Proper Sentence Examples
Proper detective work calls for an orderly investigation.
The police responded and I was taken to a hospital where proper care was being given.
Something about his proper responses made her smile.
Neither knew the proper thing to say.
She looked too proper to be considered beautiful, and her expression was lofty.Advertisement
You shall receive proper pay for your work.
There's no proper order! said the soldiers.
Satisfied that she looked proper as a new bride, she pushed her feet into yellow sandals and headed for the reception room.
The town proper occupies an elevated promontory, washed on the north by the Charente and on the south and west by the Anguienne, a small tributary of that river.
The regiments had entered and left the town with their bands playing, and by the Grand Duke's orders the men had marched all the way in step (a practice on which the Guards prided themselves), the officers on foot and at their proper posts.Advertisement
Of this total 138,240 were living in the city proper or in Mustapha.
In the case of the original Repsold plan without clockwork the description is not quite exact, because both the process of following the object and correcting the aim are simultaneously performed; whilst, if the clockwork runs uniformly and the friction-disk is set to the proper distance from the apex of the cone, the star will appear almost perfectly at rest, and the observer has only to apply delicate corrections by differential gear - a condition which is exactly analogous to that of training a modern gun-sight upon a fixed object.
At the same time Athens embarked on several wars in Greece Proper.
Its main object is to perfect the proficiency of players in certain departments of bowls proper.
In several of the states, New South Wales and South Australia proper, the railways yield more than the interest paid by the government on the money borrowed for their construction.Advertisement
It adjoins the village of Partabgarh proper, and the civil station sometimes known as Andrewganj.
After a longer or shorter period it enters the alimentary canal of its proper host with drinking-water, or it bores through the skin and reaches the bloodvessels, and is so conveyed through the body, in which it becomes sexually mature.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
All parts of matter are capable of developing into all forms; thus the materials of the table and chair may under proper circumstances be developed to the life of the plant or of the animal.
At Constantinople, too, three Sundays were added and associated with the Easter festival in the same way as the Sundays in Lent proper.Advertisement
The pubis consists of a short anterior portion (spina pubica or pectineai process, homologous with the prepubic process of Dinosaurs) and the long and slender pubis proper (equivalent to the processus lateralis pubis of most reptiles).
Here we must distinguish between the Lancelot proper and the LancelotGuenevere versions; so far as the latter are concerned, we cannot get behind the version of Chretien, - nowhere, prior to the composition of the Chevalier de la Charrette is there any evidence of the existence of such a story.
In fact, it's likelier that kids of that day were forbidden by proper parents from hanging out at the Globe Theater.
Read the Scriptures, but without proper feeling.
Do you think what I'm wearing is … proper?Advertisement
Whether the division of the lobus dexter into two divisions - (i) lobus dexter proper and (2) lobus quadratus, as in modern anatomical nomenclature - was also assumed in Babylonian hepatoscopy, is not certain, but the groove separating the right lobe into two sections - the fossa venae umbilicalis - was recognized and distinguished by the designation of "river of the liver."
A privy council decree recognizing the claims of New York was issued on the 10th of July 1764, and the settlers were soon afterwards ordered to surrender their patents and repurchase the land from the proper authorities at Albany.
Cicero may have had villas both at Portus Caietae and at Formiae' proper, and the emperors certainly possessed property at both places.
He believed that the Union could be saved without a war, and that a policy of delay would prevent the secession of the border states, which in turn would gradually coax their more southern neighbours back into their proper relations with the Federal government.
The husbandman was bound to carry out the proper cultivation, raise an average crop and leave the field in good tilth.
In ordinary cases responsibility was not demanded for accident or for more than proper care.
This, with proper apparatus for originating electric currents at one end and for discovering the effects produced by them at the other end, constitutes an electric telegraph.
After the cable has been again subjected to the proper electrical tests and found to be in perfect condition, the ship is taken to the place where the shore end is to be landed.
The end is taken into the testing room in the cable-house and the conductor connected with the testing instruments, and, should the electrical tests continue satisfactory, the ship is put on the proper course and steams slowly ahead, paying out the cable over her stern.
The cable must not be overstrained in the process of submersion, and must be paid out at the proper rate to give the requisite slack.
Faults or any other irregularity in the cable may be represented by putting resistances of the proper kind into the artificial line.
It consists in punching, by means of " a puncher," a series of holes in a strip of paper in such a way that, when the strip is sent through another instrument, called the " transmitter," the holes cause the circuit to be closed at the proper times and for the proper proportionate intervals for the message to be correctly printed by the receiving instrument or recorder.
The oscillations set up in the vertical antenna excited sympathetic ones in the lateral circuit provided this was of the proper length; and the coherer was acted upon by the maximum potential variations possible.
An exchange is a central station to which wires are brought from the various subscribers in its neighbourhood, any two of whom can be put in telephonic communication with each other when the proper pairs of wires are joined together in the exchange.
The study of telephone economics showed that the proper basis for charging was the " message-mile," on the theory that the user should pay according to the facilities offered and the extent to which he made use of them.
A third curve, from the south-easternmost promontory of the Peloponnese through Cerigo, Crete, Carpathos and Rhodes, marks off the outer deeps of the open Mediterranean from the shallow seas of the archipelago, but the Cretan Sea, in which depths occur over 1000 fathoms, intervenes, north of the line, between it and the Aegean proper.
The Adige, formed by the junction of two streams—the Etsch or Adige proper and the Eisak, both of which belong to Tirol rather than to Italy—descends as far as Verona, where it enters the great plain, with a course from north to south nearly parallel to the rivers last described, and would seem likely to discharge its waters into those of the Po, but below Legnago it turns eastward and runs parallel to the Po for about 40 m., entering the Adriatic by an independent mouth about 8 m.
The state, in taking over the Failways, did not exercise sufficient care to see that the lines and the rolling stock were kept up to a proper state of efficiency and adequacy for the work they had t,o perform; while the step itself was taken somewhat hastily.
The root is an axis which never bears either leaves or the proper reproductive organs (whether sexual or asexual) of the plant.
As the jar works off, or grows more feeble, by reason of the downward advance of the drill, it is ' tempered ' to the proper strength by letting down the temper-screw to give the jars more play.
There are fifteen sawbwas, sixteen myosas and thirteen ngwegunhmus in the Shan States proper.
The Italian Chamber decided that from the 1st of July 1901 until the 30th of June 1907 Italian military expenditure proper should not exceed the maximum of 1/29,560,000 per annum fixed by the Army Bill of May 1897, and that, military pensions should not exceed 1/21,440,000.
This sum consists of 4,240,000 of naval expenditure proper, 220,000 for naval pensions and 380,000 for premiums upon mercantile shipbuilding.
