WHO reports that 114 rabies deaths occurred in the Americas in 1997, with only four deaths occurring that year in the United States, thus emphasizing the importance of good animal control practice and postexposure prophylaxis.
Post-exposure prophylaxis should be considered following any contact between a child and a bat, even if there is no evidence of a bite or scratch, since the child may be unaware of the contact and marks may not be apparent.
In the case of rabies, postexposure prophylaxis involves a series of vaccines given to an individual who has been bitten by an unknown animal or one that is potentially infected with the rabies virus.
The CDC also recommended updated prophylaxis regimens for women with penicillin allergies, as well as other guidelines for patients with threatened preterm deliveries and other recommendations.
When a child is bitten by a healthy domestic dog, cat, or ferret, the animal is usually confined for 10 days and observed for signs of rabies prior to initiating post-exposure prophylaxis.
However pre-exposure prophylaxis of children who are at risk of being exposed to rabid animals eliminates the need for RIG and decreases the number of required vaccinations after exposure.
African Americans with HIV infection are less likely to be on antiretroviral therapy, less likely to receive prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia, and less likely to be receiving protease inhibitors than other persons with HIV.
When, for instance, the cause of septic infection had been revealed, the prophylaxis of the disease became a possibility.
The prophylaxis is important in order to limit the spread of the parasites.
This may be considered under two heads: (1) individual prophylaxis; (2) administrative prevention on a large scale.