Proportions Sentence Examples
The best proportions are found by trial in all cases.
The volume of the high-pressure cylinder may be varied within wide limits for the same low-pressure volume; the proportions adopted should, however, be such that there is an absence of excessive drop between them as the steam is transferred from one to the other.
The trade of France was divided between foreign countries and her colonies in the following proportions (imports and exports combined).
In Der Ring des Nibelungen Wagner specifies the proportions of the string-band as 16 first and 16 second violins, 12 violas, 12 violoncellos, 8 double basses.
Products are usually divided in equal proportions between the owner and the tiller.Advertisement
The law of multiple proportions asserts that if two elements form more than' one compound, then the weights of the one element Law of which are found combined with unit weight of the other multiple in the different compounds, must be in the ratio of two propor or more whole numbers.
The law of reciprocal proportions, or, as it might well be named, the law of equivalence, cannot be adequately enunciated in a few words.
That we are talking of asymmetries of almost incomparable proportions doesn't matter.
Suitable proportions of materials to form a rust joint are 90 parts by weight of iron borings well mixed with 2 parts of flowers of sulphur, and I part of powdered sal-ammoniac. Another joint, less rigid but sound and durable, is made with yarn and white and red lead.
Strange as it may appear, I would refer to an Australian as the finest model of the human proportions I have ever met; in muscular development combining perfect symmetry, activity and strength, while his head might have compared with the antique bust of a philosopher."Advertisement
In subsequent years the motor industry attained considerable proportions.
In these proportions the respective contributing governments are responsible for the losses made in the working of the undertaking.
Emigration has, however, recently assumed such proportions as to lead to scarcity of labor and rise of wages in Italy itself.
Under mezzadria or metateria the landlord divides the produce with the farmer in various proportions.
The beetroot-sugar industry has attained considerable proportions in Umbria, the Marches, Lazio, Venetia and Piedmont since 1890.Advertisement
The court consists of ministers and elders, elected from the presbyteries in specified proportions, and of commissioners from the four universities, the city of Edinburgh and the royal burghs.
Molybdenum combines with the halogen elements in varying proportions, forming with chlorine a di-, tri-, tetraand penta-chloride, and similar compounds with bromine and iodine.
Whether the leaf is brightly or only moderately illuminated, the same relative proportions of the total energy absorbed are devoted to the purposes of composition and construction respectively.
Of the imports about 27% in value are from Great Britain, 14%% from Germany, and smaller proportions from France, Argentina, Italy, Spain, the United States and Belgium.
Originally small and movable, it was afterwards made of large proportions and fixed in one place.Advertisement
The forest vegetation, largely confined to the "Isle of Isles" and the southern uplands, includes the Adansonia (baobab), which in the Fazogli district attains gigantic proportions, the tamarind, of which bread is made, the deleb palm, several valuable gum trees (whence the term Sennari often applied in Egypt to gumarabic), some dyewoods, ebony, ironwood and many varieties of acacia.
And these proportions represent fairly well the tonnages entering and clearing at the ports of these respective seas.
It has many advantages for heavy high-speed service, namely, large and well-proportioned boiler, practically unlimited grate area, fire-box of favourable proportions for firing, fairly low centre of gravity, short coupling-rods, and, finally, a combination of the safe and smooth riding qualities of the fourcoupled bogie type, with great steaming capacity and moderate axle loads.
Their boilers are of relatively large proportions for the train weight and average speed, and the driving wheels of small diameter, a large proportion of their total weight being " adhesive."
It was at Keighley in Yorkshire - where also the first English periodical, the Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph, was published in 1855 and onwards - that spiritualism as a religious movement first made any mark in England; but this movement, though it spread rather widely, cannot be said to have attained at any time very vigorous proportions.Advertisement
Turning southwards we come again to the Forbidden City, the central portion of which forms the imperial palace, where, in halls which for the magnificence of their proportions and barbaric splendour are probably not to be surpassed anywhere, the Son of Heaven holds his court.
Euphorbiaceae and Scrophulariaceae and Orchidaceae are universally present, the last in specially large proportions.
It dissolves readily in water and alcohol in all proportions, but is insoluble in ether.
Free tenants and, after the Norman Conquest, slaves formed small proportions of the population.
A similar comparison for the several sections of Great Britain, as set forth in Table VI., shows that to England belong about 95% of the wheat area, over 80% of the barley area, over 60% of the oats area, and over 70% of the potato area, and these proportions do not vary much from year to year.
The decrease has assumed serious proportions since 1871, as before that date the supply of rural labour exceeded the demand.
So that cross-sections of the stream of economic thought will reveal the existence, at different times, in varying proportions and at different stages of development, of most of the modern " schools."
He conducted experiments to show that certain abstract forms and proportions are naturally pleasing to our senses, and gave some new illustrations of the working of aesthetic association.
The Heteropoda exhibit a series of modifications in the form and proportions of the visceral mass and foot, leading from a condition readily comparable with that of a typical Pectinibranch such as Rostellaria, with the three regions of the foot strongly marked and a coiled visceral hump of the usual proportions, up to a condition in which the whole body is of a tapering cylindrical shape, the foot a plate-like vertical fin, and the visceral hump almost completely atrophied.
In the mica-schists of this group biotite or muscovite may be the principal mineral and often both are present in varying proportions; the mica has developed from the argillaceous matter of the original rock; in addition there is always quartz and sometimes felspar (albite or oligoclase).
No other fish shows finer proportions in the shape of its body.
The fishery then assumes proportions which render it next in importance to the herring and cod fisheries.
The proportions of England's fields supplies drawn from different fields is indicated in the table below.
Of the miracles of Jesus, Bushnell says, " The character of Jesus is ever shining with and through them, in clear self-evidence leaving them never to stand as raw wonders only of might, but covering them with glory as tokens of a heavenly love, and acts that only suit the proportions of His personal greatness and majesty " (Nature and the Supernatural, p. 364).
Even prior to the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a number of chemists had made determinations of the chemical composition of several different varieties, and these investigations, supplemented by those of a later date, show that petroleum consists of about 84% by weight of carbon with 12% of hydrogen, and varying proportions of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.
Paraffins are found in all crude oils, and olefines in varying proportions in the majority, while acetylene has been found in Baku oil; members of the benzene group and its derivatives, notably benzene and toluene, occur in all petroleums. Naphthenes are the chief components of some oils, as already indicated, and occur in varying quantities in many others.
At this period the supply of the raw material was insufficient to admit of any important development in the industry, and before the drilling of artesian wells for petroleum was initiated by Drake the " coal-oil " or shale-oil industry had assumed considerable proportions in the United States.
But in all countries a mixture of several oils enters into the composition of curd soaps and the proportions used have no fixity.
