Properties sentence example

properties
  • The climate is very dry, and the properties of the soil are 0
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  • Such limitations of the powers and properties of the individuals have for their object the well-being of the community of which those individuals are constituents.
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  • Such were the Orpheotelestae or Metragyrtae, wandering priests who went round the country with an ass carrying the sacred properties (Aristophanes, Frogs, 159) and a bundle of sacred books.
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  • He had his job at the clinic as well as the responsibility of two properties.
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  • Beryllium to a certain extent stands alone in many of its chemical' properties, resembling to some extent the metal aluminium.
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  • A number of glands on the interior of the pitcher secrete a plentiful fluid which has digestive properties.
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  • Schonbein subsequently showed the solution possessed reducing properties.
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  • The drug has the properties common to all substances that contain a volatile oil.
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  • A more careful study of the physical as well as the chemical properties of a soil must precede intelligent experimentation in rotation.
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  • Physical Chemistry We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter.
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  • A physicist, however, does more than merely quantitatively determine specific properties of matter; he endeavours to establish mathematical laws which co-ordinate his observations, and in many cases the equations expressing such laws contain functions or terms which pertain solely to the chemical composition of matter.
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  • It may be surmised that the quantitative measures of most physical properties will be found to be connected with the chemical nature of substances.
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  • In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.
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  • One of the most interesting amongst recent alloys is Conrad Heusler's alloy of copper, aluminium and manganese, which possesses magnetic properties far in excess of those of the constituent metals.
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  • The following fundamental properties of log x are readily deducible from the definition (i.) log xy= log x-Flog y.
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  • Garlic possesses stimulant and stomachic properties, and was of old, as still sometimes now, employed as a medicinal remedy.
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  • This has been ascribed by some to the presence in " wild " rubber of certain impurities derived either from the latex or introduced during the preparation of the rubber which are thought to enhance the physical properties of the caoutchouc. It is more probable, however,.
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  • The linear transformation replaces points on lines through the origin by corresponding points on projectively corresponding lines through the origin; it therefore replaces a pencil of lines by another pencil, which corresponds projectively, and harmonic and other properties of pencils which are unaltered by linear transformation we may expect to find indicated in the invariant system.
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  • In general any pencil of lines, connected with the line a x by descriptive or metrical properties, has for its equation a rational integral function of the four forms equated to zero.
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  • A volume entitled Opera posthuma (Leiden, 1703) contained his "Dioptrica," in which the ratio between the respective focal lengths of object-glass and eye-glass is given as the measure of magnifying power, together with the shorter essays De vitris figurandis, De corona et parheliis, &c. An early tract De ratiociniis tin ludo aleae, printed in 16J7 with Schooten's Exercitationes mathematicae, is notable as one of the first formal treatises on the theory of probabilities; nor should his investigations of the properties of the cissoid, logarithmic and catenary curves be left unnoticed.
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  • Phenanthrene-quinone, [C 6 H 4] 2 [CO] 21 crystallizes in orange needles which melt at 198° C. It possesses the characteristic properties of a diketone, forming crystalline derivatives with sodium bisulphite and a dioxime with hydroxylamine.
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  • Abrupt alterations, take place in its density, specific heat, thermo-electric quality, electrical conductivity, temperature-coefficient of electrical resistance, and in some at least of its mechanical properties.
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  • If, however, this non-magnetic substance is cooled to a temperature a few degrees below freezing-point, it becomes as strongly magnetic as average cast-iron (µ = 62 for H = 40), and retains its magnetic properties indefinitely at ordinary temperatures.
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  • Another point to which attention is directed is the exceptionally great effect which hardening has upon the magnetic properties of chrome steel; one specimen had a coercive force of 9 when annealed, and of no less than 38 when oilhardened.
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  • The magnetic properties of the metal at different temperatures and in fields up to 1350 units have been studied by P. Curie (loc. cit.), who found that its " specific susceptibility " (K) was independent of the strength of the field, but decreased with rise of temperature up to the melting-point, 273° C. His results appear to show the relation - K X10 6 = I'381 - O'o0155t°.
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  • Weber's theory, the molecules of a ferromagnetic metal are small permanent magnets, the axes of which under ordinary conditions are turned indifferently in every direction, so that no magnetic polarity is exhibited by the metal as a whole; a magnetic force acting upon the metal tends to turn the axes of the little magnets in one direction, and thus the entire piece acquires the properties of a magnet.
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  • The owners of the expropriated properties are given a term of five months for the removal of their furniture.
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  • To prevent the breaking down of their properties, the necessary consequence of this law of inheritance, there is no doubt that infanticide was common among them, and that it extended to the male as well as the female progeny, but it has been put down by the Infanticide Rules, which provide for the registration of Jareja children.
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  • Unsaturated aldehydes are also known, corresponding to the olefine alcohols; they show the characteristic properties of the saturated aldehydes and can form additive compounds in virtue of their unsaturated nature.
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  • It is largely consumed in Bolivia and Matto Grosso, where it is used in the preparation of a beverage which has excellent medicinal properties.
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  • Mandioca was cultivated by the natives before the discovery of America, and the wide area over which it has been distributed warrants the conclusion that the discovery of its value as a food and the means of separating its poisonous properties must have occurred at a very remote period.
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  • Bath Springs are located just outside the borough limits; though not so famous as they were early in the 18th century, these springs are still well known for the medicinal properties of their chalybeate waters.
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  • It is a colourless crystalline solid which melts at 15° C. and has the properties of a strong acid.
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  • Several members of the order are used medicinally for the strong purging properties of the milky juice (latex) which they contain; scammony is the dried latex from the underground stem of Convolvulus Scarnmonia, a native of the Levant, while jalap is the product of the tubercles of Exogonium Purga, a native of Mexico.
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  • These formulae are of two kinds: - (a) the general properties, such as m(a+b) = ma+mb, on which algebra is based, and (b) particular formulae such as (x - a) (x+a) = x 2 - a 2 .
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  • (c) The fundamental properties of subtraction and of division are that A - B +B = A and m X m of A = A, since in each case the second operation restores the original quantity with which we started.
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  • The more simple properties, however, only require the use of elementary methods.
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  • His investigation of the properties of amicable numbers and of the problem of trisecting an angle, are of importance.
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  • It includes the properties of numbers; extraction of roots of arithmetical and algebraical quantities, solutions of simple and quadratic equations, and a fairly complete account of surds.
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  • Teleology had, indeed, an important part in the development of physiology - the knowledge of the mechanism, the physical and chemical properties, of the parts of the body of man and the higher animals allied to him.
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  • It abolished the conception of life s an entity above and beyond the common properties of matter, and led to the conviction that the marvellous and exceptional qualities of that which we call " living " matter are nothing more nor less than an exceptionally complicated development of those chemical and physical properties which we recognize in a gradually ascending scale of evolution in the carbon compounds, containing nitrogen as well as oxygen, sulphur and hydrogen as constituent atoms of their enormous molecules.
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  • No such distinction of mental activities as that involved in the division of the study of animal life into morphology and physiology has ever really existed: the investigator of animal forms has never entirely ignored the functions of the forms studied by him, and the experimental inquirer into the functions and properties of animal tissues and organs has always taken very careful account of the forms of those tissues and organs.
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  • If a character of much longer standing (certain properties of height, length, breadth, colour, &c.) had not become fixed and congenital after many thousands of successive generations of individuals had developed it in response to environment, but gave place to a new character when new moulding conditions operated on an individual (Lamarck's first law), why should we suppose that the new character is likely to become fixed and transmitted by mere heredity after a much shorter time of existence in response to environmental stimulus ?
