After that, it diminishes roughly in proportion to the delay.
The length of her body was strikingly out of proportion to her short legs.
The net gain in the 1906 class is not far short of 5o,00o, and the proportion of the new contingent to the old is practically 5:4.
The proportion varies greatly.
Farmers are respectable and interesting to me in proportion as they are poor--poor farmers.
There was distrust in the minds of the depositors, especially those whose holdings were small, and most of the banks were, at a very early period, subjected to the strain of repaying a large proportion of their deposits as they fell due.
To the translation and interpretation of the Scriptures men might bring a fallible judgment, but this would be assisted by the direct action of the Spirit of God in proportion to their faith.
Thoughts of home grew stronger the nearer he approached it--far stronger, as though this feeling of his was subject to the law by which the force of attraction is in inverse proportion to the square of the distance.
In such a state of affairs, whatever your ultimate plans may be, the interest of Your Majesty's service demands that the army should be rallied at Smolensk and should first of all be freed from ineffectives, such as dismounted cavalry, unnecessary baggage, and artillery material that is no longer in proportion to the present forces.
The proportion of tillage to pasture is roughly as 1 to 22.
But the tomato, a berry grown out of its natural proportion by the fiddling of man, at least knew redness was its ultimate goal.
Before the battle of Borodino our strength in proportion to the French was about as five to six, but after that battle it was little more than one to two: previously we had a hundred thousand against a hundred and twenty thousand; afterwards little more than fifty thousand against a hundred thousand.
Thus the principle of Carnot involves the conclusion that a greater proportion of the heat possessed by a body at a high temperature can be converted into work than in the case of an equal quantity of heat possessed by a body at a low temperature, so that the availability of heat increases with the temperature.
By this means a continuous stream of hot water is obtained, greater or smaller in proportion to the size and power of the apparatus.
- A great part of the bottom of the Mediterranean is covered with blue muds, frequently with a yellow upper layer containing a considerable proportion of carbonate of lime, chiefly shells of pelagic Foraminifera.
The proportion of freedom to inevitability decreases and increases according to the point of view from which the action is regarded, but their relation is always one of inverse proportion.
A great proportion of architectural ornaments are literally hollow, and a September gale would strip them off, like borrowed plumes, without injury to the substantials.
A suitable proportion between the size of the tank or cylinder and that of the boiler is 8 or io to 1.
9d.), the other levied on every occupier of a furnished house or of apartments in proportion to its rental value.
Two-fifths of the land belongs to the state, and two-fifths more to the various communes; the remaining fifth is minutely subdivided among a large number of small proprietors, many of whom have been expropriated from inability to pay the taxes, which, considering the low value of the land, are too heavy; while the state is unable to let a large proportion of its lands.
The general assembly is representative of the whole Church, either, as in the Irish General Assembly, by a minister and elder sent direct to it from every congregation, or, as in the Scottish General Assemblies, by a proportion of dele- Assembly.
We are conscious of an animal in us, which awakens in proportion as our higher nature slumbers.
In proportion to the defeat of the Austrian army Austria loses its rights, and the rights and the strength of France increase.
The electoral districts so formed are expected to be equal in proportion to the number of inhabitants; but this method has led to much abuse in the past, through the making of unequal districts for partisan purposes.
According to Neubauer, the bark of young oaks contains from 7 to Io% of this principle; in old trees the proportion is much less.
In truth, not so large a proportion of the endowment of All Souls was derived from this source as was that of New College.
A large proportion of the most prominent buildings are clustered round the spacious Schlossplatz, with its fine promenades.
The notables elect the provincial councillors in the proportion, usually, of one to every canton, and their delegates elect the chief of the canton, who voices the wishes of the natives to the government.
In proportion as the mouth of the cove was wider compared with its length, the water over the bar was deeper compared with that in the basin.
In 1901, 49,102 families inhabited 48,415 houses, and the proportion of the urban population to the rural was 27.5 to 72.5.
The opportunities of living are diminished in proportion as what are called the "means" are increased.
The law of reciprocal proportion, of which some examples have been already given, is part of a larger law of equivalence that underlies most of our chemical methods and calculations.
- 829,000, , 21.5 Finistre Gard About two-thirds of the French departments, corn- Gers prising a large proportion of those situated in Gironde mountainous districts and in the basin of the Garonne, Haute-Ga where the birth-rate is especially feeble, show a Haute-Lo Haute-Mi decrease in population.
It comprises one-third of the representation in the House of Representatives, and perhaps a still larger proportion in the Senate.
In another annual called the Gem appeared the poem on the story of "Eugene Aram," which first manifested the full extent of that poetical vigour which seemed to advance just in proportion as his physical health declined.
A proportion of the sums payable in return for concessions of land in municipal cemeteries.
An army has suffered defeat, and at once a people loses its rights in proportion to the severity of the reverse, and if its army suffers a complete defeat the nation is quite subjugated.
The Code enacted that if the landlord would re-enter before the term was up, he must remit a fair proportion of the rent.
Or what if I were to allow--would it not be a singular allowance?--that our furniture should be more complex than the Arab's, in proportion as we are morally and intellectually his superiors!
Another fact of considerable technical importance is, that the various races of yeast show considerable differences in the amount and proportion of fermentation products other than ethyl alcohol and carbonic acid which they produce.
The coast of Sardinia contains few seaports, but a good proportion of these are excellent natural harbours.
The characteristic flavour and odour of wines and spirits is dependent on the proportion of higher alcohols, aldehydes and esters which may be produced.
A considerable proportion of the emigrants are miners who proceed to Tunis, and remain only a few years, but emigration to America is increasing.
It was terrible, but he felt that in proportion to the efforts of that fatal force to crush him, there grew and strengthened in his soul a power of life independent of it.
Anthropologists, indeed, have recently observed a large proportion of individuals of exceptionally small stature, not found in Sardinia only, but elsewhere in south Italy also; though in Sardinia they are distributed over the whole island, and especially in the southern half.
This difference of three and a half degrees between the temperature of the deep water and the shallow in the latter pond, and the fact that a great proportion of it is comparatively shallow, show why it should break up so much sooner than Walden.
The officers of the army are obtained partly from the oldestablished military schools, partly from the ranks of the noncommissioned officers, the proportion of the latter being about one-third of the total number of officers.
of land, the smallest proportion of coast shown by any of the continents.
The Russians in Turkestan form only about 5% of the total pop., and since most of the rural Mussulman pop. take no part in the voting, the country is governed to all intents and purposes by men elected by the very small proportion of Russians of the lower classes living in the towns.
The land tax falls upon land not built upon in proportion to its net yearly revenue.
Native capital is lacking, and taxation on unremunerative lands is, as elsewhere in Italy, too heavy in proportion to what they may be expected to produce, and not sufficiently elastic in case of a bad harvest.
The French navy is manned partly by voluntary enlistment, partly by the transference to the navy of a certain proportion of each years recruits for the army, but mainly by a system known as inscription maritime.
The tonnage of goods carried amounts to about 16,000,000 tons, or 4 tons per inhabitant, which must be considered fairly large, especially as no great proportion of the tonnage consists of minerals on which there is usually a low freightage.
The general conclusion would appear to be that, while as seen from the earth's surface much of the light from the sky is due to comparatively gross suspended matter, yet an appreciable proportion is attributable to the molecules of air themselves, and that at high elevations where the blue is purer, the latter part may become predominant.
The proportion of occurrences of negative potential under a clear sky was much above its average in autumn.
Favoured by its proximity to two great waterways and by its two ports, Nisaea on the Saronic and Pegae on the Corinthian Gulf, Megara took a prominent part in the commercial expansion of Greece from the 8th century onwards, and for two hundred years enjoyed prosperity out of proportion to the slight resources of its narrow territory.
The subject is man, treated as Aristotle does, according to his TE¦os, and so Aquinas discusses all the ethical, psychological and theological questions which arise; but any theological discussion upon man must be mainly ethical, and so a great proportion of the first part, and almost the whole of the second, has to do with ethical questions.
A large number still speak the Albanian language; many of the older men, and a considerable proportion of the women, even in the neighbourhood of Athens, are ignorant of Greek.
Filled with blood, it was natural to regard it as the seat of the blood, and as a matter of fact one-sixth of the entire blood of man is in the liver, while in the case of some animals the proportion is even larger.
But the deepest ponds are not so deep in proportion to their area as most suppose, and, if drained, would not leave very remarkable valleys.
number of the slave-population; it is clear, however, that the number must have been out of all proportion to that of the free inhabitants.