Its property of absorbing large proportions of water, up to 80%, and yet present the appearance of a hard solid body, makes the material a basis for the hydrated soaps, smooth and marbled, in which water, sulphate of soda, and other alkaline solutions, soluble silicates, fuller's earth, starch, &c. play an important and bulky part.
A further means of enabling a soap to contain large proportions of water and yet present a firm consistence is found in the use of silicate of soda.
Soap containing small proportions of glycerin, on the other hand, forms a very tenacious lather, and when soap bubbles of an enduring character are desired glycerin is added to the solution.
Soaps are also prepared in which large proportions of fine sharp sand, or of powdered pumice, are incorporated, and these substances, by their abrading action, powerfully assist the detergent influence of the soap on hands much begrimed by manufacturing operations.'
Medicated soaps are made by adding the drug to either hard soap or curd soap in the desired proportions.
It is almost insoluble in water, but mixes in all proportions with absolute alcohol, ether, benzene and various oils.
Descriptive chemistry was now assuming considerable proportions; the experimental inquiries suggested by Boyle were being assiduously developed; and a wealth of observa tions was being accumulated, for the explanation of which the resources of the dominant theory were sorely taxed.
This is the " law of multiple proportions."
Berzelius, who, fired with enthusiasm by the original theory of Dalton and the law of multiple proportions, determined the equivalents of combining ratios of many elements in an enormous number of compounds.2 He prosecuted his labours in this field for thirty years; as proof of his industry it may be mentioned that as early as 1818 he had determined the combining ratios of about two thousand simple and compound substances.
According to this theory, an element in a compound had a definite saturation capacity, an idea very old in itself, being framed in the law of multiple proportions.
Silver chloride, for example, in whatever manner it may be prepared, invariably consists of chlorine and silver in the proportions by weight of 35'45 parts of the former and 107.93 of the latter.
Iodine unites with silver in the proportion of 126.97 parts to 107.93 parts of the latter, but it combines with chlorine in two proportions, viz.
When two substances which by their action upon each other develop much heat enter into reaction, the reaction is usually complete without the employment of an excess of either; for example, when a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen, in the proportions to form water 2E12+0, =20H2, is exploded, it is entirely converted into water.
Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigating its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleaching-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypochlorite, with a little calcium hydrate.
The next advance was made by Joseph Louis Proust, whose investigations led to a clear grasp of the law of constant proportions.
In these two instances the component crystals are miscible in all proportions; but this is by no means always the case.
It may happen that the crystals do not form double salts, and are only miscible in certain proportions.
Parallels and meridians were represented by straight lines intersecting each other at right angles, the relative proportions between degrees of longitude and latitude being retained only along the parallel of Rhodes.
The herbarium at Melbourne, Australia, under Baron Muller, attained large proportions; and that of the Botanical Garden of Calcutta is noteworthy as the repository of numerous specimens described by writers on Indian botany.
The cathedral is also renowned for the beauty and perfect proportions of its western towers.
The preliminaries of the elections of December 1905 and March 1906 being marked by frauds and injustice, the Liberals deserted the polls at those elections, and instead of appealing to judicial tribunals controlled by the Moderates, issued a manifesto of revolution on the 28th of July 1906.1 This insurrection rapidly assumed large proportions.
The Wahhabi movement in Nejd now began to assume serious proportions.
The proportions between the four salts AB, CD, AD and CB, which exist finally in solution, are found to be the same whether we begin with the pair AB and CD or with the pair AD and CB.
In order that the solutions of these should be isohydric and the concentrations of the hydrogen ions the same, we must have a very large quantity of the feebly dissociated acetic acid, and a very small quantity of the strongly dissociated hydrochloric, and in such proportions alone will equilibrium be possible.
Such articles contain varying proportions of rubber (12-60%), about 1-2% of combined sulphur, and from 25-70% of mineral matter.
The electro-deposition of brass-mainly on iron ware, such as bedstead tubes-is now very widely practised, the bath employed being a mixture of copper, zinc and potassium cyanides, the proportions of which vary according to the character of the brass required, and to the mode of treatment.
The word "pure" is emphasized because experience shows that the presence in a water of even small proportions of calcium bicarbonate or sulphate prevents its action on lead.
By fusing litharge with boron trioxide, glasses of a composition varying with the proportions of the mixture are obtained; some of these are used in the manufacture of glass.
Alloys containing different proportions of nickel were found to exhibit the phenomenon, but the two critical temperatures were less widely separated.
The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.
It is miscible in all proportions with alcohol, ether and water.
The fifteen were replaced by a new supreme magistracy of ten priors, chosen in the following proportions - four of the twelve, four of the nine, and two of the people proper, or people of the greater number, but to the exclusion of all who had shared in the government or sat in council under the riformatori.
Enrico treats of the fall of the Visigothic monarchy and the beginnings of resistance in the Asturias which gave 1 The - diagram shows the arrangement and proportions of the Villa Ercolanese.
The tendency of the proportions in the offspring of 'PP, 2PN, INN is to give in a series of generations a regular reversion from the hybrid form PN to the two pure races, viz.
The point at issue was, that neither in the polyphonic school, in which Zarlino was educated, nor in the later monodic school, of which his recalcitrant pupil, Vincenzo Galilei, was the most redoubtable champion, could those proportions be tolerated in practice, however attractive they might be to the theorist in their mathematical aspect.
So persistently does the human ear rebel against the division of the tetrachord into two greater tones and a leimma or hemitone, as represented by the fractions 9, 9, 26, that, centuries before the possibility of reconciling the demands of the ear with those of exact science was satisfactorily demonstrated, the Aristoxenian school advocated the use of an empirical scale, sounding pleasant to the sense, in preference to an unpleasing tonality founded upon immutable proportions.
Claudius Ptolemy (130) rectified this error, and in the so-called syntonous or intense diatonic scale reduced the proportions of his tetrachord to s, iii, f, -i.
The proportions are precisely those now universally accepted in the system called "just intonation."
Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.
It has a strong and characteristic odour, and a hot sweetish taste, is soluble in ten parts of water, and in all proportions in alcohol, and dissolves bromine, iodine, and, in small quantities, sulphur and phosphorus, also the volatile oils, most fatty and resinous substances, guncotton, caoutchouc and certain of the vegetable alkaloids.
According to this celebrated theory, the body contains four humours - blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, a right proportion and mixture of which constitute health; improper proportions or irregular distribution, disease.
His general physiology was essentially founded upon the Hippocratic theory of the four elements, with which he combined the notion of spirit (pneuma) penetrating all parts, and mingled with the humours in different proportions.
From faulty proportions of the same arose the intemperies (" distempers"), which, though not diseases, were the occasions of disease.
The sensible properties and physical alterations of animal fluids and solids depended upon different proportions, movements and combinations of these particles.
