Trains coming in contact with projections from other trains or vehicles on parallel lines 7.
He was he deals with the principles of mathematical geography, map projections, and sources of information with special reference FIG.
The cylindrical and modified conical projections of Marinus and Ptolemy were still widely used, the stereographical projection of Hipparchus, was for the first time employed for terrestrial maps in the 16th century, but new projections were introduced in addition to these.
Werner (1514) devised three heart-shaped projections, one of which was equivalent.
In the marine Streptoneura they are ectodermic projections which ultimately fall off; in the Opisthobranchs they are closed pouches; in Paludina and Bithynia they are canals as in Pulmonata.
The appendages of the two maxillary segments arise as treble instead of single projections, thus differing from other appendages.
The gonapophyses are the projections near the extremity of the body that surround the sexual orifices, and vary extremely according to the kind of insect.
In the embryos of many insects there are projections from the segments of the abdomen similar, to a considerable extent, to the rudimentary thoracic legs.
The question whether these projections can be considered an indication of former polypody in insects has been raised.
It will suffice therefore to point out that the ordinary needs of the cartographer can be met by conical projections, and, in the case of maps covering a wide area, by Lambert's equal area projection.
Map projections were dealt with by two eminent mathematicians, J.
These vascular buds grow out in various directions as little solid projections of cells; they then become channelled and form the new but temporary meshwork.
The first step in this process is that of grinding the surface down until all projections are removed and a close approximation to a perfect plane is obtained.
Projections of AB, AC on All is equal to the projection of AD.
The word is also sometimes applied to a heavy timber fitted with iron spikes or projections to be thrown down upon besiegers, and to the large work known as a "cavalier."
Such a plasmodium bears, on its periphery, groups of rounded projections of protoplasm termed end-organs.
A typical graptolite consists of an axis bearing a series of tooth-like projections, like a saw.
The cells not only fuse together in longitudinal and transverse rows, but put out transverse projections, which fuse with others of a similar nature, and thus form an anastomosing network of tubes which extends to all parts of the plant.
It is rich, ornate, yet hardly florid, distinguished by splendid effects of light and shade, obtained by a far bolder use of projections than had hitherto been found in the somewhat fiat design of Venetian façades.
The oldest stage-building was erected in the time of Lycurgus; it consisted of a rectangular hall with square projections (1rapauKs vca) on either side; in As= front of this was built in late Greek or early Roman times a stage with a row of columns which intruded upon the orchestra space; a later and larger stage, dating from the time of Nero, advanced still farther into the orchestra, and this was finally faced (probably in the 3rd century A.D.) by the " bema " of Phaedrus, a platform-wall decorated with earlier reliefs, the slabs of which were cut down to suit their new position.
Ladenburg (Ber., 2, p. 140) devised his prism formula (IV), the six carbon atoms being placed at the six corners of a right equilateral triangular prism, with its plane projections (V, VI).
The linear scale of maps can obviously be used only in the case of maps covering a small area, for in the case of maps of greater extension measurements would be vitiated owing to the distortion or exaggeration inherent in all projections, not to mention the expansion or shrinking of the paper in the process of printing.
- Diagrammatic projections to exhibit the relations of the female genital ducts in Trematodes with those in Cestodes.
BOVIDAE, the name of the family of hollow-horned ruminant mammals typified by the common ox (Bos taurus), and specially characterized by the presence on the skulls of the males or of both sexes of a pair of bony projections, or cores, covered in life with hollow sheaths of horn, which are never branched, and at all events after a very early stage of existence are permanently retained.
- Diagrammatic projections to show the relations of the female reproductive ducts; A, in the Malacocotylea; B, in the Heterocotylea.
The granite forms the prevailing rock in valleys of erosion.
In the hill country on the borders of Ise, Owari, Mikawa and TOtmi, on the one side, and Omi, Mino and Shinano, on the other, granite frequently forms dark grey and much disintegrated rock-projections above schist and diluvial quartz pebbles.
