, of an accurate statement of the relation between the increase of population and food - Malthus doubtless supposed to have been supplied by the celebrated proposition that "population increases in a geometrical, food in an arithmetical ratio."
This proposition, however, has been conclusively shown to be erroneous, there being no such difference of law between the increase of man and that of the organic beings which form his food.
This proposition, which he called the mystic hexagram, he made the keystone of his theory; from it alone he deduced more than 400 corollaries, embracing, according to his own account, the conics of Apollonius, and other results innumerable.
All the others continued loyal disciples, but Devadatta, fifteen years afterwards, having gained over the crown prince of Magadha, Ajatasattu, to his side, made a formal proposition, at the meeting of the order, that the Buddha should retire, and hand over the leadership to him, Devadatta (Vinaya Texts, iii.
In the east Lee had the second time marched his army into Pennsylvania to suffer a disastrous defeat at Gettysburg, on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd of July, though he was able to withdraw his shattered forces south of the Potomac. At the dedication of this battlefield as a soldiers' cemetery in November, President Lincoln made the following oration, which has taken permanent place as a classic in American literature: - "Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
The president thereupon sent them, and made public, the following standing offer: "To whom it may concern:" Any proposition which embraces the restoration of peace, the integrity of the whole Union, and the abandonment of slavery, and which comes by and with an authority that can control the armies now at war against the United States, will be received and considered by the Executive Government of the United States, and will be met by liberal terms on substantial and collateral points, and the bearer or bearers thereof shall have safe conduct both ways.
For general talk about the evils of slavery they cared little, but this assertion that every slave was entitled to instant freedom filled them with alarm and roused them to anger, for they saw that, if the conscience of the nation were to respond to the proposition, the system must inevitably fall.
It fell to the ground for want of adequate support; but another proposition, the fruit of secret discussion between the king and his confederates, which placed all fiefs under the control of the crown as regards taxation, and p rovided for selling and letting them to the highest bidder, was accepted by the Estate of burgesses.
The foolishness and obstinacy of the ass has caused the name to be transferred metaphorically to human beings; and the fifth proposition of Book i.
Each sutra (Pali, sutta) is very short; usually occupying only a page, or perhaps two, and containing a single proposition.
a lwua), a general proposition or principle accepted as self-evident, either absolutely or within a particular sphere of thought.
After Aristotle, the term was used by the Stoics and the school of Ramus for a proposition simply, and Bacon (Nov.
7) used it of any general proposition.
Every proposition which Sir Alfred Milner made was met by the objection that it threatened the independence of the Transvaal.
Being and not being are thus declared identical - a proposition which in this unqualified shape was to most people a stumbling-block at the very door of the system.
Madison precipitately accepted this proposition and sent Albert Gallatin and James Bayard to act as commissioners with Mr Adams; but England would have nothing to do with it.
Thus, though, in so far as he asserted his fundamental doctrine without doubt or qualification, he was a dogmatist, in all else he was a sceptic. Again, the Eleatic Parmenides, deriving from the theologian Xenophanes the distinction between E 71'caT77 /, 07 and (W a, conceived that, whilst the One exists and is the object of knowledge, the Multiplicity of things becomes and is the object of opinion; but, when his successor Zeno provided the system with a logic, the consistent application of that logic resolved the fundamental doctrine into the single proposition " One is One," or, more exactly, into the single identity " One One."
All that can be meant by such a proposition is that according to the well-understood rules of international law a change of sovereignty by cession ought not to affect private property, but no municipal tribunal has authority to enforce such an obligation.
In order to establish his sixth proposition, Clarke contends that time and space, eternity and immensity, are not substances, but attributes - the attributes of a self-existent being.
The soldiers of Irak, who did not love the governor, and disliked the prospect of a long and difficult war far from home, eagerly accepted the proposition of returning to Irak, and even proclaimed the dethronement of Abdalmalik, in favour of Ibn Ash`ath.
Qahtaba made a victorious raid as far as Adhruliya (Dorylaeum); it was on his proposition that Mandi resolved on building the frontier town called Iladath (Adata), which became an outpost.
A proposition by the cadi Abu Yusuf to Harun al-Rashid to renew it had not been adopted.
Each proposition consists of two terms, the subject and its predicate, united by the copula.
All these points about speech, eloquence and argument between man and man were absorbed into Aristotle's theory of reasoning, and in particular the grammar of the sentence consisting of noun and verb caused the logic of the proposition consisting of subject and predicate.
In the Analytics he took the final step of originating the logical analysis of the proposition as premise into subject and predicate as terms mediated by the copula, and analysed the syllogism into these elements.
But he laid too much stress on reasoning as syllogism or deduction, and on deductive science; and he laid too much stress on the linguistic analysis of rational discourse into proposition and terms. These two defects remain ingrained in technical logic to this day.