The enormous growth of towns during the second half of the 19th century was thus attended with comparative safety to these great aggregates of mankind; and the death-rates, so far from being increased, relatively decreased in substantial proportions.
Compared with these ranges the Pegu Yomas assume the proportions of mere hills.
In the heart of the delta numerous large lakes or marshes abounding in fish are formed by the overflow of the Irrawaddy river during the rainy season, but these either assume very diminutive proportions or disappear altogether in the dry season.
A high silica-content tends towards both hardness and chemical stability, and this can be further increased by the addition of small proportions of boric acid; in larger quantities, however, the latter constituent produces the opposite effect.
Constancy of composition of the raw materials and their careful and thorough admixture in constant proportions are therefore essential to the production of the required glasses.
The proportions in which these ingredients are mixed vary according to the exact quality of glass required and with the form and temperature of the melting furnace employed.
Metallic Substances Produced by the Union of Metals with Small Proportions of Non-Metallic Elements.
But the presence of moderate proportions of cuprous oxide has been found to correct the evil influence of small contaminations by arsenic, antimony, lead and other foreign metals.
The presence in a metal of even small proportions of arsenide generally leads to considerable deterioration in mechanical qualities.
Most metals when molten are capable of dissolving at least small proportions of carbon, which, in general, leads to a deterioration in metallicity, except in the case of iron, which by the addition of small percentages of carbon gains in elasticity and tensile strength with little loss of plasticity.
The principle of personality, however, gradually gave way to that of territoriality; and in every district, at least north of the Loire, customs were formed in which were combined in varying proportions Roman law, ecclesiastical law and the various Germanic laws.
Another very important source of revenue is the so-called "tourist industry," which in late years has assumed immense proportions; the city contains a large number of hotels and boarding-houses which every year are filled to overflowing with strangers from all parts of the world.
Copper smelting has been carried on in or near the town since 1584 when the Mines Royal Society set up works at Neath Abbey; the industry attained huge proportions a century later under Sir Humphrey Mackworth, who from 16 9 5 carried on copper and lead smelting at Melincrythan.
It shows the greatest quantity of juice that may be expressed from canes, according to the different proportions of fibre they contain, but without employing maceration or imbibition, to which processes reference is made hereafter.
In the mechanical analysis of the soil, after separation of the stones and fine gravel by means of sieves, the remainder of the finer earth is subjected to various processes of sifting and deposition from water with a view of determining the relative proportions of sand, silt and clay present in it.
S i milarly soils can be improved by applying to them marl, a substance consisting of a mixture of clay with variable proportions of lime.
The council consists in equal proportions of nominated and elected members, no racial distinctions being made.
Jalapin is present in about the same proportions.
One was a wooden box with a projecting tube in which a combination of a concave with a convex lens was fitted, for throwing an enlarged image upon the focusing screen, which in its proportions and application is very similar to our modern telephotographic objectives.
For simplicity we confine ourselves to mixtures of two components, in which experience shows that three cases are to be recognized according as the components are (I) completely immiscible, (2) partially miscible, (3) miscible in all proportions.
The evil rose to alarming proportions during Grant's presidency, partly because of the immense extension of the civil service, partly because of the growing tendency to alliance between spoilsmen and the persons benefited by protective tariffs, and partly because the public attention was still so much absorbed in Southern affairs that little energy was left for curbing rascality in the North.
Besides the imposing proportions of its chambers, the cavern is remarkable for the variegated beauty of its stalactite formations, some resembling transparent drapery, others waterfalls, trees, animals or human beings, the more grotesque being called by various fanciful appellations.
Its general proportions are specially noble, and the exterior view is good.
He dwarfs trees so that they remain measurable only by inches after their age has reached scores, even hundreds, of years, and the proportions of leaf, branch and stem are preserved with fidelity.
Copper, tin, lead and zinc, mixed in various proportions by different experts, are the ingredients, and the beautiful golden hues and glossy texture of the surface are obtained by patina-producing processes, in which branch of metal-work the Japanese show altogether unique skill.
But it is impossible to admit within the circle of high-art productions these wooden figures of everyday men and women, unrelieved by any subjective element, and owing their merit entirely to the fidelity with which their contours are shaped, their muscles modelled, and their anatomical proportions preserved.
They were often Vehkles constructed of rich lacquer; the curtains suspended in front were of the finest bamboo workmanship, with thick cords and tassels of plaited silk, and the draught animal, an ox of handsome proportions, was brilliantly caparisoned.
It may conveniently be extended to similar mixtures of sulphur and selenium or tellurium, of bismuth and sulphur, of copper and cuprous oxide, and of iron and carbon, in fact to all cases in which substances can be made to mix in varying proportions without very marked indication of chemical action.
It mixes with water in all proportions, the mixing being attended by a contraction in volume and a rise in temperature; the maximum contraction corresponds to a mixture of 3 molecules of alcohol and I of water.
In the train of the Magna Mater came the secret Oriental cult of Bacchus, which grew to such proportions in deities .
By far the most important addition to the Australasian product has come fromWestAustralia,which began its production in 1887 - about the time of the inception of mining at Witwatersrand ("the Rand") in South Africa-and by continuous increase, which assumed large proportions towards the close of the 19th century, was £6,426,000 in 1899, £6,179,000 in 1900, and L8,212,000 in 1905.
In these proportions the density of the alloy is less than the mean of its constituent metals.
These metals are stated to alloy in all proportions.
Every endeavour is made to gloss over, or modify, expressions which seemed derogatory to the ancestors of ' According to Zunz, Gottesdienstliche Vortrdge, 2nd ed., p. 80, its contents bear the following proportions to Genesis, z o o to Exodus, about 1 1 4 to Leviticus, s to Numbers, and 4 to Deuteronomy.
Two female heads of like proportions belong to the system, since the backs of their heads are cut away in the same manner as the male heads.
An order in council (1899) making English the language of the courts after fifteen years (by which the Maltese would have obtained the right to be tried in English) was promulgated at a time when the system of taxation was also being revised; henceforth agitation in favour of Italian and against taxation attained proportions unpleasant for those who preferred popularity to reform and progress.
By the end of August 1885, when a political crisis had supervened between Great Britain and Russia, under the orders of the Amir the Mosalla was destroyed; but four minars standing at the corners of the wide plinth still remain to attest to the glorious proportions of the ancient structure, and to exhibit samples of that decorative tilework, which for intricate beauty of design and exquisite taste in the blending of colour still appeals to the memory as unique.
Near the central quadrangle of the city is a vast reservoir of water, the dome of which is of bold and excellent proportions.
Three miles to the south of the city the river flows from east to west, spanned by the Pal-i-Malun, a bridge possessing grand proportions, but which was in 1885 in a state of grievous disrepair and practically useless.
