"What are your products?" enquired the Wizard.
He determined the percentages of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the sugar and in the products of fermentation, and concluded that sugar in fermenting breaks up into alcohol, carbonic acid and acetic acid.
Markets are established in the city where peasants can bring their surplus supplies and the products of the soil.
In the Black Sea they exploited the shores of Pontus and Scythia, whose products they exchanged for textiles spun from the wool of their own country.
The quick wrap is easier, he instructed, holding up each of the products as he spoke.
An exception worth noting is that the poor who get better products at cheaper prices will see their wealth rise accordingly.
The total value of the city's factory products in 1905 was $2,326,552.
The value of the city's factory products increased from $2,873,334 in 1900 to $4,356,615 in 1905 or 51.6%.
Agricultural products require perfecting and fitting for export.
The food is prepared with fresh produce from local farms, and the restaurant only uses regional products.
The chief agricultural products are timber, fruit, grain, hemp, flax and vegetables.
They show complementary products to the one you are considering.
The beet sugar, fruit and other agricultural products of the surrounding and tributary section were valued in 1906 at about $20,000,000.
How can he establish authenticity selling health products while he's smoking those things?
In 1905 the capital invested in manufacturing was $7,625,864, and the value of the products was $19,132,455.
Aisne imports coal, iron, cotton and other raw material and machinery; it exports cereals, live-stock and agricultural products generally, and manufactured goods.
Deposits of copper, tin, iron and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of other mineral products (graphite, mica, spodumene, coal, petroleum, &c.).
We will know it is coming when we see the prices of more products fall while their quality increases.
I only use unscented products.
The total value of all clay products in West Virginia was $3,261,736 in 1908.
The elevation of a large part of the department gives it a temperate climate and permits the cultivation of cereals and other products of the temperate zone.
Saccharomyces Marxianus will not hydrolyse maltose, but it does attack cane sugar and ferment the products of hydrolysis.
Technology is simply the combining of other economic products in new ways.
The forest products of the state include fine woods, rubber, ipecacuanha, sarsaparilla, jaborandi, vanilla and copaiba.
Thus man is said to be the highest product of nature, and as such to be dependent on all lower products.
The most important industry is the manufacture of cotton goods; there are also cotton compresses, iron works, flour and woollen mills, wood-working establishments, &c. The value of the city's factory products increased from $5,061,485 in 1900 to $7,079,702 in 1905, or 39.9%; of the total value in 1905, $ 2, 759, 0 8 1, or 39%, was the value of the cotton goods manufactured.
Excellent fruits are produced in its vicinity, and its exports include cacao, coffee, sugar, hides, tobacco and sundry products in small quantities.
The city has extensive manufactures of heavy machinery, electric supplies, brass and copper products and silk goods.
Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 there were many large manufactories, including the repair shops of the Southern railroad; iron and steel, car wheels and cotton-oil were among the products of the suburban factories.
With closed stoves much less heat is wasted, and consequ;ntly less fuel is burned, than with open grates, but they often cause an unpleasant sensation of dryness in the air, and the products of combustion also escape to some extent, rendering this method of heating not only unpleasant but sometimes even dangerous.
Other products are tobacco, olives, castor-oil, peanuts, canary-seed, barley, rye, fruit and vegetables.
The pastoral and agricultural industries have been hampered by fluctuations in the value of the currency, farm products being sold at a gold value for the equivalent in paper, while labourers are paid in currency.
The principal classes of products affected are foods, wearing apparel, building materials, furniture, &c., chemical products, printing and allied trades, and sundry others, such as cigars, matches, tanning, paints, &c. In some manufactures the raw material is imported partly manufactured, such as thread for weaving.
The lack of coal in Argentina greatly increases the difficulty and cost of maintaining these industries, and high prices of the products result.
The rapid development of the foreign trade of the republic since 1881 is due to settled internal conditions and to the prime necessity to the commercial world of many Argentine products, such as beef, mutton, hides, wool, wheat and Indian corn.
The exports, which are almost wholly of agricultural and pastoral products, increased from $103,219,000 in 1891 to $322,843,841 in 1905.
The total value of Winston's factory products increased from $4,887,649 in 1900 to $11,353,296 in 1905, or 132.3%.
Agriculture everywhere expanded, the mining industry revived, and, if it had not been for the low prices of staple products, the visible effects of the crisis would have passed away within a very few years.
Iron, coal and slate are the chief products, and copper and cobalt may be added.
The total value of the factory products in 1905 was $3,886,833.
They first brought the products and arts of the Orient into western Europe; and in the Netherlands, by the impulse that they gave to commerce, they were one of the primary causes of the rise of the chartered towns.
The principal jungle products are gutta and rubber of several varieties, and many kinds of rattan.
When you look at a product on one of its web pages, Amazon suggests other products you might like as well.
Housing is a huge industry that will reward innovative products.
Colorado-based Coors beer, cosponsor of the event, was also there with its products readily available, and Dean broke his training diet to share a few Silver Bullets with Fred.
Another fact of considerable technical importance is, that the various races of yeast show considerable differences in the amount and proportion of fermentation products other than ethyl alcohol and carbonic acid which they produce.
The city's principal manufactures are beet sugar, barrels and other cooperage products, wagons, carriages, sleighs and agricultural implements.
In 1905 the total value of the factory products was $9 02, 75 8, 6 9.4% more than in 1900.
Next Megan took her to what looked like a large drug store, where she plucked a few items from a shelf filled with top of the line skincare products.
There are few trees on the island, for most of the valuable indigenous trees have been practically exterminated, such as the sandalwood, which the earlier navigators found one of the most valuable products of the island.
On oxidation with potassium permanganate it is converted into acetyl urea, together with other products.
A salt basin underlies the city, and, next to the lumber industry, the salt industry was the first to be developed, but its importance has dwindled; the product value in 1905 being $20,098 out of $5,620,866 for all factory products.
Vessels of light draught easily ascend the Orinoco to this point, and a considerable trade is carried on, the exports being cocoa, sugar, cotton, hides, jerked beef and various forest products.
While wheat and wine constitute the staples of French agriculture, its distinguishing characteristic is the variety of its products.
In the industrial regions of northern France cattle are stall-fed with the waste products of the beet-sugar factories, oil-works and distilleries.
The products of the quarries of France for the five years 1901-1905 averaged 9,311,000 per annum in value, of which building material brought in over two-thirds.
While raising the taxes both on agricultural products and manufactured goods, this law introduced, between France and all the powers trading with her, relations different from those in the past.
Amongst exports manufactured goods (silk, cotton and woollen goods, fancy wares, apparel, &c.) come before raw materials and articles of food (wine and dairy products bought chiefly by England).
The decline both in imports and in exports of articles of food, which is the most noteworthy fact exhibited in the preceding table, was due to the almost prohibitive tax in the Customs Law of 1892, upon agricultural products.
The bark, resin and " oils " of the eucalyptus are well known as commercial products.
Baker and Smith of the Sydney Technical College, have brought to light many other valuable products likely to prove of commercial value.
520,713.188,158.223,326 374,097 2,377 essentially a pastoral one, and the products of the flocks and herds constitute the chief element in the wealth of Australia.
It gives rise to various decomposition products such as pyridine, picoline, &c., when its vapour is passed through a red-hot tube.
Some oaks are of indirect importance from products formed by their insect enemies.
Cotton, cloth, gold and silver ornaments, copper wares, fancy articles in bone and ivory, excellent saddles and shoes are among the products of the local industry.
The country is rich in natural products, and its resources have been largely developed by the Germans.
It was the first German colony to dispense (1903-1904) with an imperial subsidy towards its upkeep. Several firms have acquired plantations in which coffee, cocoa, cotton, kola and other tropical products are cultivated.
In the north the staple products for export are salt, grain, wool and cotton, in the south opium and cotton; while the imports consist of sugar, hardware and piece goods.
The smooth walls above the liquid afford no foothold, and they are drowned; their bodies are digested and the products of digestion are ultimately absorbed by the glands in the pitcher-wall.
