Processes Sentence Examples
He worked hard at his book on refraction, and dissected the heads of animals in order to explain imagination and memory, which he considered physical processes.'
The body-cavity is largely occupied by processes from the large muscle cells of the skin.
One result of this is that mobilization and concentration are much slower processes than they are in Germany.
As this is not the incorporation of either into the living sobstance, but is only its manufacture into the complex substances which we find in the plant, it seems preferable to limit the term assimilation to the processes by which foods are actually taken into the protoplasm.
But it also appears that honeydew may be excreted by ordinary processes of over-turgescence pressing the liquid through water-pores, as in the tropical Caesalpinia, Calliandra, &c. That these exudations on leaves should afterwards serve as pabulum for Fungie.g.Advertisement
But, in actual operation, these two processes are simultaneous; every member is developed as an organ for the performance of some special function.
The two conceptions which may now be said to animate the theory of geography are the genetic, which depends upon processes of origin, and the morphological, which depends on facts of form and distribution.
Similarly during the growth of the bird the posterior end of the ilium connects itself with the transverse processes of vertebrae which were originally free, thus transforming them from caudals into secondary post-sacrals.
In many birds the spaces between the metasternum and the posterior processes and again the spaces between this and the oblique process are filled up by proceeding ossification and either remain as notches, or as fenestrae, or they are completely abolished so that the breastbone is turned into one solid more or less oblong plate.
The larva pierces the vessels of the plant with sharp processes at the hinder end of its body.Advertisement
A great number of preservative processes have been devised.
In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes.
The dead even were not free from the Holy Office; but processes could be instituted against them and their remains subjected to punishment.
The squamosals form the posterior outer margin of the orbits and are frequently continued into two lateral downward processes across the temporal fossa.
Then follows the rib-bearing portion and then the processus lateralis posterior; this also is the product of ribs, consequently the right and left processes together are equivalent to the xiphoid process or xiphisternum of the mammals.Advertisement
The anterior margin of the sternum, between the right and left anterior lateral processes receives in sockets the feet of the coracoids.
The humerus with its crests, ridges and processes, presents so many modifications characteristic of the various groups of birds, that its configuration alone is not only of considerable taxonomic value but that almost any genus, excepting, of course, those of Passeres, can be " spotted " by a close examination and comparison of this bone.
In rare cases the right and left preacetabular blades fuse with each other above the spinous processes.
This, when fully developed, consists of two parts, but inserted by a single ribbon-like tendon upon the hinder surface of the femur, near the end of its first third; the caudal part, femoro-caudalis, expressed by Garrod by the symbol A, arises from transverse processes of the tail; the iliac part (accessorofemoro-caudal of Garrod, with the symbol B), arises mostly from the outer surface of the postacetabular ilium.
In the pelvic region, from about the level of the posterior end of the ischiadic plexus, the strand of each side becomes single again, passing ventrally over the transverse processes.Advertisement
Birds possess an ear-muscle which at least acts as a tensor tympani; it arises near the occipital condyle, passes through a hole into the tympanic cavity, and its tendon is, in various ways, attached to the inside of the membrane and the neighbouring extracolumellar processes.
During his term of office he appeared in a case before the United States Supreme Court, where his knowledge of civil law so strongly impressed Edward Livingston, the secretary of state, who was himself an admirer of Roman Law, that he urged Legare to devote himself to the study of this subject with the hope that he might influence American law toward the spirit and philosophy and even the forms and processes of Roman jurisprudence.
This is the excessive litigiousness, the fondness for law, legal forms, legal processes, which has ever been characteristic of the people.
The sulphites are prepared by the action of sulphur dioxide on the oxides, hydroxides or carbonates of the metals, or by processes of precipitation.
This fact naturally led to his crediting himself with many discoveries which he afterwards found had been already established, often by more direct and elegant processes than his own.Advertisement
The female can protrude a long flexible tube in connexion with the eighth segment, carrying the sclerites of the ninth at its extremity, and these sclerites may carry short hairy processes A B D.yrnt,sc/'rle moathd ..
In male beetles, however, the two pairs of genital processes (paramera) belonging to the ninth abdominal segment are always present, though sometimes reduced.
For example, the grub of a pea or bean beetle (Bruchus) is hatched, from the egg laid by its mother on the carpel of a leguminous flower, with three pairs of legs and spiny processes on the prothorax.
The Buprestidae are distinguished from the Elateridae by the immobility of the prosternal process in the mesosternal cavity and by the absence of the lateral processes at the hind corners of the prothorax.
The wings are well developed for flight, and there is a tendency in the group, especially among the males, towards an excessive development of the mandibles or the presence of enormous, horn-like processes on the head or pronotum.
In this family there is often a marked divergence between the sexes; the terminal antennal segments are larger in the male than in the female, and the males may carry large spinous processes on the head or prothorax, or both.
The corps of gendarmes was also incorporated in this department, the under-secretary of the interior being placed at its head and at that of the police generally, with practically unlimited jurisdiction in all cases which, in the judgment of the minister of the interior, required to be dealt with by processes outside the ordinary law.
It held shipper as well as carrier, and corporation as well as its officer or agent, liable for violations of the act, and conferred upon United States courts power to employ equity processes in putting an end to discrimination.
Where the depth to rail-level was too great for cut-and-cover methods, ordinary tunnelling processes were used; and where the trench was too shallow for the arched roof, heavy girders, sometimes of cast iron, bridged it between the side walls, longitudinal.
Many miracles have been ascribed to him; an official list of these, said to have been attested by eyewitnesses, was drawn up by the auditors of the Rota when the processes for his canonization were formed, and is preserved in manuscript in the Vatican library.
Davy, Count Rumford, all concerned themselves with thermochemical investigations of such processes.
Sometimes the lip is mobile and even sensitive to impressions, as are also certain processes of the column.
In such cases the contact of an insect or other body with those processes is sufficient to liberate the pollen often with elastic force, even when the anther itself is not touched.
The prostomium bears often processes, both dorsal and ventral, which in the Sabellids are split into the circle of branchial plumes, which surround or nearly surround the mouth in those tube-dwelling Annelids.
Tomopteris is remarkable for the fact that the hammer-shaped prostomium has paired ventral processes each with a single seta.
Typically, the parapodium consists of two processes of the body on each side, each of which bears a bundle of setae; these two divisions of the "limb" are termed.
In both, the nephridia are all alike; there are no jaws; the prostomium rarely has processes.