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  • The maximum brightnesses and the places at which they occur are easily determined with the aid of certain properties of the Bessel's functions.
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  • The method of resolution just described is the simplest, but it is only one of an indefinite number that might be proposed, and which are all equally legitimate, so long as the question is regarded as a merely mathematical one, without reference to the physical properties of actual screens.
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  • On the electromagnetic theory, the problem of diffraction becomes definite when the properties of the obstacle are laid down.
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  • The medicinal properties of the sulphur water were discovered, or perhaps rediscovered, in 1732 by a famous Welsh writer, the Rev. Theophilus Evans, then vicar of Llangammarch (to which living Llanwrtyd was a chapelry till 1871).
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  • On the other hand, the biological sciences are sharply marked off from the abiological, or those which treat of the phenomena manifested by not-living matter, in so far as the properties of living matter distinguish it absolutely from all other kinds of things, and as the present state of knowledge furnishes us with no link between the living and the not-living.
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  • These distinctive properties of living matter are i.
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  • No forms of matter which are either not living, or have not been derived from living matter, exhibit these three properties, nor any approach to the remarkable phenomena defined under the second and third heads.
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  • As has been said, a large proportion of water enters into the composition of all living matter; a certain amount of drying arrests vital activity, and the complete abstraction The properties of living matter are intimately related to temperature.
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  • Pelouze in 1838, who observed that when paper or cotton was immersed in cold concentrated nitric acid the materials, though not altered in physical appearance, became heavier, and after washing and drying were possessed of self-explosive properties.
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  • In the civil wars the government was also held responsible for damages to these properties and for the mistreatment of foreigners residing in the country.
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  • The making of ether by the action of sulphuric acid on alcohol was known in about the 13th century; and later Basil Valentine and Valerius Cordus described its preparation and properties.
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  • Oertel finds an explanation of this want of complete celldifferentiation, loss of function, and acquired vegetative activity in the non-homogeneous character of the nuclear chromatin elements of the cell, and maintains that the different properties of the cell are carried and handed down by the different orders of chromatin loops.
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  • If the particle enveloped by the protoplasm be of an organic nature, such as a bacterium, it undergoes digestion, and ultimately becomes destroyed, and accordingly the term " phagocyte " is now in common use to indicate cells having the above properties.
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  • Each organism possesses within itself the means of protection against its parasitical enemies, and these properties are more in evidence when the organism is in perfect health than when it is debilitated.
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  • Arcana were often shown to be such by their physical properties, not only by such as heat, cold, &c., but by fortuitous resemblances to certain parts of the body; thus arose the famous doctrine of "signatures," or signs indicating the virtues and uses of natural objects, which was afterwards developed into great complexity.
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  • Sometimes acid sometimes alkaline properties predominated in the juices and secretions of the body, and produced corresponding disturbances.
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  • The sensible properties and physical alterations of animal fluids and solids depended upon different proportions, movements and combinations of these particles.
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  • Highly complex as are all animal tissues, or nearly all, yet in this category of high complexity are degrees higher and higher again of which we can form little conception, so elaborate they are, so peculiar in their respective properties, and probably so fugitive.
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  • 393,189 1491 The properties entrusted to the Corporation for the upkeep of London Bridge are managed by the Bridge House Estates Committee, the revenues from which are also used in the maintenance of the other three City bridges, £26,989 being thus expended in 1907, the Tower bridge absorbing £17,735 of this amount.
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  • Many of the names of the rich residential streets and squares in the west have associations with the various owners of the properties; but Mayfair is so called from a fair held on this ground in May as early as the reign of Charles II.
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  • The 24th of June, 1904, was the date fixed on which control passed to the Board, and in the meantime a Court of Arbitration adjudicated the claims of the companies for compensation for the acquisition of their properties.
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  • A complete re-valuation of properties in the county of London is made every five years, valuation lists being prepared in duplicate by the borough councils acting as overseers of the parishes in their respective boroughs.
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  • Numerous patent ropes, some having wires and strands of special shapes, have been introduced with the idea of improving the wearing properties.
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  • In the case of mining properties these profits are more or less uncertain, and cannot be accurately determined until the deposit has been thoroughly explored and fully developed.
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  • Receive antennas may differ in their noise rejection properties.
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  • The mechanical properties of the curves are treated in the article MECHANIcs,where various forms are illustrated.
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  • C. Maxwell Garnett, who has studied the optical properties of these glasses, has suggested that the changes in colour correspond with changes effected in the structure of the metals as they pass gradually from solution in the glass to a state of crystallization.
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  • As a result a whole series of glasses of novel composition and optical properties were produced.
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  • It must be admitted that, by the aid of certain of these new constituents, glasses can be produced which, as regards purity of colour, freedom from defects and chemical stability are equal or even superior to the best of the " ordinary " glasses, but it is a remarkable fact that when this is the case the optical properties of the new glass do not fall very widely outside the limits set by the older glasses.
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  • In practice, however, it is not found that the presence either of a decidedly greenish-yellow colour or of numerous small bubbles interferes at all seriously with the successful use of the lenses for the majority of purposes, so that it is preferable to sacrifice the perfection of the glass in order to secure valuable optical properties.
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  • It is a further striking fact, not unconnected with those just enumerated, that the extreme range of optical properties covered even by the relatively large number of optical glasses now available is in reality very small.
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  • In this way the crucible is gradually filled with a mass of molten glass, which is, however, [[Table I]].- Optical Properties.
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  • His pages abound in symbols representing unknown functions, the form of the function being left to be ascertained by observation of facts, which he does not regard as a part of his task, or only some known properties of the undetermined function being used as bases for deduction.
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  • The progress of science has, in fact, been accompanied by the discovery of some 70 elements, which may be arranged in order of their "metallic" properties as above indicated, and it is found that while the end members of the scale are most distinctly metallic (or non-metallic), certain central members, e.g.
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  • This definition, however, is highly artificial and objectionable on principle, because when we speak of metals we think, not of their chemical relations, but of a certain sum of mechanical and physical properties which unites them all into one natural family.
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  • All metals, when exposed in an inert atmosphere to a sufficient temperature, assume the form of liquids, which all present the following characteristic properties.
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  • But their most characteristic, though not perhaps their most general, property is that they combine in themselves the apparently incompatible properties of elasticity and rigidity on the one hand and plasticity on the other.
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  • To this remarkable combination of properties more than to anything else the ordinary metals owe their wide application in the mechanical arts.
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  • In 1809 it was replaced by the bitter wood or bitter ash of Jamaica, Picraena excelsa, which was found to possess similar properties and could be obtained in pieces of much larger size.
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  • Its properties are similar to those of the quadratrix of Dinostratus.
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  • Potassium nitrate was used at one time in many different diseased conditions, but it is now never administered internally, as its extremely depressant action upon the heart is not compensated for by any useful properties which are not possessed by many other drugs.
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  • The peculiar properties of snuff are dependent on the presence of free nicotine, free ammonia and the aromatic principles developed during fermentation.
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  • A Spiritus Nucis Juglandis is given as an antispasmodic. It doubtless owes its properties to the alcohol which it contains.
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  • The specific effects of different impurities on the physical properties of zinc have only been imperfectly studied.
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  • Properties Zinc is a bluish-white metal, showing a high lustre when freshly fractured.
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  • Wohler, and it became necessary to admit them to be two bodies which differed in properties, though of the same percentage composition.
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  • After the Restoration, to appease the planters, doubtful as to the title under which they held the estates which they had converted into valuable properties, the proprietary or patent interest was abolished, and the crown took over the government of the island; a duty of 41% on all exports being imposed to satisfy the claims of the patentees.