Taxes proper are divided into (a) taxes on business transactions and (b) taxes on articles of consumption.
So far as this is true, theism (proper) would seem to be an accident of language.
The mention of Christian theology may remind us that, for the majority of theists in medieval and modern times, theism proper has ranked only as a secondary wisdom.
We may be helped in assigning him his proper place if we observe that, almost invariably, he accepts certain beliefs which he forbears to press.
The guardian or his servant must not take from the ward's property more than a reasonable amount for his expenses and the like; on the contrary he must maintain the houses, estates and other belongings in a proper state of efficiency.
Sir Edward Coke finds in Magna Carta a full and proper legal answer to every exaction of the Stuart kings, and a remedy for every evil suffered at the time.
This promise was carried out, but two charters appeared, one being a revised issue of Magna Carta proper, and the other a separate charter dealing with the forests, all references to which were omitted from the more important document.
If the prosecutor have first brought him before the civil judge, the evidence is to be sent to the bishop, and the latter, if he thinks the crime has been committed, may deprive him of his office and order, and the judge shall apply to him the proper legal punishment.
Galen believed in the doctrine of humours originated by Hippocrates, which supposes the condition of the body to depend upon the proper mixture of the four elements, hot, cold, moist and dry, and that drugs possess the same elementary qualities, and that on the principle of contraries one or other was indicated, e.g.
The first of these, which may be regarded as growth proper, is the manufacture of additional quantities of living substance.
In a differentiated body the stem (caulome) is an axis capable of bearing leaves and (directly or indirectly) the proper reproductive organs.
And we now know that, excluding the southern tropical area, it has the same character throughout the whole of China proper.
In India proper, with a dryer climate, grasses and Leguminosae take the lead in the number of species.
In the east, Persis proper is separated by a desert (Laristan) from the fertile province of Carmania (Kerman), a mountainous region inhabited by a Persian tribe.
Ibn Batuta, the great Arab traveller, is separated by a wide space of time from his countrymen already mentioned, and he finds his proper place in a chronological notice after the days of Marco Polo, for he did not begin his wanderings until 1325, his career thus coinciding in time with the fabled journeyings of Sir John Mandeville.
One general feature of the adult bird's skull is the almost complete disappearance of the sutures between the bones of the cranium proper, whilst another is the great movability of the whole palatal and other suspensorial apparatus.
Omitting the paired tracheo-clavicular muscles, we restrict ourselves to the syringeal proper, those which extend between tracheal and bronchial rings.
So long as the characters of new fossils are only of specific and generic value, it is mostly possible to assign the birds to their proper place, but when these characters indicate new families or orders, for instance Hesperornithes, Ichthyornithes, Palaelodi, their owners are put outside the more tersely constructed classifications applicable to modern birds.
C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.
Indo-China is especially rich in Eurylaemidae, China proper and the Himalayas in pheasants.
On the other hand, there is reason to believe that the magical spell proper is a self-contained and selfsufficient form of utterance, and that it lies at the root of much that has become address, and even prayer in the fullest sense.
They also helped to keep Gaul itself in order and their presence explains why the four provinces of Gaul proper contained no troops.
He remodelled the volumes of observations, put the library on a proper footing, mounted the new (Sheepshanks) equatorial and organized a new magnetic observatory.
Turning to Christian evidence proper, we are struck with the continued prominence of the argument from prophecy.
The city proper is almost entirely enclosed by the remains of a great granite wall (built in 1673, when the new city was established), on the top of which on the side facing the sea is Las Bovedas promenade.
The average number of women to every 100 men in the Russian governments proper was 102.9; in Poland, 98.6; in Finland, 102.2; in Caucasia, 88.9; in Siberia, 93'7; and in Turkestan and Transcaspia, 83 o.
In Russia proper less than 2% emigrated from the C villages to the towns during the forty years ending 1897.
Beketov subdivides it into two portions-the forest region proper and the " Ante-Steppe " (predstepie).
Russia, may be subdivided into two zones-an intermediate zone and that of the steppes proper.
The steppes proper are very fertile, elevated plains, slightly undulating, and intersected by numerous ravines which are dry in summer.
In the ante-steppe the forest species proper, such as Pteromys volans and Tamias striatus, disappear, but common squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), weasel and bear are still met with in the forests.
On all the accepted forms there are two or more flanges at the bottom, running lengthwise of the plate and crosswise of the rail; these are requisite to give proper stiffness, and further, as they are forced into the tie by the weight of passing traffic, they help to fix the plate securely in place.
These are generally tank engines, carrying their fuel and water on the engine proper.
A trench was first excavated to the proper depth, then the side walls and arched roof of brick were put in place, earth was filled in behind and over the arch, and the surface of the ground restored, either by paving where streets were followed, or by actually being built over with houses where the lines passed under private property.
The Amur proper flows at first in a south-easterly direction for about Boo m., as far as long.
Tiridates adopted the name of his brother Arsaces, and after him all the other Parthian kings (who by the historians are generally called by their proper names), amounting to the number of about thirty, officially wear only the name Arsaces.
The author designates the story of the later empire at Constantinople (after Heraclius) as " a uniform tale of weakness and misery," a judgment which is entirely false; and in accordance with this doctrine, he makes the empire, which is his proper subject, merely a string for connecting great movements which affected it, such as the Saracen conquests, the Crusades, the Mongol invasions, the Turkish conquests.
The country known as Caria was shared between the Carians proper and the Caunians, who were a wilder people, inhabiting the district between Caria and Lycia.
They were not considered to be of the same blood as the Carians, and were, therefore, excluded from the temple of the Carian Zeus at Mylasa, which was common to the Carians, Lydians and Mysians, though their language was the same as that of the Carians proper.
Christian teachers, especially those who had a leaning towards Gnostic speculations, took an interest in natural history, partly because of certain passages of Scripture that they wanted to explain, and partly on account of the divine revelation in the book of nature, of which also it was man's sacred duty to take proper advantage.
The relation of the Diptera (two-winged flies, or flies proper) to the other Orders is dealt with underHexapoda.
In the older type the combustion chamber (of metal or glass) is sunk in the calorimeter proper, tubes being provided for the entrance and exit of the gaseous substances involved in the action.
The cathedral of Sodor was on St Patrick's Isle at Peel, and it is possible that the name Sodor being lost, its meaning was applied to the isle as the seat of the bishop. The termination "and Man" seems to have been added in the 17th century by a legal draughtsman ignorant of the proper application of the name of Sodor to the bishopric of Man.
The part played by Egypt proper in the ensuing anti-Assyrian combinations is not clearly known; with a number of petty dynasts fomenting discontent and revolt, there was an absence -of cohesion in that ancient empire previous to the rise of the Ethiopian dynasty.