The agricultural products are cotton, sugar and tobacco.
Forest products include rubber, carnauba wax and dyewoods.
Market gardening is carried on both near towns and villages, where products find ready sale, and along the great railways, on account of transport facilities.
The area of forest is about 14.3% of the total, and of the chestnut-woods 1.5 more; and its products in 1886 were valued at 3~,520,0o0 (not including chestnuts).
The export of agricultural products shows a large increase.
Products are usually divided in equal proportions between the owner and the tiller.
Under terzieria the owner furnishes stock, implements and seed, and the tiller retains only one-third of the principal products.
In the famiglio da spesa the tiller receives a small wage and a proportion of certain products.
Anchovy and sardine fishing (the products of which are reckoned among the general total) are also of considerable importance, especially along the Ligurian and Tuscan coasts.
Home products not only supply the Italian market in increasing degree, but find their way into foreign markets.
The chief products are sulphuric acid:
The terms of agrarian contracts and leases (except in districts where mezzadria prevails in its essential form), are in many regions disadvantageous to the laborers, who suffer from the obligation to provide guarantees for payment of rent, for repayment of seed corn and for the division of products.
The most important imports are minerals, including coal and metals (both in pig and wrought); silks, raw, spun and woven; stone, potters earths, earthenware and glass; corn, flour and farinaceous products; cotton, raw, spun and woven; and live stock.
The principal exports are silk and cotton tissues, live stock, wines, spirits and oils; corn, flour, macaroni and similar products; and minerals, chiefly sulphur.
Before the tariff reform of 1887 manufactured articles, alimentary products and raw materials for manufacture held the principal places in the imports.
In the exports, alimentary products came first, while raw materials for manufacture and manufactured articles were of little account.
The value of the factory products increased from $375,167 in 1900 to $784,248 in 1905, or 109%.
Asparagus, figs, and wine of medium quality are grown in the district; and heavy iron goods, chemical products, clocks and plaster are among the manufactures.
Both principles have sensibility, and thus all products of their collision are sentient, that is, feel pleasure and pain.
According to this writer, existence is nothing but a becoming, and matter is simply the momentary product of the process of becoming, while force is this process constantly revealing itself in these products.
The chief agricultural products are barley, oats, wheat, and in the north-east flax is also grown, and exported to South Holland and Belgium.
35 is described under another Hebrew word, and refers to ladanum, a fragrant resin produced in Cyprus, and the use of this drug, as well as that of cinnamon and cassia, indicates even at that early period a knowledge of the products of Somaliland, Arabia and the East Indies and the existence of trade between the farther East and Egypt.
At that date the science of chemistry was very imperfectly known, and the real constituents of ordinary remedies so little understood that different virtues were attributed to different products containing the same constituents.
Aube is an agricultural department; more than one-third of its surface consists of arable land of which the chief products are wheat and oats, and next to them rye, barley and potatoes; vegetables are extensively cultivated in the valleys of the Seine and the Aube.
The exports of Aube consist of timber, cereals, agricultural products, hosiery, wine, dressed pork, &c.; its imports include wool and raw cotton, coal and machinery, especially looms. The department is served by the Eastern railway, of which the main line to Belfort crosses it.
These are elongated in the direction of the length of the leaf, are always poor in chlorophyll and form a channel for conducting the products of assimilation away from the leaf into the stem.
In the more highly developed series, the mosses, this last division of labor takes the form of the differentiation of special assimilative organs, the leaves, commonly with a midrib containing elongated cells for the ready removal of the products of assimilation; and in the typical forms with a localized absorptive region, a well-developed hydrom in the axis of the plant, as well as similar hydrom strands in the leaf-midribs, are constantly met with.
The body of a vascular plant is developed in the first place by repeated division of the fertilized egg and the growth of Develop- the products of division.
The protoplasm derives its food from substances in solution in the water; the various waste products which are incident to its life are excreted into it, and so removed from the sphere of its activity.
Fungal and phanerogamic parasites can make no use of stich substances as carbon dioxide, but draw elaborated products from the bodies of their hosts.
The fate of these inorganiccompounds has not been certainly traced, but they give rise later on to the presence in the plant of various amino acid amides, such as leucin, glycin, asparagin, &c. That these are stages on the way to proteids has been inferred from the fact that when proteids are split up by various means, and especially by the digestive secretions, these nitrogen-containing acids are among the products which result.
The material and the energy go together, the decomposition of the one in the cell setting free the other, which is used at once in the vital processes of the cell, being in fact largely employed in constructing protoplasm or storing various products.
The metabolic changes in the cells, however, concern other decompositions side by side with those which involve the building up of protoplasm from the products of which it feeds.
These include cell walls and the various stored products found in growing cells.
For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
The cut cells die, and oxidized products are concerned in the change of color, the brown juices exuding and soaking into the cell-walls.
The cytoplasm is largely concerned in the formation of spindle fibres and centrosomes, and such structures as the cell membrane, cilia, or flagella, the coenocentrum, nematoplasl~ or vibrioids and physodes are also products of its activity.
(1) Mathematical geography, which deals with the form, size and movements of the earth and its place in the solar system; (2) Moral geography, or an account of the different customs and characters of mankind according to the region they inhabit; (3) Political geography, the divisions according to their organized governments; (4) Mercantile geography, dealing with the trade in the surplus products of countries; (5) Theological geography, or the distribution of religions.
Physical geography itself is divided into two parts: a general, which has to do with the earth and all that belongs to it - water, air and land; and a particular, which deals with special products of the earth - mankind, animals, plants and minerals.
The Greeks who accompanied Alexander described with care the towns and villages, the products and the aspect of the country.
The Romans did not encourage navigation and commerce with the same ardour as their predecessors; still the luxury of Rome, The which gave rise to demands for the varied products Romans.
Scandinavian merchants brought the products of India to England and Ireland.
While the republics of Italy, and above all the state of Venice, were engaged in distributing the rich products of India and the Far East over the Western world, it was impossible that motives of curiosity, as well as a desire of commercial advantage, should not be awakened to such a degree as to impel some of the merchants to visit those remote lands.
Until then the Venetians held the carrying trade of India, which was brought by the Persian Gulf and Red sea into Syria and Egypt, the Venetians receiving the products of the East at Alexandria and Beirut and distributing them over Europe.
They follow the most primitive forms of religion (mainly fetishism), live on products of the woods or of the chase, with the minimum of work, and have only a loose political organization.
The highlander and viking, products of the valleys raised high amid the mountains or half-drowned in the sea, are everywhere of kindred spirit.
cation between communities and the interchange of their products.
The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.
Phenol is characterized by the readiness with which it forms substitution products; chlorine and bromine, for example, react readily with phenol, forming orthoand parachlorand -bromphenol, and, by further action, trichlorand tribrom-phenol.
The urine becomes dark green in colour owing to the formation of various oxidation products such as pyrocatechin.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
In 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $40,435,531, an increase of 16.4% in five years.
Live-stock and agricultural products are exported; the chief imports are wood and raw silk.
In these products of the 2nd and 3rd centuries there is much which in its own way was not surpassed by any of the later patristic writings.
The island is of great fertility - wheat, oats, barley, olives, sesame and valonia being the principal products, in addition to a variety of fruits.
The chief exports are animal products and agricultural products.
It is also produced during the putrefaction of organic substances containing sulphur and is found among the products obtained in the destructive distillation of coal.
Oxidizing agents rapidly attack sulphuretted hydrogen, the primary products of the reaction being water and sulphur.
Sulphur bromide, S 2 Br 2, is a dark red liquid which boils with decomposition at about 200° C. The products obtained by the action of iodine on sulphur are probably mixtures, although E.
The value of its "factory" products was 17.6% of the state's total in 1900 and 20.9% of the total in 1905.
Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).
Sugar, rice, indigo and tropical fruits are the chief products of the fertile district in which the town lies; it is widely known for its fish-ponds and its excellent fish, and its principal manufactures are jusi, pina, ilang ilang perfume and sugar.
It is situated on the Pruth, and has an active trade in agricultural products.