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  • The leaves and young shoots are chewed; they have stimulating properties, comparable with those of the coca of Peru.
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  • Ordinarily carbon is used as the electrode material, but when carbon comes in contact at high temperatures with any metal that is capable of forming a carbide a certain amount of combination between them is inevitable, and the carbon thus introduced impairs the mechanical properties of the ultimate metallic product.
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  • The solution, if boiled, deposits its titanic oxide as a hydrate called metatitanic acid, TiO(OH) 21 because it differs in its properties from orthotitanic acid, Ti(OH) 4, obtained by decomposing a solution of the chloride in cold water with alkalis.
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  • - These compounds possess properties very similar to those of ammonia, the lowest members of the series being combustible gases readily soluble in water.
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  • The mixed secondary amines have basic properties, but the purely aromatic secondary amines are only very feeble bases.
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  • In 1876 new mining laws were enacted which gave better titles to mining properties and better regulations for their operation, but the outbreak of the war with Chile at the end of the decade and the succeeding years of disorganization and partisan strife defeated their purpose.
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  • The public revenues are derived from customs, taxes, various inland and consumption taxes, state monopolies, the government wharves, posts and telegraphs, &c. The customs taxes include import and export duties, surcharges, harbour dues, warehouse charges, &c.; the inland taxes comprise consumption taxes on alcohol, tobacco, sugar and matches, stamps and stamped paper, capital and mining properties, licences, transfers of property, &c.; and the state monopolies cover opium and salt.
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  • He also had some knowledge of the properties of concave and convex lenses and mirrors in forming images.
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  • The Alexandrians prepared oil of turpentine by distilling pine-resin; Zosimus of Panopolis, a voluminous writer of the 5th century A.D., speaks of the distillation of a "divine water" or "panacea" (probably from the complex mixture of calcium polysulphides, thiosulphate, &c., and free sulphur, which is obtained by boiling sulphur with lime and water) and advises "the efficient luting of the apparatus, for otherwise the valuable properties would be lost."
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  • Kopp devoted himself especially to physico-chemical inquiries, and in the history of chemical theory his name is associated with several of the most important correlations of the physical properties of substances with their chemical constitution.
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  • In the Metaphysical state, for volition is substituted abstract force residing in the object, yet existing independently of the object; the phenomena are viewed as if apart from the bodies manifesting them; and the properties of each substance have attributed to them an existence distinct from that substance.
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  • On the other hand, if laws of social phenomena, empirically generalized from history, can, when once suggested, be affiliated to the known laws of human nature; if the direction actually taken by the developments and changes of human society, can be seen to be such as the properties of man and of his dwelling-place made antecedently probable, the empirical generalizations are raised into positive laws, and sociology becomes a science."
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  • In the vicinity of many of these mountain lakes thermal springs, with remarkable curative properties, are to be found.
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  • At the close of 1906 this road was handed over to a joint-stock company with a capital of 20 millions sterling, the government contributing 10 millions in the form of the road and its associated properties; the public subscribing 2 millions, and the company being entitled to issue debentures to the extent of 8 millions, the princ~pal and interest of these debentures being officially guaranteed.
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  • Thomson (Lord Kelvin) from Regnault's tables of the properties of steam, assuming the gaseous laws, did not vary exactly as J/T.
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  • Kelvin had previously proposed to define an absolute scale of temperature independent of the properties of any particular substance in terms of Carnot's function by making F'(t) constant.
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  • - The most important and most useful of the relations between the thermodynamical properties of a substance may be very simply deduced from a consideration of the indicator diagram by a geometrical method, which is in many respects more instructive than the analytical method generally employed.
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  • (7) The value of the specific heat S at constant pressure can always be determined by experiment, and in practice is one of the most important thermodynamical properties of a substance.
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  • An ideal gas is a substance possessing very simple thermodynamic properties to which actual gases and vapours appear to approximate indefinitely at low pressures and high temperatures.
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  • - Since no gas is ideally perfect, it is most important for practical purposes to discuss the deviations of actual gases from the ideal state, and to consider how their properties may be thermodynamically explained and defined.
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  • In the modified Joule-Thomson equation (17), both c and n have simple theoretical interpretations, and it is possible to express the thermodynamical properties of the substance in terms of them by means of reasonably simple formulae.
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  • (39) dG"/dp (D const) =v, dJ"/dv (0 const) = p. (40) And all the properties of the substance may be expressed in terms of G or J and their partial differential coefficients.
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  • Although the value of G in any case cannot be found without that of 0, and although the consideration of the properties of the thermodynamic potential cannot in any case lead to results which are not directly deducible from the two fundamental laws, it affords a convenient method of formal expression in abstract thermodynamics for the condition of equilibrium between different phases, or the criterion of the possibility of a transformation.
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  • The boundarystones between properties (termini) were also the objects of cult at the annual festival of the Terminalia, and the "god Terminus," the symbolic boundary-stone, shares with Jupiter the great temple on the Capitol.
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  • The Lar familiaris has been regarded' as the embodiment of all the family dead and his cult as a consummation of ancestor-worship, but a more probable explanation regards him as one of the Lares (q.v.; numina of the fields worshipped at the compita, the places where properties marched) who had special charge of the house or possibly of the household servants (familia); for it is significant that his worship was committed to the charge of the vilica.
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  • The physical properties of native gold are generally similar to that of the melted metal.
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  • It is necessary to remove as completely as possible any lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, arsenic and tellurium, impurities which impair the properties of gold and silver, by an oxidizing fusion, e.g.
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  • Sodium in boiling amyl alcohol reduces it to aromatic tetrahydro-a-naphthylamine, a substance having the properties of an aromatic amine, for it can be diazotized and does not possess an ammoniacal smell.
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  • When reduced by sodium in boiling amyl alcohol solution it forms alicyclic tetrahydro-0naphthylamine, which has most of the properties of the aliphatic amines; it is strongly alkaline in reaction, has an ammoniacal odour and cannot be diazotized.
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  • It is now generally accepted that this number, experimentally determined by Moseley for a number of elements, defines the physical and chemical properties of the particular element.
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  • Torbern Olof Bergman reinvestigated its properties and determined its reactions; his account, which was published in his Opuscula, contains the first fairly accurate description of the metal.
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  • Its electrical conductivity is approximately 1.2, silver at 0° being taken as 100; it is the most diamagnetic substance known, and its thermoelectric properties render it especially valuable for the construction of thermopiles.
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  • These compounds closely resemble the trichloride in their methods of preparation and their properties, forming oxyhaloids with water, and double compounds with ammonia, &c.
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  • The physical properties of the powder also give it a mild astringent action.
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  • Tuna are much eaten under the name of prickly pears, and are greatly esteemed for their cooling properties.
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  • The first type is in commonest use; since both necessitate the use of dense liquids, a summary of the media of most value, with their essential properties, will be given.
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  • It is almost colourless and has a small coefficient of expansion; its hygroscopic properties, its viscous character, and its action on the skin, however, militate against its use.
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  • In a smaller degree these alkaline properties are shared by the less soluble hydrates of the "metals of the alkaline earths," calcium, barium and strontium, and by thallium hydrate.
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  • Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
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  • The optical properties of sea-water are of immediate importance in biology, as they affect the penetration of sunlight into the depths.
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  • These properties are most highly developed in the substance known as jet, which is a variety of cannel found in the lower oolitic strata of Yorkshire, and is almost entirely used for ornamental purposes, the whole quantity produced near Whitby, together with a further supply from Spain, being manufactured into articles of jewellery at that town.