It was natural enough that the originators of conceptual logic, seeing that judgments can be expressed by propositions, and conceptions by terms, should fall into the error of supposing that, as propositions consist of terms, so judgments consist of conceptions, and that there is a triple mental order - conception, judgment, reasoning - parallel to the triple linguistic order - term, proposition, discourse.
(5) When a judgment is expressed by a proposition, the proposition expresses the results of the division by two terms, subject and predicate, and by the copula that what is signified by the subject is what is signified by the predicate; and the proposition is a combination of the two terms; e.g.
- The emphasis now laid on judgment, the recovery from Hume's confusion of beliefs with ideas and the association of ideas, and the distinction of the mental act of judging from its verbal expression in a proposition, are all healthy signs in recent logic. The most fundamental question, before proceeding to the investigation of inference, is not what we say but what we think in making the judgments which, whether we express them in propositions or not, are both the premises and the conclusion of inference; and, as this question has been diligently studied of late, but has been variously answered, it will be well to give a list of the more important theories of judgment as follows: a.
The Judgment and the Proposition.
A proposition is the consequent verbal expression of such a belief, and consists in asserting that the thing as signified by the subject is (or is not) determined as signified by the predicate.
" and only usually by a proposition.
But even the normal proposition in the syllogistic form tertii adjacentis, with subject, predicate and copula, is seldom a complete expression of the judgment.
The consequence is that the proposition, being different from a judgment arising after a judgment, and remaining an imperfect copy of judgment, is only a superficial evidence of its real nature.
Fortunately, we have more profound evidences, and at least three evidences in all: the linguistic expression of belief in the proposition; the consciousness of what we mentally believe; and the analysis of reasoning, which shows what we must believe, and have believed, as data for inference.
In these ways we find that a judgment is both different from, and more than, a proposition.
But recent logicians, although they perceive the difference, nevertheless tend to make the proposition thej measure of the judgment.
Worse still, logicians seem unable to keep the judgment apart from the proposition.
The statement only affects the proposition; and whenever we believe the existence of the thing, the belief in existence is part of the judgment thought, whether it is part of the proposition stated or not.
In ordinary life we may say, " All men are mortal," " All centaurs are figments," " All square circles are impossibilities," " All candidates arriving five minutes late are fined " (the last proposition being an example of the identification of categorical with hypothetical in Keynes's Formal Logic).
The judgment, then, is the measure of the proposition, not the proposition the measure of the judgment.
Finally, the great difficulty of the logic of judgment is to find the mental act behind the linguistic expression, to ascribe to it exactly what is thought, neither more nor less, and to apply the judgment thought to the logical proposition, without expecting to find it in ordinary propositions.
Deduction is analysis when it is regressive from consequence to real ground, as when we start from the proposition that the angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles and deduce analytically that therefore (i) they are equal to equal angles made by a straight line standing on another straight line, and (2) such equal angles are two right angles.
Deduction is synthesis when it is progressive from real ground to consequence, as when we start from these two results of analysis as principles and deduce synthetically the proposition that therefore the angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles, in the order familiar to the student of Euclid.
He re-defines analysis in the very opposite way to the ancients; whereas they defined it as a regressive process from consequence to ground, according to Wundt it is a progressive process of taking for granted a proposition and deducing a consequence, which being true verifies the proposition.
By the categorical he means the ancient analysis from a given proposition to more general propositions.
By the hypothetical he means the new-fangled analysis from a given proposition to more particular propositions, i.e.
But his account of the first is imperfect, because in ancient analysis the more general propositions, with which it concludes, are not mere consequences, but the real grounds of the given proposition; while his addition of the second reduces the nature of analysis to the utmost confusion, because hypothetical deduction is progressive from hypothesis to consequent facts whereas analysis is regressive from consequent facts to real ground.
This view makes inference easy: induction is all over before it begins; for, according to Bradley, " every one of the instances is already a universal proposition; and it is not a particular fact or phenomenon at all," so that the moment you observe that this magnet attracts iron, you ipso facto know that every magnet does so, and all that remains for deduction is to identify a second magnet as the same with the first, and conclude that it attracts iron.
As Aristotle puts it, the syllogism is directed " not to the outer, but to the inner discourse," or as we should say, not to the expression but to the thought, not to the proposition but to the judgment, and to the inference not verbally but mentally.
Inference is a deeper thinking process from judgments to judgment, which only occasionally and partially emerges in the linguistic process from propositions to proposition.
We may now then reassert two points about inference against Bradley's logic: the first, that it is a process from similar to similar, and not a process of identification, because two different things are not at all the same thing; the second, that it is the mental process from judgments to judgment rather than the linguistic process from propositions to proposition, because, besides the judgments expressed in propositions, it requires judgments which are not always expressed, and are sometimes even unconscious.
That judgment is true which apprehends a thing as it is capable of being known to be; and that proposition is true which so asserts the thing to be.