A volume of the diluted yeast was introduced into flasks containing sterilized wort, the degree of dilution being such that only a small proportion of the flasks became infected.
Males still exceed females in the proportion of nine to eight.
The census of 1897 revealed in several provinces a remarkably low proportion of men to women.
Maybe I'm blowing this all out of proportion.
Secondly, he knew that the greater the proportion of the Athenians who were prosperously at work in the country and therefore did not trouble to interfere in the work of government the less would be the danger of sedition, whose seeds are in a crowded city.
supply, the value of land is in proportion to the number of permanent labourers settled on it, and the landed proprietors naturally try to attract to their estates as many peasants as possible; and in this competition the large proprietors have evidently an advantage over their humbler and weaker rivals.
Of the middle class, moreover, a large proportion were Jews and Germans.
In proportion to its population China has the least railway development of any of the great countries of the world; the probability that its present commercial awakening will extend seems large, and in that case it will need a vast increase in its interior communications.
In Australia the increase in railway mileage in the five years ending December 31st, 1907 was about 7%-a small proportion as compared with America, Asia or Africa.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
This rate increases as the distance increases, but not in equal proportion; while the rates from large trade centres to other trade centres at a great distance are not higher than those to intermediate points somewhat less remote; if the law permits, there is a tendency to make them actually a little lower.
Apart from collisions and derailments, a large proportion of all accidents is found to be due primarily to want of care on the part of the victims. Accidents to workmen in marshalling, shunting, distributing and running trains, engines and cars, may be taken as the most important class, after train accidents, because this work is necessary and important and yet involves considerable hazard.
shows the paid-up capital, gross receipts, net receipts and proportion of net receipts to total paid-up capital on tile railways of the United Kingdom for a series of years.
This would be distributed between three coupled axles giving an average of 1.38 tons per axle, though the distribution might not in practice be uniform, a larger proportion of the weight falling on the driving-axle.
The unbalanced masses of a locomotive may be divided into two parts, namely, masses which revolve, as the crank-pins, the crank-cheeks, the couplingrods, &c.; and masses which reciprocate, made up of the piston, piston-rod, cross-head and a certain proportion of the connecting-rod.
It is also the custom to balance a proportion of the reciprocating masses by balance weights placed between the spokes of the wheels, and the actual balance weight seen in a driving-wheel is the resultant of the separate weights required for the balancing of the revolving parts and the reciprocating parts.
Meanwhile the waves are spreading out and the value of u is falling in inverse proportion to the distance from the source, so that very soon its effect must become negligible.
The French colonial (formerly marine) infantry, recruited by voluntary enlistment, comprises 18 regiments and 5 independent battalions (of which 12 regiments are at home), 74 batteries of field, fortress and mountain artillery (of which 32 are at home), with a few cavalry and engineers, &c., and other services in proportion.
As the cost of the service varies in proportion to the amount of use, the toll rate is more scientific, and it has the further advantage of discouraging the unnecessary use of the instrument, which causes congestion of traffic at busy hours and also results in lines being " engaged " when serious business calls are made.
Another method of charge, known as the " measured service rate," is de - signed to make the subscriber pay in proportion to the quality and quantity of the service he takes.
The proportion of evergreens is large, and has a marked effect on the landscape in winter.
in Venetia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria and Tuscany the proportion of concentrated population is only from 40 to 55%; in Piedmont, Liguria and Lombardy the proportion rises to from 70 to 76%; in southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia it attains a maximum of from 76 to 93%.
The proportion of ground under olives is from 20 to 36% at Porto Maurizio, and in Reggio, Lecce, Ban, Chieti and Leghorn it averages from 10 to 19%.
In the famiglio da spesa the tiller receives a small wage and a proportion of certain products.
At harvest-time the produce is placed in the barns of the lessor, who first deducts 25% as premium, then 16% for battiteria (the difference between corn before and after winnowing), then deducts a proportion for rent and subsidies, so that the portion retained by the actual tiller of the soil is extremely meagre.
A considerable proportion was obtained by foreign boats.
The greatest proportion of strikes takes place in northern Italy, especially Lombardy and Piedmont, where manufacturing industries are most developed.
In addition to an initial endowment by the state, part of the annual income of the fund is furnished in various forms by the state (principally by making over a proportion of the profits of the Post Office Savings Bank), and part by the premiums of the workmen.
Co-operation in general is most widely diffused, in proportion to population, in central Italy; less so in northern Italy, and much less so in the south and the islands.
There are, however, considerable reductions for distances over 93 m., on a scale increasing in proportion to the distance.
Lombardy and Piedmont are much better provided with railways in proportion to their area than any other parts of Italy; next come Venetia, Emilia and the immediate environs of Naples.
A third difficulty is the comparatively small tonnage and volume of Italian exports relatively to the imports, the former in 1907 being about one-fourth of the latter, and greatl out of proportion to the relative value; while a fourth is the lac of facilities for handling goods, especially in the smaller ports.
The number of persons unable to read and write has gradually decreased, both absolutely and in proportion to the number of inhabitants.
rhese are, however, the only institutions in which a decrease is shown, and by the law of 1906 5000 of these institutions are to be provided in the communes where the proportion of illiterates is highest.
From 1890 to 1900 the actual number rose by one-third (from 30,108 to 43,684), the proportion to the rest of those sentenced from one-fifth to one-fourth; while in 1905 the actual number rose to 67,944, being a considerable proportionate rise also.
This shows that charges, often involving preliminary imprisonment, are brought against an excessive proportion of persons who either are not or cannot be proved to be guilty.
About 20% of the total are women, and there is an increase of nearly 3% since 1882 in the proportion of suicides qader twenty years of age.
Like almost all Universal Service countries, Italy only drafts a small proportion of the available recruits into the army.
Even in the summer and autumn a large proportion of the army consisted of men with but a few months servicea highly dangerous state of things considering the peculiar mobilization conditioss of the country.
The increase in the numbers rejected as unfit is accounted for by the fact that if only a small proportion of the contingent can be taken for service, the medical standard of acceptance is high.
But, in proportion as the people gained more power in the field the consuls rose into importance, superseded the bishops and began to represent the city in transactions with its neighbors.
The immediate result of the reform was to increase the political influence of large cities where the proportion of illiterate workmen was lower than.
It has been a feature of great promise in recent contributions to the theory of evolution, that such contributions have received attention almost directly in proportion to the new methods of observation and the new series of facts with which they have come.
The proportion of landowners is a very large one, and the prosperous condition of the Groningen farmer is attested by the style of his home, his dress and his gig.
The present dome and the drum on which it stands, masterpieces of graceful line and harmonious proportion, were very important alterations from the earlier scheme.
The new work largely centred round a discussion of the nature and origin of vessels, conspicuous features in young plant tissues which thus acquired an importance in the contemporary literature out of proportion to their real significance in the construction of the vascular plant.
The latter ultimately reaches the external air by diffusion through the stomata, whose dimensions vary in proportion as the amount of water in the epidermal cells becomes greater or less.
This coloring matter, as shown by its absorption spectrum, picks out of the ordinary beam of light a large proportion of its red and blue rays, together with some of the green and yellow.
Ha-lophytes.These are plants living in situations where the substratum contains a high proportion of sodium chloride.
A considerable proportion of halophytes are succulents, i.e.
Maximowiczfinds that 40% of the plants of Manchuria are common to Europe and Asia, but the proportion falls sharply to i6% in the case of Japan.
Compositae compose a quarter of the Andean flora, which is a greater proportion than in any in the world.
The alkyl derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide.
The pseudo-coprolites of the Suffolk Crag have been estimated by Herapath to be as rich in phosphates as the true ichthyo-coprolites and saurio-coprolites of other formations, the proportion of P 2 O 5 contained varying between 12.5 and 37.25%, the average proportion, however, being 32 or 33%.
It is singular that only the first three of them belong to the order Passeriformes, a proportion which is not maintained in any other tropical region.
They contain a volatile oil which does not occur in the corm, and their proportion of colchicine is higher, for which reason the Tinctura Colchici Seminum- dose 5 to 15 minims - is preferable to the wine prepared from the corm.
The term is thus applied to a metal bar, slender in proportion to its length, used as a tie, brace or connecting shaft between different parts, of a machine.
In what proportion zeal for the ancient canons and the rights of others, and jealous fear of encroachment upon his own jurisdiction, were mixed in the motives of Leo, it would be interesting to know.
The sand of nearly all the rivers contains a varying proportion of gold.
Blind Carabidae form a large proportion of cave dwelling beetles, and several species of great interest live between tide-marks along the seashore.