It is served by the Madras railway, and is the chief seaport on the Malabar coast, and the principal exports are coffee, timber and coco-nut products.
The products of the province are tea (the best quality of which is grown at Gan-hwa and the greatest quantity at Ping-kiang), hemp, cotton, rice, paper, tobacco, tea-oil and coal.
Frankfort is a trade centre fJr an agricultural and lumbering region; among its manufactures are handles, agricultural implements and foundry products.
Tribal lands were held in common and each man was entitled to a share in the products.
Until the advent of the modern synthetic products buchu was valued in diseases of the urinary tract, but its use is now practically obsolete.
The principal products are Indian corn and tobacco.
The river is navigable for 770 m.; grain and a variety of goods conveyed from the upper Kama are floated down, while furs, fish and other products of the sea are shipped up the river to be transported to Cherdyn on the Kama.
arabia, the three chief products are maize, wine and hardy fruit, especially plums. Here the climate is temperate and fairly moist, but farther E.
Besides cottons the products 'nclude woollens and cloth, silks, chemicals, machinery, ironware, beer and flour.
Next after cottons come woollens, silk, cloth, chemicals, machinery, paper, furniture, hats, cement, leather, glass and china and other products.
In general, the British working unit supplied as public information has always been the goods-train-mile and the passengertrain-mile, these figures being the products of the number of trains into the number of miles they have travelled.
If there are several driving-axles in a train, the product Tw must be estimated for each separately; then the sum of the products will be equal to RV.
Two vegetable products, the " balsam bog " (Bolas glebaria) and the " tussock grass " (Dactylis caespitosa) have been objects of curiosity and interest ever since the first accounts of the islands were given.
As they had not been actually colonized by England, the republic of Buenos Aires claimed the group in 1820, and subsequently entered into a dispute with the United States of America concerning the rights to the products of these islands.
The principal products of the province are tea, China ware, grasscloth, hemp, paper, tobacco and tallow.
2 The value of the different kinds of agricultural products for 1899 was as follows: live stock, $4,373,973; hay and grain, $1,535,914; dairy produce, $385,220; vegetables, $216,600; fruits, $20,900.
These places employed 35.9% of the labour engaged in manufacturing, and the value of their products was 38.8% of the total for the state.
Manufactures based on the products of mines and quarries (chemicals, glass, clay, stone and metal works) constituted about one-fifth of the whole product.
The value of their products in 1900 was $1,261,005, and in 1905, $3,096,274, an increase of 1 45.5 .
Until the completion of the trans-continental railway in 1869, wagon trains were the only means of transporting the products of the mines across the desert.
Mines and mining claims are exempt from taxation, but a quarterly tax is levied on the net proceeds of mines, and is not to be paid a second time so long as the products remain in the hands of the original producer.
It has an increasing trade in iron, timber, coal and agricultural products, a trade which is fostered by a harbour opened in 1897; and also large factories for making aniline dyes and soda.
Modern Plymouth has varied and important manufactures comprising cordage, woollens, rubber goods, &c. In 1905 the total value of the factory products was $11,115,713, the worsted goods and cordage constituting about nine-tenths of the whole product.
The cordage works are among the largest in the world, and consume immense quantities of sisal fibre imported from Mexico and manila from the Philippine Islands; binder-twine for binding wheat is one of the principal products.
Rubber and some other natural products are exported.
Parkersburg is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Oil, coal, natural gas and fire-clay abound in the neighbouring region, and the city is engaged in the refining of oil and the manufacture of pottery, brick and tile, glass, lumber, furniture, flour, steel, and foundry and machine-shop products.
In 1905 the value of the factory products was $3,778,139 (21.9% more than in 190o).
Some of these pass into their elements with explosive violence, owing to the heat generated by their decomposition and the gaseous nature of the products.
It is the trade centre of a very fertile section of the Washita Valley, whose principal products are Indian corn, cotton, fruits and vegetables and live-stock.
The temperature of the water varies from 98° to 130° Fahr.; in all cases it gives off carbonic acid gas and contains lime, magnesium and sodium products.
Exports in 1904 were valued at £419,642, the principal items being agricultural products (oranges, lemons, carobs, almonds, grapes, valonia, &c.), value £153,858, olives and products of olives-(oil, soap, &c.), £134,788, and wines and liquors, £48,544.
Imports in 1904 were valued at £549, 66 5, including agricultural products (mainly flour and corn), value £162,535, and textiles, £129,349.
The natural products include fine cabinet and construction woods, rubber, fruit, palm oil and fibres.
In the same year the city still retained its position as the greatest ore market in the world and also led in many steel products.
The total value of all products in 1914 was $352,- 531,000 compared with $172,115,101 in 1905.
The value of the total factory product was $57,45 1, 445 in 1905, when a little more than three-fourths was represented by lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and cotton goods.
The value of the lumber and timber products was $1,074,003 in 1860; $5, 8 9 8, 74 2 in 1890; $14,862,593 in 1900; and $15731,379 in 1905.
At the beginning of the 20th century a great number of minerals were found in the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions, but most of them in such small quantities as to be of little or no commercial value, and in 1902 the total value of the products of the mines and quarries was only $927,376; but in 1907 their value was $2,961,381, and in 1908, $2,145,947.
In 1880 the total value of the manufactured products of thestatewas$20,095,037 in 1900 the value of the cotton manufactures alone was $28,372,789, and in 1905 $47, 2 54, 0 54.
In 1890 the lumber and timber products, valued at $5,898,742, ranked second among the state's manufactures; by 1905 their value had increased to $15,731,379.
It is a market for live-stock, and for dairy and farm products, and has slaughtering and packing establishments, flour mills, creameries and cheese factories, canning and preserving factories, carriage works, a flax fibre mill and grain elevators.
In addition to being the principal emporium for the Austrian traffic on the Elbe, Tetschen has a considerable industry, its products comprising chemicals, oil, soap, cotton stuffs, plaster of Paris, glazed and coloured paper, cellulose, beer, flour and preserved fish.
Agriculture and grazing have become the main dependence of the population - the former in the lower, forested region of the south-east, where coffee and sugar-cane - are the principal products, and the latter on the higher campos and river valleys, and on the mountain slopes, where large herds of cattle are to be found, and milk, butter and cheese are produced.
Among the general products are Indian corn, tobacco, mandioca, beans, pork and cotton.
The Pali versions of Buddha's discourses are among the most remarkable products of Asia.
In 1905 the city's fact,Qxy products were valued at $ 2, 933,45 0 - 1 4 o.2% more than their value in 1900.
The gonad ducts are male and female, and open opposite to or, rarely, alongside of the gonads, whose products they convey to the exterior.
The value of the factory products increased from $1,737,884 in 1900 to $2,078,139 in 1905, or 19.6%.
According to Louis Pasteur, about oth of the sugar transformed under ordinary conditions in the fermentation of grape juice and similar saccharine liquids into alcohol and other products becomes converted into glycerin.
Its viscid character, and its non-liability to dry and harden by exposure to air, also fit it for various other uses, such as lubrication, &c., whilst its peculiar physical characters, enabling it to blend with either aqueous or oily matters under certain circumstances, render it a useful ingredient in a large number of products of varied kinds.
- Besides its use as a starting-point in the production of "nitroglycerin" (q.v.) and other chemical products, glycerin is largely employed for a number of purposes in the arts, its application thereto being due to its peculiar physical properties.
The products of the territorial coast lands are sugar, cotton, tobacco, maize, palm oil, coffee, fine woods and medicinal plants.
The agricultural products are corn, flax, tobacco, grapes and various other fruits.
Other manufactures are boilers, foundry products, lumber and fertilizers; and there are two shipyards.
The principal products of the soil are mentioned lower down, while the general character of the vegetation is indicated under Caucasus: Western Caucasus.
The value of the factory products increased from $1,935,442 in 1900 to $4,427,816 in 1905, or 128.8 per cent.
There is a good harbour, and the city has a considerable lake commerce in grain, flour, and dairy products.