For example, as I am weary and am conscious of being weary, my judgment and proposition that I am weary are true because they signify what I am and know myself to be by direct consciousness; and my being weary is ambiguously said to be true because it is so signified.
For proposition and judgment involve subject and predicate and exhibit what a modern writer calls " identity of reference with diversity of characterization."
This is especially to be noted in the theory of the proposition.
There was necessarily a " sense " or direction in every proposition, with more than the purely psychological import that the advance was from the already mastered and familiar taken as relatively stable, to the new and strange.
A premise that has the utmost universality consistent with this view can clearly be of no service for the establishment of a proposition that has gone to the making of it.
2 From the purely logical thesis, developed at quite an early stage of his thinking, 3 that in any true proposition the predicate is contained in the subject, the main principles of his doctrine of Monads are derivable with the minimum of help from his philosophy of dynamics.
But every quaternion formula is a proposition in spherical (sometimes degrading to plane) trigonometry, and has the full advantage of the symmetry of the method.
Although there is not much to justify such a proposition, it may perhaps be conceded that she was in many respects abnormal and that some of her work is characteristic of a process known to modern psychologists as "automatism," or in other words that it is the result of a spasmodic uprush to the surface of sub-conscious mental activities.
For nearly a year the diplomatic pourparlers continued without an agreement being reached; France insisted on Mehemet Ali's receiving the hereditary pashalik of Syria as well as that of Egypt, a proposition to which Palmerston, though sincerely anxious to preserve the Anglo-French entente, refused to agree.
This is the proposition known as the polygon of forces.
A sort of converse proposition is frequently useful, viz.
His central proposition was to the effect that Father, Son and Holy Spirit are the same person, three names thus being attached to one and the same being.
The proposition that our knowledge of nature necessarily begins with observation and experience, is common to Bacon and many contemporary reformers of science, but he laid peculiar stress upon it, and gave it a new meaning.
Bacon did not understand by induction the argument from particulars to a general proposition; he looked upon the exclusion and rejection, or upon elimination, as the essence of induction.
An ancient legal conception, it has been said, corresponds not to one but to several modern conceptions; and the proposition is equally true when economic is substituted for legal.
Procrastination is the attribute of all Persians, to-morrow being ever the answer to any proposition, and the to-morrow means indefinite delay.
The proposition that any freemen or burghers not in the pay of the company should be encouraged to cultivate the ground was first made about three years after Riebeek's arrival.
The fundamental doctrine of this work is that, on the hypothesis of free competition, exchange value is determined by the labour expended in production, - a proposition not new, nor, except with considerable limitation and explanation, true, and of little practical use, as "amount of labour" is a vague expression, and the thing intended is incapable of exact estimation.
In Heraclitus the constant flux is a metaphysical notion replaced by the interchange of material elements which Chrysippus stated as a simple proposition of physics.
For the second of these propositions there is no evidence, while the first proposition is now everywhere discredited.
Sometimes it is said that the territory of the vassal state forms part of the territory of the suzerain; a proposition which is true for some purposes, but not for all.
The courts, however, declared that the clause in the constitution of New Jersey was a " general proposition," not applying " to man in his private, industrial or domestic capacity."
In the 1 96th proposition of his work (De motu animalium, Leiden, 1685) he states that " If the expanded wings of a bird suspended in the air shall strike the undisturbed air beneath it with a motion perpendicular to the horizon, the bird will fly with a transverse motion in a plane parallel with the horizon."
The irritation of the powers at the unexpected delay was so great that Great Britain proposed a collective note on the subject, to be executed by the Austrian cabinet; while Prince Bismarck threatened, if the Berlin proposition were not carried out, to refer to the suzerain power at.
In making the proposition he stated that his objects were " to promote the union of the empire, and at the same time to obtain revenue for the purposes of general defence."
I have considered how best to compose the present dispute, and I think it may be done by the inclosed scholium to the fourth proposition."
In contrast to them the way of truth starts from the proposition that " the Ent is, the Nonent is not."
The same author also discusses the proposition from another standpoint, namely, the condition of the earth's surface in Cretaceous times.
The eight forms of proposition adopted by De Morgan as the basis of his system partially differ from those which Hamilton derived from the quantified predicate.
2 Probably, if we leave out of sight the very numerous and obvious cases in which fasting, originally the natural reflex result of grief, fear or other strong emotion, has come to be the usual conventional symbol of these, we shall find that the practice is generally resorted to, either as a means of somehow exalting the higher faculties at the expense of the lower, or as an act of homage to some object of worship. The axiom of the Amazulu, that " the continually stuffed body cannot see secret things," meets even now with pretty general acceptance; and if the notion that it is precisely the food which the worshipper foregoes that makes the deity more vigorous to do battle for his human friend be confined only to a few scattered tribes of savages, the general proposition that " fasting is a work of reverence toward God " may be said to be an article of the Catholic faith.3 Although fasting as a religious rite is to be met with almost everywhere, there are comparatively few religions, and those only of the more developed kind, which appoint definite public fasts, and make them binding at fixed seasons upon all the faithful.