Their boilers are of relatively large proportions for the train weight and average speed, and the driving wheels of small diameter, a large proportion of their total weight being " adhesive."
of lineal length, and his proportion of the total weight was 5.7 cwt.
Cars built almost entirely of steel, in which the proportion of wood is reduced to a minimum, are used on some electric railways, in order to diminish danger from fire, and the same mode of construction is also being adopted for the rolling stock of steam railways.
The gondola or flat car corresponds to the European open wagons and is used to carry goods not liable to be injured by the weather; but in the United States the practice of covering the load with tarpaulins is unknown, and therefore the proportion of box cars is much greater than in Europe.
gauge, and laid with rails weighing from 50 to 70 lb per yard; a flat-footed 60 lb rail, with the axle load limited to 14 tons, has the advantage for such lines that it permits the employment of a proportion of the locomotives used on main lines.
had been opened for traffic, and the mileage of lines opened was much less in proportion to the mileage sanctioned in the cases of lines constructed on their own land than in the case of lines more of the nature of tramways.
(In other countries where the mileage of main lines of railways in proportion to area and population is roughly the same as in the United Kingdom, the mileage of light railways already constructed is considerable, while many additional lines are under construction.
The population of Peking is reckoned to be about r,000,000, a number which is out of all proportion to the immense area enclosed within its walls.
The Tonopah ores were richer in silver than in gold, the respective values in 1904 and 1905 being approximately in the proportion of three to one.
The result of this enormous labour, albeit worthy of a great historian, clearly showed that the author lacked all sense of historical proportion.
It is followed by the stage of dry heat, which will be prolonged in proportion as the previous stage is curtailed.
Most families and a large proportion of genera are :represented throughout the world, but in some cases (e.g.
But an inductive and deductive treatment, both comprehensive and in due proportion, does not as yet (19to) exist, and awaits fuller external evidence.'
A fair proportion of Jews have been elected to the House of Commons, and Mr Herbert Samuel rose to cabinet rank in 1909.
They have exercised an influence over distant neighbours, especially in Fiji, quite out of proportion to their numbers.
The chamber (1 30vX17), which is elected in the proportion of one deputy to every 5000 inhabitants, meets annually for a session of two months.
spicuous and well-known feature of ants is the wingless condition of the " workers," as the specialized females, with undeveloped ovaries, which form the largest proportion of the population of ant-communities, are called.
They have a temperature of 45 6° F., and contain a large proportion of bicarbonate of soda.
Yet Buddhism has never made much impression west of India, and Islam is clearly repugnant to Europeans, for even when under Moslem rule (as in Turkey) they refuse to accept it in a far larger proportion than did the Hindus in similar circumstances.
This promise he brilliantly fulfilled by routing the forces of the Argive confederacy at the battle of Mantinea (418), the moral effect of which was out of all proportion to the losses inflicted on the enemy.
The low price of agriculturalproduce, beneficial though it might be to the general community, had lessened the ability of the land to bear the proportion of taxation which had heretofore been imposed upon it.
In the majority report it was stated " that, in order to place agricultural lands in their right position as compared with other ratable properties, it is essential that they should be assessed to all local rates in a reduced proportion of their ratable value."
The import of the manufactured product from 1875 to 1900 increased at a much greater ratio than that of the raw grain, for whilst in 1875 the former represented less than one-ninth of the total, by 1900 the proportion had risen to nearly one-fourth.
In the five subsequent years the proportion was fundamentally altered, so that with a greatly increased importation of grain, that of meal and flour was in the proportion of about one-ninth.
Such, moreover, is the effect of different manures that the gross produce of the mixed herbage is totally different on the respective plots according to the manure employed, both as to the proportion of the various species composing it and as to their condition of development and maturity.
By far the greater proportion of those constituents remains in circulation in the manure of the farm, whilst the remainder yields highly valuable products for sale in the forms of meat and milk.
Most of the nitrogen in the straw of the cereals, and a very large proportion of that of the much more highly nitrogenyielding crops, returns to the land as manure, for the benefit of future cereals and other crops.
The numbers for Scotland are greater throughout than those for England, 72% of the fat cattle entering the scheduled markets in Scotland in 1905 2 having been weighed, while in England the proportion was only 20 7 0.
Of the nitrogenous compounds in food, on the other hand, only a small proportion of the whole consumed is finally stored up in the increase of the animal - in other words, a very large amount of nitrogen passes through the body beyond that which is finally retained in the increase, and so remains for manure.
Hence, as current fattening food-stuffs go - assuming, of course, that they are not abnormally low in the nitrogenous constituents - they are, as foods, more valuable in proportion to their richness in digestible and available nonnitrogenous than to that of their nitrogenous constituents.
As, however, the manure of the animals of the farm is valuable largely in proportion to the nitrogen it contains, there is, so far, an advantage in giving a food somewhat rich in nitrogen, provided it is in other respects a good one, and, weight for weight, not much more costly.
The competition thus constitutes what is termed a " block test," and it is instructive in affording the opportunity of seeing the quality of the carcases furnished by the several animals, and in particular the relative proportion and distribution of fat and lean meat.
The animals which are shipped in this way are necessarily of the best quality, because the freight on a superior beast is no more costly than on an inferior one, and the proportion of freight to sale price is therefore less.
966 contained the king's mother, two archbishops, seven bishops, five ealdormen and fifteen ministri; and this is a fair specimen of the usual proportion" (Stubbs, Const.
No one knows what proportion of the industrial population was included in the organized gilds, or how complete was the control exercised by these bodies over their members.
His assumptions are based upon ordinary observation and experience, and are usually accurate in proportion to his practical shrewdness and sagacity, so that he is not interested in the speculative flights of philosophy, except in so far as they influence or have influenced conduct.
A correct sense of proportion and the faculty of seizing upon the dominant factors in an historical problem are the result partly of the possession of certain natural gifts in which many individuals and some nations are conspicuously wanting, partly of general knowledge of the working of the economic and political institutions of the period we are studying, partly of what takes the place of practical experience in relation to modern problems, namely, detailed acquaintance with different kinds of original sources and the historical imagination by which we can realize the life and the ideals of past generations.
Some of the criticism of their works, necessary and useful as it has been, will probably be corrected later on by that breadth of view and sense of proportion which has enabled us to appreciate justly the achievements of lesser men in more remote times.
In some cases all the eggs in a capsule develop; in other cases one egg only in a capsule (Neritina), or a small proportion (Purpura, Buccinum), advance in development; the rest are arrested either after the first process of cell-division (cleavage) or before that process.
Visceral sac and shell small in proportion to the rest of the body, which cannot be withdrawn into the shell; foot elongated, fin-shaped, with sucker, but without operculum.
The results of this day were out of all proportion to the comparatively small number of casualties.
Tiryns and Hissarlik, other communities of the early race began to arrive at civilization, but were naturally influenced by the more advanced culture of Crete, in proportion to their nearness of vicinity.
Many of the species are in process of extinction, owing to the extensive changes tha.t are taking place in the natural conditions of the world by the extension of human population and of cultivation, and by the destruction of forests; hence it is probable that a considerable proportion of the species at present existing will disappear from the face of the earth before we have discovered or preserved any specimens of them.
Consequently the modern order Aptera comprises only a very small proportion of Linnaeus's " Aptera " - the spring-tails and bristle-tails, wingless Hexapoda that stand evidently at a lower grade of development than the bulk of the class.
Such excessive multiplication of the larger taxonomic divisions shows an imperfect sense of proportion, for if the term " class " be allowed its usual zoological value, no student can fail to recognize that the Hexapoda form a single welldefined class, from which few entomologists would wish to exclude even the Apterygogenea.
Most of the families and a large proportion of the genera of insects are exceedingly widespread, but a study of the genera and species in any of the more important families shows that faunas can be distinguished whose headquarters agree fairly with the regions that have been proposed to express the distribution of the higher vertebrates.
After the determination of a number of cosmopolitan insects that may well have been artificially introduced, there remains a large proportion of endemic species - sometimes referable to distinct genera - which suggest a high antiquity for the truly insular faunas.
2 Herein are contained more than nine hundred coloured and more than one hundred uncoloured plates, which are crowded with the figures of birds, a large proportion of them reduced copies from other works, and especially those of Gould.
proportion of the limbs and the disposition of the toes - even as had been the practice of most ornithologists before him!
A large proportion of the fossil remains, the determination and description of which was his object, were what are very commonly called the " long bones," that is to say, those of the limbs.