Thomas Fuller writing in 1662 mentions lead, malt and ale as the chief products of the county, and the Buxton waters were already famous in his day.
Richmond is the leading manufacturing city of Virginia, the value of its factory products in 1905 being 828,202,607, an increase of 22.4% since 1900 and nearly 19% of the value of the state's factory products in this year.
Other important manufactures, with their product-values in 1905, are lumber and planing-mill products, $5 08, 953; fancy and paper boxes and wooden packing boxes, $432,522; coffee and spices, 8245,689; foundry and machineshop products, $238,576; and saddlery and harness, $235,839.
Amongst its chief recommendations were those relating to amendments in the Agricultural Holdings Acts, and to tithe rentcharge, railway rates, damage by game, sale of adulterated products, and sale of imported goods (meat, for example) as home produce.
By far the greater proportion of those constituents remains in circulation in the manure of the farm, whilst the remainder yields highly valuable products for sale in the forms of meat and milk.
It is equally true that, when under the influence of special local or other demand - proximity to towns, easy railway or other communication, for example - the products which would otherwise be retained on the farm are exported from it, the import of town or other manures is generally an essential condition of such practice.
Such deviations from the practice of merely selling grain and meat off the farm have much extended in recent years, and will probably continue to do so under the altered conditions of British agriculture, determined by very large imports of grain, increasing imports of meat and of other products of stock-feeding, and very large imports of cattle-food and other agricultural produce.
But much less potash than phosphoric acid is exported in the cereal grains, much more being retained in the straw, whilst the other products of the rotation - the root and leguminous crops - which are also supposed to be retained on the farm, contain very much more potash than the cereals, and comparatively little of it is exported in meat and milk.
Very little of the lime of the crops, however, goes off in the saleable products of the farm in the case of the self-supporting rotation under consideration.
The resinous products of the Norway spruce, though yielded by the tree in less abundance than those furnished by the pine, are of considerable economic value.
The resinous products of the tree are of no great value.
Numerous other firs are common in gardens and shrubberies, and some furnish valuable products in their native countries; but they are not yet of sufficient economic or general interest to demand mention here.
6, d), which were originally described by Lankester as orifices possibly connected with the evacuation of the generative products.
Newton demonstrated these to be no strayed Phoenician products.
The products of that period compare favourably with any potters' work in the world.
The manufacture, modelling and painting of faience objects, and the making of inlays in many materials were also familiar to Aegean craftsmen, who show in all their best work a strong sense of natural form and an appreciation of ideal balance and decorative effect, such as are seen in the best products of later Hellenic art.
But their claims to be the principal authors of the Aegean remains grew fainter with every fresh Aegean discovery, and every new light thrown on their own proper products; with the Cretan revelations they ceased altogether to be considered except by a few Homeric enthusiasts.
(2) An Art, whose products cannot be confounded with those of any other known art by a trained eye.
Thereafter, by exact observation of stratification, eight more periods have been distinguished by the explorer of Cnossus, each marked by some important development in the universal and necessary products of the potter's art, the least destructible and therefore most generally used archaeological criterion.
Passing by certain fragments of stone vessels, found at Cnossus, and coincident with forms characteristic of the IVth Pharaonic Dynasty, we reach another fairly certain date in the synchronism of remains belonging to the XIIth Dynasty (c. 2500 B.C. according to Petrie, but later according to the Berlin School) with products of Minoan Period II.
Characteristic Cretan pottery of this period was found by Petrie in the Fayum in conjunction with XIIth Dynasty remains, and various Cretan products of the period show striking coincidences with XIIth Dynasty styles, especially in their adoption of spiraliform ornament.
decadent Aegean products and their wide distribution become more marked than ever.
west, there are numerous sugarfactories; cotton is also grown and manufactured, and alcohol, flour, soap, iron goods and cotton stuffs are among the other industrial products.
They are typical products of "regional" metamorphism, and are in nearly all cases older than the fossiliferous sedimentary rocks.
In the case of the common drone-fly, Eristalis tenax, the individual, from a sedentary maggot living in filth, without any relations of sex, and with only unimportant organs for the ingestion of its foul nutriment, changes to a creature of extreme alertness, with magnificent powers of flight, living on the products of the flowers it frequents, and endowed with highly complex sexual structures.
Here there is only space to name Bontius, Clusius, Hernandez (or Fernandez), Marcgrave, Nieremberg and Piso, 6 whose several works describing the natural products of both the Indies - whether the result of their own observation or compilation - together with those of Olina and Worm, produced a marked effect, since they led up to what may be deemed the foundation of scientific ornithology.'
in all southern Europe only four faunistic products can be named: the Saggio di storia naturale Bresciana of Pilati, published at Brescia in 1769; the Ornitologia dell' Europa meridionale of Bernini, published at Parma between 1772 and 1776; the Uccelli di Sardegna of Cetti, published at Sassari in 1776; and the Romana ornithologia of Gilius, published at Rome in 1781 - the last being in great part devoted to pigeons and poultry.
Malonic acid, as well as its esters, is characterized by the large number of condensation products it can form.
In the presence of a dehydrating agent (such as acetic anhydride), it combines with aldehydes to form compounds of the type R CH: C(COOH) 2, or their decomposition products (formed by loss of C02) R CH: CH COOH.
In 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $2,602,056.
The value of all farm products in 1899 was $ 2 57, 06 5, 826.
Other valuable minerals are clay suitable for making pottery, brick and tile (in 1908 the value of the clay working products was $26,622,490) and sand suitable for making glass.
The total value of the state's mineral products in 1908 amounted to $134,499,335.
The value of the products increased from $65,206,828 in 1890 to $138,935,256 in 1900 and to $152,859,124 in 1905.
Foundry and machine-shop products, consisting largely of engines, boilers, metal-working machinery, wood-working machinery, pumping machinery, mining machinery and stoves, rank second among the state's manufactures; their value increased from $43,617,07 2 in 1890 to $72,399,632 in 1900, and to $94,507,691 in 1905.
Flour and grist mill products rank third in the state; the value of the products decreased from $39,468,409 in 1890 to $37,39 0, 3 6 7 in 1900, and then increased to $40,855,566 in 1905.
Clay products rank fifth in the state; they increased in value from $16,480,812 in 1900 to $25,686,870 in 1905.
Other leading manufactures are malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), distilled liquors ($15,976,523), rubber and elastic goods ($15,963,603), furniture ($13,322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agricultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803582), lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles.
T he great manufacturing centres are Cleveland, Cincinnati, Youngstown, Toledo, Columbus, Dayton and Akron, and in 1905 the value of the products of these cities amounted to 56.7% of that for the entire state.
East Liverpool leads in the manufacture of pottery; Toledo in flour and grist mill products; Springfield in agricultural implements; Cincinnati and Columbus in boots and shoes; Cleveland in women's clothing.
border and Lake 1 The statistics of 1905 were taken under the direction of the United States Census Bureau, but products other than those of the factory system, such, for example, as those of the hand trades, were excluded.
Trade is in agricultural products, and especially in cheeses named after the town.
of cattle, and of the various meat and dairy products classed as provisions, Boston is easily second to New York.
The value of all manufactured products from establishments under the " factory system " in 1900 was $162,764,523; in 1905 it was $184,351,163.
Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
Rice and cocoanuts are the principal agricultural products of the town.
Lumber and flour are Cairo's principal manufactured products, and the city is an important hardwood and cotton-wood market; the Singer Manufacturing Co.
In 1905 the value of the city's factory products was $4,381,465, an increase of 40.6% in five years.
The principal manufactures are hardware, foundry and machine shop products, ammunition and fire-arms (the Winchester Company), carriages and wagons, malt liquors, paper boxes and corsets.
The products of cotton seed have become important elements in the national industry of the United States.
The main product is the refined oil, which is used for a great number of purposes, such as a substitute for olive oil, mixed with beef products for preparation of compound lard, which is estimated to consume one-third of cotton seed oil produced in the States.
The following diagram, modified from one by Grimshaw, in accordance with the results obtained by the better class of modern mills, gives an interesting resume of the products obtained from a ton of cotton seed: - Products from a Ton of Cotton Seed.