Confidence that we are right, he would say, is in itself no proof that we are right: when God asks assent to the truth of a proposition in religion, he either shows us its intrinsic rationality by ordinary means, or he offers miraculous proof of the reality of which we need reasonable evidence.
" Where there is no property there is no injustice," is an example of a proposition "as certain as any demonstration in Euclid."
This doubt found expression in the reasoned scepticism of Gorgias, and produced the famous proposition of Protagoras, that human apprehension is the only standard of existence.
He is scarcely aware that his Aristotelianized Christianity inevitably combines two different difficulties in dealing with this question: first, the old pagan difficulty of reconciling the proposition that will is a rational desire always directed towards apparent good, with the freedom of choice between good and evil that the jural view of morality seems to require; and, secondly, the Christian difficulty of harmonizing this latter notion with the absolute dependence on divine grace which the religious consciousness affirms.
It is true that Locke is not particularly concerned with the ethico-theological proposition which Clarke is most anxious to maintain, - that the fundamental rules of morality are independent of arbitrary will, whether divine or human.
What he really means is less paradoxically stated in the general proposition that " originally and in reality it is natural and (morally speaking) necessary that the will should be determined in every action by the reason of the thing and the right of the case,"` as it is natural and (absolutely speaking) necessary that the understanding should submit to a demonstrated truth."
Wollaston's theory of moral evil as consisting in the practical contradiction of a true proposition, closely resembles the most paradoxical part of Clarke's doctrine, and was not likely to approve itself to the strong common sense of Butler; but his statement of happiness or pleasure as a " justly desirable " end at which every rational being " ought " to aim corresponds exactly to Butler's conception of self-love as a naturally governing impulse; while' the " moral arithmetic " with which he compares pleasures and pains, and endeavours to make the notion of happiness quantitatively precise, is an anticipation of Benthamism.
When, however, we look closer, we find that the principle of order, or obedience to government, is not seriously intended to imply the political absolutism which it seems to express, and which English common sense emphatically repudiates; while the formula of justice is given in the tautological or perfectly indefinite proposition " that every man ought to have his own."
If we ask what precisely are the ends of reason, Kant's proposition that " all rational beings as such are ends in themselves for every rational being " hardly gives a clear answer.
The proper share of each in bringing about this memorable result is not easy to apportion, since they freely imparted and profited by one another's advances and improvements; it need only be said that the fundamental proposition of the invariability of the planetary major axes laid down with restrictions by Laplace in 1773, was finally established by Lagrange in 1776; while Laplace in 1784 proved the subsistence of such a relation between the eccentricities of the planetary orbits on the one hand, and their inclinations on the other, that an increase of either element could, in any single case, proceed only to a very small extent.
From its primary sense are derived such applications of the word as a chain of reasoning, a fact or reason given to support a proposition, a discussion of the evidence or reasons for or against some theory or proposition and the like.
213) and who on the motion of Themistocles rejected the proposition of Lacedaemon for the expulsion of the states which had sided with Persia (Plut.
He holds that the true method of research is the analytic, rising from lower to higher notions; yet he sees clearly, and admits, that inductive reasoning, as conceived by Bacon, rests on a general proposition not itself proved by induction.
The legislature is forbidden to create any further debt except for the ordimary current business of the state, unless the proposition he submitted to the voters of the state and approved by a two-thirds majority.
The proposition was rejected (November 17), but Louis-Napoleon saw that it was time to act.
A modification in this proposition which may hereafter be accepted involves an extension of our ideas of temperature, and leads us to regard the interior heat of the heavenly bodies as due to a form of molecular activity similar to that of which radium affords so remarkable an instance.
The conclusion is an artificial proposition which would be stated naturally in the converse.
Hypothetical " Syllogisms " are those in which one premise is a hypothetical proposition, the other a categorical.
The distinction is of greater importance than would appear when one realizes how obvious the facts really are, and in practice it happens frequently that speakers claim with success to disprove a proposition by disproving the fact alleged in support of it, or to establish a hypothesis by showing that facts agree with its consequences.
The validity of such arguments depends upon the sense in which we understand the disjunctive proposition: we must assume that the alternatives are mutually exclusive.'
We cannot convert Max Muller's proposition " there was nothing told of the sky that could not in some form or other be ascribed to Zeus" into " there was nothing ascribed to Zeus that had not at some time or other been told of the sky."
18), in which he treats philosophically the proposition that reason is the mistress of the passions, inquiring what is meant by " reason" and what by " passion," as well as how many kinds of passion there are, and whether reason rules them all.