Clay and " bottom " lands produce a large, leafy plant, yielding less lint in proportion.
There are no figures obtainable as to the production, but it must be very large, considering that the crop provides clothing for a large proportion of the population of China.
Now, however, a large proportion of the crop is sold to local store-keepers who transfer it to exporting firms in neighbouring cities.
It might be thought that the "futures" of different months, being substitutes in proportion to their temporal proximity to one another, should vary together exactly; but it would seem to be a sufficient reply that as they are not perfect substitutes they are in some slight degree independent variables.
Greater stability of crops in proportion to area cultivated is hoped for.
The residues from petroleum distillation have been shown to contain very dense solids and liquids of high specific gravity, having a large proportion of carbon and possessed of remarkable fluorescent properties.
The system is largely employed in Russia, and its use has been frequently attempted in the United States, but the results have not been satisfactory, on account, it is said, of the much greater quantity of dissolved gas contained in the American oil, the larger proportion of kerosene which such oil yields, and the less fluid character of the residue.
We only know that as long ago as the 1st century B.C. true Hebrew blood was becoming rare, and that a vast proportion of the Jews of Roman times were Hebraized Aramaeans, whose assimilation into the Jewish community did not date much further back than the Maccabaean age.
A small proportion go to the Johannesburg gold mines, and others obtain employment on the railways.
A large proportion of the people can read and write Sesuto (as the Basuto language is called) and English, and speak Dutch, whilst a considerable number also receive higher education.
The theory of proportion, and the study of acoustics and music were considerably advanced by his investigations.
The corresponding decomposition of a glyceride into an acid and glycerin takes place when the glyceride is distilled in superheated steam, or by boiling in water mixed with a suitable proportion of caustic potash or soda.
Potash soap with the same reagent undergoes double decomposition - a proportion being changed into a soda soap with the formation of potassium chloride.
The contents of the pan are once more allowed to cool and settle, and the soap as now formed constitutes a pure curd coap, carrying with it some proportion of uncombined alkali, but containing the minimum amount of water.
Yellow Soap consists of a mixture of any hard fatty soap with a variable proportion - up to 40% or more - of resin soap. That substance by itself has a tenacious gluey consistence, and its intermixture in excess renders the resulting compound soft and greasy.
From the conditions of the manufacture care must be taken to regulate the amount and strength of the alkali in proportion to the oil used, and the degree of concentration to which the boiling ought to be continued has to be determined with close observation.
The proportion of whites is greater at the west end than at the east end, greater on the north side than on the south side, and greater in the interior than along the coast.
As is shown by its name the province is situated in the centre of the Indian peninsula, comprising a large proportion of the broad belt of hill and plateau country which separates the plains of Hindustan from the Deccan.
Any change which a substance may chance to undergo was simply due to the discarding or taking up of some proportion of the primary " elements " or qualities: of these coverings " water," " air," " earth " and " fire " were regarded as clinging most tenaciously to the essence, while " cold," " heat," " moistness " and " dryness " were more easily cast aside or assumed.
- The same compound always contains the same elements combined together in the same mass proportion.
For instance, 35'45 parts of chlorine and 79.96 parts of bromine combine with 107.93 parts of silver; and when chlorine and bromine unite it is in the proportion of 35'45 parts of the former to 79.96 parts of the latter.
Iodine unites with silver in the proportion of 126.97 parts to 107.93 parts of the latter, but it combines with chlorine in two proportions, viz.
in the proportion of 126.97 parts either to 35'45 or to three times 35'45 parts of chlorine.
We know the amount present in the precipitate, and since the same amount is present in the quantity of substance experimented with, we have only to work out a sum in proportion.
12), a proportion inconsistent with any degree of mobility; once more indeed the phalanx of the 2nd century seems to have become a body effective by sheer weight only and disordered by unevenness of ground.
The raw materials used in the manufacture are: (I) iron-free kaolin, or some other kind of pure clay, which should contain its silica and alumina as nearly as possible in the proportion of 2SiO 2: Al203 demanded by the formula assigned to ideal kaolin (a deficit of silica, however, it appears can be made up for by addition of the calculated weight of finely divided silica); (2) anhydrous sulphate of soda; (3) anhydrous carbonate of soda; (4) sulphur (in the state of powder); and (5) powdered charcoal or relatively ash-free coal, or colophony in lumps.
They now add the proportion which these units of length have to nature, or state how many of these units are contained within some local measure of length.
The scale of that map, as determined by the equator or centre meridian, we will suppose to be i: 125,000,000, while the encircling meridian indicates a scale of i: 80,000,000; and a " mean " scale, equal to the square root of the proportion which the area of the map bears to the actual area of a hemisphere, is r: 112,000,000.
The light is supposed to descend vertically upon the country represented, and in a true scale of shade the intensity increases with the inclination from o° to 90°; but as such a scale does not sufficiently differentiate the lesser inclinations which are the most important, the author adopted a conventional scale, representing a slope of 45° or more, supposed to be inaccessible, as absolutely black, the level surfaces, which reflect all the light which falls upon them, as perfectly white, and the intervening slopes by a proportion between black and white, as in fig.
Thus the French survey commission of 1828 fixed the proportion of black to white at one and a half times the angle of slope; while in Austria, where steep mountains constitute an important feature, solid black has been reserved for a slope of 80°, the proportion of black to white varying from 80:o (for 50) to 8: 72 (for 5°).
The extent to which the more correct proportion would have affected the delineation of the Mediterranean is illustrated by fig.
In South America, in proportion to the area of the country, only few surveys of a thoroughly scientific nature have been made, and it is therefore satisfactory that the service geographique of the French army should be publishing, since 1900, a map of the entire continent on a scale of 1: 1,000,000.
Nay more, the Gentile Christians took possession of them, and just in proportion as they were neglected by the Jews - who, after the war of Bar-Cochba, became indifferent to the Messianic hope and hardened themselves once more in devotion to the law - they were naturalized in the Christian communities.
It is not improbable that all dogs sprang from one common source, but climate, food and cross-breeding caused variations of form which suggested particular uses, and these being either designedly or accidentally perpetuated, the various breeds of dogs arose, and became numerous in proportion to the progress of civilization.
Well ribbed up, short and compact in proportion.
In fact, the number of men, either Quakers or of Quaker origin and proclivities, who occupy positions of influence in English life is large in proportion to the small body with which they are connected.
It is in proportion as a sedentary life prevails, and agricultural exploitation is practised on a larger scale, whilst warlike habits continue to exist, that the labour of slaves is increasingly introduced to provide food for the master, and at the same time save him from irksome toil.
7) fixed the proportion of a man's slaves which he could liberate by testament, and forbade more than a hundred being so enfranchised, whatever might be the the number of the familia.
The Roman colonus was originally a free person who took land on lease, contracting to pay to the proprietor either a fixed sum annually or (when a colonus partiarius) a certain proportion of the produce of the farm.
They paid a fixed proportion of the produce (pars agraria) to the owner of the estate, and gave a determinate amount of labour (operae) on the portion of the domain which he kept in his own hands (mansus dominicus).
Two broods seem to be common in the course of the season, and towards the end of summer the birds - the young greatly preponderating in number - collect in large flocks and move to the sea-coast, whence a large proportion depart for more southern latitudes.
Bede has the artist's instinct of proportion, the artist's sense for the picturesque and the pathetic. His style too, modelled largely, in the present writer's opinion, on that of Gregory in the Dialogues, is limpid and unaffected.
The females numbered 15,753, or 127 to every loo males, considerably the largest proportion to any county in Scotland.
The chief points to be attended to are to have a plentiful supply of botanical drying paper, so as to be able to use about six sheets for each specimen; to change the paper at intervals of six to twelve hours; to avoid contact of one leaf or flower with another; and to increase the pressure applied only in proportion to the dryness of the specimen.
Of these a great proportion came from the cemetery and from the foundations of the railway station.
Notwithstanding these precautions, the value of assignats still declined, till the proportion to specie had become that of six to one.
Each of the larger streams, as well as a large proportion of the smaller ones, is accompanied by a belt of bottom land, of greater or less width, lying low as regards the stream, and liable to overflow at times of high water.
Of this enormous output, from 98.3% upward went to the United States;' of whose total importation of all sugars and of cane sugar the proportion of Cuban cane - steadily rising - was respectively 49.8 and 53.7% in the seasons of 1900-1901 and 1904-1905.