The ganglia are crowded at the posterior end of the body as in leeches, and there is much tendency to the obliteration of the coelom as in that group. Pterodrilus and Cirrodrilus bear a few, or circles of, external processes which may be branchiae; Bdellodrilus and Astacobdella have none.
Certain deposits appear to have been formed, directly or indirectly, by wet processes.
For he proved that the various changes occurring in the several processes of fermentation - as, for example, in the vinous, where alcohol is the chief product; in the acetous, where vinegar appears; and in the lactic, where milk turns sour - are invariably due to the presence and' growth of minute organisms called ferments.
In common with other sciences, economics makes use of " abstractions"; but if for some problems we employ symbolic processes of reasoning, we must keep clearly in view the limits of their significance, and neither endow the symbols with attributes they can never possess, nor lose sight of the realities behind them.
But these are two distinct processes.
In these, as in Patella, the typical ctenidia are aborted, and the branchial function is assumed by close-set lamelliform processes arranged in a series beneath the mantle-skirt on either side of the foot.
The division of the foot into lobes is a simple case of that much greater elaboration or breaking up into processes and regions which it undergoes in the class Cephalopoda.
The sucker-bearing processes of Pneumonoderma are outgrowths of the proboscis.
External to the branchia are seen ten club-like processes of the dorsal wall, these are the " cerata " which are characteristically developed in another sub-order of Opisthobranchs.
The body-cavity and the muscular, fibrous and vascular tissues are traced partly to two symmetrically disposed " mesoblasts," which bud off from the invaginated arch-enteron, partly to cells derived from the ectoderm, which at a very early stage is connected by long processes with the invaginated endoderm.
Human experience consists, not of processes in an animal organism, but of these processes recognized as such.
Paired processes on the eighth and ninth abdominal segments may be specialized as external organs of reproduction, but these are probably not appendages.
Elaboration in the form of the feelers, often a secondary sexual character in male insects, may result from a distal broadening of the segments, so that the appendage becomes serrate, or from the development of processes bearing sensory organs, so that the structure is pinnate or feather-like.
In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.
The fat-body is therefore the seat of important metabolic processes in the hexapod body.
The male opening is on the ninth abdominal segment, to which belong the processes that form the claspers or genital armature.
In the adult state no insect possesses more than six legs, and they are always attached to the thorax; in many Thysanura there are, however, processes on the abdomen that, as to their position, are similar to legs.
Klapalek (1904) lays stress on a supposed distinction between appendicular and non-appendicular genital processes.
The processes and extent of the manufacture were revolutionized at about the beginning of the 19th century by Chevreul's classical investigations on the fats and oils, and by Leblanc's process for the manufacture of caustic soda from common salt.
Numerous varieties of soaps are made; the purposes to which they are applied are varied; the materials employed embrace a considerable range of oils, fats and other bodies; and the processes adopted undergo many modifications.
As regards processes of manufacture soaps may be made by the direct combination of fatty acids, separated from oils, with alkaline solutions.
The processes of soap manufacture may be classified (a) according to the temperatures employed into (I) cold processes and (2) boiling processes, or (b) according to the nature of the starting material - acid or oil and fat - and the relative amount of alkali, into (1) direct saturation of the fatty acid with alkali, (2) treating the fat with a definite amount of alkali with no removal of unused lye, (3) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali, also with no separation of unused lye, (4) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali with separation of waste lye.
The idea of transmutation, in the country of its origin, had a philosophical basis, and was linked up with the Greek theories of matter there current; thus, by supplying a central philosophical principle, it to some extent unified and focussed chemical effort, which previously, so far as it existed at all, had been expended on acquiring empirical acquaintance with a mass of disconnected technical processes.
The author of these receipts is not under any delusion that he is transmuting metals; the MS. is merely a workshop manual in which are described processes in daily use for preparing metals for false jewellery, but it argues considerable knowledge of methods of making alloys and colouring metals.
Later, however, as in the Commentary on this work written by Synesius to Dioscorus, priest of Serapis at Alexandria, which probably dates from the end of the 4th century, a changed attitude becomes apparent; the more practical parts of the receipts are obscured or omitted, and the processes for preparing alloys and colouring metals, described in the older treatise, are by a mystical interpretation represented as resulting in real transmutation.
In Berthelot's opinion, the Syriac portions represent a compilation of receipts and processes undertaken in the Syrian school of medicine at Bagdad under the Abbasids in the 9th or 10th century, and to a large extent constituted by the earlier translations made by Sergius of Resaena in the 6th century.
But side by side with this literary transmission Berthelot insists that there was another mode of transmission, by means of the knowledge of practical receipts and processes traditional among jewellers, painters, workers in glass and pottery, and other handicraftsmen.
It must be noted that the processes described by the alchemists of the 13th century are not put forward as being miraculous or supernatural; they rather represent the methods employed by nature, which it is the end of the alchemist's art to reproduce artificially in the laboratory.
These larvae are minute oval creatures with a comparatively short apically fringed caudal prolongation and furnished with two pairs of short two-clawed processes, which may represent the limbs of anthropods and possibly the two pairs of legs found in Acari of the family Eriophyidae.
Here it becomes encysted, and losing its boring apparatus and claw-bearing processes remains for a time quiescent.
Berthelot, " alchemy rested partly on the industrial processes of the ancient Egyptians, partly on the speculative theories of the Greek philosophers, and partly on the mystical reveries of the Gnostics and Alexandrians."
From the mazy and incoherent alchemical and iatrochemical doctrines, the former based on false conceptions of matter, the latter on erroneous views of life processes and physiology, a new science arose - the study of the composition of substances.
At the hands of Stahl and his school, the phlogistic theory, by exhibiting a fundamental similarity between all processes of combustion and by its remarkable flexibility, came to be a general theory of chemical action.
The doctrine of copulae was discarded, and in 1859 emphasis was given to the view that all organic compounds were derivatives of inorganic by simple substitution processes.
Transformations of electrical into chemical energy are witnessed in the processes of electrolysis (q.v.; see also Electrochemistry and Electrometallurgy).
Processes were devised by Guimet (1826) and by Christian Gmelin (1828), then professor of chemistry in Tubingen; but while Guimet kept his process a secret Gmelin published his, and thus became the originator of the "artificial ultramarine" industry.
The details of the commercial processes are trade secrets.
The processes of zincography and of algraphy (aluminium printing) are essentially the same as lithography.
Photographic processes have been utilized not only in reducing maps to a smaller scale, but also for producing stones and plates from which they may be printed.