Acting on a principle quite different from any previously discussed is the capillary hydrometer or staktometer of Brewster, which is based upon the difference in the surface tension and density of pure water, and of mixtures of alcohol and water in varying proportions.
Of the 750 steamships which cleared the port in 1904, three out of every seven were German, two were Norwegian and one was British, but in 1905 two new companies, one British and the other Japanese, arranged for regular services to Bangkok, thereby altering these proportions.
In each case history is blent with speculation in nearly the same proportions.
Its devastations rapidly assumed gigantic proportions.
As we are still ignorant of the proportions of land and water in the polar regions, it is only possible to give approximate figures for the extent of the ocean, for the position of the coast-lines is not known exactly enough to exclude possible errors of perhaps several hundred thousand square miles in estimates of the total area.
These proportions are not readily grasped from a map of the world on Mercator's projection, and must be studied on a globe.
There must be considerable dissociation of molecules, and as a first approximation it may be taken that of io molecules of most of the components about 9 (or in the case of magnesium sulphate 5) have been separated into their ions, and that it is only during slow concentration as in a natural saline that the ions combine to produce the various salts in the proportions set out in the above table.
The colour of sea-water as it is seen on board ship is most readily determined by comparison with the tints of Forel's xanthometer or colour scale, which consists of a series of glass tubes fixed like the rungs of a ladder in a frame and filled with a mixture of blue and yellow liquids in varying proportions.
The architectural style is dignified and pleasing in design and proportions.
Many double chlorides are known, and may be prepared by mixing solutions of the two components in the requisite proportions.
In the former, the anthracite and lime are ground and carefully mixed in the right proportions to suit the chemical actions involved.
The crowns suspended in churches suggested doubtless the sumptuous pensile luminaries, frequently designated from a very early period as coronae, in which the form of the royal circlet was preserved in much larger proportions, as exemplified by the remarkable corona still to be seen suspended in the cathedral at Aix-laChapelle over the crypt in which the body of Charlemagne was deposited."
The doctrines of this school were a fusion of Eastern and Western thought, and combined in varying proportions the elements of Hellenistic and Jewish philosophy.
It was between 1840 and 1850 that the cotton manufactures of Massachusetts began to assume large proportions; and about the same time the manufacture of boots and shoes centred there.
Mixing with benzol and/or petrol, or with ether in varying proportions, enables it, however, to be employed successfully in them, until such time as engines specially designed for its use are available.
The high cheek-bone and the hawk's bill nose are universally distributed in the two Americas; so also are proportions between parts of the body, and the frequency of certain abnormalities of the skull, the hyoid bone, the humerus and the tibia.
However, looking over the whole field of North American achievement, architectural and non-architectural, composite and monolithic, the palm for boldness, magnitude of proportions and infinity of labour, must go to the sculptured mosaics of Yucatan.
It mixes in all proportions with water, alcohol and ether.
In works of art he is represented, like Ares, as a young man of splendid physical proportions, with bristling hair like a horse's mane and a slender neck.
As stated under Phosphorus, phosphoric oxide, P 2 0 5, combines with water in three proportions to form H 2 O P 2 0 5 or HP03, metaphosphoric acid; 2H 2 O P 2 0 5 or H4P207, pyrophosphoric acid; and 3H 2 O P 2 0 5 or H 3 PO 4, orthophosphoric or ordinary phosphoric acid.
Parts of the crystalline area are worn down to a condition of low relief, but in the main mountain mass, although greatly worn, there are still elevations of truly mountainous proportions.
The proportions are now better understood.
Though each girder has been made continuous over the four spans it has not quite the proportions over the piers which a continuous girder should have, FIG.
Under these ministries came the Statthalter, whose administrative area had ordinarily the proportions of a Crown territory (Kronland); but the immense variations in area of the Crown territories made a uniform and consistent intermediate administrative organization practically impossible.
The many floating and fragmentary notes of various dates that have found a place in the account of his reign in the book of Kings (q.v.) show how much Hebrew tradition was occupied with the monarch under whom the throne of Israel reached its highest glory; and that time only magnified in popular imagination the proportions of so striking a figure appears from the opinions entertained of him in subsequent writings.
The latter chemist was led by his doctrine of mass-action to deny that substances always combine in constant and definite proportions.
Proust, on the other hand, maintained that compounds always contain definite quantities of their constituent elements, and that in cases where two or more elements unite to form more than one compound, the proportions in which they are present vary per sallum, not gradually.
The proportions are continually varying, owing to the new migratory habits of almost every class of the population.
From this source all soils contain small proportions of sodium in soluble forms, hence the ashes of plants, although they preferably imbibe potassium salts, contain traces and sometimes notable quantities of sodium salts.
These various substances are present in the proportions which render milk a perfect and typical food suitable to the wants of the young of the various animals for whom it is provided by nature.
The milk of animals, so far as is known, contains them, although they are present in somewhat different proportions.
These consist of galactin and lactochrome, substances peculiar to milk, discovered by Winter Blyth, with certain animal principles such as leucin, pepton, kreatin, tyrosin, &c. The salts in milk consist, according to the average of numerous analyses by Fleischmann, of the following Milk thus is not to be regarded as a definite chemical compound nor even as a mixture of bodies in fixed and invariable proportions.
Liver of sulphur or hepar sulphuris, a medicine known to the alchemists, is a mixture of various polysulphides with the sulphate and thiosulphate, in variable proportions, obtained by gently heating the carbonate with sulphur in covered vessels.
Meanwhile the labour traffic, which had been initiated, so far as the, Pacific islands were concerned, by an unsuccessful attempt in 1847 to employ New Hebridean labourers on a settlement near the present township of Eden in New South Wales, had attained considerable proportions, had been improperly exploited and, as already indicated, had led the natives to retaliation, sometimes without discernment, a notorious example of this (as was generally considered) being the murder of Bishop Patteson in 1871.
A portrait, painted in middle age, now in the church of Melhus, near Trondhjem, represents him in canonicals, with deep red beard and hair, the latter waved and silky, and a head of massive proportions.
In the following year he showed that plumbago consists essentially of carbon, and he published a record of estimations of the proportions of oxygen in the atmosphere, which he had carried on daily during the whole of 1778 - three years before Cavendish.
It is curious, however, to find that an ancient nation of the East, so wise in geometrical proportions, should have followed what by modern experience may be regarded as an inverse method, that of obtaining a unit of length by deducing it through weights and cubic measure, rather than by deriving cubic measure through the unit of length.
The log and kab are not found till the later writings; but the ratio of hin to issaron is practically fixed in early times by the proportions in Num.
The object of a table of log (a/x) is to facilitate the working out of proportions in which the third term is a constant quantity a.
The herring fishery has developed to considerable proportions, the harbour having been enlarged and protected by piers and a breakwater.