In recent years the growth of the leaf under cloth tents has greatly increased, as it has been abundantly proved that the product thus secured is much more valuable - lighter in colour and weight, finer in texture, with an increased proportion of wrapper leaves, and more uniform qualities, and with lesser amounts of cellulose, nicotine, gums and resins.
The proportion of imports taken from the United States is greatest in foodstuffs, metals and metal manufactures, timber and furniture, mineral oils and lard.
The proportion of the total population which in 1907 was in cities of 8000 or more was only 30.3%; and the proportion in cities of 25,000 or more was 21.4%.
Including all unions the total is below the European proportion, but above that of Porto Rico or Jamaica in 1899.
Caibarien and San Antonio de los Banos had the largest proportion of white population.
Chloraloxime, CC1 3 CH: NOH, is obtained when one molecular proportion of chloral hydrate is warmed with four molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and a little water.
It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 39° C. A chloral hydroxylamine, CC1 3 [[Choh Nhoh]], melting at 98° C. is obtained by allowing a mixture of one molecular proportion of chloral hydrate with two molecular proportions of hydroxylamine hydrochloride and one of sodium carbonate to stand for some time in a desiccator.
The proportion borne to one another by the different religions, as estimated in 1910, is: 50% Mussulman, 41% Orthodox, 6% Catholic, 3% all others (Jews, Druses, Nestorians, &c.).
Later, without taking into consideration the effective amounts in cash at the disposal of the vilayets, considerable sums were drawn upon them, by means of havales, out of proportion to their capacity.
The tithes were originally based on one-tenth of the agricultural produce of the country, but this proportion was gradually raised under the euphemistic pretence of " public instruction," but really, under financial pressure, to 12% and again in 1900 for military " equipments " (Tejhizat-i-'Askeriyeh) by a further 2% to 122%.
is composed of receipts from " State Domains " of which a large proportion was formerly included in the civil list.
In March 1897 the floating debt was calculated by a financial authority in the Fortnightly Review to amount to upwards of £TJ5,000,000, which might be compressed to £T25,000,000 since a large proportion was certainly composed of salaries in arrear and other items of a similar kind which the government would never, under any circumstances, make good.
The above 25% is to be employed as additional sinking fund for the unified debt and lottery bonds, in the proportion of 60% and 40% respectively.
The Germans having bought out the British rights, this concession became a purely German affair, although a certain proportion of the capital was found in London.
In the last twelve years of the 19th century the altilik currency was almost entirely withdrawn, and replaced by fractional mejidie; a large proportion of the beshlik has also been withdrawn, but the metallik has not been touched.
The laws and regulations concerning vakuf are too intricate to be described; generally it may be said that they form a great obstruction to dealing with a large proportion of the most valuable property in Turkey, and therefore to the prosperity of the country.
It is comparatively modern, built at different periods, a large and confused structure without proportion, beauty or strength.
The Liber abaci, which fills 459 printed pages, contains the most perfect methods of calculating with whole numbers and with fractions, practice, extraction of the square and cube roots, proportion, chain rule, finding of proportional parts, averages, progressions, even compound interest, just as in the completest mercantile arithmetics of our days.
in height, broad in proportion, and his wife was of equally generous build.
The absence of a large proportion of the able-bodied young settlers in the northern armies was taken advantage of by the Indians, and in the summer of 1862 there was delay in paying them their yearly allowance.
Except the water, all are present in the sea in exceedingly small proportion.
Carbonic acid is the most abundant and it may be contained in sea-water in the proportion of about 50 milligrammes per litre (that is, 50 per million).
The proportion varies with the temperature.
It follows, too, that when there is a number of substances, all essential for the elaboration of living material, and when one of these is present in minimal proportion, that one substance rules the production, just as the effective strength of a chain depends on the weakest link.
If Spain and Gaul borrowed from Rome, they also exercised a reciprocal influence on the Roman use; it is interesting to note in this connexion, that of the names of the liturgical vestments a very large proportion are not of Roman origin, and that the non-Roman names tended to supersede the Roman in Rome itself.'
Their representation in the states general was exactly equal to that of the Dutch, though their population was in the proportion of seven to five.
The Lake Of Bizerta, called Tinja by the Arabs, abounds in excellent fish, especially mullets, the dried roe of which, called botargo, is largely exported, and the fishing industry employs a large proportion of the inhabitants.
The watery fluid in which the globules are suspended holds certain proteids, carbohydrates and a small proportion of salts in solution.
Block rubber is considered to possess certain advantages in securing a constant proportion of water, and in being satisfactory for transport.
tained by bruising the moistened herb and subsequent expression, is added to the milk in the proportion of about I pint to the gallon.
It is exported chiefly from San Juan del Norte, or Grey Town, and the larger proportion goes to the United States.
In connexion with the production of rubber the most important factor is the proportion of caoutchouc it contains.
The proportion and nature of the proteids or albuminous materials varies considerably in different latices.
Of considerable importance to the value of the rubber is the absence of the resinous constituents which are present in greater or smaller proportion in all latices.
Hevea and Castilloa, the resin is present in large proportion in the latex derived from young trees, and diminishes in amount as the tree ages.
It is already certain that some commercial rubbers contain a variable proportion of a substance of the nature of caoutchouc, but having different properties.
This viscous liquid is present in small proportion in some commercial rubbers owing to overheating during their preparation.
The washed product contains in its pores a notable proportion of water, which is removed by hanging the rubber for some days in a warm room.
The articles are first fashioned by joining the soft material; they are then varnished, and afterwards cured in ovens heated to about 135° C. The fine vulcanized " spread sheets " are made by spreading layers of indiarubber solution, already charged with the requisite proportion of sulphur, on a textile base previously prepared with a mixture of paste, glue and treacle.
When the vulcanization of rubber is carried too far, from the presence of a very large proportion of sulphur and an unduly long action of heat, the caoutchouc becomes hard, horn-like, and often black.
A kind of vulcanite which contains a large proportion of vermilion or other mineral pigment is used, under the name of dental rubber, for making artificial gums and supports for artificial teeth.
Upper Austria has the largest proportion of meadows in all Austria, 18.54%, while 2.49% is lowland and Alpine pasturage.
Sherard Cowper Coles patented a process in which, working with a high current density, a lead anode is used, and powdered zinc is kept suspended in the solution to maintain the proportion of zinc in the electrolyte, and so to guard against the gradual acidification of the bath.
The colour depends in part upon the proportion of copper and zinc, and in part upon the current density, weaker currents tending to produce a redder or yellower metal.
There are wide areas on the plains of West Siberia and on the high plateau of East Siberia, which, virtually, are still passing through the Lacustrine period; but the total area now under water bears but a trifling proportion to the vast surface .which the lakes covered even at a very recent period, when Neolithic man inhabited Siberia.
Each half consists of many lobes which may branch, and the whole takes up a considerable proportion of FIG.
They also endeavoured to distinguish between different kinds of income, in order to arrive at a more just estimate of the total income, and fixed by tariff the proportion in which each kind of income was to contribute.
Galena (q.v.), the principal lead ore, has a world-wide distribution, and is always contaminated with silver sulphide, the proportion of noble metal varying from about o of or less to o 3%, and in rare cases coming up to 2 or i %.
The dressed ore is introduced through a "hopper" at the top, and exposed to a moderate oxidizing flame until a certain proportion of ore is oxidized, openings at the side enabling the workmen to stir up the ore so as to constantly renew the surface exposed to the air.
Tin unites with lead in any proportion with slight expansion, the alloy fusing at a lower temperature than either component.
The vermilion-like pigment which occurs in commerce as "chromered" is a basic chromate, Pb2Cr05, prepared by treating recently precipitated normal chromate with a properly adjusted proportion of caustic soda, or by boiling it with normal (yellow) potassium chromate.
Of Italian philosophers the eclectics form a large proportion.
If the bar inserted into the coil is of hardened steel instead of iron, the magnetism will be less intense, but a larger proportion of it will be retained after the current has been cut off.
Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.
5 More than fifty different specimens were tested, most of which contained a known proportion of manganese, nickel, tungsten, aluminium, chromium, copper or silicon; in some samples two of the substances named were present.
The first column contains the symbols of the various elements which were added to the iron, and the second the percentage proportion in which each element was present; the sample containing 0.03% of carbon was a specimen of the best commercial iron, the values obtained for it being given for comparison.
When nickel was added to the iron in increasing quantities the coercive force increased until the proportion of nickel reached 20%; then it diminished, and when the proportion of nickel was 32% the coercive force had fallen to the exceedingly low value of 0.5.