The profits obtained from ground-nuts (Arachis hypogea) in Gambia, gold mining in the Gold Coast, and from products of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in the palm-oil belt serve to prevent much attention being given to cotton in these districts.
Peekskill has many manufactures, and the factory products were valued in 1905 at $7,251,897, an increase of 306.7% since 1900.
In 1905 its factory products were valued at $8,577,358, or 49.1% more than in 1900.
In 1905 the census reports did not include manufactures outside the actual city limits; the total value of the factory product of the city proper in 1905 was $11,573,720; besides slaughtering and packing the other manufactures in 1905 included men's factory-made clothing (valued at $1,556,655) flour and grist-mill products (valued at $683,464), saddlery and harness (valued at $524,918), confectionery ($437,096), malt liquors ($407,054), boots and shoes ($350,384) and farm implements.
Kuenen was also the author of many articles, papers and reviews; a series on the Hexateuch, which appeared in the Theologisch Tijdschrift, of which in 1866 he became joint editor, is one of the finest products of modern criticism.
The barrels employed in the transport of petroleum products are made of well-seasoned white-oak staves bound by six or eight iron hoops.
It is generally understood that the products of fractional distillation, even in the laboratory, are not identical with the hydrocarbons present in the crude oil, but are in part produced by the action of heat upon them.
In the earlier stages of the development of the manufacture of mineral lubricating oils, the residues were distilled in cast-iron stills, and the lubricating properties of the products thus obtained were injured by overheating.
The steam operates by carrying the vapours away to the condenser as fast as they are generated, the injury to the products resulting from their remaining in contact with the highly-heated surface of the still being thus prevented.
The process of distillation of lubricating oils under reduced atmospheric pressure is now in very general use, especially for obtaining the heavier products.
The products obtained by the distillation of petroleum are not in a marketable condition, but require chemical treatment to remove acid and other bodies which impart a dark colour as well as an unpleasant odour to the liquid, and in the case of lamp-oils, reduce the power of rising in the wick by capillary attraction.
A large number of physical and chemical tests are applied both to crude petroleum and to the products manufactured therefrom.
In the routine examination of crude petroleum it is customary to determine the specific gravity, and the amount of water and earthy matter in suspension; the oil is also frequently subjected to a process of fractional distillation in order to ascertain whether there has been any addition of distilled products or residue.
Petroleum products are also largely utilized in gas manufacture for, (1) the production of " air-gas," (2) the manufacture of oil-gas, and (3) the enrichment of coal-gas.
The use of petroleum as liquid fuel is dealt with under Fuel, as is the employment of its products in motors, which has greatly increased the demand for petroleum spirit.
The more important local authorities throughout the country have made regulations under the powers conferred upon them by the Petroleum Acts, with the object of regulating the " keeping, sale, conveyance and hawking " of petroleum products having a flash-point below 73° F., and the Port of London authority, together with other water-way and harbour authorities in the United Kingdom, have their own by-laws relating to the navigation of vessels carrying such petroleum.
See Sir Boverton Redwood's Petroleum and its Products (2nd ed., London, 1906); A.
There was, for instance, the ambition of the adventurer prince, the younger son, eager to carve a principality in the far East, of whom Bohemund is the type; there was the interest of Italian towns, anxious to acquire the products of the East more directly and cheaply, by erecting their own emporia in the eastern Mediterranean.
The genital products develop in intermediate spaces similarly limited by these dissepiments and alternating with the digestive caeca.
There is some evidence that in this group the ectoderm of the oesophagus is chiefly concerned with digestion, whereas the endoderm of the intestine is limited to the absorption of the soluble products.
- Diagram conveying the digested food-products all over of the circulatory the body, and the excretory products to the apparatus in the annephridia, and doubtless it serves at times to tenor body-region of assist in the extension and retraction of parts a Metanemertine.
As a rule these organs only extend a short way along the anterior end of the body, a concentration which we may associate with the development of a vascular system I--- to bring the products of excretion to a fixed spot.
The lumber industry is important: in 1905 the total factory product of lumber and timber was valued at $10,901,650, and lumber and planing mill products were valued at $1,690,455.
But the unusual severity of the winters of 1887, 1894 and 1899 (the report of the Twelfth Census which gives the figures for this year being therefore misleading) destroyed three-fourths of the orange trees, and caused an increased attention to stockraising, and to various agricultural products.
In 1907-8, according to the State Department of Agriculture, the total value of vegetable and garden products was $3,928,657.
In 1907-8, according to the state Department of Agriculture, the total value of all field crops (cotton, cereals, sugar-cane, hay and forage, sweet potatoes, &c.) was $11,856,340, and the total value of all farm products (including live stock, $20,817,804, poultry and products, $1,688,433, and dairy products, $1,728,642) was $46,371,320.
The lumber and timber products were valued in 1905 at $10,901,650, almost twice their valuation in 1890, and an increase of 1.
The manufacture of cigars and cigarettes (almost entirely of cigars, few cigarettes being manufactured), carried on chiefly by Cubans at Key West and Tampa, also increased in importance between 1890 and 1900, the products in the latter year being valued at $10,735,826, or more than one-quarter more than in 1890, and in 1905 there was a further increase of 56.2%, the gross value being $16,764,276, or nearly one-third of the total factory product of the state.
Sugar-cane, maize, tapioca and other similar products are grown, however, in smaller quantities.
The finest agricultural land in the United States is near the lake, and there is an immense trade in all grains, fruits, livestock and lumber, and in products such as flour, pork, hides, leather goods, furniture, &c. Rich lead and copper mines abound, as also salt, iron and coal.
Holland is a grain and fruit shipping centre, and among its manufactures are furniture, leather, grist mill products, iron, beer, pickles, shoes, beet sugar, gelatine, biscuit (Holland rusk), electric and steam launches, and pianos.
The city's manufactures include glass, brick, tile, foundry and machine-shop products, &c. In 1905 the factory product was valued at $1,888,894, being 51.4% greater than in 1900.
Among the manufactures are furniture, hosiery and knit goods, agricultural implements, foundry and machine-shop products, saddlery and harness, &c. The total value of all factory products in r905 was $15,276,129.
A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and sulphuretted hydrogen, when passed over heated copper, gives, amongst other products, some methane.
The principal products are corn, oats, barley, potatoes, rye, beetroot, hemp, flax, hay and other fodder.
The Annals abound with references to the prices and comparative abundance or scarcity of the two staple products, wool and corn.
But some of the most valuable products of the island, as camphor and rattan, are to be found in the upland forests, and the Chinese, whenever they ventured too far in search of these products, fell into ambushes of hill-men who neither gave nor sought quarter, and who regarded a Chinese skull as a specially attractive article of household furniture.
The total acreage of tobacco increased from 12,871 acres in 1906 to 27,596 acres in 1909; the total value of the exported tobacco products increased from $681,642 in 1901 to $5,634,130 in 1909.
long, connects the principal cities along the north and west coasts and those as far east as Ponce on the south coast; a railway between Ponce and Guayama, farther east, was virtually completed in 1910, and the Vega Alta railroad connects Vega Alta with Dorado on the north coast; but there are no inland railways and most of the products of the interior are carried to the coast in carts drawn by bullocks or on the backs of mules.
Some of the largest items of wholesale trade in 1920 were dry goods, $240,000,000; carpets, rugs and linoleums, also $240,000,000; boots and shoes, $175,000,000; groceries, $175,000,000; railway supplies, $210,000,000; hardware, $115,000,000; foundry products, $125,000,000.
Sales of meat products in 1919 were $128,000,000; hog receipts, 3,650,534; head cattle receipts, 1,500,000.
From 1900 to 1905 there was an increase in the value of its manufactured products from $11,135,435 to $16,279,706, or 46.2%.
More than one-fourth of the value of its manufactures is in Quaker Oats and other food preparations; among those of less importance are lumber and planing-mill products, foundry and machineshop products, furniture, patent medicines, pumps, carriages and waggons, packed meats and agricultural implements.