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  • Lignite or brown coal includes all varieties which are intermediate in properties between wood and coals of the older.
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  • Where properties are much divided, it is always necessary to maintain a thick barrier of unwrought coal between the boundary of the mine and the neighbouring workings, especially if the latter are to the dip. If a prominent line of fault crosses the area it may usually be a convenient division of the fields into sections or districts.
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  • " In modern times the study of nature has brought to light many properties of bodies which appear to depend on the magnitude and motions of their ultimate constituents, and the question of the existence of atoms has once more become conspicuous among scientific inquiries.
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  • To explain the properties of any substance by this theory is impossible.
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  • We can only admit the observed properties of such substance as ultimate facts.
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  • In hydrostatics, for instance, we define a fluid by means of one of its known properties, and from this definition we make the system of deductions which constitutes the science of hydrostatics.
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  • It ought accordingly to be possible to explain all the non-electrical and non-chemical properties of matter by treating matter as an aggregation of molecules.
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  • In point of fact it is found that the properties which are most easily explained are those connected with the gaseous state; the explanation of these properties in terms of the molecular structure of matter is the aim of the " Kinetic Theory of Gases."
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  • The point of view which has now been gained enables us to interpret most of the thermal properties of solids in terms of molecular theory.
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  • These two simplifying facts bring the properties of the gaseous state of matter within the range of mathematical treatment.
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  • The kinetic theory of gases attempts to give a mathematical account, in terms of the molecular structure of matter, of all the non-chemical and non-electrical properties of gases.
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  • The determination of the series of configurations developing out of given initial conditions is not, however, the problem of the kinetic theory: the object of this theory is to explain the general properties of all gases in terms only of their molecular structure.
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  • We are therefore called upon, not to trace the series of configurations of any single gas, starting from definite initial conditions, but to search for features and properties common to all series of configurations, independently of the particular initial conditions from which the gas may have started.
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  • It is accordingly clear that there can be no property common to all systems, but it can be shown that when the system contains a gas (or any other aggregation of similar molecules) as part of it there are properties which are common to all possible states, except for a number which form an insignificant fraction of the whole.
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  • These properties are found to account for the physical properties of gases.
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  • A state of the system in which these two properties are true will be called a " normal state "; other states will be spoken of as " abnormal."
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  • It will now be found that the various properties of gases follow from the supposition that the gas is in the normal state.
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  • We now pass to the consideration of laws and properties which are peculiar to the gaseous state.
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  • Various sulphonic acids of anthraquinone are known, as well as oxy-derivatives, for the preparation and properties of which see Alizarin.
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  • At the time of the secularization of Church properties there were about 120 religious edifices in the city - churches, convents, monasteries, &c. - many of which were turned over to secular uses.
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  • Their knowledge of the air and its properties was no less profound.
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  • They knew poisonous plants, and could eliminate noxious properties.
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  • Ctesibius of Alexandria, Hero and others, founded the science of pneumatics on observations on the physical properties of air.
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  • The justification of the above methods lies in certain properties of the series of successive differences of u.
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  • The earlier papers deal chiefly with the properties and modes of synthesis of cloud chain hydrocarbons and their derivatives.
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  • The author prefers large properties and large commercial undertakings to small ones, and strongly favours association as a means of production.
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  • The velocity of a disturbance along such a bar, and its modes of vibration, depend therefore on the elastic properties of the material and the dimensions of the bar.
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  • For example, Bodin gives a list of the of Sove- properties of majestas or sovereignty: (a) " Legem reignty.
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  • A small percentage of cubebs is also commonly included in lozenges designed for use in bronchitis, in which the antiseptic and expectoral properties of the drug are useful.
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  • Therapic and jecoleic acids apparently do not occur elsewhere in the animal kingdom, and it is probable that the therapeutic properties of the oil are associated with the presence of these acids, and not with the small amount of iodine present as was at one time supposed.
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  • Myrrh has the properties of other substances which, like it, contain a volatile oil.
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  • It has the properties of a monacid base and contains the methylamino group, NCH3.
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  • The majority of the species of Clupea are of greater or less utility to man; it is only a few tropical species that acquire, probably from their food, highly poisonous properties, so as to be dangerous to persons eating them.
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  • In its chemical properties it closely resembles barium and strontium, and to some degree magnesium; these four elements comprise the so-called metals of the "alkaline earths."
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  • Medicinal uses were ascribed to the species, but none appear to have any marked properties in this respect.
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  • "In the Person the natures use their properties mutually..
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  • The evidence for the existence of the luminiferous aether has accumulated as additional phenomena of light and other radiations have been discovered; and the properties of this medium, as deduced from the phenomena of light, have been found to be precisely those required to explain electromagnetic phenomena."
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  • They were content with a knowledge of the truth of the principle of gravitation; instead of essaying to explain it further by the properties of a transmitting medium, they in fact modelled the whole of their natural philosophy on that principle, and tried to express all kinds of material interaction in terms of laws of direct mechanical attraction across space.
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  • We might consider that matter and aether can coexist in the same space; this would involve the co-existence and interaction of a double set of properties, introducing great complication, which would place any coherent scheme of physical action probably beyond the powers of human analysis.
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  • Or we might consider that aether exists only where matter is not, thus making it a very rare and subtle and elastic kind of matter; then we should have to assign these very properties to the matter itself where it replaces aether, in addition to its more familiar properties, and the complication would remain.
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  • Our direct knowledge of matter can, however, never be more than a rough knowledge of the general average behaviour of its molecules; for the smallest material speck that is sensible to our coarse perceptions contains myriads of atoms. The properties of the most minute portion of matter which we can examine are thus of the nature of averages.
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  • The laws of thermodynamics, including the fundamental principle that a physical property, called temperature, can be defined, which tends towards uniformity, are thus relations between the properties of types of material bodies that can exist permanently in presence of each other; why they so maintain themselves remains unknown, but the fact gives the point d'appui.
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  • This raises the further question as to whether the transmission of gravitation can be definitely recognized among the properties of an ultimate medium; if so, we know that it must be associated with some feature, perhaps very deep-seated, or on the other hand perhaps depending simply on incompressibility, which is not sensibly implicated in the electric and optical activities.
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  • He does not tell us how it was prepared, but he describes the method of subliming it, which can leave no doubt that it was real sal ammoniac. In the Opera mineralia of Isaac Hollandus the elder, there is likewise a description of the mode of subliming sal ammoniac. Basil Valentine, in his Currus triumphalis antimonii, describes some of the peculiar properties of sal ammoniac in, if possible, a still less equivocal manner.
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  • Though ammonium chloride has certain irritant properties which may disorder the stomach, yet if its mucous membrane be depressed and atonic the drug may improve its condition, and it has been used with success in gastric and intestinal catarrhs of a subacute type and is given in doses of io grains half an hour before meals in painful dyspepsia due to hyperacidity.
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  • At the council of Chalcedon in 451 it was declared that in the person of Christ are united two complete natures, divine and human,which retain after the union all their properties unchanged.
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  • When two different generations are produced in one year on the same kind of tree it is clear the properties of the sap and tissues of the tree must be diverse so that the two generations are adapted to different conditions.
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  • One of the most important of the properties of a fine florists' tulip is that the cup should form, when expanded, from half to a third of a hollow ball, the six divisions of the perianth being broad at the ends, and smooth at the edges, so that the divisions may scarcely show on indenture.
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  • There are medicinal springs similar in their properties to those of Cheltenham.
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  • The thermochemical properties of the constituents of an explosive will assign an upper limit to the volume, temperature and pressure of the gas produced by the combustion; but much experiment is required in addition.