Oak Bluffs had its origin as a settlement in the camp meetings, which were begun here in 1835, and by 1860 had grown to large proportions.
For the extremely exiguous proportions of some chasubles actually in use, which have been robbed of all the beauty of form they ever possessed, less respectable motives have sometimes been responsible, viz.
In its prime it ranked beside Nineveh and Babylon in its colossal proportions - its four walls, each 16 m.
It dissolves in water in all proportions with at first a contraction and afterwards an increase in volume.
It is miscible in all proportions with water, alcohol and ether.
Adding in the Methodists these proportions become 76-3 and 65-3%.
In professional service 34.2% (in 188o, 29.4) were females, the two northern sections showing the highest proportions.
In the North Atlantic and North Central states, notwithstanding their manufacturing industries, the proportions were much lower (17.1 and I 7O in 1900), and they increased very little in the period mentioned.
The salt deposits at Syracuse had, however, laid the basis for another industry, the manufacture of soda-ash, which has grown to important proportions.
Nearly all of the islands possess lakes, and Loch Harray and Loch Stenness in Pomona attain noteworthy proportions.
Its fine proportions, however, are concealed by commercial buildings and by the narrow streets.
This disease is more accidental than contagious and rarely takes very dangerous proportions.
The Freiburg minster is considered one of the finest of all the Gothic churches of Germany, being remarkable alike for the symmetry of its proportions, for the taste of its decorations, and for the fact that it may more correctly be said to be finished than almost any other building of the kind.
The cathedral, although not ranking among those of the first class, is celebrated for its fine proportions, and is of great interest from the various styles of architecture which it includes.
It is, however, possible by suitably choosing the proportions of the two magnets to cause either P or Q to be very small.
Generally, though not always, the proportions observed were the same as in the wergilds.
The decay of ecclesiastical discipline grew to alarming proportions under Sixtus.
The various Indian markets take largely of 40 8 mule twist and in various proportions of 30 8 mule, water twists, two-folds grey and bleached, fine Egyptian counts and dyed yarns.
When a substance contains its components in definite proportions which can only change, if at all, by sudden steps, it may be classed as a chemical compound.
Solutions were not distinguished from definite chemical compounds till John Dalton discovered the laws of definite and multiple proportions, but many earlier observations on the solubility of solids in water and the density of the resulting solutions had been made.
Some pairs of liquids are soluble in each other in all proportions, but, in general, when dealing with solutions of solids or gases in liquids, a definite limit is reached to the amount which will go into solution when the liquid is in contact with excess of the solid or gas.
Why are some pairs of liquids miscible in each other in all proportions, while other pairs do not mix at all, or only to a limited extent?
If the two substances are soluble in each other in all proportions at all temperatures above their melting points we get a diagram reduced to the two fusion curves cutting each other at a nonvariant point.
Crystals of ice may lie side by side with crystals of common salt, but each crystalline individual is either ice or salt; no one crystal contains both components in proportions which can be varied continuously.
When two substances are soluble in each other in all proportions, we get solubility curves like those of copper and silver shown in fig.
Both mix with warm water in all proportions, and will solidify in certain conditions.
As originally defined, argon included small proportions of these gases, but it is now preferable to limit the name to the principal constituent and to regard the newer gases as "companions of argon."
The proportions of the interior are noble, and in the church are hung three of the masterpieces of Rubens, viz.
The proportions in practice generally run from 3 to i for very strong work, down to i 2 to i for unimportant work.
Some engineers have the sand separated from the stones by screens or sieves and then remixed in definite proportions.
When stones and sand are obtained from different sources, their relative proportions have to be decided upon.
There are several weak points in this reasoning, and a more accurate way of determining the best proportions is to try different mixtures of cement, stones and sand, filling them into different pails of the same size, and then ascertaining, by weighing the pails, which mixture is the densest.
Its strength varies within very wide limits according to the quality and proportions of the constituents, and the skill shown in mixing and placing them.
The proportions in which the various coloured individuals appear are approximately those demanded by the Mendelian principle of gametic purity and segregation.
In general, however, the tendency has been, under continental influence, to curtail its proportions.
But from a study of Dalton's own MS. laboratory notebooks, discovered in the rooms of the Manchester society, Roscoe and Harden (A New View of the Origin of Dalton's Atomic Theor y, 1896) conclude that so far from Dalton being led to the idea that chemical combination consists in the approximation of atoms of definite and characteristic weight by his search for an explanation of the law of combination in multiple proportions, the idea of atomic structure arose in his mind as a purely physical conception, forced upon him by study of the physical properties of the atmosphere and other gases.
The extension of this idea to substances in general necessarily led him to the law of combination in multiple proportions, and the comparison with experiment brilliantly confirmed the truth of his deduction" (A New View, &c., pp. 50, 51).
It may be noted that in a paper on the "Proportion of the gases or elastic fluids constituting the atmosphere," read by him in November 1802, the law of multiple proportions appears to be anticipated in the words - "The elements of oxygen may combine with a certain portion of nitrous gas or with twice that portion, but with no intermediate quantity," but there is reason to suspect that this sentence was added some time after the reading of the paper, which was not published till 1805.
The French bauxites are of fairly constant composition, containing usually from 58 to 70% of alumina, 3 to 15% of foreign matter, and 27% made up of silica, iron oxide and water in proportions that vary with the colour and the situation of the beds.
The light copper alloys, in which the proportions just given are practically reversed, are of considerably less utility, for although they are fairly strong, they lack power to resist galvanic action.
Natural soils consist of substances derived from the decomposition of various kinds of rocks, the bulk consisting of clay, silica and lime, in various proportions.
Calcareous soils, which may also be heavy, intermediate or light, are those which contain more than 20% of lime, their fertility depending on the proportions of clay and sand which enter into their composition; they are generally cold and wet.
Composts are mixtures of the foregoing ingredients in varying proportions, and in combination with manures if necessary, so as to suit particular plants or classes of plants.
These variations in the properties of iron are brought about in part by corresponding variations in mechanical and thermal treatment, by which it is influenced profoundly, and in part by variations in the proportions of certain foreign elements which it contains; for, unlike most of the other metals, it is never used in the pure state.
But carbon affects the properties of iron not only by giving rise to varying proportions of cementite, but also both by itself shifting from one molecular state to another, and by enabling us to hold the iron itself in its unmagnetic allotropic forms, 0and 7-iron, as will be explained below.
Each of these ancient processes thus consists essentially in so manipulating the temperature that, out of the several possible constituents, the metal shall actually consist of a special set in special proportions.
A great part of Ashanti is covered with primeval and almost impenetrable forest.1 Many of the trees, chiefly silk-cotton and hardwood, attain splendid proportions, the bombax reaching a height of over 200 ft., but the monotony is oppressive, and is seldom relieved by the sight of flowers, birds or beasts.