The manuscript maps intended to be produced by photographic processes upon stone, zinc or aluminium, are drawn on a scale somewhat larger than the scale on which they are to be printed, thus eliminating all those imperfections which are inherent in a pen-drawing.
Originally the maps were engraved on copper, and the progress of publication was slow; but since the introduction of modern processes, such as electrotyping (in 1840), photography (in 1855) and zincography (in 1859), it has been rapid.
The post-glenoid, post-tympanic and paroccipital processes of the skull are large, and there is an alisphenoid canal.
The postglenoid, post-tympanic and paroccipital processes of the skull are large; the second of these being always distinct.
This was met in a very large measure by deposits of natural nitre and the products of artificial nitrieres, whilst additional supplies are available in the ammoniacal liquors of the gas-manufacturer, &c. The possible failure of the nitre deposits led to attempts to convert atmospheric nitrogen into manures by processes permitting economic success.
Several non-electrical processes have been devised.
It is only recently that the succession of processes which is involved in any act of counting has been seen to be irrelevant to the idea of number.
Under the general heading "Analysis" occur the subheadings "Foundations of Analysis," with the topics theory of functions of real variables, series and other infinite processes, principles and elements of the differential and of the integral calculus, definite integrals, and calculus of variations; "Theory of Functions of Complex Variables," with the topics functions of one variable and of several variables; "Algebraic Functions and their Integrals," with the topics algebraic functions of one and of several variables, elliptic functions and single theta functions, Abelian integrals; "Other Special Functions," with the topics Euler's, Legendre's, Bessel's and automorphic functions; "Differential Equations," with the topics existence theorems, methods of solution, general theory; "Differential Forms and Differential Invariants," with the topics differential forms, including Pfaffians, transformation of differential forms, including tangential (or contact) transformations, differential invariants; "Analytical Methods connected with Physical Subjects," with the topics harmonic analysis, Fourier's series, the differential equations of applied mathematics, Dirichlet's problem; "Difference Equations and Functional Equations," with the topics recurring series, solution of equations of finite differences and functional equations.
Between them the general theory of the complex variable, and of the various "infinite" processes of mathematical analysis, was established, while other mathematicians, such as Poncelet, Steiner, Lobatschewsky and von Staudt, were founding modern geometry, and Gauss inaugurated the differential geometry of surfaces.
Suidas says that the fleece was a book written on parchment, which taught how to make gold by chemical processes.
The Jew and the heathen had the gospel preached to them in the world below by Christ and his apostles, and Christians will have to pass through processes of purification and trial after death before they reach knowledge and perfect bliss.
The wonderful development of Minnesota as a flour-producing state began with the introduction of improved roller processes after 1870.
Jahn, 2 the processes at the anode can be represented by the equations 2CH 3 000+H 2 0 =2CH3 000H+0 2 C H 3.
Considered thermodynamically, voltaic cells must be divided into reversible and non-reversible systems. If the slow processes of diffusion be ignored, the Daniell cell already described may be taken as a type of a reversible cell.
Since the final state of the system would be the same as in the actual processes of the cell, the same amount of heat must give a measure of the change in internal energy when the cell is in action.
An electromotive force is therefore set up in this direction, and, if we can calculate the change in available energy due to the processes of the cell, we can foretell the value of the electromotive force.
On the other hand, we may imagine the processes due to the electrical transfer to be reversed by an osmotic operation.
The processes of manufacture have much in common, although varying in detail.
These processes are accompanied by a gradual descent down the mountain side, during which the neve suffers consolidation, until it becomes compact glacier-ice.
Hence processes have been patented in which the objects to be plated are suspended in revolving drums between the anodes, the rotation of the drum causing the constant renewal of surfaces and affording a burnishing action at the same time.
Electrolysis has in a few instances been applied to processes of manufacture.
These often have the form of prisms of calcite surrounded by a cuti cular meshwork; the whole is nourished and kept alive by processes, which in Crania are branched; these perforate the shell and permit the access of the coelomic fluid throughout its substance.
Summary of Results.-We will now give a short account of the results to which the foregoing processes lead.
While by the English and Carinthian processes as much lead as possible is extracted in the furnace, with the Silesian method a very low temperature is used, thus taking out about one-half of the lead and leaving very rich slags (50% lead) to be smelted in the blast-furnace, the ultimate result being a very much higher yield than by either of the other processes.
In smelting at once in the same blast-furnace ores of different character, the old use of separate processes of precipitation, roasting and reduction, and general reduction prevailing in the Harz Mountains, Freiberg and other places, to suit local conditions, has been abandoned.
At Freiberg, Saxony, the two processes have been combined.
Each consists of an axis, bearing numerous blunt tooth-like processes arranged in a series.
They appear at first as outstanding processes on the surface of the body.
Zoologists are familiar with many instances (fishes, crustaceans) in which the protective walls of a water-breathing organ or gill-apparatus become converted into an air-breathing organ or lung, but there is no other case known of the conversion of gill processes themselves into air-breathing plates.
There is no doubt that these are parapodial or limb appendages, carrying numerous imbricated secondary processes, and therefore comparable in essential structure to the leaf-bearing plates of the second meso somatic somite of Limulus.
All the appendages are pediform and bi-ramose; all have a prominent gnathobase, and in all the exopodite carries a comb-like series of secondary processes.
Appendages of 2nd pair very large and completely chelate, their basal segments meeting in the middle line, as in the Uropygi, and provided in front with membranous lip-like processes underlying the proboscis.
According to him, the myths arose from definite local (especially atmospheric and aquatic) phenomena, and represented the annually recurring processes of nature as the acts of gods and heroes; thus, in Achill (1853), the Trojan War is the winter conflict of the elements in that district.
These salts are employed in dyeing and various other industrial processes.
The senators must be not less than thirty-five years of age, and are exempt from all legal processes not previously authorized by the senate during their term of office, except in cases of arrest in flagrante delicto for a capital crime.
Towards the close of 1828 he felt the approach of a fatal malady - a tumour in the brain - and devoted his last days to a careful revisal of his unpublished researches and industrial processes, dictating several papers on these subjects, which were afterwards published in the Philosophical Transactions.
We see first that any operation with 4a-3b can be regarded as an operation with (+)4a+(-)3b, subject to the conditions (I) that the signs (+) and (-) obey the laws (+)=(+),(+)(-)=(-)(+)= (-), (-) (-)=(+), and (2) that, when processes of multiplication are completed, a quantity is to be added or subtracted according as it has the sign (+) or (-) prefixed.
Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.
Nothing can be further from the truth than the once favourite theory that instincts are the survivals of lapsed reasoning processes.
There are various copying processes by which it is possible to reproduce an original ruling in more or less perfection.
The Bolivian tin ore is treated by first extracting the silver by amalgamation, &c., and afterwards concentrating the residues; there are, however, considerable difficulties in the way of treating the poorer of these very complex ores, and several chemical processes for extracting their metallic contents have been worked out.
The objections raised were (i) the costliness of the instruments employed and their liability to get out of order; (2) the need for specially instructed measurers, men of superior education; (3) the errors that frequently crept in when carrying out the processes and were all but irremediable.
The human organism is far too complex to enable us to understand the true significance of diseased processes.
Their physiological activities gradually fail owing to the constructive processes having become so exhausted from long use that the destructive ones are able to overtake them.
According to our present knowledge of physiological and pathological processes, we must regard the cell as the ultimate biological unit - a unit of structure and a unit of function; this was first put forward by Schleiden in 1838, and by Schwann in 1839, but we owe to Virchow the full recognition of the fundamental importance of the living cell in all the processes of life, whether in health or disease.
There is thus brought into play a series of processes on the part of the tissues - the vascular inflammatory changes - which is really the first move to neutralize the malign effects.
The healing of wounds is brought about by similar processes to that seen in the evolution of an abscess.
In resenting such insults, a remarkable uniformity and regularity in the processes is brought about by the different cells and fluids of the healthy tissues of the body.
After two to four days these processes are more clearly emphasized.
The branching processes of these cells apparently anastomose with one another and form a delicate supporting network.
These are spindle shaped and have long processes.
Note that these phagocytic cells are pushing out protoplasmic processes (pseudopodia) by which they grasp their victims. (X woo diam.) FIG.
Fatty accumulations in the tissues of the body are found in health and in pathological conditions; these are usually recognized and described as fatty infiltrations and fatty degenerations, but there are intermediate conditions which make it difficult to separate sharply these processes.
Many theories have been advanced to explain these processes, and recently the subject has received considerable attention.
In anatomy and physiology little advance had been made, and so of pathology in the sense of an explanation of morbid processes or knowledge of diseased structures there could be very little.
When William Harvey by his discovery of the circulation furnished an explanation of many vital processes which was reconcilable with the ordinary laws of mechanics, the efforts of medical theorists were naturally directed to bringing all the departments of medicine under similar laws.
Mechanical theories were introduced into pathology, in explanation of the processes of fever and the like, but had little or no influence on therapeutics.
Fermentation, which was supposed to take place in the stomach, played an important part in the vital processes.
Chemical disturbances of these processes, called acridities, &c., were the cause of fevers and other diseases.
The "intestine movement of particles" in every body, or fermentation, was the explanation of many of the processes of life and disease.
The reform of practical medicine was effected by men who aimed at, and partly succeeded in, rejecting all hypothesis and returning to the unbiassed study of natural processes, as shown in health and disease.
Sydenham showed that these processes might be profitably studied and dealt with without explaining them; and, by turning men's minds away from explanations and fixing them on facts, he enriched medicine with a method more fruitful than any discoveries in detail.
With the melting of the ice the more daring spirits dashed into the new current with such ardour that for them all traditions, all institutions, were thrown into hotchpot; even elderly and sober physicians took enough of the infection to liberate their minds, and, in the field of the several diseases and in that of post-mortem pathology, the hollowness of classification by superficial resemblance, the transitoriness of forms, and the flow of processes, broke upon the view.
These new conceptions of the multiplicity in unity of disease, and of the fluidity and continuity of morbid processes, might have led to vagueness and over-boldness in speculation and reconstruction, had not the experimental method been at hand with clues and tests for the several series.
The appreciation of such modifications, and of the working of such causes, has been facilitated greatly by the light thrown upon normal processes by advances in physiology; so dependent is each branch of knowledge upon the advances of contiguous and incident studies.
Now as our own bodies thus manipulate substances poisonous and antidotal, if in every hour of health we are averting selfintoxication, so likewise are we concerned with the various intruding organisms, whose processes of digestion are as dangerous as our own; if these destructive agents, which no doubt are incessantly gaining admission to our bodies, do not meet within us each its appropriate compensatory defensive agent, dissolution will begin.
Thus, much of infection and immunity are proving to be but special cases of digestion, and teleological conceptions of protective processes are modified.
By chemical warnings the defensive processes seem to be awakened, or summoned; and when we think of the infinite variety of such possible phases, and of the multitude of corresponding defensive agents, we may form some dim notion of the complexity of the animal blood and tissues, and within them of the organic molecules.
Moreover, the insight into origins, into initial morbid processes revealed by the pathologists, eu Theraa woke more and more the hoe of dealin with the peutics.
It is needless to point out how such paths of disease, in their association with characteristic symptoms, have illuminated the clinical features of disease as well as the processes of normal function.
It is convenient here to add that such reactions and modifications, if more conspicuous in the nervous system, are of course not confined to it, but are concerned in their degree in all the processes of metabolism, being most readily traced by us in the blood.
The origins, kinds and processes of meningitis are more clearly distinguished, and referred each to its proper cause - for the most part bacterial.
On the other hand, they are constantly impressed by his power of reasoning both deductively and inductively, by the subtlety and fertility of invention with which he applies analogies, by the clearness and keenness of his observation, by the fulness of matter with which his mind is stored, and by the consecutive force, the precision and distinctness of his style, when employed in the processes of scientific exposition.
In the midst of these multifarious labours Giry found time for extensive archaeological researches, and made a special study of the medieval treatises dealing with the technical processes employed in the arts and industries.
Kolbe had an important share in the great development of chemical theory that occurred about the middle of the 19th century, especially in regard to the constitution of organic compounds, which he viewed as derivatives of inorganic ones, formed from the latter - in some cases directly - by simple processes of substitution.
Many synthetic processes are known for the production of acridine and its derivatives.
There is a gold mine at Kyaukpazat in the Mawnaing circle of the Kathra district, where the quartz is crushed by machinery and treated by chemical processes.
The fluidity of glass at a high temperature renders possible the processes of ladelling, pouring, casting and stirring.
Processes of annealing, or very gradual cooling, are intended to relieve these strains, but such processes are only completely effective when the cooling, particularly through those ranges of temperature where the glass is just losing the last traces of plasticity, is extremely gradual, a rate measured in hours per degree Centigrade being required.