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  • In their phy s ical properties, the olefines resemble the normal paraffins, the lower members of the series being inflammable gases, the members from C5 to C14 liquids insoluble in water, and from C16 upwards of solids.
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  • In chemical properties, however, they differ very markedly from the paraffins.
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  • It is a solid substance which occurs in several modifications, differing very much in their physical properties.
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  • Charcoal varies considerably in its properties, depending upon the particular variety of wood from which it is prepared, and also upon the process used in its manufacture.
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  • Before doing this, however, it was necessary to define the limits of tribal properties already existing - a work of great difficulty - with a view to their ultimate division, and at the same time to guard against any premature traffic in the rights of Arabs in the lands about to be divided.
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  • If so, the word may be derived from the Semitic ambar (ambergris) to which Eastern nations attribute miraculous properties.
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  • He discussed their properties and constructed tables for their evaluation.
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  • However this may be, and it seems probable that Dr Mott is right in his identification, the pseudo-chroniclers and romance writers certainly had in their minds a genuine table, although, probably, one of magical properties.
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  • The Zapotecs, who call the creature Talachini, and other tribes of Mexico have endowed it with fabulous properties and fear it more than the most poisonous snakes.
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  • In 1782 he published some experiments on the formation of ether, and in 1783 examined the properties of glycerine, which he had discovered seven years before.
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  • About the same time he showed by a wonderful series of experiments that the colouring matter of Prussian blue could not be produced without the presence Of a substance of the nature of an acid, to which the name of prussic acid was ultimately given; and he described the composition, properties and compounds of this body, and even ascertained its smell and taste, quite unaware of its poisonous character.
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  • In this philosophy the mystical properties of numbers are a leading feature; absurd and mechanical notions are glossed over with the sheen of sacramental mystery; myths are explained by pious fancies and fine-sounding pietistic reflections; miracles, even the most ridiculous, are believed in, and miracles are wrought.
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  • That Smith does, however, largely employ the deductive method is certain; and that method is legitimate when the premises from which the deduction sets out are known universal facts of human nature and properties of external objects.
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  • The principal properties of logarithms are given by the equations log (mn) = log m --Flogs n, loga(m/n) = toga m -logo.
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  • Either of these properties might be taken as itself the definition of log x.
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  • The exponential function possesses the properties (i.) exp (x+y) =exp x X exp y.
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  • The exponential function, which may still be defined as the inverse of the logarithmic function, is, on the other hand, a uniform function of x, and its fundamental properties may be stated in the same form as for real values of x.
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  • According to the official records, there were registered in September 1906, 23,191 mining properties, of which very nearly five-sixths were described as producing s:'ver, either by itself or in combination with other metals: The properties were classed as 1572 gold, 5461 silver, 970 copper, 383 iron, 151 mercury, 94 lead, 86 sulphur, 52 antimony, 49 zinc, 40 tin, 21 opals, 9 manganese, 6 " sal gema," 5 tourmalines, i bismuth and i turquoise - the remainder being various combinations of these minerals.
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  • A comparison with 1888-1889, when 8970 properties were registered, will show how rapidly the mining industries have been developed during that period.
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  • In this way it acquired great wealth, becoming the owner of extensive estates in every part of the country and of highly productive properties in the towns.
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  • In 1828 he was awarded the prize offered by the Societe d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie Nationale for a process of making artificial ultramarine with all the properties of the substance prepared from lapis lazuli; and six years later he resigned his official position in order to devote himself to the commercial production of that material, a factory for which he established at Fleurieux sur Saone.
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  • The irrationality of dispersion is well illustrated by C.Christiansen's experiments on the dispersive properties of white powders.
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  • Properties of the limagon may be deduced from its mechanical construction; thus the length of a focal chord is constant and the normals at the extremities of a focal chord intersect on a fixed circle.
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  • Thus, animism is in some directions little developed, so far as we can see, among the Australian aborigines; but from those who know them best we learn that they believe in innumerable spirits and bush bogies, which wander, especially at night, and can be held at bay by means of fire; with this belief may be compared the ascription in European folk belief of prophylactic properties to iron.
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  • Its chemical properties closely resemble those of chlorine and bromine; its affinity for other elements, however, is as a rule less than that of either.
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  • In medicine iodine is frequently applied externally as a counterirritant, having powerful antiseptic properties.
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  • Acetic acid has no valuable properties for internal administration.
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  • Hincmar of Reims and Haimo of Halberstadt, took the side of Paschasius, and affirmed that the substance of the bread and wine is changed, and that God leaves the colour, taste and other outward properties out of mercy to the worshippers, who would be overcome with dread if the underlying real flesh and blood were nakedly revealed to their gaze !
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  • Various chemists had traced numerical sequences among the atomic weights of some of the elements and noted connexions between them and the properties of the different substances; but it was left to him to give a full expression to the generalization, and to treat it not merely as a system of classifying the elements according to certan observed facts, but as a "law of nature" which could be relied upon to predict new facts and to disclose errors in what were supposed to be old facts.
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  • Thus in 1871 he was led by certain gaps in his tables to assert the existence of three new elements so far unknown to the chemist, and to assign them definite properties.
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  • It is distinguished from the other members of the series by certain characteristic properties; for example, it shows an aldehydic character in reducing silver salts to metallic silver, and it does not form an acid chloride or an acid anhydride.
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  • It is a tertiary base, and has also the properties of an acid and an alcohol.
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  • Reference should be made to the article Geometry: Euclidean, for a detailed summary of the Euclidean treatment, and the elementary properties of the circle.
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  • In various systems of triangular co-ordinates the equations to circles specially related to the triangle of reference assume comparatively simple forms; consequently they provide elegant algebraical demonstrations of properties concerning a triangle and the circles intimately associated with its geometry.
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  • The fundamental properties of coaxal systems may be summarized: 1.
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  • Apollonius' genius takes its highest flight in Book v., where he treats of normals as minimum and maximum straight lines drawn from given points to the curve (independently of tangent properties), discusses how many normals can be drawn from particular points, finds their feet by construction, and gives propositions determining the centre of curvature at any point and leading at once to the Cartesian equation of the evolute of any conic.
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  • The separation of the mixed bases so obtained is effected by repeated fractional crystallization, or by taking advantage of certain properties of the constituents.
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  • Reference should also be made to the articles on the individual alkaloids for further details as to their medicinal and chemical properties.
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  • This gives Canadian wheat excellent milling properties, and enables the millers to turn out flour uniform in quality and of high grade as to keeping properties.
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  • The taste is mucilaginous, sweetish and slightly bitter and aromatic. The root is frequently forked, and it is probably owing to this circumstance that medicinal properties were in the first place attributed to it, its resemblance to the body of a man being supposed to indicate that it could restore virile power to the aged and impotent.
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  • There is no evidence that it possesses any pharmacological or therapeutic properties.
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  • Charcoal is valuable for its infusibility and low conductivity for heat (allowing substances to be strongly heated upon it), and for its powerful reducing properties; so that it is chiefly employed in testing the fusibility of minerals and in reduction.
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  • On the French Alps a sweet exudation is found on the small branchlets of young larches in June and July, resembling manna in taste and laxative properties, and known as Manna de Briancon or Manna Brigantina; it occurs in small whitish irregular granular masses, which are removed in the morning before they are too much dried by the sun; this manna seems to differ little in composition from the sap of the tree, which also contains mannite; its cathartic powers are weaker than those of the manna of the manna ash (Fraximus ornus), but it is employed in France for the same purposes.
