How to use Professorship in a sentence
His eldest son, Eilhard Ernst Gustav, born at Berlin on the 1st of August 1852, became professor of physics at Erlangen in 1886, and his younger son, Alfred, born at Berlin on the 18th of July 1856, was appointed to the extraordinary professorship of Egyptology at Bonn in 1892.
In 1694 he was elected a master in the university of Glasgow - an office that was converted into the professorship of moral philosophy in 1727, when the system of masters was abolished at Glasgow.
In 1817 he became lecturer in chemistry at Glasgow University, and in the following year was appointed to the regius professorship. This chair he retained until his death, which happened on the 2nd of July 1852 at Kilmun, Argyleshire; but from 1841 he was assisted by his nephew and son-in-law ROBERT DINDAS
In 1795 he received the aid of a coadjutor in his professorship, and two years later he lectured for the last time.
In December 1691 he was appointed receiver of the tithes which were originally paid to the bishop of Utrecht, and five years later was nominated to the professorship of eloquence and history.Advertisement
After a few years the father quarrelled with the Russian government, and went to England, where he obtained a professorship of natural history and the modern languages at the famous nonconformist academy at Warrington.
In 1860 he was appointed to the professorship of higher geometry at the university of Bologna, and in 1866 to that of higher geometry and graphical statics at the higher technical college of Milan.
He retired from his professorship in 1876, and died at Konigsberg on the 23rd of May 1895.
In 1868 he obtained the same professorship at Edinburgh University, and in 1873 he published a textbook of Magnetism and Electricity, full of original work.
He was appointed to the Greek professorship in the autumn of that year.Advertisement
Freeman and Charles Elton discovered by historical research that a breach of the conditions of the professorship had occurred, and Christ Church raised the endowment from Loo a year to £50o.
In connexion with the Greek professorship Jowett had undertaken a work on Plato which grew into a complete translation of the Dialogues, with introductory essays.
The attention he had paid to chemistry in the earlier part of his career enabled him to hold his own in this position, but he found his work more congenial when in 1887 he was transferred to the professorship of physics.
The greater part of his life was spent at Venice and Milan, where he held a professorship and continued to teach until his death.
The strain of the next three years' continuous work undermined his health and his eyesight, and he was compelled to retire from his professorship. During these years he had published works on Plato and Socrates and a history of philosophy (1875); but after his retirement he further developed his philosophical position, a speculative eclecticism through which he endeavoured to reconcile metaphysical idealism with the naturalistic and mechanical standpoint of science.Advertisement
In 1650 he resumed his professorship at Upsala, but early in the following year he was obliged to resign on account of ill-health.
When, therefore, in 1850, Mr Stowe was elected to a professorship in Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, and removed his family thither, Mrs Stowe was prepared for the great work which came to her, bit by bit, as a religious message which she must deliver.
In 1852 Professor Stowe accepted a professorship in the Theological Seminary at Andover, Massachusetts, and the family made its home there till 1863, when he retired wholly from professional life and removed to Hartford.
In 1804 Vauquelin resigned his professorship at the College de France and successfully used his influence to obtain the appointment for Thenard, who six years later, after Fourcroy's death, was further elected to the chairs of chemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Faculte des Sciences.
But he felt that his real vocation was philosophy, and after holding for a short time an extraordinary professorship of theology, he became professor of philosophy in 1855.Advertisement
In 1834 he was called to a professorship at Halle, where he remained till his death, on the 11th of January 1884.
In 1849 he was appointed professor of practical chemistry at University College, London, and from 1855 until his retirement in 1887 he also held the professorship of chemistry.
Appointed to a lectureship at the Ecole Normale Superieure in February 1870, to a professorship at the Paris faculty of letters in 1875, and to the chair of medieval history created for him at the Sorbonne in 1878, he applied himself to the study of the political institutions of ancient France.
Having settled at Cambridge in 1796, Gregory first acted as sub-editor on the Cambridge Intelligencer, and then opened a bookseller's shop. In 1802 he obtained an appointment as mathematical master at Woolwich through the influence of Charles Hutton, to whose notice he had been brought by a manuscript on the "Use of the Sliding Rule"; and when Hutton resigned in 1807 Gregory succeeded him in the professorship. Failing health obliged him to retire in 1838, and he died at Woolwich on the 2nd of February 1841.