His earlier work was mainly concerned with organic chemistry, and he published researches on picoline and its derivatives in 1876-78 and on quinine and its decomposition products in 1878-79.
Among the products are cotton goods (the product value of which in 1905 was 1 4% of the total value of the city's manufactures), foundry and machine-shop products, lumber, patent medicines, confectionery, men's clothing, mattresses, spring-beds and other furniture.
The leading industries are the manufacture of lumber and cotton products.
The total value of the city's factory products in 1905 was $1,822,591 (46.5% more than in 1900).
The value of the city's manufactured products increased from $37,376,322 in 1890 to $77,225,116 in 1900, or 106.6%; in 1905 the factory product alone was valued at $75,740,934, an increase of only 3.9% over the factory product in 1900, this small rate of increase being due very largely to a decline in the value of the products of the sugar and molasses refining industry.
The value of the city's factory products in 1905 was $13,879,159, the principal items being rubber and elastic goods ($3,635,211) and boots and shoes ($2,044,250) The manufacture of stoves, and of mucilage and paste are important industries.
Flexible tubing for electric wires (first made at Chelsea 1889) and art tiles are important products.
The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.
Chemical change which merely involves simple decomposition is thus seen to be influenced by the masses of the reacting substances and the presence of the products of decomposition; in other words the system of reacting substances and resultants form a mixture in which chemical action has apparently ceased, or the system is in equilibrium.
The phlogistic theory, which pervaded the chemical doctrine of this period, gave rise to continued study of the products of calcination and combustion; it thus happened that the knowledge of oxides and oxidation products was considerably developed.
Thorpe's investigation of the products of the slow combustion of phosphorus.
Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.
Confining our attention, for the present, to di-substitution products we see that there are three distinct series of compounds to be considered.
Zincke; and his researches have led to the discovery of many chlorinated oxidation products which admit of decomposition into cyclic compounds containing fewer carbon atoms than characterize the benzene ring, and in turn yielding openchain or aliphatic compounds.
Ladenburg, who devoted much attention to the study of the substitution products of benzene, and 's to the support of his own formula.
From the fact that reduction products containing either one or two double linkages behave exactly as unsaturated aliphatic compounds, being readily reduced or oxidized, and combining with the halogen elements and haloid acids, it seems probable that in benzenoid compounds the fourth valencies are symmetrically distributed in such a manner as to induce a peculiar stability in the molecule.
If s-naphthylamine and 0-naphthol be reduced, tetrahydro products are obtained in which the aminoor oxy-bearing half of the molecule becomes aliphatic in character.
Thus ortho-phenylene diamine yields the following products: N H N ./`N; Xn NZ In some cases oxidation of condensed benzenoid-heterocyclic nuclei results in the rupture of the heterocyclic ring with the formation of a benzene dicarboxylic acid; but if the aromatic nucleus be weakened by the introduction of an amino group, then it is the benzenoid nucleus which is destroyed and a dicarboxylic acid of the heterocyclic ring system obtained.
This has led to the estimation of sugar by means of the polarimeter, and of the calorific power of fuels, and the valuation of ores and metals, of coal-tar dyes, and almost all trade products.
Carbon and hydrogen are generally estimated by the combustion process, which consists in oxidizing the substance and absorbing the products of combustion in suitable apparatus.
648) burns the substance in oxygen, conducts the gases over platinized sand, and collects the products in suitable receivers.
By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.
factory products was $2,522,856 (28.8% more than in 1900)..
EPIC OF GILGAMESH, the title given to one of the most important literary products of Babylonia, from the name of the chief personage in the series of tales of which it is composed.
Fischer among the products of hydrolysis of proteids.
Among the products are coco-nuts, sago, fish, trepang, timber, copra, maize, yams and tobacco.
Among the other agricultural products are barley, hemp, flax and various vegetables, including good asparagus.
Eure-et-Loir exports the products of its soil and live-stock; its imports include coal, wine and wearing apparel.
It is connected with Ponce by railway (1910), and with the port of Arroyo by an excellent road, part of the military road extending to Cayey, and it exports sugar, rum, tobacco, coffee, cattle, fruit and other products of the department, which is very fertile.
Among the manufactures are agricultural implements, watches and watch material - the Illinois Watch Company has a large factory here - lumber, flour, foundry and machine-shop products, automobiles, shoes and boilers.
The value of its factory products in 1905 was $2,440,917.
Paper, spirits, wire and nails, leather and tiles are the chief products of the manufactures.
The principal products are millet, sesamum and sugar produced from toddy-palms in the riverain districts, which also grow rice, grain, peas and beans.
What in popular usage are spoken of as the instincts of animals, for example, the hunting of prey by foxes and wolves, or the procedure of ants in their nests, are generally joint products of hereditary and acquired factors.
In the poetical and prophetic books it is referred to in connexion with the products for which it was noted.
The important mineral products are salt, sulphur, petroleum and natural gas.
Many regard them as products of an extinct volcano; according to others they are of vegetable origin (they are found in conjunction with gypsum).
Kaolin is found in the state; in 1907 the total value of all clay products was $928,579.
The total value of all farm products in 1899 was $72,667,302, of which $59,276,092 was the value of the distinctive crops - cotton, sugar and rice.
The total value of fruit products in 1899 was $412,933.
The total value of cereal products in 1899 was $ 1 4,49 1, 79 6, including Indian corn valued at $10,327,723 and rice valued at $4, 0 44,4 8 9; in 1907 it was more than $27,300,000, including Indian corn valued at $19,600,000, rice valued at $7,378,000 and oats valued at $223,000.
The value of the factory products in 1900 was $111,397,919; in 1905 it was $186,379,592.
Manufacturing industries are for the most part closely related to the products of the soil, about two-thirds of the value of all manufactures in Igoo and in 1905 being represented by sugar and molasses refining, lumber and timber products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and rice cleaned and polished.
Other manufactures with a product value in 1905 of between $4,000,000 and $1,000,000 were: bags (not paper); foundry and machine-shop products; planing-mill products; railway cars, construction and repairs; malt liquors; men's clothing; cooperage; food preparations; roasted and ground coffee and spice; fertilizers; cigars and cigarettes; cotton goods; and manufactured ice.
Tafia rum and a waxy, sticky sugar syrup subsequently became important products; but not until the end of the century were the means found to crystallize sugar and so give real prosperity to the industry.
Bituminous products of every grade, from clear translucent oils resembling petroleum and refined naphtha, to lignite-like substances, occur in all parts of the island.
Forest resources have been but slightly touched (more so since the end of Spanish rule) except mahogany, which goes to the United States, and cedar, which is used to box the tobacco products of the island, much going also to the United States.
The value of forest products in 1901-1902 amounted to $320,528.
There are some tanneries, some preparation of preserves and other fruit products, and some old handicraft industries like the making of hats; but these have been of comparatively scant importance.
The shipments from Santiago province from 1884 to 1901 aggregated 5, 0 53, 8 47 long tons, almost all going to the United States (which is true of other mineral products also).
Bituminous products, though, as already stated, widely distributed, are not as yet much developed.
The leading articles of export are sugar, tobacco and fruit products; of import, textiles, foodstuffs, lumber and wood products, and machinery.
Sugar and tobacco products together represent seven-eighths (in 1904-1907 respectively 60.3 and 27.3%) of the normal annual exports.
Various colonial products and the slave trade were favoured in this way.
Beckmann, Ber., 1886, 1 9, p. 9 8 9; 188 7, 20, p. 2580), yielding as final products an acid-amide or anilide, thus: RC(:N OH)R'-RC(OH) :NR' ---> As regards the constitution of the oximes, two possibilities exist, namely >C: NOH, or > C' ?, and the first of these is presumably correct, since on alkylation and subsequent hydrolysis an alkyl hydroxylamine of the type NH 2 OR is obtained, and consequently it is to be presumed that in the alkylated oxime, the alkyl group is attached to oxygen, and the oxime itself therefore contains the hydroxyl group. It is to be noted that the oximes of aromatic aldehydes and of unsymmetrical aromatic ketones frequently exist in isomeric forms. This isomerism is explained by the HantzschWerner hypothesis (Ber., 1890, 23, p. II) in which the assumption is made that the three valencies of the nitrogen atom do not lie in the same plane.