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  • The green salt appears to dissociate in aqueous solution into two ions, namely CrC1 2 (OH 2) 4 and one chlorine ion, since practically only one-third of the chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate solution at o° C. Two of the six water molecules are easily removed in a desiccator, and the salt formed, CrC13.4H20, resembles the original salt in properties, only one-third of the chlorine being precipitated by silver nitrate.
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  • Chromic bromide, CrBr 3, is prepared in the anhydrous form by the same method as the chloride, and resembles it in its properties.
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  • Some bitters, although possessing tonic properties, may be regarded as beverages pure and simple, notwithstanding the fact that they are seldom consumed in an undiluted state; others again, are obviously medicinal preparations and should be treated as such.
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  • This plant, credited with wonderful medicinal and aromatic properties, has not been certainly identified with any existing species.
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  • After the discovery of the radioactive properties of uranium by Henri Becquerel in 1896, it was noticed that some minerals of uranium, such as pitchblende, were more active than the element itself, and this circumstance suggested that such minerals contained small quantities of some unknown substance or substances possessing radioactive properties in a very high degree.
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  • Spectrum analysis thus passed quickly out of the stage in which its main purpose was " analysis " and became our most delicate and powerful method of investigating molecular properties; the old name being no longer appropriate, we now speak of the science of " Spectroscopy."
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  • Opticians should supply sufficient information of the dispersive properties of their materials to allow dµ/dX to be calculated easily for different parts of the spectrum.
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  • It possesses all the characteristic properties of an aldehyde; being readily oxidized to benzoic acid; reducing solutions of silver salts; forming addition products with hydrogen, hydrocyanic acid and sodium bisulphite; and giving an oxime and a hydrazone.
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  • In his Principles of Psychology he twice quotes his point that " what we are conscious of as properties of matter, even down to its weight and resistance, are but subjective affections produced by objective agencies which are unknown and unknowable."
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  • About 1892 the idea occurred to him of using vacuum-jacketed vessels for the storage of liquid gases, and so efficient did this device prove in preventing the influx of external heat that it is found possible not only to preserve the liquids for comparatively long periods, but also to keep them so free from ebullition that examination of their optical properties becomes possible.
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  • The Royal Society in 1894 bestowed the Rumford medal upon him for his work in the production of low temperatures, and in 1899 he became the first recipient of the Hodgkins gold medal of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, for his contributions to our knowledge of the nature and properties of atmospheric air.
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  • When speaking of the magnetic properties of iron it is usual to adopt the terms "soft" and "hard."
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  • That the value of the compass was thus, even in the latter part of the r 7th century, so imperfectly recognized in the East may serve to explain how in earlier times that instrument, long after the first discovery of its properties, may have been generally neglected by navigators.
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  • Roger Bacon (Opus majus and Opus minus, 1266-1267) was acquainted with the properties of the lodestone, and wrote that if set so that it can turn freely (swimming on water) it points toward the poles; but he stated that this was not due to the pole-star, but to the influence of the northern region of the heavens.
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  • For on the one hand the electric current always forms a closed circuit, and on the other the two poles of the magnet have equal but opposite properties, and are inseparably connected, so that whatever tendency there is for one pole to circulate round the current in one direction is opposed by the equal tendency of the other pole to go round the other way, and thus the one pole can neither drag the other round and round the wire nor yet leave it behind.
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  • By the 6th of December he had sent in to the Royal Society the twentieth, and on the 24th of December the twenty-first, series of his "Researches," in which the properties of diamagnetic bodies are fully described.
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  • In the later years of his life he applied himself to the problem of obtaining alumina in the crystalline form, and succeeded in making rubies identical with the natural gem not merely in chemical composition but also in physical properties.
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  • Large estates are the rule in Silesia, where about a third of the land is in the hands of owners possessing at least 250 acres, while properties of 50,000 to 100,000 acres are common.
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  • Gases too dissolve in liquids, while mixtures of various liquids show similar properties.
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  • The distinction between these two classes is not sharp; though when the properties of the resultant are sensibly the sum of those of the pure components, as is nearly the case for a complex gas such as air, it is usual to class it as a mixture.
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  • When the properties of the resultant substance are different from those of the components and it is not a chemical compound we define it as a solution.
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  • No satisfactory correlation of solubility with chemical or other properties has been made.
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  • But other relations between the different properties of solutions have been investigated by another series of conceptions which we shall proceed to develop. Some botanical experiments made about 1870 suggested the idea of semi-permeable membranes, i.e.
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  • Dilute solutions of substances such as cane-sugar, as we have seen, give experimental values for the connected osmotic properties - pressure, freezing point and vapour pressure - in conformity with the theoretical values.
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  • In order to explain the electrical properties of a solution, for instance of potassium chloride, we are driven to believe that each molecule of the salt is dissociated into two parts, potassium and chlorine, each associated with an electric charge equal in amount but opposite in sign.
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  • To explain the electrical properties of sulphuric acid in aqueous solution, the supposition of three ions, two of hydrogen and one of the chemical group S04, is necessary.
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  • Now measurements of osmotic properties of these solutions show that their osmotic pressures are abnormally great and that, at extreme dilution, the ratio of their osmotic pressures to that of equivalent solutions of non-electrolytes is equal to the number of ions indicated by the electrolytic properties.
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  • The subject is dealt with in Electrolysis and Electric conduction: § dealt with the relations between the properties of an ideally dilute solution, we now turn to the consideration of the general case where the simplifying assumption of great dilution is not made.
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  • The conceptions of osmotic pressure and ideal semi-permeable membranes enable us to deduce other thermodynamic relations between the different properties of solutions.
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  • The special properties of these solutions are dealt with under Electrolysis and Electric conduction, § In Liquids.
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  • Attempts have been made to co-ordinate this ionizing power of solvents with their dielectric constants, or with their chemical properties.
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  • In his memoir of 1785 he writes: "As far as the experiments hitherto published extend, we scarcely know more of the phlogisticated part of our atmosphere than that it is not diminished by lime-water, caustic alkalies, or nitrous air; that it is unfit to support fire or maintain life in animals; and that its specific gravity is not much less than that of common air; so that, though the nitrous acid, by being united to phlogiston, is converted into air possessed of these properties, and consequently, though it was reasonable to suppose, that part at least of the phlogisticated air of the atmosphere consists of this acid united to phlogiston, yet it may fairly be doubted whether the whole is of this kind, or whether there are not in reality many different substances confounded together by us under the name of phlogisticated air.
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  • The salt springs were known in the 9th century, and their medicinal properties were recognized in the 16th, but it was only during the 19th century that Kissingen became a popular resort.
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  • On account of these properties, builders have come to give it a distinct preference over stone, brick, timber and other building materials.
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  • The fact that a comparatively brittle material like concrete can be subjected not only to heavy loads but also to the jar and vibration from the blows of a heavy pile ram makes it appear as if its nature and properties had been changed by the steel reinforcement.
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  • Brodie, in ascertaining the physiological properties of nucleo-proteids, found that when they were intravascularly injected into pigmented rabbits, coagulation of the blood resulted, but of the eight albinoes which they used, none clotted.
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  • Even to-day the ignorant peasantry of many European countries, Russia, Galicia and elsewhere, believe that all disease is the work of demons, and that medicinal herbs owe their curative properties to their being the materialized forms of benevolent spirits.
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  • No lichen is known to be possessed of any poisonous properties to man, although Chlorea vulpina is believed by the Swedes to be so.
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  • Thus in the case of saxicolous lichens the mineralogical character of the rock has of itself little or no influence upon lichen growth, which is influenced more especially and directly by their physical properties, such as their capacity for retaining heat and moisture.