Further, all the subsequent processes of cutting, moulding and annealing become increasingly difficult, owing to the greatly increased risk of breakage arising from either external injury or internal strain, as the dimensions of the individual piece of glass increase.
They have a hooded opening on one side near the top. This opening serves for the introduction of the glass-mixture, for the removal of the melted glass and as a source of heat for the processes of manipulation.
The old and the new systems of making a wine-glass illustrate almost all the ordinary processes of glass working.
Cutting and engraving are mechanical processes for producing decorative effects by abrading the surface of the glass when cold.
There are two other processes of marking patterns on glass, but they possess no artistic value.
Crown-glass has at the present day almost disappeared from the market, and it has been superseded by sheet-glass, the more modern processes described above being capable of producing much larger sheets of glass, free from the knob or " bullion " which may still be seen in old crown-glass windows.
The processes employed in the manufacture of the glass bulbs for incandescent electric lamps, are similar to the old- FIG.
Edward Dillon (Glass, 1902) has very properly laid stress on the importance of the enamelled Saracenic glass of the r3th, 14th and r 5th centuries, pointing out that, whereas the Romans and Byzantine Greeks made some crude and ineffectual experiments in enamelling, it was under Saracenic influence that the processes of enamelling and gilding on glass vessels were perfected.
Many of the ornamental processes which we admire in Venetian glass were already in use in this century.
Many of the examples of these processes exhibit surprising skill and taste, and are among the most beautiful objects produced at the Venetian furnaces.
In the year 1838 Signor Bussolin revived several of the ancient processes of glass-working, and this revival was carried on by C. Pietro Biguglia in 1845, and by others, and later by Salviati, to whose successful efforts the modern renaissance of Venetian art glass is principally due.
It was well adapted for receiving cut and engraved decoration, and in these processes the German craftsmen proved themselves to be exceptionally skilful.
In the 17th and 18th centuries the processes of scratching, engraving and etching were brought to great perfection.
Ruff's processes, leading to lower sugars.
The sap is drawn off from the upper growing portion of the stem, and altogether an average tree will run in a season 350 lb of toddy, from which about 35 lb of raw sugar - jaggery - is made by simple and rude processes.
The details of manufacture of sugar from canes and of sugar from beetroots differ, but there are five operations in the production of the sugar of commerce from either material which are common to both processes.
It shows the greatest quantity of juice that may be expressed from canes, according to the different proportions of fibre they contain, but without employing maceration or imbibition, to which processes reference is made hereafter.
Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.
This, apart from the effect of the abolition of the sugar bounties, has been mainly the result of the increased employment of improved processes, carried on in improved apparatus, under skilled supervision, and with due regard to the importance of the chemical aspects of the work.
The processes of evaporation and concentration are carried on as they are in a cane sugar factory, but with this advantage, that the beet solutions are freer from gum and glucose than those obtained from sugar-canes, and are therefore easier to cook.
It would appear that the purchasing power of the inhabitants of India has increased of late years, and there is a growing demand for refined sugar, fostered by the circumstance that modern processes of manufacture can make a quality of sugar, broadly speaking, equal to sugar refined by animal charcoal, without using charcoal, and so the religious objections to the refined sugars of old days have been overcome.
The epidermis consists of pyriform cells, which send richly branched processes to the superficial cuticle.
The parenchyma is made up of stellate cells the processes of which formareticulum.
The hinder border is often drawn out into mobile processes and hollowed out around the insertion of the next FIG.
If the whole of the soil in the British Islands were swept into the sea and the rocks beneath it laid bare the surface of the country would ultimately become covered again with soil produced from the rocks by the weathering processes just described.
Soil whose temperature remains low, whether from its northerly aspect or from its high water content or other cause, is unsatisfactory, because the germination of seeds and the general life processes of plants cannot go on satisfactorily except at certain temperatures well above freezing-point.
In the mechanical analysis of the soil, after separation of the stones and fine gravel by means of sieves, the remainder of the finer earth is subjected to various processes of sifting and deposition from water with a view of determining the relative proportions of sand, silt and clay present in it.
They are responsible for many important chemical processes which make the soil constituents more available and better adapted to the nutrition of crops.
Much of the work carried on by these organisms is not clearly understood; there are, however, certain processes which have been extensively investigated and to these it is necessary to refer.
But the regulation of industry was always paramount to social and religious aims; the chief object of the craft gild was to supervise the processes of manufacture and to control the monopoly of working and dealing in a particular branch of industry.
The modern processes may be primarily divided into two groups according to the nature of the vessel in which the operation is effected.
The chief improvements in the plant of these processes are concerned with the manufacture of the retorts or muffles, and especially with the introduction of gas-firing.
Borchers, trace it to the presence of oxide, produced, for example, either by the use of a solution containing a trace of basic salt of zinc (to prevent which the bath should be kept just - almost imperceptibly - acid), or by the presence of a more electro-negative metal, which, being co-deposited, sets up local action at the expense of the zinc. Many processes have been patented, the ore being acted upon by acid, and the resulting solution treated, by either chemical or electrolytic means, for the successive removal of the other heavy metals.
Hoepfner's processes have been employed both in England and in Germany.
Zinc oxide, ZnO, is maufactured for paint by two processes - directly from the ore mixed with coal by volatilization on a grate, as in the Wetherill oxide process, and by oxidizing the vapour given off by a boiling bath of zinc metal.
His father, a drysalter and dealer in colours, used sometimes to make experiments in the hope of finding improved processes for the production of his wares, and thus his son early acquired familiarity with practical chemistry.
These and other studies in pure chemistry mainly occupied his attention until about 1838, but the last thirty-five years of his life were devoted more particularly to the chemistry of the processes of life, both aptinal and vegetable.
To this end he examined such immediate vital products as blood, bile and urine; he analysed the juices of flesh, establishing the composition of creatin and investigating its decomposition products, creatinin and sarcosin; he classified the various articles of food in accordance with the special function performed by each in the animal economy, and expounded the philosophy of cooking; and in opposition to many of the medical opinions of his time taught that the heat of the body is the result of the processes of combustion and oxidation performed within the organism.
Rejecting the old notion that plants derive their nourishment from humus, he taught that they get carbon and nitrogen from the carbon dioxide and ammonia present in the atmosphere, these compounds being returned by them to the atmosphere by the processes of putrefaction and fermentation - which latter he regarded as essentially chemical in nature - while their potash, soda, lime, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., come from the soil.