In Newton's method, two angles of constant magnitude are caused to revolve about their vertices which are fixed in position, in such a manner that the intersection of two limbs moves along a fixed straight line; then the two remaining limbs envelop a conic. Maclaurin's method, published in his Geometria organica (1719), is based on the proposition that the locus of the vertex of a triangle, the sides of which pass through three fixed points, and the base angles move along two fixed lines, is a conic section.
The legislature may, also, submit to the people the question of calling a convention to amend or revise the constitution, and such a convention must be called whenever, upon the submission of this proposition, a majority of the votes are cast in favour of it.
The proposition to call a convention to vote on the question of secession was voted down on the 9th of February 1861, but after President Lincoln's call for troops the legislature submitted the question of secession directly to the people, and meanwhile, on the 7th of May 1861, entered into a " Military League " with the Confederacy.
She mulled his proposition and forced her thoughts away from it and her gaze to the paper again. 5.
You men can use every ploy in the book to get a woman to submit, but if she mistakes that proposition for a proposal of marriage, right away she's blackmailing you.
Her Guardian would never proposition her!
Brady's hormones surged at her proposition.
It is a feasible proposition in arcade games.
Apparently such a proposition runs counter to Marxist theory.
absurd proposition, it is still debated by philosophers.
argumentum ad populum, that a proposition is true because it is popular.
ascription of knowledge is supposed to be an empirical proposition which is informative in so far as it excludes an alternative.
The connection we already have involves the Proposition of Neural Indeterminacy, probabilistic causation, and the Correlation Hypothesis.
compelling proposition within key market sectors, such as retail.
The objection gathers strength when one notices that Popper's proposition is itself not conjectural.
considered proposition compared to the first generation CR-V.
The California State Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of Proposition 21, a juvenile crime initiative, passed by voters in 2000.
I don't remember anyone making such an utterly daft proposition.
Dealing with timber decay in a Grade 1 listed building will be a somewhat different proposition from a modern town house.
dicey it can be relatively simple to establish a biotech company, creating a nexus of such start-ups is a much dicier proposition.
disbelieved this proposition.
Above all, socialists would be making a fundamentally dishonest proposition to the working class.
disjunctive proposition " .
falsehood of the proposition by your own living experience.
falsity of any proposition.
Current examples of the latter proposition are taken from recent issues of leading social science journals.
Proposition 2.6 let a n l as n and assume also that a n m as n.
low-rent offices - or at least a minimal back office - are a key part of the Zopa proposition.
ludicrous proposition in the glow of last summer's Ashes victory.
In gas we seek to defend our market position through focusing on customer service and a value proposition rather than acquiring market share.
maximal proposition in the extreme manner.
mover of a proposition or amendment shall always have a right of reply at the close of the debate thereon.
Its basic proposition is that neural events are effects of wholly neural or other bodily causal sequences.
no-win proposition exposures production risks tort filings fell.
nub of the argument rests on a much more fundamental proposition.
Especially uncertain is whether universal schooling for girls is a feasible proposition in strongly patriarchal settings.
practicable proposition: the most sensible set-up is a National Body.
When the speakers make a practice of asserting the proposition under these conditions, they become the proposition's truth conditions.
We cannot believe a proposition which we know to be untrue.
Provided the resource is there, community hydro projects can also be a viable proposition.
For some, setting up a home office or working from home is an attractive proposition.
A business that has a well-rounded and established management team is a less risky proposition to a purchaser.
Are spinouts a realistic proposition for the plant sciences in today's environment?
For both gas sufferers and those near and dear to them, this passive control device offers a win-win proposition.
Come up with a unique selling proposition that compels people to link to your site.
We treat our clients well, working with them for the long term to get better results for their business proposition online.
Its extreme expression is represented by the proposition being considered in California to deny schooling to the children of illegals.
The CPGB was equally scornful of the proposition that the ILP would rapidly become the instrument of socialist change.
self-evident proposition that teaching and learning have to be interactive.
Unlike a, this proposition is not self-referential; it refers instead to a.
This fact makes programming with vectors a quite distinct proposition from programming with lists, which are purely sequential access.
A new aetiological proposition emerges from the isolation of the new conceptual operator of infantile sexuality and the castration complex.
sniggerere anywhere a member who did not secretly snicker up his sleeve at this ridiculous proposition?
Climbing down from the big stalagmite was a far stickier proposition than getting to the top.
With several grunts he was up and we were left with the proposition of emulating this apparently supernatural feat from our alpine mentor.
toothpaste manufacturer might actually be able to develop a product, a proposition and a branding that only appeals to young clubbers.
Finally, we get down to our first proposition: Proposition 1. On a given straight line to construct an equilateral triangle.
develop an understanding of what drives lapse Ã¢ informs your customer proposition.
unleashed when Marianne responded to a seemingly casual proposition.
win-win proposition for customers, yet they have their critics.
workable proposition but limited the turning circle.