Excavation at Nippur in Babylonia has brought to light numerous contract tablets of the 5th century B.C. with Hebrew proper names (Haggai, Hanani, Gedaliah, &c.).
It is noteworthy that whereas, in Greece proper, Zeus attains a supreme position, the old superiority of the Mother Goddess is still visible in the Cretan traditions of Rhea and Dictynna and the infant Zeus.
In any case, only the eastern districts would have been affected by invaders from over the Rhine, the chief seat of the Belgae proper being in the west, the country occupied by the Bellovaci, Ambiani and Atrebates, to which it is probable (although the reading is uncertain) that Caesar gives the distinctive name Belgium (corresponding to the old provinces of Picardy and Artois).
The proper symbol of episcopacy is not so much the mitre as the ring and pastoral staff.
From Leo IX.'s time papal grants of the mitre to eminent prelates became increasingly frequent, and by the 12th century it had been assumed by all bishops in the West, with or without papal sanction, as their proper liturgical head-dress.
Before the rise of Neoplaton ism proper we meet with various mystical or semimystical expressions of the same religious craving.
He possesses the cool temperament of the man of science rather than the fervid Godward aspiration of the mystic proper; and the speculative impulse which lies at the root of this form of thought is almost entirely absent from his writings.
The later philosophy of Schelling and the philosophy of Franz von Baader, both largely founded upon Boehme, belong rather to theosophy (q.v.) than to mysticism proper.
In the "emigration" he found himself without proper place and influence.
Hence the study of the mountain ranges of a continent is, for a proper apprehension of its physical conditions and characteristics, as essential as the examination of its extent and position in relation to the equator and poles, and the configuration of its coasts.
In southern India, and the other parts of Asia and of the islands having a similar climate, the difference of the winter and summer half-years is not sufficient to admit of the proper cultivation of wheat or barley.
China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.
The names of Vorpommern and Hinterpommern were at first synonymous with Pomerania proper, or Slavinia and Pomerellen, but towards the close of the 14th century they were transferred to the.
The nomads of the patriarchal ages, whilst mainly dependent upon their flocks and herds, practised also agriculture proper.
But it finally destroyed the Cnossian palace and initiated the "Geometric" Age, with which, for convenience at any rate, we may close the history of Aegean civilization proper.
But, as society exists only for the proper development of persons, we have a criterion by which to test these institutions, viz.
Of his philosophical doctrine proper, the most striking characteristic is Integration, as opposed to Disintegration, both in thought and in reality.
They are divided into a number of classes (kings, hypostases, forms, &c.); the proper names by which they are invoked are many, and for the most part obscure, borrowed doubtless, to some extent, from the Parsee angelology.
These three divisions subsequently form the supra-oesophageal ganglion or brain proper.
Thus it became possible for almost any diligent reader without much chance of error to refer to its proper place nearly every bird he was likely to meet with.
In 1783 Boddaert printed at Utrecht a Table des planches enlumineez, 9 in which he attempted to refer every species of bird figured in that extensive series to its proper Linnaean genus, and to assign it a scientific name if it did not already possess one.
This also may be perhaps the most proper place to notice the Historia avium Hungariae of Grossinger, published at Posen in 1793.
It is proper to add that at this time the greater part of his work was Bartlett.
That the eggs laid by birds should offer to some extent characters of utility to systematists is only to be expected, when it is considered that those from the same nest generally bear an extraordinary family likeness to one another, and also that in certain groups the essential peculiarities of the egg-shell are constantly and distinctively characteristic. Thus no one who has ever examined the egg of a duck or of a tinamou would ever be in danger of not referring another tinamou's egg or another duck's, that he might see, to its proper family, and so on with many others.
The recognition of these, minute and fragmentary as many were, and the referring them to their proper place, rendered necessary an attentive study of the comparative osteology and myology of birds in general, that of the " long bones," whose sole characters were often a few muscular ridges or depressions, being especially obligatory.
Next stands the order Gallinae with 4 " cohorts "; (I) Tetraonomorphae, comprising 2 families, the sand-grouse (Pterocles) and the grouse proper, among which the Central American Oreophasis finds itself; (2) Phasianomorphae, with 4 families, pheasants peacocks, turkeys, guinea fowls, partridges, quails, and hemipodes (Turnix); (3) Macronyches, the megapodes, with 2 families; (4) the Duodecimpennatae, the curassows and guans, also with 2 families; (5) the Struthioniformes, composed of the tinamous; and (6) the Subgrallatores with 2 families, one consisting of the curious South American genera Thinocorus and Attagis and the other of the sheathbill (Chionis).
On this surface of pile heads was laid a platform of two layers of squared oak beams; and on this again the foundations proper were built.
There is, however, no proof that the belief is animistic in the proper sense.
Erskine had little interest in the "historical criticism" of Christianity, and regarded as the only proper criterion of its truth its conformity or nonconformity with man's spiritual nature, and its adaptability or non-adaptability to man's spiritual needs.
The park system consists of two concentric rings, the inner being the city system proper, the outer the metropolitan system undertaken by the commonwealth in co-operation with the city.
Boston proper is only the centre of a large metropolitan area, closely settled, with interests in large part common.
The city park system proper had cost $16,627,033 up to 1899 inclusive; and the metropolitan parks $13,679,456 up to 1907 inclusive.
Altogether about 22 names of gods are found in Palmyrene; some of them, however, only occur in compound proper names.
The mackerel proper (genus Scomber) are readily recognized by their elegantly shaped, well-proportioned body, shining in iridescent colours.
Where the agreement provides for the insertion in the lease of " proper " covenants, such covenants only are pointed at as are calculated to secure the full effect of the contract, and a covenant against assignment or under-letting would not ordinarily be included.
Agricultural leases usually contain special provisions as to the order of cropping, the proper stocking of the farm, and the rights of the incoming and outgoing tenant with regard to the waygoing crop. Where the rent is in money, it is generally payable at Whitsunday and Martinmas - the two " legal terms."
On the better farms this is done with a spirit-level or compass from time to time and hillside ditches put in at the proper places.
They bore holes and penetrate into flower-buds and young bolls, causing them to drop. Fortunately the " worms " prefer maize to cotton, and the inter-planting at proper times of maize, to be cut down and destroyed when well infested, is a method commonly employed to keep down this pest.
In addition to "futures" proper there are "options" and " straddles."
On the problem of evil and sin it is impossible here to enter; but this must be insisted on, that the miracles of Jesus at least express divine benevolence just under those conditions in which the course of nature obscures it, and are therefore, proper elements in a revelation of grace, of which nature cannot give any evidence.