It contains five churches, one of which (St Nicholas), built in 1446-88, is a good example of the late Gothic style as developed in Saxony, with its spacious proportions, groined vaulting, and bare simple pillars.
Further oppressive measures were directed against the Covenanters, who took up arms about 1665, and the struggle soon assumed the proportions of a rebellion.
The collection of trees in the Botanic Garden at Cambridge is also one of respectable proportions.
In the midst of these disquietudes, he executed a task of gigantic proportions.
The church of St Ulrich and St Afra, built 1474-1500, is a Late Gothic edifice, with a nave of magnificent proportions and a tower 300 ft.
Of these by far the most interesting, though the least perfect, is one which is commonly known as the temple of Hercules (an appellation wholly without foundation), and which is not only by far the most ancient edifice in Pompeii, but presents us with all the characters of a true Greek temple, resembling in its proportions that of the earliest temple of Selinus, and probably of as remote antiquity (6th century B.C.).
All the three orders of Greek architecture - the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian - are found freely employed in the various edifices of the city, but rarely in strict accordance with the rules of art in their proportions and details; while the private houses naturally exhibit still more deviation and irregularity., In many of these indeed we find varieties in the ornamentation, and even in such leading features as the capitals of the columns, which remind one rather of the vagaries of medieval architecture than of the strict rules of Vitruvius or the regularity of Greek edifices.
After his death in 548, however, the Frankish power in Germany sank to very minute proportions, a result due partly to the spirit of tribal independence which lingered among the German races, but principally to the paralysing effect of the unceasing rivalry between Austrasia and Neustria.
However, the king was quite able to deal with the rising, which, indeed, never attained serious proportions, although Ernest gave continual trouble until his death in 1030.
This afterwards gained very great proportions.
The tendency of the practice among Catholics at large is to reduce these condemnations to the proportions of the moral law.
Emigration only attained serious proportions within the last decade of the 19th century.
The subjects of its nine chapters are - (I) the Corinthian, Ionic and Doric orders; (2) the ornaments of capitals, ac.; (3) the Doric order; (4) proportions of the cella and pronaos; (5) sites of temples; (6) doorways of temples and their architraves; (7) the Etruscan or Tuscan order of temples; (8) circular temples; (9) altars.
It was not, however, until the rulers of the XVIIIth dynasty carried their victorious arms beyond the Egyptian frontiers in every direction that Ammon began to assume the proportions of a universal god for the Egyptians, eclipsing all their other deities and asserting his power over the gods of all foreign lands.
The proportions of the industry depend upon the area of land capable of cultivation.
C. Proportions of pyramids and other monuments with sloping sides.
The revolt assumed large proportions, and became the more dangerous to Abdullah, the khalifa, by reason of its religious character, wild rumours spreading over the country and reaching to Egypt and Suakin of the advent to power of an opposition mahdi.
In the monkey the proportions it assumes are still greater, and the number of foci, for distinct movements of this and that member, indeed for the individual joints of each limb, are much more numerous, and together occupy a more extensive surface, though relatively to the total surface of the brain a smaller one.
Denmark carries on its principal import trade with Germany, Great Britain and the United States of America, in this order, the proportions being about 30, 20 and 16% respectively of the total.
The price of corn continued 1746/730= to fall; the migration of the peasantry assumed alarming proportions; and at last, " to preserve the land " as well as to increase the defensive capacity of the country, the national militia was re-established by the decree of the 4th of February 1733, which at the same time bound to the soil all peasants between the age of nine and forty.
According to the letters patent the almspeople and scholars were to be chosen in equal proportions from the parishes of St Giles (Camberwell), St Botolph without Bishopsgate, and St Saviour's (Southwark), and " that part of the parish of St Giles without Cripplegate which is in the county of Middlesex."
The first is the "Adam and Eve" dated 1507, in which both attitudes and proportions are as carefully calculated, though on a somewhat different scheme, as in the engraving of 1504.
The imaginative force of the presentation, coming from a man of DUrer's powers, is intense; but what consciously occupied him most may well have been the problem how to draw accurately the proportions and action of a horse in motion.
At the same time he was more taken up than ever, as is proved by the contents of a sketch-book at Dresden, with mathematical and anatomical studies on the proportions and structure of the human frame.
The usual proportions are three of slag to one of slaked lime by weight.
The commonest of such substances in England are chalk and clay, but where local conditions demand it, limestone, marl, shale, slag or any similar material may be used, provided that the correct proportions of lime, silica and alumina are maintained.
The supply of materials containing naturally suitable proportions of calcium carbonate and clay being limited, attempts were made to produce artificial mixtures which would serve a similar end.
Since alite is a solid solution and, although an individual mineral, is not a chemical unit, the proportion of tricalcium silicate to tricalcium aluminate in a given specimen of alite will vary; but, whatever the proportions, each of these substances will react in its characteristic manner according to the equations given above.
The term Natural Cements is applied to cements made by burning mixtures of clay and carbonate of lime naturally occurring in approximately suitable proportions.
There is nearly twice as much wind from the south-west as from the north-east, but the proportions vary greatly in different months.
During the American civil war the planters of Ecuador entered largely into the production of cotton, which at that time yielded large profits, but the industry has declined to very insignificant proportions since then because of inability to compete with the lower cost of production in the United States.
Of the total imports from 1912-3, one-half come direct from India and a quarter from the United Kingdom direct, the balance from foreign countries, European and Asiatic, in about equal proportions.
For the latest post-war statistics up to 1921 the proportions were respectively twothirds, one-sixth and one-sixth, owing primarily to the almost complete cessation of direct shipments from Europe to the Persian Gulf.
Yet, apart from the references to cultic prostitution (which was adopted by the Israelites from the Canaanites), the mention of the vice in question is not frequent; in a polygamous society and in a country without great cities it was not likely to grow to great proportions.
Many of the patent bronzes are by slight variations in the proportions of the constituents made suitable for casting, for forging, and for rolling into sheets.
On adding to this solution, after settling out the mud, a quantity of potassium chloride equivalent to the calcium chlorate, the reaction Ca(C10 3) 2 +2KC1=CaC1 2 +2KC10 3 is produced, the ultimate proportions thus being theoretically 2KC10 3 to 6CaCl2, though in reality there is rather more calcium chloride present.
The same classes of plants occur in the Upper Gondwanas; but there the proportions are reversed, the conifers, and still more the cycads, being more numerous than the ferns, whilst the Equisetaceae are but sparingly found.
The base was operated in a comparatively small way at first but developed into an undertaking of gigantic proportions.
The wretched inmates were dependent for food upon the caprice of their gaolers or the charity of the benevolent; water was denied them except in the scantiest proportions; their only bedding was putrid straw.
It took the place of an earlier one, of similar proportions but built of tufa or "poros" stone.