He was summoned from his seclusion in 1871 to become the first holder of the newly founded professorship of Experimental Physics in Cambridge; and it was under his direction that the plans of the Cavendish Laboratory were prepared.Advertisement
After a short period of study in Paris on the French Revolution, he spent some time working in the archives of Baden and Bavaria, and published in 1845 Die Geschichte der rheinischen Pfalz, which won for him a professorship extraordinarius at Heidelberg.
As a fellow and lecturer of his college he remained in Cambridge for two years longer, and then left to take up the professorship of mathematics at Queen's College, Belfast.
But the real founder of systematic instruction in our science was Justus von Liebig, who, having accepted the professorship at Giessen in 1824, made his chemical laboratory and course of instruction the model of all others.
In America public laboratory instruction was first instituted at Yale College during the professorship of Benjamin Silliman.
He was also the founder of the Rumford medal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and of the Rumford professorship in Harvard University.Advertisement
But his great strength lay in metaphysical analysis, as was shown in his answer to the objections raised against the appointment of Sir John Leslie to the mathematical professorship (1805).
After twice failing in the attempt to gain a professorship in the university, he was invited, during an illness of Dugald Stewart in the session of 1808-1809, to act as his substitute, and during the following session he undertook a great part of Stewart's work.
In 1857 he became docent in German law at Munich university, and in 1862 professor-extraordinary, but in 1863 was called to Wiirzburg to a full professorship. In 1872 he removed to the university of Konigsberg, and in 1888 settled at Breslau, becoming rector of the university in 1895.
He settled at GÃ¶ttingen, where in 1764 he had been made professor extraordinarius, and doctor honoris causa in 1766, and in 1769 he was promoted to an ordinary professorship. In 1804 he was ennobled by the emperor Alexander I.
When twenty-one years of age he composed a treatise on the figure of the earth, and the reputation which he soon acquired led to his appointment by the king of Sardinia to the professorship of philosophy in the college of Casale.Advertisement
In 1756 he was appointed by Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, to the professorship of mathematics in the university of Pisa, a post which he held for eight years.
Ritschl's recommendation, appointed to an extraordinary professorship of classical philology in the university of Basel, and rapidly promoted to an ordinary professorship. Here he almost immediately began a brilliant literary activity, which gradually assumed a more and more philosophical character.
He left for Rome, where, after a short imprisonment on suspicion of being a spy, he gained the favour of Pope Paul V., through whose influence with Cosimo II., grand duke of Tuscany, he was appointed to the professorship of the Pandects at Pisa.
He became famous as a teacher of Greek letters and the Platonic philosophy; in 1463 he was made professor at Padua, and in 1479 he was summoned by Lorenzo de' Medici to Florence to fill the professorship vacated by John Argyropoulos.
By a statute in 1860 the Hulsean professorship of divinity was substituted for the office of Christian advocate, and the lectureship was considerably modified.Advertisement
He at once became very popular with the students, but his political opinions made it impossible for the Saxon government to appoint him to a professorship. He was at that time a strong Liberal; he hoped to see Germany united into a single state with a parliamentary government, and that all the smaller states would be swept away.
In 1863 he obtained a professorship at the Milan Technical Institute; in 1867 he was appointed professor of constitutional law at Padua, whence he was transferred to the university of Rome.
Being greatly attracted by the new Copernican theory, he resigned the professorship in 1539, and went to Frauenberg to associate himself with Copernicus, and superintended the printing of the De Orbium Revolutione which he had persuaded Copernicus to complete.
At Turin he resumed his philosophic studies and his translation of Plato, but in 1858 refused a professorship of Greek at Pavia, under the Austrian government, only to accept it in 1859 from the Italian government after the liberation of Lombardy.
He was librarian at Lambeth, and in 1862 was an unsuccessful candidate for the Chichele professorship of modern history at Oxford.Advertisement
In 1544, in spite of some opposition, he founded a university at Konigsberg, where he appointed his friend Osiander to a professorship in 1549.
After holding a professorship at GÃ¶ttingen and undertaking a further journey to Greece in 1862, Curtius was appointed (in 1863) ordinary professor at Berlin.