The addition of silicon in small quantities considerably diminished permeability and increased coercive force; but when the proportion amounted to 2.5% the maximum permeability (µ =5100 for H =2) was greater than that of the nearly pure iron used for comparison, while the coercive force was only 0.9.
When the proportion of aluminium to manganese was made a little greater or smaller, the permeability was diminished.
Then again, the ears are large in proportion to the head, the pupil of the eye is elliptical and vertical when in a strong light, and the female has six pairs of teats, in place of the three to five pairs found in dogs, wolves and jackals.
In 1813 it was ravaged by a famine and pestilence, which destroyed a great proportion of its inhabitants, - according to some accounts, nearly one-half.
A large proportion of the inhabitants of the town and the neighbourhood is engaged in woollen and other textile manufactures, the products of which are exported to all parts of the world.
m., which, at the census of 1901, had a population of 206,311, a large proportion being workers in the mills on the left bank of the Hugh.
To Neolithic man, still perhaps represented by some of the more light-coloured and more regularfeatured Polynesian groups, may therefore not unreasonably be attributed these astonishing remains, which assume so many different forms according to the nature of the locality, but seem generally so out of proportion with the present restricted areas on which they stand.
After the sale of Upper California to the United States, effected by the treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo (1848), the Mexican government refused to pay the proportion of the interest to which Upper California was entitled.
Pop. 30,000; Moslems about 20,000, of whom a large proportion are Kizilbash (Shia); Christians (mostly Armenians), 10,000.
And even then, because of the insufficient number of Brazilian vessels it was provided in the regulations that foreign vessels could be enrolled in that trade by using the Brazilian flag and employing a certain proportion of Brazilians on the crew.
The department of industry, communications and public works takes the next highest proportion, but about half its expenditures are met by special taxes, as in the case of port works and railway inspection, and by the revenues of the state railways, telegraph lines and post office.
The approach of foreign traders was prohibited, while the regalities reserved by the crown drained the country of a great proportion of its wealth.
This was the beginning of a determined struggle for supremacy, carried on for many years, between the different classes of citizens, locally termed ordini or monti - the lower classes striving to grasp the reins of government, the higher classes already in office striving to keep all power in their own hands, or to divide it in proportion to the relative strength of each monte.
The proportion of city dwellers to suburban is as follows: in 1901 - city, 112,137; suburbs, 369,693; total, 487,900.
The chief drawback to farming in the midland and upper districts is the considerable proportion of stony ground, and, in some cases, the lack of running water.
The chief exports, not all products of the province, are coal, wool, mohair, hides and skins, wattle bark, tea, sugar, fruits and jams. The import trade is of a most varied character, and a large proportion of the goods brought into the country are in transit to the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Natal affording, next to Delagoa Bay, the shortest route to the Rand.
Their importance is out of all proportion to their number, since they monopolize a large portion of the trade, are with the Germans the chief employers of labour, and control not only the finances but to a great extent the government and press of the country.
A large proportion of the captives of the Magyars had been settled all over the country to teach their conquerors the arts of peace, and close contact with this civilizing element was of itself an of enlightenment.
The most valuable part of his property still consisted of flocks and herds, or the products of the labours of his serfs, a large proportion of whom were bee-keepers, hunters and fishers employed in and around the interminable virgin-forests of the rough-hewn young monarchy.
Since that time (1895) the number of periodical as well as of non-periodical literary works has been constantly rising, although, as in all countries with a literature of rather recent origin, the periodical publications are, in proportion to the whole of the output, far more numerous than the non-periodical.
(ii.) The general theory of ratio and proportion requires the use of general symbols.
If, in this latter case, the proportion of cases in which b is B to cases in which b is not-B is the same for the group of pN individuals in which a is A as for the group of (I-p)N in which a is not-A, then the frequencies of A and of B are said to be independent; if this is not the case they are said to be correlated.
His notation is based on that of Vieta, but he introduced the sign X for multiplication, - for continued proportion, :: for proportion, ' and denoted ratio by one dot.
RATE, a general term for proportion, standard, allowance, tax (Med.
For to meet this danger, the Zagreb Government urgently invited the assistance of the Serbian army, which during the final advance contained a large proportion of Yugoslav volunteers.
Every higher vertebrate animal possesses the power of forming for itself a series of cerebral mechanisms or reasoned conclusions based on its individual experience, in proportion as it has a large cerebrum and has got rid of or has acquired the power of controlling its inherited instincts.
Man, The compared with other animals, has the fewest inherited mental mechanisms or instincts and at the same time of the the largest cerebrum in proportion to the size of his Past.
Such a plate has the power of a condensing lens, and gives an illumination out of all proportion to what could be obtained without it.
A diminution of X thus leads to a simple proportional shrinkage of the diffraction pattern, attended by an augmentation of brilliancy in proportion to A-2.
If the aperture and wave-length increase in the same proportion, the size and shape of the diffraction pattern undergo no change.
The phase of the resultant amplitude is the same as that due to the central secondary wave, and the discrepancies of phase among the components reduce the amplitude in the proportion l ` dri): 3?
In any case the proportion of the whole illumination to be found outside the circle of radius r is given by J02(z)+J12(z).
Later, in his article " Chromatics " in the supplement to the 5th edition of this encyclopaedia, he shows that the colours " lose the mixed character of periodical colours, and resemble much more the ordinary prismatic spectrum, with intervals completely dark interposed," and explains it by the consideration that any phasedifference which may arise at neighbouring striae is multiplied in proportion to the total number of striae.
The small proportion of land tilled is due to many causes, among which paucity of populations is not the least.
These apprentices, mostly bought from slave traders when little children, formed, however, a very small proportion of the native population, and after some fifteen years' servitude were usually allowed their freedom.
As has been said, a large proportion of water enters into the composition of all living matter; a certain amount of drying arrests vital activity, and the complete abstraction The properties of living matter are intimately related to temperature.
The original top stratum is the purest, and each succeeding lower stratum has a greater proportion of impurities; the lowest consists largely of a solid or semi-solid alloy of tin and iron.
The crystals are very soluble in cold water, and if the salt is really pure a small proportion of water forms a clear solution; but on adding much water most of the salt is decomposed, with the formation of a precipitate of oxychloride, 2Sn(OH)Cl H20.
elected by direct vote, in the proportion of one deputy for each 35,000 of population, each state being entitled to at least one deputy, or two in case its population exceeds 15,000, the federal district and territories being entitled to representatives on the same terms. A deputy must also be a native-born citizen, not less than twenty-one years of age, and is elected for a.
Pop. (1895) 318,730; (1900) 360,799, a large proportion of which are Indians; area, 27,222 sq.
Only a small proportion of these get fertilized, and still fewer ever emerge from the egg.
"The Norwegians," says Cuvier, "give cod-heads with marine plants to their cows for the purpose of producing a greater proportion of milk.
Cattle kept within-doors are in a large proportion of cases tubercular, while those leading an outdoor life are much less liable to infection.
This substance differs from the mucins by being precipitated by tannic acid but not by acetic acid, and being endowed with a higher proportion of sulphur.
There are clearly two schools represented in the collection - that of Cnidus in a small proportion, and that of Cos in far the larger number of the works.
According to this celebrated theory, the body contains four humours - blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile, a right proportion and mixture of which constitute health; improper proportions or irregular distribution, disease.
The normal condition or temperament of the body depended upon a proper mixture or proportion of the four elements - hot, cold, wet and dry.
He was the first of the Arabs to treat medicine in a comprehensive and encyclopaedic, manner, surpassing probably in voluminousness Galen himself, though but a small proportion of his works are extant.
Since a knowledge of Greek was still confined to a small body of scholars, and a still smaller proportion of physicians, the first task was to translate the Greek classics into Latin.
Augustus and his successors took good care to fortify the Rhine carefully, and a large proportion of the Roman legions were constantly in garrison here.
These countries all received Buddhism from India, and a large proportion of the porcelain and earthenware articles imported from China and Japan into Europe consists of innumerable forms of censers.
It is estimated that upwards of a million daily enter and leave the City alone as the commercial heart of London, and a great proportion of these travel in and out by the suburban railways.
The old-established collection of second-hand book-shops in Holywell Street was only abolished by the widening of the Strand, and a large proportion then removed to Charing Cross Road.
Councils consist of a mayor and aldermen and councillors in proportion as 1 to 6.
By the Metropolitan Poor Act 1867, the metropolitan common poor fund, to which each union in London contributes in proportion to its rateable value, was established.
This fund is raised by the rate of 6d.in the pound on the assessable value of the county of London, and redistributed among the boroughs in proportion to their population.