The red, or brownish-red, colour of the long and coarse hair at once distinguishes the orang-utan from the African apes; a further point of distinction being the excessive length of the arms, which are of such proportions that the animal when in the upright posture (which it seldom voluntarily assumes) can rest on its bent knuckles.
The outbreak never assumed large proportions.
The outbreak, which hardly reached epidemic proportions, lasted about six months.
It is a very powerful oxidant; a mixture of potassium chlorate and sugar in about equal proportions spontaneously inflames when touched with a rod moistened with concentrated sulphuric acid, the chlorine peroxide liberated setting fire to the sugar, which goes on burning.
Nizhniy is the chief station of the Volga steamboat traffic. The first steamer made its appearance on the Volga in 1821, but it was not till 1845 that steam navigation began to assume large proportions.
Subsequent papers by Dulong were concerned with " New determinations of the proportions of water and the density of certain elastic fluids " (1820, with Berzelius); the property possessed by certain metals of facilitating the combination of gases (1823 with Thenard); the refracting powers of gases (1826); and the specific heats of gases (1829).
The west front is particularly fine, and the church, with its noble proportions and lofty clerestories, resembles a cathedral in miniature.
The war now assumed continental proportions, and the Virginia leaders decided in May 1776 that a declaration of independence was necessary to secure foreign assistance.
Relations between Polygons of Loads and of Resistances.In a structure in which each piece is supported at two joints only, the well-known laws of statics show that the directions of the gross load on each piece and of the two resistances by which it is supported must lie in one plane, must either be parallel or meet in one point, and must bear to each other, if not parallel, the proportions of the sides of a triangle respectively parallel to their directions, and, if parallel, such proportions that each of the three forces shall be proportional to the distance between the other two,all the three distances being measured along one direction.
It consists of two elements, the velocity ratio, which is the ratio of any two magnitudes bearing to each other the proportions of the respective velocities of the two points at a given instant, and the directional relation, which is the relation borne to each other by the respective directions of the motions of the two points at the same given instant.
It is obvious that the motions of a pair of points may be varied in any manner, whether by direct or by lateral deviation, and yet that their comparative motion may remain constant, in consequence of the deviations taking place in the same proportions, in the same directions and at the same instants for both points.
The comparative motion of the first driver and last follower is obtained by combining the proportions expressing by their terms the velocity ratios and by their signs the directional relations of the several elementary combinations of which the train consists.
These several images are not to the same scale, so that although the images may be considered to form collectively an image of the chain itself, the several members of this chain-image are to different scales in any one velocity diagram, and thus the chainimage is distorted from the actual proportions of the mechanism which it represents.
In course of time the process of intermingling, as we have seen, assumed such proportions that the priestly class, in their pride of blood, felt naturally tempted to recognize, as of old, only two" colours,"the Aryan Brahman and the non-Aryan Sudra.
The oil, when boiled with small proportions of litharge and minium, undergoes the process of resinification in the air with greatly increased rapidity.
The present purpose being merely to illustrate the variation of distribution amongst a few representative countries, it is unnecessary to enter into more detail than such as will serve to distinguish the proportions of the population in main divisions of life.
According to the different proportions in which these four indestructible and unchangeable matters are combined with each other is the difference of the organic structure produced; e.g.
As man, animal and plant are composed of the same elements in different proportions, there is an identity of nature in them all.
The apparent " body " of the wine, however, is not merely dependent upon the absolute quantity of solid - non-volatile - matters it contains, but is influenced also by the relative proportions in which the various constituents exist.
It has been found by experience also that wines which are normally constituted as regards the relative proportions of their various constituents, provided that the quantities of these do not fall below certain limits, are likely to develop well, whereas wines which, although perfectly sound, show an abnormal constitution, will rarely turn out successful.
C. Chaptal, consists in neutralizing excessive acid by means of powdered marble, and bringing up the sugar to normal proportions by adding appropriate amounts of this substance in a solid form.
The quality of the wines naturally varies considerably with the vintage; but it is almost invariably the case that the wines of successful vintages will contain practically the same relative proportions of their various constituents, although the absolute amounts present of these constituents may differ widely.
The trade with the United Kingdom is of considerable proportions, the total quantity of Spanish wines imported in 1906 amounting to 1,689,049 gallons of red wine (to the value of £154,963), and white wines to the extent of 1,119,702 gallons (to the value of £242,877).
Chemically the sweet sherry differs from the natural dry light wines in that it contains relatively high proportions of alcohol, extractives, sugar and sulphates, and small quantities of acid and glycerin.
Comparing the fine wines of the better vintages with, for instance, the red wines of the Gironde, the main features of interest are the relatively high proportions of acid and glycerin and the low proportion of tannin which they contain.
In the early part of the 10th century the distribution in bulk of electric energy for power purposes in Great Britain began to assume important proportions.
Sometimes other proportions obtain, while it is not unusual to have quotations for flaxes containing four different kinds.
This consists in stacking the broken ore in heaps and adding a mixture of sodium sulphate and ferric chloride in the proportions necessary for the entire conversion of the iron into ferric sulphate.
It is also impossible to determine how far the effects described are produced by spontaneous favourable variations or by the direct action of local conditions; but it is probable that in every case both causes are concerned, although in constantly varying proportions.
Thus driven back upon himself, Schopenhauer fell into morbid meditations, and the world which he saw, if it was stripped naked of its disguises, lost its proportions in the distorting light.
The tower, at the intersection of the nave and transepts, is of unusually massive proportions, being 30 ft.
Between 1850 and 1900 the total head of livestock increased from 4,500,000 to 5,263,000, and the great advance of cattle-farming is evident from the following proportions.
The satrap revolts, moreover, assumed more and more formidable proportions, and the Greek states began once more to tamper with them.
If further allowance be made for the district held by the Afghan invaders as part of their own country, it will be seen how greatly the extent of Persia proper was reduced, and what a work Nadir had before him to restore the kingdom to its former proportions.
The Roman Catholics are mainly confined to the district of Ermeland, in which the ordinary proportions of the confessions are completely reversed.
The northern tributaries of the Gilgit river, which joins the Indus near its south-westerly bend towards the Punjab, take their rise from a glacier system which is probably unequalled in the world for its extent and magnificent proportions.
The modern development of the port dates from about the middle of the 18th century when coal began to be extensively worked at Llansamlet and copper smelting (begun at Swansea in 1717, though at Neath it dated from 1584) assumed large proportions.
The shore of the channel facing Rheneia is lined with docks and warehouses, and behind them, as well as elsewhere in the island, there have been found several private houses of the 2nd or 3rd century B.C. Each of these consists of a single court surrounded by columns and often paved with mosaic; various chambers open out of the court, including usually one of large proportions, the avSpcwv or dining-room for guests.