Finding himself unequal to the labour of teaching, he resigned his professorship in 1785, and devoted himself to the revision of his lectures, which he published (1792) under the title of Principles of Moral and Political Science.
In 1603 he was called, in succession to Franz Junius, to a theological professorship at Leiden, which he held till his death on the 19th of October 1609.
The controversy was embittered and the differences sharpened by his appointment to the professorship at Leiden.Advertisement
De Wette was dismissed from his professorship in 1819, and Bleek, a favourite pupil, incurred the suspicion of the government as an extreme democrat.
He resigned his professorship in 1807, and died on the 27th of January 1823.
This charge he resigned to take the Bussey professorship of theology at Harvard University, and, in 1878, became dean of the faculty of theology.
In 1643 he was appointed to the Savilian professorship of astronomy at Oxford, but he was deprived of his Gresham professorship for having neglected its duties.
In 1684 he had been offered a professorship at Heidelberg; but his marriage with a lady of his native city led him to decline the invitation.
In 1842-1855 he was pastor of the South Congregational Church of Boston, and in 1855-1860 was preacher to the university and Plummer professor of Christian Morals at Harvard; he then left the Unitarian Church, with which his father had been connected as a clergyman at Hadley, resigned his professorship and became pastor of the newly established Emmanuel Church of Boston.
In 1882 he resigned his professorship and utilized his thus increased leisure by travelling in Palestine and Egypt, and showed his interest in the Old Catholic movement by visiting Dellinger at Munich.
After Richelieu's death he left Paris, joined the Reformed Church, and in 1651 obtained a professorship at the academy of Saumur, which he filled with great success for nearly twenty years.
He succeeded his master, Vauquelin, as professor of organic chemistry at the natural history museum in 1830, and thirty-three years later assumed its directorship also; this he relinquished in 1879, though he still retained his professorship. In 1886 the completion of his hundredth year was celebrated with public rejoicings; and after his death, which occurred in Paris on the 9th of April 1889, he was honoured with a public funeral.
Bain resigned his professorship in 1880 and was succeeded by William Minto, one of his most brilliant pupils.
He had already begun his labours as a historian, but after serving his sentence in 1837, found himself debarred till 1839 from completing his course at Halle, where in 1842 he obtained a professorship. Elected to the National Assembly at Frankfort in 1848, he joined the Right Centre party, and was chosen reporter of the projected constitution.
In the same year he had been an unsuccessful candidate for the professorship of the practice of physic, but subsequently an arrangement was made between him and John Gregory, who had gained the appointment, by which they agreed to deliver alternate courses on the theory and practice of physic. This arrangement proved eminently satisfactory, but it was brought to a close by the sudden death of Gregory in 1773.
In the political excitement which followed the war of 18J9 he found that he could not hope for the unreserved support of the king, and therefore in 1861 he accepted a professorship at Bonn, which he held till 1875.
In the following year he was called to the Freiburg chair of Oriental languages and Old Testament exegesis; to the duties of this post were added in 1793 those of the professorship of New Testament exegesis.
After 1851 it was impossible for him to remain at Kiel, and he was appointed to a professorship at Jena; in 1859 he was called to Berlin, where he remained till his death.
Young Dbllinger was first educated in the gymnasium at Wiirzburg, and then began to study natural philosophy at the university in that city, where his father now held a professorship. In 1817 he began the study of mental philosophy and philology, and in 1818 turned to the study of theology, which he believed to lie beneath every other science.
In 1847, in consequence of the fall from power of the Abel ministry in Bavaria, with which he had been in close relations, he was removed from his professorship at Munich, but in 1849 he was invited to occupy the chair of ecclesiastical history.
Thence, in 1711, he was called to the professorship of history and civil law at Lausanne, and finally settled as professor of public law at Groningen.
In 1851 he applied for and obtained a professorship at the Virginia military institute, Lexington; and here, except for a short visit to Europe, he remained for ten years, teaching natural science, the theory of gunnery and battalion drill.
In 1778 he accepted the professorship of philosophy at Halle.
Everett's tastes, however, were then, as always, those of a scholar; and in 1815, after a service of little more than a year in the pulpit, he resigned his charge to accept a professorship of Greek literature in Harvard College.