In 1905 the census reports did not include manufactures outside the actual city limits; the total value of the factory product of the city proper in 1905 was $11,573,720; besides slaughtering and packing the other manufactures in 1905 included men's factory-made clothing (valued at $1,556,655) flour and grist-mill products (valued at $683,464), saddlery and harness (valued at $524,918), confectionery ($437,096), malt liquors ($407,054), boots and shoes ($350,384) and farm implements.
The first distinct period in the history of Primitive Methodism proper is 1811-1843.
The pan proper is surmounted by a great cone or hopper called a curb, to provide for the foaming up of the boiling mass and to prevent loss from overflowing.
The ordinary method of adding resin consists in stirring it in small fragments into the fatty soap in the stage of clear-boiling; but a better result is obtained by separately preparing a fatty soap and the resin soap, and combining the two in the pan after the underlye has been salted out and removed from the fatty soap. The compound then receives its strengthening boil, after which it is fitted by boiling with added water or weak lye, continuing the boil till by examination of a sample the proper consistency has been reached.
Baal being originally a title, and not a proper name, the innumerable baals could be distinguished by the addition of the name of a place or of some special attribute.
His name occurs as an element in Carthaginian proper names (Hannibal, Hasdrubal, &c.), and a tablet found at Marseilles still survives to inform us of the charges made by the priests of the temple of Baal for offering sacrifices.
Though at first written consecutively, the work is now usually divided into three portions, - a preface, the history proper, and an epistle, - the last, which is largely made up of passages and texts of Scripture brought together for the purpose of condemning the vices of his countrymen and their rulers, being the least important, though by far the longest of the three.
After Egypt proper was overrun by the " dynastic Egyptian " people of " Armenoid " stock, who came from Asia and founded the kingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt, the old barbarous Nilotic culture continued to exist in Nubia.
Magan, however, probably never meant Egypt proper, the Nile land itself, or Egypt, would have been called Magan by the Assyrians in later times; it was called Musri then and probably in early times also.
More, who knew her in old age when she was "lean, withered and dried up," says that in youth she was "proper and fair, nothing in her body that you would have changed, but if you would have wished her somewhat higher."
Hardly provinces proper, but rather client principalities, were the two native kingdoms to which Alexander had left the conquered land beyond the Indus - the kingdoms of Taxiles and Porus.
She instructed her daughter to show a proper respect to her husband's grandfather, Louis XV., by behaving with politeness to his mistresses, in order that the alliance between the two courts might run no risk.
The surveys are made on scales varying according to the necessities of the case or the nature of the country, and they have been extended since 1862 beyond the boundaries of India proper.
Metrodorus is especially interesting as the teacher of Anaxarchus, the friend of Pyrrho, and, therefore, as the connecting link between atomism proper and the later scepticism.
Greece proper and Ionia supplied the petty Eastern princes with courtesans and female musicians and dancers.
A circular was soon after sent to the governors and marshals of the nobility all over Russia proper, informing them of this desire of the Lithuanian nobles, and setting out the fundamental principles which should be observed " if the nobles of the provinces should express a similar desire."
At the same time he was accused of "introducing into the church and service at the altar compositions of psalms and hymns not inspected or authorized by any proper judicature."
He named one hundred preachers who after his death were to meet once a year, fill up vacancies in their number, appoint a president and secretary, station the preachers, admit proper persons into the ministry, and take general oversight of the societies.
It is not easy to value the services of Marsilio Ficino at their proper worth.
His most interesting paper is "On the Proper Motion of the Solar System," and was published in the Phil.
The existence of sulphuretted hydrogen in great quantities below loo fathoms, the extensive chemical precipitation of calcium carbonate, the stagnant nature of its deep waters, and the absence of deep-sea life are conditions which make it impossible to discuss it along with the physical and biological conditions of the Mediterranean proper.
The Sea of Marmora may be looked upon as an arm of the Aegean Sea and thus part of the Mediterranean proper.
The reforms in Turkey certainly encouraged the Serb and Moslem inhabitants of the occupied territory to petition the emperor for the grant of a constitution similar to that in force in the provinces of Austria proper.
Under the budgetary heading " Public Debt " is included, as it should be, all expenditure in connexion not only with the public debt proper, but also with advances from banks and others, railway guarantees, an account of which will also be found below, and all capitalized liabilities, as far as known, contracted by the state.
If the tax-payer declines to pay his due, he is brought before the proper authorities by the tahsildar; if he persists in his refusal, all his goods, except those indispensable for his dwelling and the pursuit of his trade, are sold by auction, without recourse to a judgment by tribunal.
These men, returning to their various districts, impart to others the instruction they have received, and thus spread through the regions adapted to sericulture the proper methods of selection and rearing.
By this treaty the annual tribute payable by Austria was abolished, but an indemnity of 200,000 florins was paid "once for all " by the emperor, who was henceforth to be given his proper imperial title (padishah) in Turkish official documents.
More important than the mosques proper are the tomb mosques.
From the records of that period it seems that the present city is identical in the position of its walls and the space occupied by the town proper with Bagdad at the close of the 12th century, the period when this rapid decline had already advanced so far that the western city is described by travellers as almost in ruins, and the eastern half as containing large uninhabited spaces.
The pastoral staff is the ensign proper of cardinals (except cardinal-deacons) and bishops; but the former are entitled to use it only in the churches from which they derive their titles,.
As to the relation of the Anti-Atlas to the Atlas proper at its western end nothing certain is known.
It was for centuries a "head port," its limits extending from Chepstow to Llanelly; in the 18th century it sank to the position of "a creek" of the port of Bristol, but about 1840 it was made independent, its limits for customs' purposes being defined as from the Rumney estuary to Nash Point, so that technically the "port of Cardiff" includes Barry and Penarth as well as Cardiff proper.
The proper place of the Samoyedes among the Ural-Altaians is very difficult to determine.
His dryness is associated with a fund of dry humour exceedingly effective in its proper place, as in The Book Hunter.
The natives consist of Sumbawans proper, a people of Malayan stock; of Buginese and Macassar immigrants, and of wild tribes of the mountains of whom nothing is known.
The independent states are Sumbawa proper, Dompo, Sangar and Bima.
Sumbawa proper occupies the western peninsula.
In well-developed shoots the buds are generally double, or rather triple, a wood bud growing between two fruit buds; the shoot must be cut back to one of these, or else to a wood bud alone, so that a young shoot may be produced to draw up the sap beyond the fruit, this being generally desirable to secure its proper swelling.
Though the giving of blessings as a sacerdotal function is proper to the whole order of priests, particular benedictions have, by ecclesiastical authority, been reserved for the bishops, who may, however, delegate some of them; i.e.