Population was practically stationary for centuries owing to pestilences and the large proportion of deaths among infants.
The expenses of highway management in each district (or parish), together with a proportion of the general expenses of the act, are levied by the trustees by an assessment on the lands and heritages within the district (or parish).
sacrifice a considerable proportion of the mineral, which is left for the support of the overlying strata.
Rock-filling will be used whenever a large proportion of barren material must be mined with the ore.
The gases produced by such fire-damp or dust explosions contain carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in large proportion, and the majority of the deaths from such explosions are due to this " after-damp " rather than to the explosion itself.
The vast majority of mineral deposits are unworkable, and of those that are developed a large proportion prove unprofitable.
The proportion of sick had been high during the summer-time, but it decreased somewhat after Sept.
Large bodies of infantry with a fair proportion of guns still remained on shore on the 17th, but of these roughly half - about io,000 men and a number of guns in each area - were removed that night, so that on the 18th only a meagre force, composed almost wholly of infantry and disposed almost entirely in the trenches, was holding a long front face to face with a numerically far stronger enemy.
Nor would they seem to have discovered how weakly held the trenches were; for a considerable proportion of both infantry and artillery had been withdrawn by that date, as only two more nights remained according to the programme.
The large nominal proportion of Buddhists is deceptive.
The proportion was greatly reduced in the 1901 census by the inclusion of the Shan States and the Chin hills, which mostly consist of illiterates.
Only 9.4% of the people were classed as urban in the census of 1901, and a considerable proportion of this number were natives of India and not Burmese.
It has been suggested that the colour is due to sulphur, but the effect can be produced with a glass mixture containing no sulphur, free or combined, and by increasing the proportion of charcoal the intensity of the colour can be increased until it reaches black opacity.
Copper gives a peacock-blue which becomes green if the proportion of the copper oxide is increased.
the power of resisting the disintegrating effects of atmospheric moisture and carbonic acid, depends largely upon the quantity of alkalis contained in the glass and their proportion to the lead, lime or barium present, the stability being generally less the higher the proportion of alkali.
In works, however, in which most of the goods are moulded, and where less skilled labour is required, the proportion of boy labour is increased.
The glass tubes, therefore, from which the X-ray bulbs are to be fashioned, must not contain any of these oxides, whereas the glass used for making the funnel-shaped shields, which direct the rays upon the patient and at the same time protect the hands of the operator from the action of the rays, must contain a large proportion of lead.
A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.
pure sand, a pure form of carbonate of lime, and sulphate of soda, with the addition of a suitable proportion of carbon in the form of coke, charcoal or anthracite coal.
In this neighbourhood fragments and lumps of glass are still constantly being dug up, and analysis proves that the glass contains a considerable proportion of magnesia.
This large proportion of magnesia undoubtedly supplied the stability required to withstand the process of enamelling.
The invention, if it may be regarded as one, consisted in eliminating lime from the glass mixture, substituting refined potash for soda, and using a very large proportion of lead oxide.
Black, green, red, blue and yellow glasses are made, which contain a large proportion of alkali and are readily fusible.
Thus the name of the deity, which enters as an element in a large proportion of the proper names,' was almost invariably written with the sign or signs representing this deity, and it is only exceptionally that the name is spelled phonetically.
The literary value of the Meistersinger poetry was hardly in proportion to the large part it played in the life of the German towns of the 15th and 16th centuries.
Cream of lime of 17° Beaume is sometimes used, but the weaker solution is preferable, since the proper proportion is more easily adjusted.
These results are brought about by adding to the cold juice as it comes from the mill the proper proportion of milk of lime set up at 8° B., and then delivering the limed juice in a constant steady stream as near the bottom of the defecator as possible; it is thus brought into immediate contact with the heating surface and heated once for all before it ascends, with the result of avoiding the disturbance caused in the ordinary defecator by pouring cold juice from above on to the surface of the heated juice, and so establishing down-currents of cold juice and up-currents of hot juice.
To make this apparatus more perfectly automatic, an arrangement for continually adding to and mixing with the juice the proper proportion of milk of lime has been adapted to it; and although it may be objected that once the proportion has been determined no allowance is made for the variation in the quality of the juice coming from the mill owing to the variations that may occur in the canes fed into the mills, it is obviously as easy to vary the proportion with the automatic arrangement from time to time as it is to vary in each separate direction, if the man in charge will take the trouble to do so, which he very seldom does with the ordinary defecators, satisfying himself with testing the juice once or twice in a watch.
In diffusion plants the milk of lime is added, in proper proportion, in the cells of the diffusion battery, and the chips or slices themselves act as a mechanical filter for the juice; while in the Sandwich Islands coral-sand filters have been employed for some years, in addition to the chips, to free the juice from impurities held in mechanical suspension.
But hydraulic presses have now been abandoned, for the juice is universally obtained by diffusion, and the small slicers have gone out of use, because the large amount of pulp they produced in proportion to slices is not suitable for the diffusion process, in which evenly cut slices are required, which present a much greater surface with far less resistance to the diffusion water.
high, and of such diameter as to hold a given quantity of animal charcoal (also called " bone-black " and " char ") in proportion to the contemplated output of the refinery.
The fine picture of "Christ bearing the Cross" (wrongly ascribed to Giorgione), according to Burckhardt once in the Palazzo Loschi, is now in the Gardner collection at Boston, U.S.A. The most important manufacture is that of silk, which employs a large proportion of the inhabitants.
His first book, The Perpetuity of a Regenerate Man's Estate (1627), defended one of the main Calvinistic positions, and The Unloveliness of Love-locks and Health's Sickness (1628) attacked prevailing fashions without any sense of proportion, treating follies on the same footing as scandalous vices.
In Berlin the proportion of cattle said to be found infected on inspection in 1893 was i in 672.
Efficient inspection of meat in the abattoirs should eliminate a large proportion of the diseased animals.
It contains more roots, and as a rule, is darker in colour than the subsoil on account of the larger proportion of decaying vegetable matter present in it: it is also looser in texture than the subsoil.
With the exception of the carbon and a small proportion of the oxygen and nitrogen, which may be partially derived from the air, these elements are taken from the soil by crops.
Some of the chalk marls, which are usually of a yellowish or dirty grey colour, contain clay and 50 to 80% of carbonate of lime with a certain proportion of phosphate of lime.
The patient inhales the fumes, which contain a considerable proportion of nitrogen oxides.
Other brands of home manufacture contain some proportion of Cuban tobacco; and very good cigars may be made in which the name only of that highly-prized leaf is employed.
The ore, even if it is not blende, must be roasted or calcined in order to remove all volatile components as completely as possible, because these, if allowed to remain, would carry away a large proportion of the zinc vapour during the distillation.
At a boiling heat, zinc chloride dissolves in any proportion of water, and highly concentrated solutions, of course, boil at high temperatures; hence they afford a convenient medium for the maintenance of high temperatures.
Its chief characteristic is the bareness and aridity of its surface; one-third of the whole desert, and of the remainder only a small proportion is suited to settled life, owing to its scanty water-supply and uncertain rainfall.
Horses are in fact only kept by the principal sheiks, and by far the larger proportion of those now in Nejd are the property of the amir and his family.
They are milked once a day about sunset by the women (the men milk the camels), and a large proportion of the milk is made into samn, clarified butter, or marisi, dried curd.
To balance the exports and imports specie was exported in the three years 1902-1904 amounting to £2,319,000; a large proportion of this was perhaps provided by cash brought into the country by pilgrims.
Any change in the resistance of the arc, either by lengthening, due to the sinking of the charge in the crucible, or by the burning of the carbon, affected the proportion of current flowing in the two shunt circuits, and so altered the position of the iron cylinder in the solenoid that the length of arc was, within limits, automatically regulated.
Aluminium bronze (aluminium and copper) and ferro-aluminium (aluminium and iron) have been made in this way; the latter is the more satisfactory product, because a certain proportion of carbon is expected in an alloy of this character, as in ferromanganese and cast iron, and its presence is not objectionable.
A feature of the new city is the unusually large proportion of woods and arable land within its bounds.
Previous to the loss of the Italian provinces, a considerable proportion came from Italy (30,000 in 1859), including artists, members of the learned professions and artisans who left their mark on Viennese art and taste.
This steady and increasing influx of Czechs is gradually infusing a large proportion of Slav blood in what Bismarck (in 1864)1864) described as the German capital of a Slav empire.
The tertiary amines possess the power of combining with one molecular proportion of an alkyl iodide to form quaternary ammonium salts.