Others, while recognizing the supreme authority of the papal magisterium in matters of doctrine, confine the infallibility to those cases alone in which the pope chooses to make use of it, and declares positively that he is imposing on all the faithful the obligation of belief in a certain definite proposition, under pain of heresy and exclusion from the Church; they do not insist on any special form, but only require that the pope should clearly manifest his will to the Church.
All along mathematics was regarded by Descartes rather as the envelope than the foundation of his method; and the " universal mathematical science " which he sought after was only the prelude of a universal science of all-embracing character.2 The method of Descartes rests upon the proposition that all the objects of our knowledge fall into series, of which the members are more or less known by means of one another.
The theological virtues are founded on faith, in opposition to the natural, which are founded on reason; and as faith with Aquinas is always belief in a proposition, not trust in a personal Saviour, conformably with his idea that revelation is a new knowledge rather than a new life, the relation of unbelief to virtue is very strictly and narrowly laid down and enforced.
Thirteen bishops subscribed this proposition: that in the New Testament there is no mention made of any distinctions or degrees in orders but only deacons and priests or bishops.
Not demonstrable as a theoretical proposition, the immortality of the soul " is an inseparable result of an unconditional a priori practical law."
By 1907 altogether 59 local authorities had examined the proposition of establishing telephone systems after 1899, and licences were granted to local authorities at Brighton, Belfast, Chard, Glasgow, Grantham, Huddersfield, Hull, Portsmouth, Swansea, Tunbridge Wells, Oldham, Scarborough and Hartle - pool, but only six municipalities proceeded with the business.
Lamarck, while affirming the verbal proposition that animals form a single series, was forced by his vast acquaintance with the details of zoology to limit the assertion to such a series as may be formed out of the abstractions constituted by the common characters of each group.'
If Meckel's proposition is so far qualified, that the comparison of adult with embryonic forms is restricted within the limits of one type of organization; and if it is further recollected, that the resemblance between the permanent lower form and the embryonic stage of a higher form is not special but general, it is in entire accordance with modern embryology; although there is no branch of biology which has grown so largely, and improved its methods so much since Meckel's time, as this.
That branch of biology which is termed morphology is a commentary upon, and expansion of, the proposition that widely different animals or plants, and widely different parts of animals or plants, are constructed upon the same plan.
It is possible to put into words the proposition, that all the animals and plants of each geological epoch were annihilated, and that a new set of very similar forms was created for the next epoch, but it may be doubted if any one who ever tried to form a distinct mental image of this process of spontaneous generation on the grandest scale ever really succeeded in realizing it.
The general proposition as to a parallelism between individual and ancestral development is no doubt indisputable, but extended knowledge of the very different ontogenetic histories of closely allied forms has led us to a much fuller conception of the mode in which stages in embryonic and larval history have been modified in relation to their surroundings, and to a consequent reluctance to attach detailed importance to the embryological argument for evolution.
irapa, beyond, contrary to, S6Ea, opinion), a proposition or statement which appears to be at variance with generally-received opinion, or which apparently is self-contradictory, absurd or untrue, but either contains a concealed truth or may on examination be proved to be true.
& Xj jsa, a double proposition, from 81- and Xaµ(3avav), a term used technically in logic, and popularly in common parlance and rhetoric. (I) The latter use has no exact definition, but in general it describes a situation wherein from either of two (or more) possible alternatives an unsatisfactory conclusion results.
affirmare, to assert), the declaration that something is true; in logic, a positive judgment, the union of the subject and predicate of a proposition; particularly, in law, the solemn declaration allowed to those who conscientiously object to taking an oath.
He claims originality for his theory that the moral evil is the practical denial of a true proposition and moral good the affirmation of it (see Ethics).
The converse proposition, that persons efficiently protected from mosquito bites escape malaria, has been made the subject of several remarkable experiments.
In the same way the doctrines of the classical economists may be adapted by interpretation clauses and qualifications the exact force of which cannot be tested or explained, so that we do not know whether the original proposition is to be considered substantially correct or not.
Such a doctrine is the so-called Law of Diminishing Returns, which Mill considered " the most important proposition in Political Economy."
His fundamental proposition is that there is a fixed, unchangeable order jn the world, a reign of inflexible law (i.
134 and 135) says that he declined to identify the Good with the Useful, and that he denied the value of the negative proposition on the ground that affirmation alone can express truth.
And Salvian treats the proposition "coloni divitum fiunt " as equivalent to " vertuntur in servos."
- The typical mathematical proposition is: "If x, y, z.
Consider an incomplete proposition, incomplete in the sense that some entity which ought to be involved in it is represented by an undetermined x, which may stand for any entity.
Two propositional functions 4)x and fix are "extensionally identical" if any determination of x in 4)x which converts 4)x into a true proposition also converts 4'x into a true proposition, and conversely for 4' and 4).