The trade of the city is principally in Bolivian products - mineral ores, alpaca wool, &c. - but it also receives and exports the products of the neighbouring Peruvian provinces, and the output of the borax deposits in the neighbourhood.
This was met in a very large measure by deposits of natural nitre and the products of artificial nitrieres, whilst additional supplies are available in the ammoniacal liquors of the gas-manufacturer, &c. The possible failure of the nitre deposits led to attempts to convert atmospheric nitrogen into manures by processes permitting economic success.
Lovejoy at Niagara Falls, who passed atmospheric air, or air enriched with oxygen, about a high tension arc made as long as possible; but the company (the Atmospheric Products Company) was a failure.
Nitrogen peroxide is also prepared by heating lead nitrate and passing the products of decomposition through a tube surrounded by a freezing mixture, when the gas liquefies.
Wheat, maize, oats, barley and rye are the chief agricultural products.
on the gross products of mines of vein formation, and from Io% to 20% on those of mines of deposit formation; the percentages are calculated on the value of the mineral after deduction of freight, &c. to Europe and of treatment.
Its railway car repair and construction shops, belonging to the Norfolk & Western railway, employed in that year 66.9% of the total number of factory wage-earners; pig-iron, structural iron, canned goods, bottles, tobacco, planing-mill products and cotton are among the manufactures.
More steel wire, wire nails, and bolts and nuts are made here than in any other city in the world (the total value for iron and steel products as classified by the census was, in 1905, $42,930,995, and the value of foundry and machine-shop products in the same year was $18,832,487), and more merchant vessels than in any other American city.
The total value of factory products in 1905 was $172,115,101, an increase of 36.4% since 1900; and between 1900 and 1905 Cleveland became the first manufacturing city in the state.
Cleveland thus was connected with the interior of the state, for whose mineral and agricultural products it became the lake outlet.
The growth during the Civil War was partly due to the rapid development of the manufacturing interests of the city, which supplied large quantities of iron products and of clothing to the Federal government.
The chief articles of export (together with those that have lapsed) have been already indicated; but they may be summarized as including seal-oil, seal, fox, bird and bear skins, fish products and eiderdown, with some quantity of worked skins.
Besides the products of the soil Allier exports coal, mineral waters and cattle for the Paris market.
Nux vomica, gamboge, caoutchouc, cardamoms, teak and other valuable woods and gums are among the natural products.
The following is a summary of the local budget of Cambodia The chief sources of revenue are the direct taxes, including the poll-tax and the taxes on the products of the soil, which together amounted to £172,636 in 1904.
Cleve, Lecoq de Boisbaudran and others into erbia, holmia, thulia and dysprosia, but it is still doubtful whether any one of these four splitting products is a single substance.
The total value of farm products for the year 1899 (census of 1900) was $161,217,304.
Other important crops in the order of their value are oats, hay and forage, Indian corn, barley, flax-seed, potatoes, rye, grass seeds, wild grass, clover, beans, peas, and miscellaneous vegetables and orchard products.
During the same period the capital invested increased from $31,004,811 in 1880 to $127,686,618 in 1890 and $165,832,246 in 1900, and the value of the manufactured products increased from $76,065,198 in 1880 to $192,033,478 in 1890 and $262,655,881 in 1900.
Next to flour, lumber and timber products rank in importance.
Other manufactures of importance are butter, cheese and condensed milk, packed meats and other slaughter-house products, steam railway cars, foundry and machine-shop products, linseed oil, malt liquors, planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds, boots and shoes, and agricultural implements.
As compared with other states of the Union Minnesota ranked third in 1900 and fifth in 1905 in lumber; sixth in 1900 and fifth in 1905 in cheese, butter and condensed milk; eighth in 1900 and in 1905 in agricultural implements; and fourteenth in 1900 and eighth in 1905 in planing-mill products.
Iron shipments from the Mesabi and Vermilion ranges, cereals from the Northwest, fruits and vegetables from the Pacific coast, and Oriental products obtained via the great northern railways, are also elements of great importance in the state's commerce.
The township's principal industry is the manufacture of cotton goods, the value of which in 1905 ($4,621,261) was 84.1% of the value of the township's total factory products; in 1905 no other place in the United States showed so high a degree of specialization in this industry.
Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.
Animals cannot make use of these decomposition products, but the plants can.
The dead bodies of organisms fall down from the surface and are slowly resolved into products of putrefaction, which gradually pass into the mineral forms, nitrates, carbonic acid and ash.
Trautenau is the centre of the Bohemian linen industry and has factories for the manufacture of paper and for the utilization of the waste products of the other mills.
The general trend of these researches lies in the study of the decomposition or " breaking down " products of the albumin molecules; once these are accurately determined, the synthesis of an albumin is but a matter of time.
Already we have proceeded far in our knowledge of the decomposition products, and certain simple proteids have been synthesized.
These decomposition products include: glycocoll or aminoacetic acid, NH 2 CH 2 Oooh, alanine d ucts.
This list is not exhaustive; other products are given in Gustav Mann, Chemistry of the Proteids (1906), to which reference should be made for a complete account of this class of compounds.
Transformation products of the albumins proper.
The primary products of the dissociation of albumins are the albumoses, characterized by not being coagulable by heat, more soluble than the albumins, having a far less complex composition, and capable of being " salted (7) out " by certain salts, and the peptones, similar to albumoses but not capable of being " salted out "; moreover, peptones are less complex than albumoses.
The decomposition products are generally the same as with the general albumin; it gives the biuret reaction; forms salts with acids and alkalies, but is essentially acid in nature.
Its commerce is, ho wever, almost entirely of the nature of transit trade, for it is not the chief distributing centre for the middle of Europe of the products of all other parts of the world, but is also the chief outlet for German, Austrian, and even to some extent Russian (Polish) raw products and manufactures.
Among other important articles of domestic industry are tobacco and cigars (manufactured mainly in bond, within the free harbour precincts), hydraulic machinery, electro-technical machinery, chemical products (including artificial manures), oils, soaps, india-rubber, ivory and celluloid articles and the manufacture of leather.
Gold is found in the sands of all its upper tributaries, and coal and petroleum are amongst the chief mineral products which have been brought into economic prominence.
The principal manufactures of Georgetown are cotton and cotton-seed oil, and planing-mill products.* In Page Park are mineral springs, whose waters have medicinal qualities similar to the famous Karlsbad waters.
All parts of the date palm yield valuable economic products.
The uses of the other parts and products of this tree are the same as those of the date palm products.
Watt, Dictionary of the Economic Products of India (1892); and The Date Palm, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin No.
The electromotive force of Volta's simple cell falls off rapidly when the cell is used, and this phenomenon was shown to be due to the accumulation at the metal plates of the products of chemical changes in the cell itself.
A study of the products of decomposition does not necessarily lead directly to a knowledge of the ions actually employed in carrying the current through the electrolyte.
When the amount of this ion in the surface layer becomes too small to carry all the current across the junction, other ions must also be used, and either they or their secondary products will appear also at the electrode.
When the ions are set free at the electrodes, they may unite with the substance of the electrode or with some constituent of the solution to form secondary products.
The obvious phenomena to be explained by any theory of electrolysis are the liberation of the products of chemical decomposition at the two electrodes while the intervening liquid is unaltered.
Interchanges must be supposed to go on whether a current passes or not, the function of the electric forces in electrolysis being merely to determine in what direction the parts of the molecules shall work their way through the liquid and to effect actual separation of these parts (or their secondary products) at the electrodes.
Since the salts, both before and after mixture, exist mainly as dissociated ions, it is obvious that large thermal effects can only appear when the state of dissociation of the products is very different from that of the reagents.
It seems that this reverse electromotive force of polarization is due to the deposit on the electrodes of minute quantities of the products of chemical decomposition.