Seven of the departments of state have Frenchmen at their head, the other two, Tunisians: thus the larger proportion of the Bey's ministers are French.
Senators and deputies are elected by direct vote - the former by departments, and the latter in proportion to the population.
Both components come over in a constant proportion until one disappears; it is then necessary to raise the temperature in order to distil the residue.
The simple distillation of sea-water, and the production thereby of a certain proportion of chemically fresh water, is a very simple problem; but it is found that water which is merely evaporated and recondensed has a very disagreeable flat taste, and it is only after long exposure to pure atmospheric air, with continued agitation, or repeated pouring from one vessel to another, that it becomes sufficiently aerated to lose its unpleasant taste and smell and become drinkable.
A large proportion of the most notable buildings in Munich are in two streets, the Ludwigstrasse and the Maximilianstrasse, the creations of the monarchs whose names they bear.
A large proportion of the ordinary feeble showers also appear to be stationary.
Carlyle was attracted by Elliott's homely sincerity and genuine power, though he had small opinion of his political philosophy, and lamented his lack of humour and of the sense of proportion.
They constitute a small proportion of the recent Polyzoa.
In the encrusting type, which is found in a large proportion of the genera, the zooids are usually in a single layer, with their orifices facing away from the substratum; but in certain species the colony becomes multilaminar by the continued superposition of new zooids over the free surfaces of the older ones, whose orifices they naturally occlude.
As indications that the conditions described in Membranipora and Cribrilina are of special significance may be noted the fact that the ancestrula of many genera which have well-developed compensation-sacs in the rest of their zooecia is a Membranipora-like individual with a series of marginal calcareous spines, and the further fact that a considerable proportion of the Cretaceous Cheilostomes belong either to the Membraniporidae or to the Cribrilinidae.
The only language of the lower class is pidgin-English - quite incomprehensible to the newcomer from Great Britain, - but a large proportion of the inhabitants are highly educated men who excel as lawyers, clergymen, clerks and traders.
These have the coronet in the centre of the flower very large in proportion to the other parts, and much expanded, like the old hooped petticoats.
A considerable proportion of the Irish and the French Canadians send their children to the Roman Catholic parochial schools.
During practically the entire period before the Civil War their note issues constituted a smaller proportion of the capital stock than those of any other state.
It was also complicated by racial and religious prejudices, a large proportion of the factory operatives being foreigners and Roman Catholics, and most of the country people native Protestants.
But just in proportion as Gladstone advanced in favour with the Radical party he lost the confidence of his own constituents.
The recumbent effigies and decorative details of these tombs are very beautiful, but the smaller figures of angels, saints and virtues are rather clumsy in proportion.
His buildings are stately and graceful in proportion, but show a tendency towards dull scholastic classicism.
The first volume, Vegetable Staticks (1727), contains an account of numerous experiments in plant-physiology - the loss of water in plants by evaporation, the rate of growth of shoots and leaves, variations in root-force at different times of the day, &c. Considering it very probable that plants draw "through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air," he undertook experiments to show in "how great a proportion air is wrought into the composition of animal, vegetable and mineral substances"; though this "analysis of the air" did not lead him to any very clear ideas about the composition of the atmosphere, in the course of his inquiries he collected gases over water in vessels separate from those in which they were generated, and thus used what was to all intents and purposes a "pneumatic trough."
It will be observed that the coast-line is very long in proportion to the area, the ratio being 1 m.
The underlying principle is to reproduce natures scenic beauties, all the features being drawn to scale, so that however restricted the space, there shall be no violation of proportion.
He excels in his representations of landscapes and waterscapes, and has succeeded -in transferring to gold-lacquer panels tender and delicate pictures of natures softest moodspictures that show balance, richness, harmony and a fine sense of decorative proportion.
A greater proportion of Baden than of any other of the south German states is occupied by forests.
The country is well furnished with roads and railways, the greater proportion of the latter being in the hands of the state.
This proportion is considerably above the rate in the other mountainous regions of Austria.
On passing a current of electricity, of which the volume and pressure are adjusted to the conditions of the electrolyte and electrodes, the anode slowly dissolves, leaving the insoluble impurities in the form of a sponge, if the proportion be considerable, but otherwise as a mud or slime which becomes detached from the anode surface and must be prevented from coming into contact with the cathode.
In proportion as the original chloride is thus reproduced, the efficiency of the process is of course diminished.
With high current-density, heating the solution tended to increase the proportion of chlorate to hypochlorite, but as the proportion of water decomposed is then higher, the amount of chlorine produced must be less and the total chlorine efficiency lower.
To many the interest of such stories will depend on their parallelism to the Biblical account in Genesis i.; the anthropologist, however, will be attracted by them in proportion as they illustrate the more primitive phases of human culture.
The term "alloy" does not necessarily imply obedience to the laws of definite and multiple proportion or even uniformity throughout the material; but some alloys are homogeneous and some are chemical compounds.
These two confederations have an interest quite out of proportion to the significance of the detailed events which form their history.
The records of the tribute are preserved in the so-called quota lists, which give the names of the cities and the proportion, one-sixtieth, of their several tributes, which was paid to Athena.
This was the original proportion, and it has not been altered in spite of the decline of the Druses and increase of the Maronites.
But in proportion as an earlier date has become more probable for Homer, the hypothesis of Ionic origin has become less tenable, and the belief better founded (I) that the poems represent accurately a welldefined phase of culture in prehistoric Greece, and (2) that this " Homeric " or " Achaean " phase was closed by some such general catastrophe as is presumed by the legends.
As the imperial ukase which followed the dissolution of the second Duma in 1907 conferred more power upon the great landowners, it was modified as regards Lithuania by a nationality clause which provided that the total of electors of each class should be in proportion to the amount of land possessed by the respective nationalities in the district.
In proportion to their size they are among the most bloodthirsty of animals, though less so than the weasels.
The energy is less than that of an ideal gas by the term npc. If we imagine that the defect of volume c is due to the formation of molecular aggregates consisting of two or more single molecules, and if the kinetic energy of translation of any one of these aggregates is equal to that of one of the single molecules, it is clear that some energy must be lost in co-aggregating, but that the proportion lost will be different for different types of molecules and also for different types of co-aggregation.
The number and proportion of successes was too high to admit of explanation by chance coincidence, but success was not invariable.
Since then the proportion furnished by these countries has been greatly lowered by the supplies from South Africa, Canada, India and China.
either (I) by the Mexican crusher or arrastra, in which the grinding is effected upon a bed of stone, over which heavy blocks of stone attached to cross arms are dragged by the rotation of the arms about a central spindle, or (2) by the Chilean mill or trapiche, also known as the edge-runner, where the grinding stones roll upon the floor, at the same time turning about a central upright - contrivances which are mainly used for the preparation of silver ores; but by far the largest proportion of the gold quartz of California, Australia and Africa is reduced by (3) the stamp mill, which is similar in principle to that used in Europe for the preparation of tin and other ores.
Bock, however, in 1880 (Bergand hiittenmannische Zeitung, 1880, p. 411) described a process used at the North German Refinery in Hamburg for the refining of gold containing platinum with a small proportion of silver, lead or bismuth, and a subsequent patent specification (1896) and a paper by Wohlwill (Zeus.
This percentage remains fairly constant, but the proportion differs The immigrants were in the most vigorous period of life, few children and few old people, as shown in the following table: Ages of Immigrants to the United States, 1881-1890.
This is the reason of their frequent failure to convey any sense of proportion in the expression of truth.
Bhutias do not care to extend their cultivation, as an increased revenue is exacted in proportion to the land cultivated, but devote their whole energies to make the land yield twice what it is estimated to produce.
ologyand A fair proportion of the workers who have delved so enthusiastically in the fields of Egyptian and Assyrian exploration would never have taken up the work at all but for the hope that their investigations might substantiate the Hebrew records.
His labours in the decline of life were chiefly directed to the doctrine of probabilities in reference to practical purposes, and in particular to economical subjects, as, for example, to inoculation, and to the duration of married life in the two sexes, as well as to the relative proportion of male and female births.
Some amalgams are liquids, especially when containing a large proportion of mercury; others assume a crystalline form.
Forestry also employs a certain proportion of the population, but the felling of trees is carried on wastefully, though less so than in former years.
The most abundant of the terrigenous materials are the finest particles of clay and calcium carbonate as well as fragments derived from land vegetation, of which twigs, leaves, &c., may form a perceptible proportion as far as 200 m.
The proportion of calcium carbonate varies greatly according to the amount of foraminifera and other calcareous organisms which it contains.