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  • But from a study of Dalton's own MS. laboratory notebooks, discovered in the rooms of the Manchester society, Roscoe and Harden (A New View of the Origin of Dalton's Atomic Theor y, 1896) conclude that so far from Dalton being led to the idea that chemical combination consists in the approximation of atoms of definite and characteristic weight by his search for an explanation of the law of combination in multiple proportions, the idea of atomic structure arose in his mind as a purely physical conception, forced upon him by study of the physical properties of the atmosphere and other gases.
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  • Contaminated as it was with potassium and with platinum from the crucible, the metal formed a grey powder and was far from pure; but in 1845 he improved his process and succeeded in producing metallic globules wherewith he examined its chief properties, and prepared several compounds hitherto unknown.
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  • Some with 90 to 99% of other metals exhibit the general properties of those metals conspicuously improved.
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  • Samples dating from the old sodium days are still in existence, and when they exhibit unpleasant properties the defect is often ascribed to the metal instead of to the process by which it was won.
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  • For winter use the tops of the most useful kinds of herbs should be cut when in flower or full leaf and quite dry, and spread out in an airy but shady place so as to part slowly with the moisture they contain and at the same time retain their aromatic properties.
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  • The active principle to which the oil owes its purgative properties has not been isolated.
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  • Tudsbury that if an influence machine is enclosed in a metallic chamber containing compressed air, or better, carbon dioxide, the insulating properties of compressed gases enable a greatly improved effect to be obtained owing to the diminution of the leakage across the plates and from the supports.
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  • The greatest part of the Cripple Creek mining properties is owned in Colorado Springs, where the exchange is one of the greatest in the world.
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  • The isolation of the elementary bodies and the investigation of their properties was one of his favourite pursuits.
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  • These variations in the properties of iron are brought about in part by corresponding variations in mechanical and thermal treatment, by which it is influenced profoundly, and in part by variations in the proportions of certain foreign elements which it contains; for, unlike most of the other metals, it is never used in the pure state.
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  • This classification was based on carbon-content, or on the properties which it gave.
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  • Alloy steels and cast irons are those which owe their properties chiefly to the presence of one or more elements other than carbon.
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  • In view of the fact that the presence of 1% of carbon implies that 15% of the soft ductile ferrite is replaced by the glass-hard cementite, it is not surprising that even a little carbon influences the properties of the metal so profoundly.
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  • But carbon affects the properties of iron not only by giving rise to varying proportions of cementite, but also both by itself shifting from one molecular state to another, and by enabling us to hold the iron itself in its unmagnetic allotropic forms, 0and 7-iron, as will be explained below.
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  • - Physical properties and assumed microscopic constitution of the pearlite series, graphiteless steel slowly cooled and white cast iron.
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  • These two classes of properties tend to exclude each other, for, as a general rule, whatever tends to make iron and steel hard and strong tends to make it correspondingly brittle, and hence liable to break treacherously, especially under shock.
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  • Although the presence of 1.50% of manganese makes steel relatively brittle, and although a further addition at first increases this brittleness, so that steel containing between 4 and 5.5% can be pulverized under the hammer, yet a still further increase gives very great ductility, accompanied by great hardness-a combination of properties which was not possessed by any other known substance when this remarkable alloy, known as Hadfield's manganese steel, was discovered.
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  • Impurities.-The properties of iron and steel, like those of most of the metals, are profoundly influenced by the presence of small and sometimes extremely small quantities of certain impurities, of which the most important are phosphorus and sulphur, the former derived chiefly from apatite (phosphate of lime) and other minerals which accompany the iron ore itself, the latter from the pyrite found not only in most iron ores but in nearly all coal and coke.
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  • In order that the slag shall have these properties its composition usually lies between the following limits: silica, 26 to 35%; lime, plus I 4 times the magnesia, 45 to 55%; alumina, 5 to 20%.
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  • Of these the silica and alumina are chiefly those which the gangue of the ore and the ash of the fuel introduce, whereas the lime is that added intentionally to form with these others a slag of the needed physical properties.
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  • Now how does it come about that the distribution of the carbon between these very unlike states determines the strength, hardness and many other valuable properties of the metal as a whole?
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  • The answer to this is made easy by a careful study of the effect of this same distribution on the constitution of the metal, because it is through controlling this constitution that the condition of the carbon controls these useful properties.
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  • Above the diagram are given the names of the different classes of cast iron to which different stages in the change from graphite to cementite correspond, and above these the names of kinds of steel or cast iron to which at the corresponding stages the constitution of the matrix corresponds, while below the diagram are given the properties of the cast iron as a whole corresponding to these stages, and still lower the purposes for which these stages fit the cast iron, first because of its strength and shock-resisting power, and second because of its hardness.
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  • Here let us recognize that what gives this transfer of carbon from graphite skeleton to metallic matrix such very great influence on the properties of the metal is the fact that the transfer of each 1%.
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  • 28.-Physical Properties and assumed Microscopic Constitution hand, the extreme hardness of nearly graphiteless cast iron is of Cast Iron containing 4% of carbon, as affected by the distribution of great value for objects of which the chief duty is to resist of that carbon between the combined and graphitic states.
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  • For these reasons, one must assume the existence of pentavalent nitrogen in the diazonium salts, in order to account for their basic properties.
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  • This salt is a colourless crystalline substance of composition CH30 C6H4 N2 CN HCN 2H20, and has the properties of a metallic salt; it is very soluble in water and its solution is an electrolyte, whereas the solutions of the synand anticompounds are not electrolytes.
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  • These properties of fur constitute its essential value for felting purposes, and mark its difference from wool and silk; the first, after some slight preparation by the aid of hot water, readily unites its fibres into a strong and compact mass; the others can best be managed by spinning and weaving.
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  • The preparation of seal skin occupies a longer time than any other fur skin, but its fine rich effect when finished and its many properties of warmth and durability well repay it.
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  • To avenge herself, Medea presented the new bride with a robe and head-dress, by whose magic properties the wearer was burnt to death, and slew her children by Jason with her own hand.
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  • The properties of this individual subject, the idea of the triangle, are, according to him, discovered by observation, and as observation, whether actual or ideal, never presents us with more than the rough or general appearances of geometrical quantities, the relations so discovered have only approximate exactness.
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  • He saw all the mechanical difficulties that had to be overcome in mining; he learned the nature and succession of rocks, the physical properties of minerals, ores and metals; he got a notion of mineral waters; he was an eyewitness of the accidents which befel the miners, and studied the diseases which attacked them; he had proof that positive knowledge of nature was not to be got in schools and universities, but only by going to nature herself, and to those who were constantly engaged with her.
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  • The permanency of colour by which they are distinguished is attributed to the properties of the water of the Stour, which is impregnated with iron and fuller's earth.
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  • (Compare Chemistry: Organic.) The above examples may illustrate how, in a general way, chemical properties of isomers, their formation as well as transformation, may be read in the structure formula.
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  • It is different, however, with physical properties, density, &c.; at present we have no fixed rules which enable us to predict quantitatively the differences in physical properties corresponding to a given difference in structure, the only general rule being that those differences are not large.
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  • Other physical properties might be considered; as a general rule they depend upon the distribution of negative and positive elements in the molecule.
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  • This seems to be the case with molten sulphur, which, when heated, becomes dark-coloured and plastic; and also in the case of metals, which obtain or lose magnetic properties without loss of continuous structure.
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  • On the basis of the relation between physical phenomena and thermodynamical laws, properties of the polymorphous compounds may be predicted.