Five years later he became professor ordinarius of logic and metaphysics; in 1759 he exchanged this for a professorship of rhetoric and poetry.
Here in 1 754 he became professor extraordinarius of theology, and three years later received an ordinary professorship. He lectured on dogmatics, church history, ethics, polemics, natural theology, symbolics, the epistles of Paul, Christian antiquities, historical theological literature, ecclesiastical law and the fathers, and took an active interest in the work of the Gottinger Societdt In 1766 he was appointed professor primarius.
He accepted, and resigned his professorship. He went abroad with his pupil in February 1764; they remained only a few days at Paris and then settled at Toulouse, at that time the seat of a parlement, where they spent eighteen months in the best society of the place, afterwards making a tour in the south of France and passing two months at Geneva.
In 1805 he became a candidate for the vacant professorship of mathematics at Edinburgh, but was unsuccessful.
In 1796 he was made a member of the Institute, was appointed to a professorship of political economy, and founded tin Journal d'economie publique, de morale et de legislation.
He gave to the university of Cambridge in 1867 £Io,000 for the establishment of a professorship of Anglo-Saxon.
Lelewel was removed from his professorship in 1824, and returned to Warsaw, where he was elected a deputy to the diet in 1829.
Threatened with imprisonment in his turn, he fled to Piedmont, where he obtained a university professorship and became preceptor of the crown prince Humbert.
In lieu of the sums due, he offered him a professorship at Rostock, which Kepler declined.
He cannot take a degree in divinity at Oxford, Cambridge or Durham (Universities Tests Act 1871), and so is debarred from holding any professorship of divinity in those universities.
In 1890 he resigned the professorship, and in 1893 he was appointed director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures, a post which he occupied till his death.
Two years later he was chosen extraordinary professor of chemistry in the medical faculty, in 1853 he received the ordinary professorship, and in 1865 he became also professor of hygiene.
But the regius professorship of divinity at Cambridge fell vacant, and Lightfoot, who was then Hulsean professor, declining to become a candidate himself, insisted upon Westcott's standing for the post.
He held his canonry at Westminster in conjunction with the regius professorship. The strain of the joint work was very heavy, and the intensity of the interest and study which he brought to bear upon his share in the labours of the Ecclesiastical Courts Commission, of which he had been appointed a member, added to his burden.
The early years of his Oxford professorship were occupied by severe labour, sundry travels, attacks of illness and another cruel disappointment in love.
From the first his professorial lectures were conspicuous for the unconventional enthusiasm with which he endeavoured to revivify the study of the classics; and his growing reputation, added to the attention excited by a translation of Aeschylus which he published in 1850, led to his appointment in 1852 to the professorship of Greek at Edinburgh University, in succession to George Dunbar, a post which he continued to hold for thirty years.
Having, however, in consequence, lost his professorship at Jena, he gradually altered his views, until at length he decided that God is not mere moral order, but also reason and will, yet without consciousness and personality; that not mankind but God is the absolute; that we are only its direct manifestations, free but finite spirits destined by God to posit in ourselves Nature as the material of duty, but blessed when we relapse into the absolute; that Nature, therefore, is the direct manifestation of man, and only the indirect manifestation of God; and, finally, that being is the divine idea or life, which is the reality behind appearances.
He was offered, but declined, the professorship of mathematics and astronomy at Harvard.
In 1905 he held the professorship of physics in the Royal Institution, London, in addition to his Cambridge professorship. He was knighted in 1908 and awarded the O.M.
In 1918 he was appointed master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and in the following year was elected to a newly established professorship of physics in the Cavendish Laboratory, where he continued to prosecute his researches.
After two years he returned to Copenhagen, but his lectures excited so much disapproval that he took a professorship at Halle in 1804.
After a year in London he returned to Glasgow, and in 1711 was appointed by the university to the professorship of mathematics, an office which he retained until 1761.
Baius, however, was not disturbed in the tenure of his professorship, and even became chancellor of Louvain in 1575.
In 1843 he was appointed to a professorship in the Ecole Evangelique at Geneva, but the development of his opinions in favour of the Liberal movement in Protestant theology led to his resigning the post six years later.