It is regularly built and contains few buildings of architectural interest, but is a flourishing and important commercial town, not merely owing to its own manufactures (which are miscellaneous) but for the products of the district, and one of the greatest railway centres in Italy.
Among the manufactures of the township are carriages and products of planing mills, foundries and machine shops; and grapes and fruits are raised in the surrounding country.
The creosote and other products from the smoke no doubt act antiseptically and prevent to a large extent the subsequent putrefaction of the proteids retained by the coagulated rubber.
Similar products are also formed by heating gutta-percha which closely resembles caoutchouc in its chemical structure.
Other important products are lignite, gypsum and a variety of valuable stones and clays.
In the external trade the exports to Russia consist chiefly of grain, cattle, sheep, butter and other animal products, furs, game, feathers and down.
There are numerous markets in which a considerable trade is done in native products and articles of European manufacture.
Similarly, by putting one or more of the deleted rows or columns equal to rows or columns which are not deleted, we obtain, with Laplace, a number of identities between products of determinants of complementary orders.
From the theorem given above for the expansion of a determinant as a sum of products of pairs of corresponding determinants it will be plain that the product of A= (a ll, a22, ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ ann) and D = (b21, b 22, b nn) may be written as a determinant of order 2n, viz.
If three equations, each of the second degree, in three variables be given, we have merely to eliminate the six products x, 2, z 2, yz, zx, xy from the six equations u = v = w = o = oy = = 0; if we apply the same process :to thesedz equations each of degree three, we obtain similarly a determinant of order 21, but thereafter the process fails.
) j1+j2+j3+..ï¿½ (J1+ j2 +j3+...-1)!/T1)?1(J2)72 (J 3)/3..., j11j2!j3!... ?.1 for the expression of Za n in terms of products of symmetric functions symbolized by separations of (n 1 1n 2 2n 3 3) Let (n) a, (n) x, (n) X denote the sums of the n th powers of quantities whose elementary symmetric functions are a l, a 2, a31ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½; x 1, x2, x31..; X1, X2, X3,...
in terms of dl, d 2, d 3, ..., products denoting successive operations, by the same law which expresses the ele mentary function a s in terms of the sums of powers s l, s 2, s3,...
If the variables of the quantic f(x i, x 2) be subjected to the linear transformation x1 = a12Et2, x2 = a21E1+a2252, E1, being new variables replacing x1, x 2 and the coefficients an, all, a 21, a22, termed the coefficients of substitution (or of transformation), being constants, we arrive at a transformed quantic f% 1tn n n-1 n-2 52) = a S +(1)a11 E 2 + (2)a2E1 E 2 +ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ in the new variables which is of the same order as the original quantic; the new coefficients a, a, a'...a are linear functions 0 1 2 n of the original coefficients, and also linear functions of products, of the coefficients of substitution, of the nth degree.
We write;L 22 = a 1 a 2 .b 1 n-2 b2s 3 n - 3 3 n-3 3 n-3 3 a 3 = a 1 a 2 .b 1 b 2 .c 1 c2, and so on whenever we require to represent a product of real coefficients symbolically; we then have a one-to-one correspondence between the products of real coefficients and their symbolic forms. If we have a function of degree s in the coefficients, we may select any s sets of umbrae for use, and having made a selection we may when only one quantic is under consideration at any time permute the sets of umbrae in any manner without altering the real significance of the symbolism.
For these only will the symbolic product be replaceable by a linear function of products of real coefficients.
It will be shown later that all invariants, single or simultaneous, are expressible in terms of symbolic products.
Symbolic Identities.- For the purpose of manipulating symbolic expressions it is necessary to be in possession of certain simple identities which connect certain symbolic products.
-2 _ ab 2an-2bn-2Crz z x () x x x, Each term on the right-hand side may be shown by permutation of a, b, c to be the symbolical representation of the same covariant; they are equivalent symbolic products, and we may accordingly write 2(ac) (bc)ai -1 bi -1 cx 2 =(ab)2a:-2b:-2c:, a relation which shows that the form on the left is the product of the two covariants n (ab) ay 2 by 2 and cZ.
The identities are, in particular, of service in reducing symbolic products to standard forms. A symbolical expression may be always so transformed that the power of any determinant factor (ab) is even.
It will be a useful exercise for the reader to interpret the corresponding covariants of the general quantic, to show that some of them are simple powers or products of other covariants of lower degrees and order.
(f, 4)) k +(f, 4)) k +ï¿½(f, 4/) k +aï¿½(1, 4)')k; and, moreover, if we require to find the kth transvectant of one linear system of forms over another we have merely to multiply the two systems, and take the k th transvectant of the separate products.
In particular, when the product denotes an invariant we may transform each of the symbols a, b,...to x in succession, and take the sum of the resultant products; we thus obtain a covariant which is called the first evectant of the original invariant.
To obtain the real form we multiply out, and, in the result, substitute for the products of symbols the real coefficients which they denote.
The general term in a solution involves the product ao°ai 1 a2 2 ...an" wherein Tr =0, Zs7r s =w; the number of such products that may appear depends upon the number of partitions of w into B or fewer parts limited not to exceed n in magnitude.
In order to obtain the seminvari ants we would write down the (w; 0, n) terms each associated with a literal coefficient; if we now operate with 52 we obtain a linear function of (w - I; 8, n) products, for the vanishing of which the literal coefficients must satisfy (w-I; 0, n) linear equations; hence (w; 8, n)-(w-I; 0, n) of these coefficients may be assumed arbitrarily, and the number of linearly independent solutions of 52=o, of the given degree and weight, is precisely (w; 8, n) - (w - I; 0, n).
a irl aï¿½ 2 a a3 ...Ev 1 02 2 ?3 3 ...; and, if we express Ea l v2 2 0-3 3 in terms of A2, A3 i ..., and arrange the whole as a linear function of products of A2, A3,..., each coefficient will be a seminvariant, and the aggregate of the coefficients will give us the complete asyzygetic system of the given degree and weight.
Now the symbolic expression of the seminvariant can be expanded by the binomial theorem so as to be exhibited as a sum of products of seminvariants, of lower degrees if alai 0-2a2 +...+crea0 can be broken up into any two portions (alai -1-0-2a2-1-ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ +asas) +(as+1as +1 +o-8+2as+2+ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ +ooae), such that Q1 +a2+...
(1 + r i x)(1 where For the case 0=i, 0' =1, apparently, a choice of four products.
To assist us in handling the symbolic products we have not only the identity (ab) cx + (bc) a x + (ca) bx =0, but also (ab) x x+ (b x) a + (ax) b x = 0, (ab)a+(bc)a s +(ca)a b = 0, and many others which may be derived from these in the manner which will be familiar to students of the works of Aronhold, Clebsch and Gordan.
Bangor has various manufactures, the most important of which (other than those dependent upon lumber) are boots and shoes (including moccasins); among others are trunks, valises, saws, stoves, ranges and furnaces, edge tools and cant dogs, saw-mill machinery, brick, clothing, cigars, flour and dairy products.
In 1905 the city's factory products were valued at $3,408,355.
The leading products of the blast-furnace are argentiferous lead (base bullion), matte, slag and flue-dust (fine particles of charge and volatilized metal carried out of the furnace by the ascending gas current).
The working door through which the litharge is run off lies under the flue which carries off the products of combustion and the lead fumes, the lead is charged and the blast is admitted near the fire-bridge.
Among the manufactures are rubber goods, chemicals, iron castings, woollen goods, cutlery, &c. The value of the factory products increased from $8,886,676 in 1900 to $11,009,573 in 1905, or 23.9%.
The city has various manufactures, and the value of the factory products increased from $2,470,887 in 1900 to $3,047,422 in 1904, or 23.3%.
Agricultural products, fruit and wool from the surrounding country are shipped in considerable quantities.
the Araneae) and the genital products are developed in gonocoels also placed in the legs.
Others have a special faculty of consuming dry, powdery vegetable and animal refuse, and are liable to multiply in manufactured products of this nature, such as mouldy cheese.