It is proper, however, to point out at once how very complicated may be the relationships between oceanographical and strictly biological phenomena, though, of course, the latter are ultimately dependent on the former.
Transformation products of the albumins proper.
La Pena, who had in the battle itself failed to give proper support to Graham, would not pursue, and Graham declining to carry on further operations with him, re-entered Cadiz.
The city proper lies on both sides of the little river Alster, which, dammed up a short distance from its mouth, forms a lake, of which the southern portion within the line of the former fortifications bears the name of the Inner Alster (Binnen Alster), and the other and larger portion (2500 yards long and 1300 yards at the widest) that of the Outer Alster (Aussen Alster).
White is also the colour proper to sacramental processions, and generally to all devotions connected with the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament.
So far the Hevea plantations in Ceylon and the East have not been seriously troubled by insect or fungoid pests, and those which have occurred have succumbed to proper treatment.
He represented the antiFranco-Prussian portion of her council, and his object was to bring about an Anglo-Austro-Russian alliance which, at that time, was undoubtedly Russia's proper system, Hence the reiterated attempts of Frederick the Great and Louis XV.
A by no means unwarrantable fear of the king of Prussia, who was "to be reduced within proper limits," so that "he might be no longer a danger to the empire," induced Elizabeth to accede to the treaty of Versailles, in other words the Franco-Austrian league against Prussia, and on the 17th of May 1757 the Russian army, 85,000 strong, advanced against Konigsberg.
They held that the duality of natures implied a distinction between two modes of sonship in Christ - the natural or proper, and the adoptive.
In Italy proper she was identified with Minerva.
The divaricators proper are stated by Hancock to arise from the ventral valve, one on each side, a little in advance of and close to the adductors, and after rapidly diminishing in size become attached to the cardinal process, a space or prominence between the sockets in the dorsal valve.
The theory brought forward has not yet found a place in any systematic treatise in any language, so that it has been judged proper to give a fairly complete account of it.'
The generating function is I - z2' 52 For 0 =3, (alai +a2a2+a3a3) 10; the condition is clearly a1a2a3 = A3 = 0, and since every seminvariant, of proper degree 3, is associated, as coefficient, with a product containing A3, all such are perpetuants.
The crystallization proper lasts one hour, the working of a charge four hours, six charges being run in twenty-four hours.
The Cevennes proper are formed by a folded belt of Palaeozoic rocks which lies along the south-east border of the central plateau of France.
It is in the Montagne Noire rather than in the Cevennes proper that the structure of the chain has been most fully investigated.
The principal folding took place at the close of the Carboniferous period, and was contemporaneous with that of the old Hercynian chain of Belgium, &c. The Permian and later beds lie unconformably upon the denuded folds, and in the space between the Montagne Noire and the Cevennes proper the folded belt is buried beneath the horizontal Jurassic strata of the Causses.
In the Norse version of the Carolingian epic Guillaume appears in his proper historical environment, as a chief under Charlemagne; but he plays a leading part in the Couronnement Looys, describing the formal associations of Louis the Pious in the empire at Aix (813, the year after Guillaume's death), and after the battle of Aliscans it is from the emperor Louis that he seeks reinforcements.
Had the internal contacts alone been used, which many astronomers would have considered the proper course, the result would have been 8.776" In 1877 Sir David Gill organized an expedition to the island of Ascension to observe the parallax of Mars with the heliometer.
The celluloid sheet is laid upon the squared paper, and in plotting a curve horizontal distances are reckoned from the proper demagnetization line instead of from the vertical axis.
And much more of the same kind, which, as Gilbert says, had come down " even to [his] own day through the writings of a host of men, who, to fill out their volumes to a proper bulk, write and copy out pages upon pages on this, that and the other subject, of which they know almost nothing for certain of their own experience."
In such a consideration we have to make use not only of the fact just mentioned, but of three important generalizations which serve as it were as implements for the proper estimation of the relationships of any series of organic forms. First of all there is the generalization that the relationships of the various forms of animals (or of plants) to one another is that of the ultimate twigs of a much-branching genealogical tree.
Thirdly, those members of a group which, whilst exhibiting undoubted structural characters indicative of their proper assignment to that group, yet are simpler than and inferior in elaboration of their organization to other members of the group, are not necessarily representatives of the earlier and primitive phases in the development of the group - but are very often examples of retrogressive change or degeneration.
Sutures are stated to mark off some of these pieces, but in the proper sense of that term as applied to the skeletal structures of the Vertebrata, no sutures exist in the chitinous cuticle of Arthropods.
Though there are indications of lamelliform respiratory appendages on mesosomatic somites following that bearing the genital operculum, we cannot be said to have any proper knowledge as to such appendages, and further evidence with regard to them is much to be desired.
Thus the Apocrypha Proper constitutes the surplusage of the Vulgate or Bible of the Roman Church over the Hebrew Old Testament.
Although arbitrations proper may be thus distinguished from " mixed commissions," it must not be supposed that any hard or fast theoretical line can be drawn between them.
Latreille,2 rightly estimating the value of these differences, though he was not an original worker in the field of vertebrate zoology, proposed to separate Brongniart's Batrachia from the class of Reptilia proper, as a group of equal value, for which he retained the Linnaean name of Amphibia.
This region is well wooded along the river courses of Minas Geraes, the lower Atlantic slopes of Bahia, which are perhaps outside the plateau proper, and on the weather side of some of the elevated ridges where the rainfall is heavy and regular.
The census returns are for municipalities, and not for cities proper.
The last he opposed because the proper remedy lay in resolutions and orders of the House.
The fifteen were replaced by a new supreme magistracy of ten priors, chosen in the following proportions - four of the twelve, four of the nine, and two of the people proper, or people of the greater number, but to the exclusion of all who had shared in the government or sat in council under the riformatori.
The city proper occupies two indented tongues of land, having a water frontage on Port Jackson, and extending from Rushcutter's Bay on the east to Blackwattle Bay on the west, a distance of 8 m., nearly two miles of which is occupied by the Domain and the botanical gardens.
Natal proper has a seaboard of 166 m.
The native inhabitants of Natal proper were almost exterminated by the Zulus in the early years of the 19th century.
Before that period the natives of what is now Natal proper were estimated to number about 10o,000.
A railway to the Zululand coalfields was completed in 1903, and in the same year a line The attitude of the natives both in Natal proper and in Zululand caused much disquiet.
The most interesting part of the work is the distinction which Gilbert draws between the manner of existence of genera and species and of substances proper.
Scholasticism, therefore, which was in its essence ecclesiastical, had no longer a proper field for its activity.
Chiefly owing to the dryness of climate, its physical characteristics are similar to those of Mongolia proper, except that the altitude of the plains is much lower.