In 1691 he was deprived of his professorship for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary.
Immediately on his reaching England he received ordination from Bishop Brownrig, and in 1660 he was appointed to the Greek professorship at Cambridge.
Upon quitting his professorship Barrow was only a fellow of Trinity College; but his uncle gave him a small sinecure in Wtles, and Dr Seth Ward, bishop of Salisbury, conferred upon him a prebend in that church.
This professorship he held until his death on the 23rd of September 1882.
In 1885 he was chosen to succeed Hans Hubner (1837-1884) in the professorship of chemistry at GÃ¶ttingen, where stereochemical questions especially engaged his attention; and in 1889, on the resignation of his old master, Bunsen, he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in Heidelberg.
Whitgift, with other heads of the university, deprived Cartwright in 1570 of his professorship, and in September 1571 exercised his prerogative as master of Trinity to deprive him of his fellowship. In June of the same year Whitgift was nominated dean of Lincoln.
In 1859 he became chaplain to Queen Victoria; in 1860 he was appointed to the professorship of modern history at Cambridge, which he resigned in 1869; and soon after he was appointed to a canonry at Chester.
A short memoir of him appeared in 1856 from the hand of William Selwyn, his successor in the divinity professorship.
After studying theology in Geneva, Leiden and France, he became pastor of the Italian congregation in Geneva in 1647; after a brief pastorate at Lyons he again returned to Geneva as professor of theology in 1653, having modestly declined a professorship of philosophy in 1650.
Here too he planned and wrote the first two volumes of his chief historical work, the History of the Papacy; and it was in part this which led to his being elected in 1884 to the newly-founded Dixie professorship of ecclesiastical history at Cambridge, where he went into residence early in 1885.
This post he exchanged in 1828 for a professorship in the Wittenberg theological seminary, of which in 1832 he became also second director and ephorus, and hence in 1837 he removed to Heidelberg as professor and director of a new clerical seminary; in 1849 he accepted an invitation to Bonn as professor and university preacher, but in 1854 he returned to Heidelberg as professor of theology, and afterwards became member of the 'Oberkirchenrath, a position he held until his death on the 10th of August 1867.
In spite of support from Jeffrey and other friends, Carlyle failed in a candidature for a professorship at St Andrews.
It obtained for him, on the recommendation of Goethe, a professorship in the university of Jena, and in November 1789 he delivered his inaugural lecture, Was heisst and zu welchem Ende studiert man Universalgeschichte?
He was educated at the Ecole Normale, and after having held the professorship of rhetoric at Moulins for a year, was sent to Athens in 1851 as one of the professors in the Ecole Frangaise there.
This splendid burst of poetic activity, however, had raised him to a place among the first poets of his time; and in 1877 an attempt was made to induce him to accept the professorship of poetry at Oxford.
The same conspicuous openness of mind appears in his judgment, delivered after he had held the regius professorship of Modern History at Oxford from 1858 to 1866, that "ancient history, besides the still unequalled excellence of the writers, is the best instrument for cultivating the historical sense."
In 1868 he threw up his career in England and settled in the United States, where he held the professorship of English and Constitutional History at Cornell University till 1$71.
Mainz Commission; the grand-duke of Weimar was compelled to deprive him of his professorship; and he was forbidden to lecture on philosophy.
In 1846 he married Elisabeth Klein, and his appointment to a professorship in Berlin University in the following August afforded him the leisure necessary for the completion of his work.
This first formal appearance as a critic and historian of literature at once gave him a new standing in the community, and was the occasion of his election to the Smith Professorship of Modern Languages in Harvard College, then vacant by the retirement of Longfellow.
A few years later he was appointed to a professorship of chemistry at Lyons.
Promoted to the professorship of humanity and rhetoric in the college of Turin, he published (1769-1772) his Delle revoluzioni d'Italia, the work on which his reputation is mainly founded.
On the death of Brown in 1820 Stewart retired altogether from the professorship, which was conferred upon John Wilson, better known as "Christopher North."
His heterodoxy soon became notorious, and in 1710 he was deprived of his professorship and expelled from the university.
Towards the close of 1831 Keble was elected to fill the chair of the poetry professorship in Oxford, as successor to his friend and admirer, Dean Milman.