Nor had the king up to that time exerted any apparent influence on the processes that were going forward.
The present article, as explained under Electrochemistry, treats only of those processes in which electricity is applied to the production of chemical reactions or molecular changes at furnace temperatures.
In these processes the electric current is used solely to generate heat, either to induce chemical reactions between admixed substances, or to produce a physical (allotropic) modification of a given substance.
Since that date other processes have been devised and the electrolytic processes have entirely replaced the older methods of reduction with sodium.
Barium and strontium have also been produced by electrometallurgical methods, but the processes have only a laboratory interest at present.
Many synthetical processes for the preparation of anthracene and its derivatives are known.
A more general designation is "pyrogenic processes," which also includes such operations as leading vapours through red-hot tubes and condensing the products.
Since the acid contains an asymmetric carbon atom, it can exist in three forms, a dextro-rotatory, a laevo-rotatory and an inactive form; the acid obtained in the various synthetical processes is the inactive form.
The tail may be a simple hollow muscular process or provided with stiff bristles set in transverse rows, or divided into two equally long processes, or finally it may form a large vesicular structure.
Man is viewed as a part of nature, and all his widely differing forms of development as strictly natural processes.
With respect to his attacks on the critical philosophy in the Metakritik (1799), it is easy to understand how his concrete mind, ever alive to the unity of things, instinctively rebelled against that analytic separation of the mental processes which Kant attempted.
Steel-grinding was notoriously unhealthy, and manufacturing processes generally were less favourable to life than agricultural.
It tended to make life easier and cheaper for large and numerous classes; it promised wholesale remissions of taxation; it lessened the charges on common processes of business, on locomotion, on postal communication, and on several articles of general consumption.
But it makes some difference to the future of a democratic state whether its leading men are eagerly on the look-out for something to revolutionize, or approach a constitutional change by the gradual processes of conviction and conversion.
Among other things Hales invented a "sea-gauge" for sounding, and processes for distilling fresh from sea water, for preserving corn from weevils by fumigation with brimstone, and for salting animals whole by passing brine into their arteries.
And thus, close student of natures processes, methods, and effects as the Japanese art workman is, he ever seeks to produce humble replicas from his only art master.
Great skill is shown in this operation, which achieves perhaps the finest facsimile reproduction of drawings ever known withotit the aid of photographic processes.
In their adaptation of modern processes of illustration the Japanese are entirely abreast of Western nations, the chrornolithographs and other reproductions in the Kokka, a periodical record of Japanese works of art (begun in 1889), in the superb albums of the Shimbi S/join, and in the publications of Ogawa being of quite a high order of merit.
All the processes described above are practised by them with full success, and they have added others quite as remarkable.
All these processes, as well as that of repouss, in which the Japanese have excelled from a remote period, are now practised with the greatest skill in Tokyo, KiOto, Osaka and Kanazawa.
Copper, tin, lead and zinc, mixed in various proportions by different experts, are the ingredients, and the beautiful golden hues and glossy texture of the surface are obtained by patina-producing processes, in which branch of metal-work the Japanese show altogether unique skill.
No other method permits the decorator to achieve such fidelity and such boldness of draughtsmanship. The difference between the results of the ordinary and the yuzen processes of dyeing is, in fact, the difference between a stencilled sketch and a finished picture.
The existence of porcelain clay in Hizen was not discovered for many years, and Shonzuis pieces being made entirely with kaolin imported from China, their manufacture ceased after his death, though knowledge of the processes learned by him survived and was used in the production of greatly inferior wares.
The porcelain industry was inaugurated in 1807 by Tamikichi, a local ceramist, who had visited Hizen and spent three years there studying the necessary processes.
For many years after Tamikichis processes had begun to be practised, the only decoration employed was blue under the glaze.
At Hirado the ceramists affected a lighter and more delicatetone than that of the Chinese, and, in order to obtain it, subjected the choice pigment of the Middle Kingdom to refining processes of great severity.
But the style was not calculated to win general popularity, and the manufacturing processes were too easy to occupy the attention of great potters.
They still manufacture quantities of tea and coffee sets, and dinner or dessert services of red-and-gold porcelain for foreign markets; but about 1885 some of them made zealous and patient efforts to revert to the processes that won so much fame for the old Kutaniyaki, with its grand combinations of rich, lustrous, soft-toned glazes.
In the manufacture of Japanese lacquer there are three processes.
If, on the other hand, the processes are strictly alternative, a world which ex hypothesi exemplifies the one can never justify us in inferring the other.
Kellner, who in 1886 patented the use of cathode (caustic soda) and anode (chlorine) liquors in the manufacture of cellulose from wood-fibre, and has since evolved many similar processes, has produced an apparatus that has been largely used.
The phlogistic theory of the processes of calcination and combustion necessitated the view that many acids, such as those produced by combustion, e.g.
The animal and the plant alike require food to repair waste, to build up new tissue and to provide material which, by chemical change, may liberate the energy which appears in the processes of life.
From 1858 to 1861 methylated spirit was duty-free when it was required for manufacturing processes, and the methylation or "denaturizing" was carried out in accordance with a prescribed process.
Electrolytically, generally applied to the solutions obtained in processes (3) and (4).
Many processes have been suggested in which the gold of auriferous deposits is converted into products soluble in water, from which solutions the gold may be precipitated.
Of these processes, two only are of special importance, viz.
There have also been introduced processes in which the chlorine is generated in the chloridizing vat, the reagents used being dilute solutions of bleaching powder and an acid.
Consequently the separation of these two metals is one of the most important metallurgical processes.
In the " dry " methods the silver is converted into sulphide or chloride, the gold remaining unaltered; in the " wet " methods the silver is dissolved by nitric acid or boiling sulphuric acid; and in the electrolytic processes advantage is taken of the fact that under certain current densities and other circumstances silver passes from an anode composed of a gold-silver alloy to the cathode more readily than gold.
It is now rarely practised, although in some refineries both the nitric acid and the sulphuric acid processes are combined, the alloy being first treated with nitric acid.
The silver present in the solution obtained in the sulphuric acid boiling is recovered by a variety of processes.
Gold is left in the anode slime when copper or silver are refined by the usual processes, but if the gold preponderate in the anode these processes are inapplicable.
The cuticle is secreted by an epidermis in which no cell boundaries are to be seen; it sends out processes into the bristles.
The crude metal obtained by the preceding processes is generally contaminated by arsenic, sulphur, iron, nickel, cobalt and antimony, and sometimes with silver or gold.