If Fx is true when, and only when, x is determined to be either 4) or some other propositional function extensionally equivalent to (A, then the proposition F4 is of the form which is ordinarily recognized as being about the class determined by )x taken in extension - that is, the class of entities for which 4)x is a true proposition when x is determined to be any one of them.
The proposition Deus non factus est aliquid secundum quod est homo was condemned by a synod of Tours in 1163 and again by the Lateran synod of 1179, but Adoptianism continued all through the middle ages to be a source of theological dispute.
A leading proposition states that, if an invariant of Xax and i ubi be considered as a form in the variables X and, u, and an invariant of the latter be taken, the result will be a combinant of cif and b1'.
Maury describes all the divisions of which a good sermon should consist - an exordium, a proposition, a section, a confirmation in two or more points, a peroration; and he holds that a sermon on morals should have but two points, while one on the Passion must have three.
From every proposition in this algebra a reciprocal one may be deduced by interchanging + and X, and also the symbols o and i.
NO same range and distinctive character as every other, nor to make such a proposition about classes, orders, families and genera.
This last clause prepares us to find him shifting his position still farther at the council of Causey, where he advances the proposition that John XV.
120) to the proposition that light is reflected from a surface at an angle equal to the angle of incidence, which Hero proved in his Catoptrica, the words used by Plutarch fitting well with the corresponding passage of that work (as to which see below).
Torricelli, observing that in a jet where the water rushed through a small ajutage it rose to nearly the same height with the reservoir from which it was supplied, imagined that it ought to move with the same velocity as if it had fallen through that height by the force of gravity, and hence he deduced the proposition that the velocities of liquids are as the square root of the head, apart from the resistance of the air and the friction of the orifice.
Dubuat, therefore, assumed it as a proposition of fundamental importance that, when water flows in any channel or bed, the accelerating force which obliges it to move is equal to the sum of all the resistances which it meets with, whether they arise from its own viscosity or from the friction of its bed.
About 1840 he was engaged in experiments by which he sought to prove that "carbon in certain states of combination is susceptible of conversion into silicon," and his failure to establish this proposition had much to do with his want of success as a candidate for the chair of chemistry at Edinburgh in 1843.
Peru proposed that only Peruvian residents should be entitled to take part in a popular vote; Chile rejected this proposition, on the ground that all residents in the territories in q uestion should have a voice in the final decision.
He committed himself to the proposition that France was the natural enemy of Great Britain, a saying often quoted against him in coming years.
We may give in the first place an elementary proof of the converse proposition by the aid of a simple lemma: Lemma.
For the proof of the converse proposition we must refer the reader to the Electrical Researches of Cavendish, p. 419, or to Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 2nd ed., vol.
His work won such approval that in the year 445 B.C., on the proposition of a certain Anytus, he was voted a sum of ten talents (2400) by decree of the people.
The proper statement is that, if a and b are the sides, the area is equal to the area of a rectangle whose sides are a and tb; this being, in fact, a particular case of the proposition that the area of a trapezium is equal to the area of a rectangle whose sides are its breadth and the arithmetic mean of the lengths of the two parallel sides.
The proposition can then be established for a prismoid generally by the method of § 27 (iv).
Another proposition on which Say insists is that every value is consumed and is created only to be consumed.
This proposition received the strong support of Sir George Grey, then governor of Cape Colony, but his view did not commend itself to the British government, and was not adopted (see South Africa: History).
In 1895 the volksraad passed a resolution, in which they declared their readiness to entertain a proposition from the Transvaal in favour of some form of federal union.
The result of this conference was a secret session of the Transvaal volksraad and the proposition of a secret treaty with the Free State, by which each state should bind itself not to build railways to its frontier without the consent of the other, the eastern and northern frontiers of the Transvaal being excepted.
This proposition is the basis of the "great circle sailing" of navigators, and the arc of the great circle is called the "rhumbline" or "loxodromic curve."
c. 2), is that it is indivisible: a proposition true in same time there cannot be two sovereigns, but not true in the sense in which it has often been employed, namely, that in the last analysis of society there are some persons or person who control all conduct and are habitually obeyed as to all matters.
A third proposition, often expressed with respect to sovereignty, is that it cannot be alienated: a proposition thus stated by Rousseau: "Je dis que la souverainete, n'etant que l'exercise de la volonte generale, ne peut jamais s'aliener" (Du Contrat social, 2.1; Figgis, p. 89).
The external forces on a frame or bridge in equilibrium under those forces may, by a well-known proposition in statics, be represented by a closed polygon, each side of which is parallel to one force, and represents the force in magnitude as well as in direction.
A proposition to divide the territory into two states at the fortysixth parallel was sanctioned by popular vote in the election of November 1887.
In 1865 Dellinger wrote: " The Ultramontane view can be summarized in a single, concise, and luminous proposition; but out of this proposition are evolved a doctrine and a view that embrace not merely religion and the Church, but science and the state, politics, morals and the social order - in a word, the whole intellectual life of men and nations.