The same year in which burst this ecclesiastical storm saw the close of Keble's tenure of the professorship of poetry, and thenceforward he was seen hut rarely in Oxford.
A volume of lectures given in America, The Sea in English Poetry, was published in 1913, and in 1914 he was elected to a professorship of modern English literature at Princeton University.
From 1865 to 1880 he held the Disney professorship of archaeology at Cambridge.
To this professorship was added in 1887 the post of director of the physico-technical institute at Charlottenburg, near Berlin, FIG.
In 1850 he received the professorship of chemistry at the new Institut Agronomique at Versailles, but the Institut was abolished in 1852.
He exchanged his "regency" or professorship in Glasgow University for one in that of St Andrews in 1523.
In 1876 he was glad to exchange the Owens professorship for the professorship of political economy in University College, London.
A year later he was appointed to a professorship of commercial law at Lyons, and in 1840 assistant professor of foreign literature at the Sorbonne.
At Fauriel's death in 1844 he succeeded to the full professorship of foreign literature.
He passed the university examination in 1821, and was shortly after appointed to a professorship of history in the College Rollin.
At the same time he resumed the professorship of history at the Madrid university.
His brother William, who by this time held the Camden professorship of ancient history, and enjoyed an extensive acquaintance with men of eminence in London, was in a position materially to advance his interests.
After the liberation of Venetia, the Italian government conferred upon him a professorship at Padua, and he achieved distinction as a poet on the publication of his first volume of poems in 1868.
In 1872 grief for the death of his mother occasioned a mental malady, which led to the resignation of his professorship. After his complete and permanent recovery he built himself a villa on the bank of his native river, the Astichello, and lived there in tranquillity until his death on the 17th of May 1888.
In 1833 Altenstein appointed Trendelenburg extraordinary professor in Berlin, and four years later he was advanced to an ordinary professorship. For nearly forty years he proved himself markedly successful as an academical teacher, during the greater part of which time he had to examine in philosophy and pedagogics all candidates for the scholastic profession in Prussia.
Educated at first in Tus, then in Jorjan, and again in Tit's, he went to college at Nishapur, where he studied under Juwaini (known as the Imam ul-Haramain) until 1085, when he visited the celebrated vizier Nizam ul-Mulk, who appointed him to a professorship in his college at Bagdad in 1091.
In 1835 he lost his professorship, but he regained it in 1840.
His enemies followed him when he returned to Bavaria, but in 1817 the Prussian government appointed him to a professorship at Dusseldorf, and in 1819 gave him the pastorate at Sayn near Neuwied.
He continued to reside in Cambridge and to hold the professorship till his death, which occurred on the 26th of January 1895.
The 24th of April 1872, the fiftieth anniversary of his election to his professorship, was observed in Princeton as his jubilee by between 400 and 500 representatives of his 2700 pupils, and $50,000 was raised for the endowment of his chair.
Quinet's Parisian professorship was more notorious than fortunate, owing, it must be said, to his own fault.
He was then restored to his professorship, and during the siege wrote vehemently against the Germans.
He became aspirant repetiteur at the lycee of Rheims in 1853, and after holding several intermediate positions was appointed in 1862 to the professorship of chemistry in Sens lycee, where he prepared the thesis on electromotive force which gained him his doctor's degree at Paris in the following year.
In 1645 he resigned his professorship, and died at Geneva on the 3rd of October 1649.
For this profession he was, both by capacity and tastes, utterly unfitted, and it was fortunate that, shortly after his graduation, he received an offer of a professorship of modern languages at Bowdoin College.
In 1854 hejresigned his professorship. In the following year he gave to the world the Indian Edda, The Song of Hiawatha, a conscious imitation, both in subject and metre, of the Finnish epic, the Kalevala, with which he had become acquainted during his second visit to Europe.
In 1872 he accepted a professorship at Marburg.
But it won for him the favour of Archbishop Karl Theodor Dalberg, and secured for him a professorship in the Frankfort Lyceum.
In 1836 he took a professorship in the theological college of Montauban, removing in 1847 to Paris as preacher at the Oratoire.
This was his appointment to the Andrews professorship of astronomy in the university of Dublin, vacated by Dr Brinkley in 1827.