The right sheath C (outer process of the ninth abdominal segment-9) is shown in connexion with the guide B formed by the inner processes of the 9th segment.
Most male Hymenoptera have processes which form claspers or genital armature.
These processes are not altogether homologous with those of the ovipositor, being formed by inner and outer lobes of a pair of structures on the ninth abdominal segment.
Most saw-fly larvae devour leaves, and the beautifully serrate processes of the ovipositor are well adapted for egg-laying in plant tissues.
The first larva is broad in front and tapers behind to a " tail " provided with two divergent processes, so that it resembles a small crustacean.
The typical insectan ovipositor with its three pairs of processes, one pair belonging to the eighth and two pairs to the ninth abdominal segment, can be distinguished in the female.
In Halohates a comb-like series of sharp spines on the fore-shin can be drawn across a set of blunt processes on the shin of the opposite leg.
A minute fraction is always separating out of the water, and as a prodigious length of time may be accepted for the accomplishment of all the chemical and physical processes in the deep sea, we must take account of the gradual accumulation of even this infinitesimal precipitation.
When these processes continue for a long time in deep water shut off from free circulation so that it does not become aerated by contact with the atmosphere the water becomes unfit to support the life of fishes, and when the accumulation of putrefying organic matter gives rise to sulphuretted hydrogen as in the Black Sea below 125 fathoms, life, other than bacterial, is impossible.
Bjerknes have been usefully applied in many cases, but they cannot take the place of direct observations of currents and of the fundamental processes and conditions underlying them.
This work led to important improvements in the processes of candle-manufacture.
The two principal processes utilized in making calcium carbide by electrical power are the ingot process and the tapping process.
It is clear that acetylene, if it is to be used on a large scale as a domestic illuminant, must undergo such processes of purification as will render it harmless and innocuous to health and property, and the sooner it is recognized as absolutely essential to purify acetylene before consuming it the sooner will the gas acquire the popularity it deserves.
The introduction of acetylene dissolved under pressure in acetone contained in cylinders filled with porous material drew attention again to this use of the gas, and by using a special construction of blowpipe an oxy-acetylene flame is produced, which is far hotter than the oxy-hydrogen flame, and at the same time is so reducing in its character that it can be used for the direct autogenous welding of steel and many minor metallurgical processes.
When a liquid undergoing evaporation is contained in a closed vessel, a molecule which has left the liquid will, after a certain 1 Other processes also help in the conduction of heat, especially in substances which are conductors of electricity.
Mayow perceived the similarity of the processes of respiration and combustion, and showed that one constituent of the atmosphere, which he termed spiritus nitro-aereus, was essential to combustion and life, and that the second constituent, which he termed spiritus nitri acidi, inhibited combustion and life.
The Stahlian theory, originally a theory of combustion, came to be a general theory of chemical reactions, since it provided simple explanations of the ordinary chemical processes(when regarded qualitatively) and permitted generalizations which largely stimulated its acceptance.
Various synthetic processes have been used for the preparation of anthraquinone.
The most important industries of the town are the manufacture of buckskin, the spinning of carded yarn and vicuna-wool, and the processes of dyeing, finishing and wool-spinning connected with these.
The moving of vast objects by these simple processes shows what great numbers of men could be enlisted in a single effort, and how high a grade of government it was which could hold them together and feed them.
It must be admitted, however, that both the tools and the processes have escaped the archaeologist, as they did "the ablest goldsmiths in Spain, for they never could conceive how they had been made, there being no sign of a hammer or an engraver or any other instrument used by them, the Indians having none such" (Herrera).
The study of Indian textiles includes an account of their fibres, tools, processes, products, ornaments and uses.
The processes involved were gathering the raw material, shredding, splitting, gauging, wrapping, twining, spinning and braiding.
Ornamentation was in form, colour, technical processes and dyes.
The northern Algonquin and Iroquoian tribes practised similar arts, and in the Atlantic states wove robes of animal and bird skins by cutting the latter into long strips, winding these strips on twine of hemp, and weaving them by the same processes employed in their basketry.
From the centre, processes (s) go to circumference(t), ending in curved placentaries bearing the ovules.
In many processes of chemical technology filtration plays an important part.
As it would be impossible for an enumerator to get through this task in the course of the census night for more than a comparatively small number of houses, the operation is divided into two processes.
But an area or a volume cannot generally be measured by successive applications of the unit of area or volume; intermediate processes are necessary, the result of which is expressed by a formula.
The process of determining the area or volume of a given figure therefore involves two separate processes; viz.
Mensuration is not concerned with the first of these two processes, which forms part of the art of measurement, but only with the second.
The processes which have to be performed in the mensuration of figures of this kind are in effect processes of integration; the distinction between mensuration and integration lies in the different natures of the data.
The province of mensuration is to express the final result of such an elimination in terms of the data, without the necessity of going through the intermediate processes.
In the older formations the phosphates tend to become more and more mineralized by chemical processes.
He then turned to industrial pursuits, and, having made himself acquainted with the processes of the cotton manufacture, founded at Auchy, in the Pas de Calais, a spinning-mill which employed four or five hundred persons, principally women and children.
The normal processes of criminal jurisdiction were consequently restored.
Almost every province has its special patterns and processes, the most elaborate being those of Nakhon Sri Tammarat (Ligore), Chantabun and the Laos country.
For the processes of the paper manufacturer esparto is used in the dry state, and without cutting; roots and flowers and stray weeds are first removed, and the material is then boiled with caustic soda, washed, and bleached with chlorine solution.
Electrolytic processes had, in fact, been considered since 1851, when Charles Watt patented his method for the production of sodium and potassium from fused chlorides.
Sodium is largely employed in the manufacture of cyanides and in reduction processes leading to the isolation of such elements as magnesium, silicon, boron, aluminium (formerly), &c.; it also finds application in organic chemistry.
Slates belong mostly to the older geological systems, being commonest in Pre-Cambrian, Cambrian and Silurian districts, though they may be found of Carboniferous or even of Tertiary age, where mountain-building processes have folded and compressed these more recent formations.
Charcoal is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in metallurgical processes.
Carbon dioxide, C02, is a gas first distinguished from air by van Helmont (1577-1644), who observed that it was formed in fermentation processes and during combustion, and gave to it the name gas sylvestre.
It is also formed in ordinary fermentation processes, in the combustion of all carbon compounds (oil, gas, candles, coal, &c.), and in the process of respiration.