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  • This best studied case shows that a number of mutual relations are to be found between the properties of two modifications when once the phenomenon of mutual transformation is accessible.
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  • These acid esters retain some of the characteristic properties of the acids, forming, for example, salts, with basic oxides.
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  • The prepared leaves have a faint odour and bitter taste; and to preserve their properties they must be kept excluded from light in stoppered bottles.
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  • Professor Bayley Balfour, F.R.S., the Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh, has described an arboretum as a living collection of species and varieties of trees and shrubs arranged after some definite method - it may be properties, or uses, or some other principle - but usually after that of natural likeness.
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  • Its physical and chemical properties have been the subject of much study, and have a special interest in view of the extraordinary difference between the physical characters of the diamond and those of graphite (blacklead) or charcoal, with which it is chemically identical, and into which it can be converted by the action of heat or electricity.
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  • Radioactive properties have also been ascribed to other elements, e.g.
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  • There is a mass of evidence to show that radium is to be regarded as an element, and in general its properties resemble those of the metals of the alkaline earths, more particularly barium.
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  • Among these people the fibre has always been an article of considerable importance, yielding cloaks, mats, cordage, fishing-lines, &c., its valuable properties having attracted the attention of traders even before colonists settled in the islands.
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  • This, however, is merely transferring the properties of matter in bulk to its molecules.
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  • There has been some discussion as to the fairness of the treatment accorded by Pascal to his rivals, but no question of the fact that his initiative led to a great extension of our knowledge of the properties of the cycloid, and indirectly hastened the progress of the differential calculus.
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  • It appears that Pascal contemplated publishing a treatise De aleae geometria; but all that actually appeared was a fragment on the arithmetical triangle (Traite du triangle arithmetique, " Properties of the Figurate Numbers"), printed in 1654, but not published till 1665, after his death.
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  • On the steep sides of valleys the plan is easily and cheaply carried out, and where the whole course of the - water is not long the peculiar properties which give it value, though lessened, are not exhausted when it reaches that part of the meadow which it irrigates last.
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  • This wealth and prosperity are due to two very remarkable properties of the Nile.
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  • It is the possession of these two properties that imparts to the Nile a value quite unique among rivers, and gives to the farmers of the Nile Valley advantages over those of any rain-watered land in the world.
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  • Hence marriage, which is law, is the worst of all laws, and as property the worst of all properties.
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  • Among the properties of living material there is one, widely though not universally present in it, which forms the pre-eminent characteristic of 1 The anatomy of the muscles is dealt with under Muscular System, and of the nerves under Nerve and Nervous System.
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  • Among the properties of the neuron is conductivity in all directions.
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  • So valuable are certain of the properties of atropine that it is often desirable to give doses of one-twentieth or onetenth of a grain; but these will never be ventured upon by the practitioner who is ignorant of the great interval between the minimum toxic and the minimum lethal dose.
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  • According to Rabuteau the toxic properties of the higher alcohols increase with their molecular weight and boiling point.
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  • Swords fashioned by Wayland are regular properties of medieval romance.
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  • Occupying as these algae do perhaps the lowest grade of plant life, it is a matter of interest to ascertain whether a nucleus or chromatophore is differentiated in their cells, or whether the functions and properties of these bodies are diffused through the whole protoplast.
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  • Although Portland cement is later in date than either Roman cement or hydraulic lime, yet on account of its greater industrial importance, and of the fact that, being an artificial product, it is of approximately uniform composition and properties, it may conveniently be treated of first.
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  • Under this term are comprehended all cements whose setting properties primarily depend on the hydration of calcium sulphate.
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  • Poinsot's earliest work was his Elemens de statique (1803; 9th edition, 1848), in which he introduces the idea of statical couples and investigates their properties.
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  • As an elementary substance, it is very similar in its physical properties to lead; it resembles lead chemically inasmuch as it forms an almost insoluble chloride and an insoluble iodide.
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  • But the hydroxide of thallium, in most of its properties, comes very close to the alkali metals; it is strongly basic, forms an insoluble chloroplatinate, and an alum strikingly similar to the corresponding potassium compounds.
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  • Atwood's published works, exclusive of papers contributed to the Philosophical Transactions, for one of which he obtained the Copley medal, are as follows: - Analysis of a Course of Lectures on the Principles of Natural Philosophy (Cambridge, 1784); Treatise on the Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of Bodies (Cambridge, 1784), which gives some interesting experiments, by means of which mechanical truths can be ocularly exhibited and demonstrated, and describes the machine, since called by Atwood's name, for verifying experimentally the laws of simple acceleration of motion; Review of the Statutes and Ordinances of Assize which have been established in England from the 4th year of King John, 1202, to the 37th of his present Majesty (London, 1801), a work of some historical research; Dissertation on the Construction and Properties of Arches (London, 1801), with supplement, pt.
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  • The excessive size of the properties may to some extent be accounted for by the fact that most of the surface is so mountainous and unproductive as to be unsuitable for division into smaller estates, but two other causes have also co-operated, namely, first, the wide territorial authority of such Lowland families as the Scotts and Douglases, and such Highland clans as the Campbells of Argyll and Breadalbane, and the Murrays of Athol and the duke of Sutherland; and secondly, the stricter law of entail introduced in 1685.
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  • The series into which we can arrange the results of observing phenomena of complex causation, whether exhibited by living organisms or not, have certain properties in common, which are dealt with by the theory of chance.
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  • Many of the properties of such series, and the methods of describing them, are dealt with elsewhere (see Probability: Law of Error); and the frequency with which the mean value or any deviation from the mean value of a character occurs in a race of animals or of plants may probably always be expressed in terms of one or other of the series there described.
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  • It is a colourless liquid of very unpleasant smell, which boils at 198° C., and solidifies in a freezing mixture, the crystals obtained melting at -1° C. It shows all the characteristic properties of an acid chloride.
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  • For the properties of liquid oxygen see Liquid Gases.
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  • The general relations between the parabola, ellipse and hyperbola are treated in the articles Geometry, Analytical, and Conic Sections; and various projective properties are demonstrated in the article Geometry, Projective.
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  • Here only the specific properties of the parabola will be given.
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  • Properties which may be readily de FIG.
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  • Sharks are caught in enormous numbers with hook and harpoon; the flesh is considered by some to have aphrodisiacal properties; the dried fins and tails are exported to China; the oil is used for smearing boats.
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  • At Taenarum in Laconia he had a famous cave-like temple, with an asylum, and on the island of Tenos he was worshipped as the physician, probably in reference to the health-giving properties of the sea air.
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  • It has strong basic properties, absorbs carbon dioxide readily, and forms welldefined crystalline salts.
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  • By the action of nitric acid on guanidine in the presence of sulphuric acid, nitroguanidine, HN: C(NH 2) NH NO 2 (a substance possessing acid properties) is obtained; from which, by reduction with zinc dust, amidoguanidine, HN :C(NH 2) NH NH 2, is formed.
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  • The bulbs are large and orbicular, and have a blackish coat; they, as well as the flowers, are reputed to be emetic in properties.
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  • The bark possesses tanning properties, and in Scotland in past times yielded with ferrous sulphate a black dye for wool.
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  • The only substance which possesses sufficiently strong catalytic properties for the reaction is cupric chloride.
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  • He became professor at Leiden in 1882, and devoted himself especially to the study of properties of matter at low temperatures.
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  • He succeeded to the estates of Lee as well as of Carnwath, both of which properties passed, on the death of his son Charles without issue in 1802, to his nephew Alexander, who was created a baronet in 1806.
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  • They are killed for their flesh, hides and horns, and little attention is paid to their milkgiving properties.
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