Indeed there can be little doubt that Hamilton was intended by the university authorities who elected him to the professorship of astronomy to spend his time as he best could for the advancement of science, without being tied down to any particular branch.
He, however, resigned his ecclesiastical preferments in 1721, on his appointment to the Savilian professorship of astronomy at Oxford, while as reader on experimental philosophy (1729-1760) he delivered 79 courses of lectures in the Ashmolean museum.
He lost his professorship in 1867 with his civic rights, when he was condemned to fifteen months' imprisonment for his share in a secret society.
During his professorship he published the Institutes of Surgery, arranged in the order of the lectures delivered in the university of Edinburgh (1838); and in 1841 he wrote a volume of Practical Essays, two of which, "On Squinting," and "On the action of purgatives," are of great value.
In consequence he was summoned before a disciplinary court, and, together with Haupt and Jahn, dismissed from his professorship.
In 1854 the definite offer was made to him by the Academy that he should be chief editor of a Corpus inscriptionum, with full control, and in order that he might carry on the work he was appointed in 1858 to a professorship at Berlin.
He was one of a number of Newton's friends who began to be uneasy and dissatisfied at seeing the most eminent scientific man of his age left to depend upon the meagre emoluments of a college fellowship and a professorship.
On the 10th of December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship, thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity, which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate.
Upon his promotion to the doctorate he at once proceeded to Bologna, where he taught law for three years; after which he was advanced to a professorship at Perugia, where he remained for thirty-three years.
He soon after this obtained a government appointment in connexion with the newly-acquired Polish provinces, but in consequence of the battle of Jena (1806) he lost this office, and remained in very needy circumstances until 1809, when he was summoned to St Petersburg by Alexander I., to fill the post of court councillor, and the professorship of oriental languages and philosophy at the Alexander-Nevski Academy.
Finally, in 1895, on the death of Sir John Seeley, Lord Rosebery appointed him to the Regius Professorship of Modern History at Cambridge.
When, in 1836, his successor was accidentally drowned, De Morgan was requested to resume the professorship.
The refusal of the council to accept the recommendation of the senate, that they should appoint an eminent Unitarian minister to the professorship of logic and mental philosophy, revived all De Morgan's sensitiveness on the subject of sectarian freedom; and, though his feelings were doubtless excessive, there is no doubt that gloom was thrown over his life, intensified in 1867 by the loss of his son George Campbell De Morgan, a young man of the highest scientific promise, whose name, as De Morgan expressly wished, will long be connected with the London Mathematical Society, of which he was one of the founders.
In 1858 he became professor of mathematics at St Andrews, but lectured only for a session, when he vacated the chair for the Lowndean professorship of astronomy and geometry at Cambridge.
His constitutional weakness and bad eyesight forced him to abandon medicine, which he had adopted as a career, and in 1855 he returned to King's College as lecturer in English language and literature, a post which he almost immediately quitted for the professorship of modern history.
Notwithstanding the arduous duties of his professorship he found time for investigation in all the fields of physical science; and he published a very large number of dissertations, some of them of considerable length, on a wide variety of subjects.
Early in 1900 he was forced by ill-health to resign his professorship, and he died on the 28th of August of the same year.
Once in London he resigned his professorship (September 1674) at Glasgow; but, although James remained his friend, Charles struck him off the roll of court chaplains in 1674, and it was in opposition to court influence that he was made chaplain to the Rolls Chapel by the master, Sir Harbottle Grimston, and appointed lecturer at St Clement's.
This post he resigned in 1819 in order to take up the professorship of history,, but resumed it in 1825.
In 1901 he had resigned his professorship at Leiden University.
In 1867 he refused a professorship at Tubingen, and in 1872 another (that left vacant by Ranke) at Berlin, remaining faithful to Basel.
Failing to obtain a professorship, he entered the service of the state, and for many years acted as secretary to the state council of the United Provinces.
In 1748 he was given a professorship at GÃ¶ttingen, where he resided till his death in 1772.
He was publicly hissed at his lecture, and found it prudent to resign his professorship and withdraw to Florence in 1591.