The proposition runs: The pope is the supreme, the infallible, and consequently the sole authority in all that concerns religion, the Church, and morality, and each of his utterances on these topics demands unconditional submission - internal no less than external."
Rectification and quadrature of the circle have thus been, since the time of Archimedes at least, practically identical problems. Again, since the circumferences of circles are proportional to their diameters - a proposition assumed to be true from the dawn almost of practical geometry - the rectification of the circle is seen to be transformable into finding the ratio of the circumference to the diameter.
The first part of the work confines itself strictly to noun and verb, or the form of proposition called secundi adjacentis.
(2) Later logical analysis in the Prior Analytics of the proposition as premiss into subject, predicate and copula, for the purpose of syllogism; but without insisting that the original form is illogical.
The new principle (nowhere in the Common Place Book explicitly stated) may be expressed in the proposition that no existence is conceivable - and therefore possible - which is not either conscious spirit or the ideas (i.e.
In the De interpretatione, having distinguished the enunciation, or proposition, from other sentences as that in which there is truth or falsity, he relegated the rest to rhetoric or poetry, and founded the logic of the proposition, in which, however, he retained the grammatical analysis into noun and verb.
La simple proposition que je vous en fais suffit pour vous faire voir que je ne cross point que toute fonction analytique non reelle soit vraiment reductible a la forme A+B - 1."
The proof of this proposition is to be obtained chiefly by comparing the grammatical formation and the syntax of Homer with those of Attic. The comparison of the vocabulary is in the nature of things less conclusive on the question of date.
His speeches were characterized by skill of statement, ingenious grouping of facts, fervent diction, and ardent patriotism; sometimes by biting sarcasm, but also by superficial research, half-knowledge and an unwillingness to reason a proposition to its logical results.
Not a few other technical terms of Greek philosophic asceticism, used in the first instance by Cynics and Neo-pythagoreans, and then continued among the Greek Jews and Christians, were metaphors taken from athletic contests - but only metaphors, for all asceticism, worthy of the name, has a moral purport, and is based on the eternal contrast of the proposition, "This is right," with the proposition, "That is pleasant."
Disjunctive " Syllogisms" are those in which one premise is a disjunctive proposition, the other a categorical proposition which states or denies one of the two alternatives set forth.
" All men must die " is a generalization which he has scarcely reached; in his philosophy the proposition is more like this - " all men who die die by violence."
Avicenna's view of the universal may be compared with that of Abelard, which calls it " that whose nature it is to be predicated of several," as if the generality became explicit only in the act of predication, in the sermo or proposition, and not in the abstract, unrelated form or essence.
Moreover, they are tough to recruit into a risky proposition.
The argument We start from the self-evident proposition that teaching and learning have to be interactive.
Is there anywhere a member who did not secretly snicker up his sleeve at this ridiculous proposition?
Thus the toothpaste manufacturer might actually be able to develop a product, a proposition and a branding that only appeals to young clubbers.
Develop an understanding of what drives lapse Ã¢ informs your customer proposition.
His Lordship said that the proposition was wholly unfounded in fact.
Flashbacks bring back both the transient joy and the lasting pain unleashed when Marianne responded to a seemingly casual proposition.
Contrary to expectation, a shop in town is not a financially viable proposition.
Price comparison sites may seem a win-win proposition for customers, yet they have their critics.
Future modifications and the use of elastic made a workable proposition but limited the turning circle.
Also, if your child complains of physical pain during the process or is overly emotionally distraught over the whole proposition, there might be other underlying causes that need investigation.
It seems like a simple proposition, but there's a lot to think about, no matter which side of the sign you're standing on.
Although it may seem a bit prejudicial, it is a far better proposition to give a free kitten to a home owner, rather than someone who tells you they are renting.
According to the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, silica had been classified under California's Proposition 65 as a material that is known to cause cancer.
Things like purchasing a prepaid card that does not work for the location you are calling can be an expensive proposition, so do read the fine print.
While any manner of financial planning is better than no preparation at all, hiring a consultant can be an expensive proposition and should be carefully investigated beforehand.
Because of the wealth of features available, selecting the card that is best for you can be a difficult proposition.
Since divorce is an expensive proposition, you will need to keep an eye on costs; information is provided about how to keep your legal fees down.
Evaluating keepers is a very difficult proposition that takes a real expert.
For some women, shooting a series of glamour shots is a daunting proposition, while others see it as a fun way to express themselves.
If the idea of molding a piece of foil to a scorching hot turkey breast seems like it would be a difficult proposition, I assure you it is.
For those on a budget, however, this may be an expensive proposition, since you will be tempted to buy everything you need to copy the design exactly.
Buying all the latest hip teen clothing can be an expensive proposition.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.