The Mongols proper, with the exception of those who inhabit north-west Mongolia, may be divided into northern and southern (more properly north-western and southeastern) Mongols.
Inner Mongolia, lying between the desert of Gobi, China proper and Manchuria, is divided into 24 aimaks.
The kingdom of Hungary in its widest extent, or the " Realm of the Crown of St Stephen," comprises Hungary proper (Magyarorszdg), with which is included the former grand principality of Transylvania, and the province of Croatia-Slavonia.
The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights.
Of the total area of the kingdom Hungary proper has 108,982 sq.
In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.
The greatest elevations are in the Tatra mountains of the north of Hungary proper, in the east and south of Transylvania (the Transylvanian Alps) and in the eastern portion of the Banat.
In Hungary proper and in Croatia and Slavonia there are many species of indigenous plants, which are unrepresented in Transylvania.
The exploitation of this great source of wealth is still hindered by want of proper means of communication, but in many parts of Transylvania it is now carried on successfully.
Among the principal in Hungary proper except Transylvania are those of Budapest, Mehadia, Eger, Sztubnya (Turocz county), Szliacs (Zolyom county), Harkany (Baranya county), Pistyan (Nyitra county) and Trencsen-Teplitz, where there are hot springs.
In 1868 Transylvania was definitely reunited to Hungary proper, and the town and district of Fiume declared autonomous.
In 1873 part of the " Military Frontier " was united with Hungary proper and part with CroatiaSlavonia.
According to this division Hungary proper is divided into seven circles, of which Transylvania forms one.
A Hungarian court chancery was now established at Vienna, while the government of Hungary proper was committed to a royal stadholdership at Pressburg.
Badakshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahommedan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shiite creed and speaking distinct dialects in different districts.
The deepest line of cleavage is naturally between the view that episcopacy is a divinely ordained institution essential to the effective existence of a church as a channel of grace, and the view that it is merely a convenient form of church order, evolved as the result of a variety of historical causes, and not necessary to the proper constitution of a church.
Although the matter can be fully treated only upon the basis of a dynamical theory, it is proper to point out at once that there is an element of assumption in the application of Huygens's principle to the calculation of the effects produced by opaque screens of limited extent.
The aberration is here unsymmetrical, the wave being in advance of its proper place in one half of the aperture, but behind in the other half.
The jurisdiction of the Free Port was on the 1st of January 1882 restricted to the city and port by the extension of the Zollverein to the lower Elbe, and in 1888 the whole of the state of Hamburg, with the exception of the so-called "Free Harbour" (which comprises the port proper and some large warehouses, set apart for goods in bond), was taken into the Zollverein.
The Cimmerians who preceded the Scythians used Iranian proper names, and probably represented this Iranian element in greater purity.
It is traditionally regarded as the boundary between Hindustan proper and the Deccan.
The war that followed prevented the proper working of the mines.
It may be convenient to use the terms "vitality" and "vital force" to denote the causes of certain great groups of natural operations, as we employ the names of "electricity" and "electrical force" to denote others; but it ceases to be proper to do so, if such a name implies the absurd assumption that "electricity" and "vitality" are entities playing the part of efficient causes of electrical or vital phenomena.
This Thai family includes the Shans proper, and the Siamese.
Assur is there called A-usar(ki),2 in which combination the ending -ki ("land territory") proves that even at that early period there was a province of Assur more extensive than the city proper.
The veinstuff is broken small either by hand or in rock-breakers, and stamped to fine powder in stamp mills, which are practically large mechanically-worked pestles and mortars, the stamp proper weighing from 500 to moo lb.
Stannic sulphide, SnS 2, is obtained by heating a mixture of tin (or, better, tin amalgam), sulphur and sal-ammoniac in proper proportions in the beautiful form of aurum musivum (mosaic gold) - a solid consisting of golden yellow, metallic lustrous scales, and used chiefly as a yellow "bronze" for plaster-of-Paris statuettes, &c. The yellow precipitate of stannic sulphide obtained by adding sulphuretted hydrogen to a stannic solution readily dissolves in solutions of the alkaline sulphides to form thiostannates of the formula M 2 SnS 31 the free acid, H2SnS3, may be obtained as an almost black powder by drying the yellow precipitate formed when hydrochloric acid is added to a solution of a thiostannate.
Already on Stephen's death in 1459 this family had been divided into two branches, those of Simmern and of Zweibriicken, and in 1514 the latter branch had been divided into the lines of Zweibriicken proper and of Veldentz.
The junior of these, that of Veldentz, became extinct in 1694, but the senior, that of Zweibriicken proper, was still very flourishing.
The people of Keft (Aegeans) wore a similar arrangement which is a step in the direction of the proper drawers.
That it was proper to wear special garments (or at least to rearrange one's weekday clothes) on the Jewish sabbath was recognized in the Talmud, and Mahommedans, after discussing at length the most suitable raiment for prayer, favoured the use of a single simple garment (Bukhari, viii.).
Many admirals declined to serve under Lord Sandwich, and Rodney, who then commanded in the West Indies, had complained of want of proper support from his subordinates, whom he accused of disaffection.
The Austrians then slipped away, and the whole of the next day was spent in getting the divisions back to their proper lines of advance.
It is when studied on these lines that pathology finds its proper place as a department of biology.
This collateral supply not being sufficient to keep up the proper flow of blood through the part the veins tend to become thrombosed, thus increasing the engorgement.
Then we have Beard's " germ-cell " hypothesis, in which he holds that many of the germ-cells in the growing embryo fail to reach their proper position - the generative areas - and settle down and become quiescent in some somatic tissue of the embryo.
The fact that it is possible to propagate these cells of one animal for years in other animals of the same species, without any loss of their vegetative vitality, suggests that this continued growth is kept up by a growth-stimulating substance present in the proper species of animal; this substance, however, has not the power of transforming the normal tissue into a cancerous one.
In front of the castle proper are three ditches, the innermost of which can be reached from the interior of the castle by a complicated system of underground passages.
The most fundamental division is into internal and external medicine, or into medicine proper and surgery.
His well-known work, De medicina, was one of a series of treatises intended to embrace all knowledge proper for a man of the world.
The normal condition or temperament of the body depended upon a proper mixture or proportion of the four elements - hot, cold, wet and dry.
Health depends on the maintenance of a proper" tone "in the body - some diseases being produced by excess of tone, or" spasm "; others by" atony,"or want of tone.
It is proper to point out here how intimately a pathology thus regenerated modified current conceptions of disease, in the linking of disease to oscillations of health, and the regarding many diseases as modifications of the normal set up by the impingement of external causes; not a few of which indeed may be generated within the body itself - "autogenetic poisoning."