We find Newton's theorem, that "action and reaction are equal and opposite," stated with approximate precision in his treatise Della scienza meccanica, which contains the substance of lectures delivered during his professorship at Padua; and the same principle is involved in the axiom enunciated in the third of his mechanical dialogues, that "the propensity of a body to fall is equal to the least resistance which suffices to support it."
In the same year (1828) the duke of Wellington appointed him to the regius professorship of Hebrew with the attached canonry of Christ Church.
With the rental of the manor of Bexley, William Camden, the antiquary, founded the ancient history professorship at Oxford.
In 1863 he was appointed chaplain to the Speaker of the House of Commons, declined the professorship of modern history at Cambridge in 1869, but in the same year accepted from Mr Gladstone the deanery of Ely, and until his death on the 27th of December 1893 devoted himself to the best interests of the cathedral.
The sympathies of Reuss were German rather than French, and after the annexation of Alsace to Germany he remained at Strassburg, and retained his professorship till, in 1888, he retired on a pension.
A list of the degrees and other honours which he received during the fifty-three years he held his Glasgow chair would occupy as much space as this article; but any biographical sketch would be conspicuously incomplete if it failed to notice the celebration in 1896 of the jubilee of his professorship. Never before had such a gathering of rank and science assembled as that which filled the halls in the university of Glasgow on the 15th, 16th and 17th of June in that year.
This chair he exchanged for that of mathematics and physics at Yale in 1825; in 1836, when this professorship was divided, he retained that of astronomy and natural philosophy.
In 1825 he was chosen Camden professor of ancient history; and during his five years' professorship he published an edition of the Ethics of Aristotle, and a course of his lectures on The Coinage of the Greeks and Romans.
Though twice he failed to obtain a professorship at Konigsberg, he steadily refused appointments elsewhere.
In the same year, a general amnesty admitting of his return to America, he accepted the professorship of meteorology in the Virginia Military Institute, and settled at Lexington, Virginia, where he died on the 1st of February 1873.
He held a guest professorship at the same university, where he taught introductory artificial intelligence and autonomous systems.
This Professorship was established in 1990, following a generous benefaction from Guinness plc.
A non-stipendiary fellowship at Balliol College is attached to the Professorship.
On his return to Naples he found himself out of touch with the prevailing Cartesianism, and lived quietly until in 1697 he gained the professorship of rhetoric at the university, with a scanty stipend of loo scudi.
He died on the 26th of November 1901, soon after his resignation from the Bussey professorship. He was a member of the American Bible Revision Committee and recording secretary of the New Testament company.
He settled at GÃƒ¶ttingen, where in 1764 he had been made professor extraordinarius, and doctor honoris causa in 1766, and in 1769 he was promoted to an ordinary professorship. In 1804 he was ennobled by the emperor Alexander I.
After holding a professorship at GÃƒ¶ttingen and undertaking a further journey to Greece in 1862, Curtius was appointed (in 1863) ordinary professor at Berlin.
He lived for a time in Berlin and became a privatdozent, but was unable to obtain a professorship. He therefore proceeded to Gottingen and afterwards to Munich, where he died of apoplexy at the very moment when the influence of Franz von Baader had at last obtained a position for him.
In 1885 he was chosen to succeed Hans Hubner (1837-1884) in the professorship of chemistry at GÃƒ¶ttingen, where stereochemical questions especially engaged his attention; and in 1889, on the resignation of his old master, Bunsen, he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in Heidelberg.
He was honoured by the university of Oxford with a doctor's degree, by the Royal Academy with a professorship, and by the king with an interview, in which his majesty most graciously expressed a hope that so excellent a writer would not cease to write.
The new republic was not altogether a restoration for Michelet, and his professorship at the College de France, of which he contended that he had never been properly deprived, was not given back to him.
The second son of Charles Darwin (see 7.840), he was second wrangler and Smith's prizeman at Cambridge, and was elected to the professorship of astronomy and experimental philosophy at his university in 1883.
But as the result of these labours he was threatened with total blindness; and, disappointed of receiving a professorship at Oxford, in 1871 he emigrated to Australia.
In 1748 he was given a professorship at GÃƒ¶ttingen, where he resided till his death in 1772.
On the outbreak of the Franco-German War he resigned his professorship and acted for a time as correspondent to The Times in Italy.