He was the son of Archibald Cochrane, 9th Earl (1749-1831), who is remembered as a most ingenious, but also most unfortunate, scientific speculator and inventor, who was before his time in suggesting and attempting new processes of alkali manufacture, and various other uses of applied science.
Electrolytic processes have also been devised.
An account of the processes by which Napier constructed his table was given in the Constructio Canonis of 1619.
These methods apply, however, specially to Napier's own kind of logarithms, and are different from those actually used by Briggs in the construction of the tables in the Arithmetica Logarithmica, although some of the latter are the same in principle as the processes described in an appendix to the Constructio.
The processes used by Briggs are explained by him in the preface to the Arithmetica Logarithmica (1624).
It may be traversed by processes of the cells of the ectoderm and endoderm, or it may contain cells which have migrated into it from these two layers.
The dynamical series of stages in nature, the forms in which the ideal structure of nature is realized, are matter, as the equilibrium of the fundamental expansive and contractive forces; light, with its subordinate processes - magnetism, electricity, and chemical action; organism, with its component phases of reproduction, irritability and sensibility.'
Just as nature exhibits to us the series of dynamical stages of processes by which spirit struggles towards consciousness of itself, so the world of intelligence and practice, the world of mind, exhibits the series of stages through which self-consciousness with its inevitable oppositions and reconciliations develops in its ideal form.
The posterolateral angles of the gena are commonly produced into spiniform processes, which may project backwards beyond the middle of the body as in Paradoxides, or considerably beyond its posterior termination as in Trinucleus or Ampyx.
The savage attributes to animals the same ideas, the same mental processes as himself, and at the same time vastly greater power and cunning.
Bouillier (1813-1899), which makes life, or life and mind, the directive principle in evolution and growth, holding that all cannot be traced back to chemical and mechanical processes, but that there is a directive force which guides energy without altering its amount.
Such dilemmas as whether a mouse can devour the true body, and whether it is not involved in all the obscenities of human digestive processes, were ill met by this ruling.
His popularity was probably due to the fact that in his sermons he lays little stress on dogmatic questions, but treats generally of moral subjects, in which the secrets of the human heart and the processes of man's reason are described with poetical feeling.
The word is also applied to many mechanical devices by which raw material is transformed into a condition ready for use or into a stage preparatory to other processes, e.g.
Many other processes have been devised.
Various processes involving the use of atmospheric nitrogen have been devised, but in most cases they do not yield good results.
The older processes for the commercial preparation of this salt, which were based on the ignition of nitrogenous substances with an alkaline carbonate and carbon, have almost all been abandoned, since it is more profitable to prepare the salt from the byproducts obtained in the manufacture of illuminating gas.
Many other synthetical processes for the production of the acid or its salts are known.
The system contains very fantastic descriptions of the processes by which the portions of light when once set free finally ascend even to the God of light.
The aboriginal occupants of the greater part of North America were comparatively few in number, and except in Mexico were not advanced beyond the savage state, The geological processes that placed a much narrower ocean between North America and western Europe than between North America and eastern Asia secured to the New World the good fortune of being colonized by the leading peoples of the occidental Old World, instead of by the less developed races of the Orient.
These large divisions need physiographic subdivision, which will now be made, following the guide of structure, process and stage; that is, each subdivision or province will be defined as part of the earths crust in which some similarity of geological structure prevails, and upon which some process or processes of surface sculpture have worked long enough to reach a certain stage in the cycle of physiographic development.
The structure of the region previous to faulting was dependent on long antecedent processes of accumulation and deformation and the surface of the region then was dependent on the amount of erosion suffered in the prefaulting cycle.
Archeozoic (Archean) Group.The oldest group of rocks, called the Archean, was formerly looked upon, at least in a tentative way, as the original crtist of the earth or its downward extension, much altered by the processes of metamorphism.
This is due to improvements in mining methods and reduction processes, which have made profitable low-grade ores that were not commercially available in 1880.
On the other hand, above 70% of manufactures destined to serve, as material in further processes of manufacture went, in the same years, to Europe, and from eight- to nine-tenths of the first three classes of exports.
In 1876 both processes yielded together only 5,392,677 bushels, and in 1896 only 2,806,600 bushels.
The processes of manufacture have been improved by the introduction of specially constructed evaporators, and quantities of maple sugar and syrup are annually exported.
The Molluscan ctenidium is typically a plume like structure, consisting of a vascular axis, on each side of which is set a row of numerous lamelliform or filamentous processes.
These processes are hollow, and receive the venous blood from, and return it again aerated into, the hollow axis, in which an afferent and an efferent blood-vessel may be differentiated.
Aristotle, who made this great discovery, must have had great difficulty in developing the new investigation of reasoning processes out of dialectic, rhetoric, poetics, grammar, metaphysics, mathematics, physics and ethics; and in disengaging it from other kinds of learning.
Platinum is employed in oxidizing processes, and in the fusion of substances with fluxes; also in observing the colouring effect of substances on the blowpipe flame (which effect is apt to be somewhat masked by charcoal).
It was not until the New Kingdom that the processes of embalming reached a high degree of elaboration.
In Lower Egypt practically all the mummies have perished; but in Upper Egypt, as they were put out of reach of the inundation, the cemeteries, in spite of rifling and burning, yield immense numbers of preserved bodies and skeletons; attention has from time to time been directed to the scientific examination of these in order to ascertain race, cause of death, traces of accident or disease, and the surgical or medical processes which they had undergone during life, &c. This department of research has been greatly developed by Dr Elliott Smith in Cairo.
Earlier, the processes of mummification produced a skeleton merely clothed in a dry and shrunken skin.
The metal can be obtained by various processes.
The foot has been developed into long processes which have extended in a circle round the mouth; all the ganglia, including the visceral, have been concentrated around the oesophagus.
Post-orbital processes of the frontals exist in squirrels, marmots and hares; but in all other genera they are rudimentary or altogether absent; and the zygoma seldom sends upwards a corresponding process, so that the orbit is more or less completely continuous with the temporal fossa.
There are generally nineteen dorso-lumbar vertebrae (thirteen thoracic and six lumbar), the form of which varies in different genera; in the cursorial and leaping species the lumbar transverse processes are generally very long, and in the hares there are large compressed inferior spines, or hypapophyses.
The post-orbital processes of the frontal and jugal are widely sundered, and the former may even be small (Xerus).
The skull is heavily built, with the post-orbital processes directed outwards.