It would seem that only the immense weight of the roofs and their heavy projections prevent a collapse of some of these structures in high winds.
During this peculiar locomotion the numerous broad shields of the belly are of great advantage, as by means of their free edges the snake is enabled to catch and use as points of support the slightest projections of the ground.
Of the base are the projections of the sides AB, BC, CD,.
It is indeed an image and reflection of the first Being; but the further the line of successive projections is prolonged the smaller is its share in the true existence.
The testes in the pairing-season form projections in the groins, but (except in the Duplicidentata) do not completely leave the cavity of the abdomen.
For the quantitative study of such systems in detail it is convenient to draw plane diagrams which are theoretically projections of the curves of the solid phase rule diagram on one or other of these planes.
(4) In the Thacher system a flat bar with projections like rivet heads is specially rolled for this purpose.
Might be reduced according to the size secure the interior against frost, flow and return hot-water pipe e should pass along beneath the staging, which should be a strong wooden trellis supported by projections in the brickwork.
These projections are termed insertion plates; they are usually slit or notched to form teeth, the edges of which may be smooth and sharp, or may be crenulated.
The anterior margin of each valve except the first is provided with two projections called sutural laminae which underlie the posterior margin of the preceding valve.
Externally, the body of a Sipunculoid presents no projections: its surface is as a rule even, and often glistening, and the colour varies from whitish through yellow to dark brown.
The Delta coast-line, composed of sandhills and, occasionally, limestone rocks, is low, with cape-like projections at the Nile mouths formed by the river silt.
When placed on the stigma, under favourable circumstances, the pollen-grain puts forth a pollen-tube which grows down the tissue of the style to the ovary, and makes its way along the placenta, guided by projections or hairs, to the mouth of an ovule.
Hamilton, still keeping prominently before him as his great object the invention of a method applicable to space of three dimensions, proceeded to study the properties of triplets of the form x+iy+jz, by which he proposed to represent the directed line in space whose projections on the co-ordinate axes are x, y, z.
Addition of their several projections agreed with the assumption of Buee and Argand for the case of coplanar lines.
Beneath the Rete, in a hollow, are four thin brass discs, called Tables or Climates, engraved with projections of the sphere for different latitudes.
If the origin of rectangular axes fixed in the lamina be shifted through a space whose projections on the original directions of the axes are X, u, and if the axes are simultaneously turned through an angle e, the coordinates of a point of the lamina, relative to the original axes, are changed from x, y to X+x cos ey sin e, u+x sin e+y cos e, or X + x ye, u + Xe + y, ultimately.
Regarded as a statement concerning the orthogonal projections -~ ~ -~ -~
It is now evident that in the process of reduction of a coplanar system no change is made at any stage either in the sum of the projections of the forces on any line or in the sum of their moments about any point.
Again it is necessary and sufficient for equilibrium that the sum of the projections of the forces on each of two perpendicular directions should vanish, and (moreover) that the sum of the moments about some one point should be zero.
In words: the sum of the projections of the forces on each of the co-ordinate axes must vanish; and, the sum of the moments of the forces about each of these axes must vanish.
A, /3 be the orthogonal projections of A, B on AB, we have AaB~=ABaf3=AB(I cos~,) =4AB.~2,
The five fixed webs are attached to the table which is secured to the bottom of the box by the screws p. The three movable webs are attached to the projections XX on the frame aa.
Vast vertical walls of rock shoot up to a height of 600 ft., cut by their perpendicular joints into quadrangular piers and projections, some of which stand out alone as cathedral-like islets in front of the main cliff.
These segments are abundantly supplied with elongate tooth-like projections connected with nerve-endings probably olfactory in function.
Owing to the great extent of Asia, it is not easy to obtain a correct conception of the actual form of its outline from ordinary maps, the distortions which accompany projections of great and misleading.
Map Projections are dealt with separately below.