Thus the digestive function, in its largest sense, is now seen to consist, not only in preparation and supply, but in no small measure also of protective and antidotal conversions of the matters submitted to it; coincidently with agents of digestion proper are found in the circuit of normal digestion "anti-substances" which neutralize or convert peptones in their poisonous phases; an autochthonous ferment, such as rennet for instance, calling forth an anti-rennet, and so on.
The origins, kinds and processes of meningitis are more clearly distinguished, and referred each to its proper cause - for the most part bacterial.
Probably this section may be looked upon as the oldest portion of the river course proper, connecting the upper Rhenish lake with the primeval ocean at Bonn.
But the result of these conditions and of his own inadequate conception of the proper limits of his art is that his best poetry is clogged with a great mass of alien matter, which no treatment in the world could have made poetically endurable.
Of metaphysics proper Voltaire neither then nor at any other time understood anything, and the subject, like every other, merely served him as a pretext for laughing at religion with the usual reservation of a tolerably affirmative deism.
He had been, in the first blush of his Frankfort disaster, refused, or at least not granted, permission even to enter France proper.
As regards his poems proper, of which there are two long ones, the Henriade and the Pucelle, besides smaller pieces, of which a bare catalogue fills fourteen royal octavo columns, their value is very unequal.
In politics proper he seems indeed to have had few or no constructive ideas, and to have been entirely ignorant or quite reckless of the fact that his attacks were destroying a state of things for which as a whole he neither had nor apparently wished to have any substitute.
From the western boundary of the City proper, an area covering the greater part of the city of Westminster, and extending into Chelsea, Kensington, Paddington and Marylebone, is exclusively associated with the higher-class life of London.
At the same period a great work was undertaken to meet the want of a proper central communication between north and south, namely, the construction of a broad thoroughfare, called Kingsway in honour of King Edward VII., from High Holborn opposite Southampton Row southward to the Strand, connexion with which is established at two points through a crescent named Aldwych.
The Council controls the provision of fire escapes in factories employing over 40 persons, under an act of 1901; it also compels the mainten ance of proper precautions against fire in theatres and places of entertainments.
At first there was a panic among the citizens, but subsequently the city was placed in a proper state of defence, and the king himself encamped in St George's Fields.
Their selection and election were governed by the same laws as in Natal proper, and on the establishment of the Union the franchise qualifications - which practically exclude natives - remained unaltered.
Mosilikatze was not of the Zulu tribe proper, and he and his followers styled themselves Abaka-Zulu.
Coming over the Drakensberg in considerable numbers during 1837, the Boers found the land stretching south from the mountains almost deserted, and Retief went to Arrival Dingaan to obtain a formal cession of the country of the west of the Tugela, which river the Zulu recognized as the boundary of Zululand proper.
To prevent excessive bending stresses the diameter of drum and sheave must bear a proper ratio to that of the rope.
Moreover, the limit of vertical depth at which rope of even the best quality will support its own weight only, with a proper margin of safety, is, say, io,000 to 12,000 ft.; and with the load the safe working limit of depth would be reached at 7000 to 8000 ft.
At the end of the stroke, when his platform comes opposite to a corresponding platform on the other rod, he steps over on to the latter during the instant of rest prior to the reversal of the stroke, descends with the second rod on this down stroke, steps again at the proper time to a platform of the first rod and so on to the bottom.
Cornish pumps are economical in running expenses, provided the driving engine is of proper design and the disadvantages incurred in conveying steam underground are avoided.
In cold climates men coming from the warm atmosphere of a mine, often in wet clothing, are liable to suffer in health unless proper provision is made for the necessary change of clothing.
The men should be instructed in the laws of sanitation, and in the proper care of injured men.
As a result of disease, and of casualties in action and from bombardment, the British divisions recruited in the United Kingdom were constantly far short of establishment, no proper provision having been made for keeping them up to strength.
Burma proper is encircled on three sides by a wall of mountain ranges.
Even in Burma proper, however, there was an increase during the decade of 1,530,822, or 19.8%.
This process is repeated, with slight modifications, until the gathering is of the proper size and weight to yield the sheet which is to be blown.
A few strokes of such a rubber are sufficient to produce a decidedly " polished " appearance, but prolonged rubbing under considerable pressure and the use of a polishing paste of a proper consistency are required in order to remove the last trace of pitting from the surface.
What is known as cast iron is essentially an alloy of iron proper with 2 to 6% of carbon and more or less of silicon.
Chlorine.-All metals, when treated with chlorine gas at the proper temperatures, pass into chlorides.
It must be remembered that the reading of most of the early Sumerian proper names is merely provisional, as we do not know how the ideographs of which they are composed were pronounced in either Sumerian or Assyrian.
Some time must elapse before absolute uniformity in the transliteration of these proper names is to be expected; and since different scholars still adopt varying spellings of Babylonian and Assyrian proper names, it has been considered undesirable in this work to ignore the fact in individual articles contributed by them.
The main difficulty in the reading of Babylonian and Assyrian proper names arises from the preference given to the " ideographic " method of writing them.
Besides the conventional use of certain signs as the indications of names of gods, countries, cities, vessels, birds, trees, &c., which, known as " determinants," are the Sumerian signs of the terms in question and were added as a guide for the reader, proper names more particularly continued to be written to a large extent in purely " ideographic " fashion.
Thus the name of the deity, which enters as an element in a large proportion of the proper names,' was almost invariably written with the sign or signs representing this deity, and it is only exceptionally that the name is spelled phonetically.
Besides the divine element, proper names as a rule in the Babylonian-Assyrian periods had a verbal form attached and a third element representing an object.
Fortunately, in the case of a large number of names occurring on business documents as the interested parties or as scribes or as witnesses - and it is through these documents that we obtain the majority of the Babylonian-Assyrian proper names - we have variant readings, the same name being written phonetically in whole or part in one instance and ideographically in another.
Certain classes of names being explained in this way, legitimate and fairly reliable conclusions can be drawn for many others belonging to the same class or group. The proper names of the numerous business documents of the Khammurabi period, when phonetic writing was the fashion, have been of special value in resolving doubts as to the correct reading of names written ideographically.
It is not the purpose of this note to set forth the principles underlying the formation of proper names among the Babylonians and Assyrians, but it may not be out of place to indicate that by the side of such full names, containing three elements (or even more), we have already at an early period the reduction of these elements to two through the combination of the name of a deity with a verbal form merely, or through the omission of the name of the deity.