The soil of south-west and south-east Michigan is for the most part a dark clay loam or muck; in the north central part of the lower peninsula it is a light sandy loam, along the Huron shore it is heavy with blue clay, in the mining districts of the north-west the rocks are usually either barren or very thinly covered; and elsewhere in the state the soil is generally rich in a variety of mineral elements, and varies chiefly in the proportions of vegetable loam, sand or gravel, and clay.
The mass, along with certain proportions of water, scrap-iron and mercury, is then placed in barrels, which are made to rotate so that the several ingredients are thoroughly mixed.
The relative proportions of these three divisions vary considerably, and the extreme abbreviation of the mid-gut found in the common crayfish (Astacus) is by no means typical of the class.
In this reaction the proportions of aldehyde and acetoacetic ester may be interchanged and ay disubstituted pyridines are then obtained.
This accommodation may be provided by one council or by a combination of two or more, and such council or combination may provide one or more asylums. The county council exercise their powers through a visiting committee, consisting of not less than seven members, or, in the case of a combination, of a number of members appointed by each council in agreed proportions.
In the general proportions of the body and limbs there is a marked difference between the gorilla and man.
In the gorilla, the face, formed largely by the massive jaw-bones, predominates over the brain-case or cranium; in the man these proportions are reversed.
Proportions of the limbs, compared in length with the trunk, have been claimed as constituting peculiarities of African and American races; and other anatomical points, such as the conformation of the pelvis, have speciality.
The ill-chosen name of Caucasian, invented by Blumenbach in allusion to a South Caucasian skull of specially typical proportions, and applied by him to the so-called white races, is still current; it brings into one race peoples such as the Arabs and Swedes, although these are scarcely less different than the Americans and Malays, who are set down as two distinct races.
Darwin's summing-up of the evidence as to unity of type throughout the races of mankind is as distinctly a monogenist argument as those of Blumenbach, Prichard or Quatrefages " Although the existing races of man differ in many respects, as in colour, hair, shape of skull, proportions of the body, &c., yet, if their whole organization be taken into consideration, they are found to resemble each other closely in a multitude of points.
A multitude of minor and simpler organic compounds, of which carbohydrates and fats are the best known, occur in different protoplasm in varying forms and proportions, and are much less isolated from the inorganic world.
In 1731 the trade was of some note, and by 1813 had attained such proportions that the whole area of the castle site was sold for the erection of dyeworks, cloth manufactories and other industrial buildings.
The most characteristic feature of this act was that the peasants, as distinct from household servants, received not only personal freedom but allotments in land in certain proportions to their former holdings.
Proportions even higher have not been unknown in history, and it is probable that in Russia, India, Egypt, and in other countries at this moment, in time of peace, the proportion may amount to one-fourth or one-fifth.
These varying proportions, however, mean different things economically, and it is of obvious interest that, besides questions as to particular taxes, the broad effect of the whole burden of taxation should also be discussed.
Without, viewed from the open Parliament Square to the north, the beautiful proportions of the building are readily realized, but it is somewhat dwarfed by the absence of a central tower and by the vast adjacent pile of the Houses of Parliament.
The second, P4S7, is obtained by heating a mixture of red phosphorus and sulphur in the proportions given by P4S7+5% P4S3, and crystallizing from carbon disulphide in which P 4 S 3 is readily soluble.
The loess is reddish-brown, buff or grey according to the varying proportions of iron oxide.
There are unlimited supplies of clay, shale and limestone, the three essential constituents of Portland cement, and the manufacture of this, begun in 1902, at once assumed important proportions.
He was not indeed a parish pastor; he inspired church activities which grew to large proportions, but trusted the organization of them to laymen of organizing abilities in the church; and for acquaintance with his people he depended on such social occasions as were furnished in the free atmosphere of this essentially New England church at the close of every service.
By the 14th of March, when the second reading came on, the controversy had assumed threatening proportions; and Mr Dixon, the Liberal member for Birmingham and chairman of the Education League, moved an amendment, the effect of which was to prohibit all religious education in board schools.
Emigration beyond the colonial border had in fact been continuous for 1 so years, but it now took on larger proportions.
Moreover, if a natural water is so liable to pathogenic pollution as to demand filtration of this kind, it ought at once to be discarded for an initially pure supply; not necessarily pure in an apparent or even in a chemical sense, for water may be visibly coloured, or may contain considerable proportions both of organic and inorganic impurity, and yet be tasteless and free from pathogenic pollution.
Pulleys are usually cast in one piece, and the proportions of the various parts are designed to resist the unknown stresses due to contraction of the casting in cooling, in addition to the stresses to which pulleys are subjected in use.
The proportions of cone pulleys for open or crossed belts may be determined by considering the expression for the half length (1) of a belt wrapping round pulleys of radius r 1 and r 2 respectively, and with centres distant c apart.
Many of the letters are lost, but it is clear from one of Newton's, dated the 19th of September 1685, that he had received many useful communications from Flamsteed, and especially regarding Saturn, " whose orbit, as defined by Kepler," Newton " found too little for the sesquialterate proportions."
I was apt to suspect there might be some cause or other unknown to me which might disturb the sesquialteral proportions, for the influences of the planets one upon another seemed not great enough, though I imagined Jupiter's influence greater than your numbers determine it.
The amount was recoverable as a debt from the criminal to the extent of his property, and in his default from the members of his fine in sums determined by the degree of relationship; and it was distributable among the members of the fine of a murdered person in the same proportions, like a distribution among the next of kin.
Where hecatombs were sacrificed, the irp60vo-es necessarily assumed colossal proportions, as in the case of the altar at Parion, where it measured on each side 600 ft.
The potato, which was the sole food of at least half the people of an overcrowded island, failed, and a famine of unprecedented proportions was obviously imminent.
The following table will give an approximate idea of the proportions which go to each Nitrogen as ammonia cyanogen in gas and combined in tar in coke .
In this period, however, the fur-trade assumed proportions of greater importance, and trading posts were established by the North-west Company (Canadian).
This edifice, in the Perpendicular style, opened for public worship in 1821, occupies the site of the ancient chancel and transepts, though differing in style and proportions from the original structure.
Divers obtains it by mixing cold saturated solutions containing one molecular proportion of sodium nitrate, and two molecular proportions of acid sodium sulphite, and then adding a saturated solution of potassium chloride to the mixture.
Very probably the power which the appendage of a given segment has of assuming the perfected form and proportions previously attained by the appendage of another segment must be classed as an instance of " homoeosis," not only where such a change is obviously due to abnormal development or injury, but also where it constitutes a difference permanently established between allied orders or smaller groups, or between the two sexes.
Remains of the wild ox or aurochs are abundant in the superficial deposits of Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa; those from the brick-earths of the Thames valley indicating animals of immense proportions.