For further details regarding the formation of Sumerian and Babylonian-Assyrian proper names, as well as for an indication of the problems involved and the difficulties still existing, especially in the case of Sumerian names,' see the three excellent works now at our disposal for the Sumerian, the old Babylonian, and the neoBabylonian period respectively, by Huber, Die Personennamen den Keilschrifturkunden aus der Zeit der Konige von Ur and Nisin (Leipzig, 1907); Ranke, Early Babylonian Proper Names (Philadelphia, 1905); and Tallqvist, Neu-Babylonisches Namenbuch (Helsingfors, 1905).
The majority of scholars has always regarded the Hittites proper as, at any rate, non-Semitic, and some leading authorities have called them proto-Armenian, and believed that they have modern descendants in the Caucasus.
In the meantime we have proper names to argue from; and these give us at least the significant indication that the Hittite nominative ended in s and the accusative in m.
It may have been written as an appendix to 4 Ezra, as it has no proper introduction.
In this it is called camisia, a name which it retained at Rome until the 14th century, and it seems to have been already at that time proper to particular members of the clergy.
Such remains as there are of their language, a few expressions and the proper names of ancient chieftains still borne by certain families, connect it with the Berber dialects.
The pass proper starts from Brieg (Swiss canton of the Valais), which is in the upper Rhone valley and 902 m.
As the proper form of address "my lord" is used not only to those members of the nobility to whom the title "Lord" is applicable, and to bishops, but also to all judges of the High Court in England, and of the Scottish and Irish Superior Courts, and to lord mayors and lord provosts.
To make this apparatus more perfectly automatic, an arrangement for continually adding to and mixing with the juice the proper proportion of milk of lime has been adapted to it; and although it may be objected that once the proportion has been determined no allowance is made for the variation in the quality of the juice coming from the mill owing to the variations that may occur in the canes fed into the mills, it is obviously as easy to vary the proportion with the automatic arrangement from time to time as it is to vary in each separate direction, if the man in charge will take the trouble to do so, which he very seldom does with the ordinary defecators, satisfying himself with testing the juice once or twice in a watch.
In diffusion plants the milk of lime is added, in proper proportion, in the cells of the diffusion battery, and the chips or slices themselves act as a mechanical filter for the juice; while in the Sandwich Islands coral-sand filters have been employed for some years, in addition to the chips, to free the juice from impurities held in mechanical suspension.
Each pipe is fitted with a cock and swivel, in such a manner that the liquor from the cistern can be turned into the proper division according to its quality.
The numerous enactments of councils to ensure the proper care of church property, prohibiting the use of churches for secular purposes, for the storing of grain or valuables, for dances and merry-making, do not technically come under the head of legislation against sacrilege.
His proper name, which indicates his Armenian origin, was Bardanes.
The chronology of this expansion is entirely unknown, nor can we recover with certainty the names of the cities which constituted the two leagues of twelve founded in the conquered districts on the analogy of the original league in Etruria proper (below).
Good crops, however, can often be grown in such areas without irrigation if attention is paid to the proper circulation of water in the soil and means for retaining it or preventing excessive loss by evaporation.
When the crop is luxuriant it is necessary to put a roller over it first, to facilitate proper burial by the plough.
By a proper mixing and blending the manufacturer is enabled to prepare the smoking mixture which is desirable for his purpose; but certain of the rough, bitter qualities cannot be manufactured without a preliminary treatment by which their intense disagreeable taste is modified.
The covers are carefully cut to the proper size and shape with a sharp knife, and, after being damped and smoothed out are placed together in a pile.
The cigar is then rolled in the hand to consolidate the tobacco and bring it into proper shape, after which it is wrapped in the outer cover, a shaped piece made to enclose the whole in a spiral manner, beginning at the thick end of the cigar and working down to the pointed end, where it is dexterously finished by twisting to a fine point between the fingers.
In other machines a roll of narrow paper, in width equal to the circumference of the cigarette, is converted into a long tube, filled with tobacco, and automatically cut off into proper lengths.
The form of a furrow is regulated by the shape and width of the share, working in combination with a proper shaped breast.
In its new use, alike in the later Roman and the early German state, the landless freeman who could not support himself went to some powerful man, stated his need, and offered his services, those proper to a freeman, in return for shelter and support.
When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.
Great diversity prevailed everywhere, and we should not be surprised to find some different fact or custom in every lordship. Anglo-Norman feudalism attained a logical completeness and a uniformity of practice which, in the feudal age proper, can hardly be found elsewhere through so large a territory; but in Anglo-Norman feudalism the exception holds perhaps as large a place as the regular, and the uniformity itself was due to the most serious of exceptions from the feudal point of view - centralization under a powerful monarchy.
The foundation of the feudal relationship proper was the fief, which was usually land, but might be any desirable thing, as an office, a revenue in money or kind, the right to collect a toll, or operate a mill.
The codes in their turn tended still further to harden these usages into fixed forms, and we may date from the end of the 13th century an age of feudal law regulating especially the holding and transfer of land, and much more uniform in character than the law of the feudal age proper.
They drew from it their titles and ranks and many of their regulative ideas, though these were formed into more definite and regular systems than ever existed in feudalism proper.
It was often the policy of kings to increase the social privileges and legal exemptions of the nobility while taking away all political power, so that it is necessary in the history of institutions to distinguish sharply between these nobilities and the feudal baronage proper.
It would seem, however, that Eutyches differed from the Alexandrine school chiefly from inability to express his meaning with proper safeguards, for equally with them he denied that Christ's human nature was either transmuted or absorbed into his divine nature.
If the political results of the mission were nil, the value to geographical science was immense; for though no geographer himself, Sadlier's route across Arabia made it possible for the first time to locate the principal places in something like their proper relative positions; incidentally, too, it showed the practicability of a considerable body of regular troops crossing the deserts of Nejd even in the months of July and August.
Chemistry proper was not understood, but Arabian writings on alchemy led Europe to it later.
In the 10th century the Nestorians introduced Christianity into Tartary proper; in 1274 Marco Polo saw two of their churches.
As in Bantu, the verb presents a multiplicity of forms, including one present, three past and future tenses, with personal endings complete, passive, interrogative, conditional, elective, negative and other forms, each with its proper participial inflexions.
Passau consists of the town proper, lying on the rocky tongue of land between the Danube and the Inn, and of four suburbs, Innstadt on the right bank of the Inn, Iizstadt on the left bank of the Ilz, Anger in the angle between Ilz and the Danube, and St Nikola.
Allied species inhabit most parts of the world, excepting Africa south of the Sahara, New Zealand and Australia proper, and North America.
The inner city, or Vienna proper, was formerly separated from the other districts by a circle of fortifications, consisting of a rampart, fosse and glacis.
For a long time the Austrian government, by failing to keep the Danube in a proper state for navigation, let slip the opportunity of making the city the great Danubian metropolis which its geographical position entitles it to be.