He had so many problems to face.
In fact, he must be struggling to float on the ocean of problems this family represented.
She'd always had problems putting on weight.
Miss Keller's education, however, is so fundamentally a question of language teaching that it rather includes the problems of the deaf than limits itself to the deaf alone.
Take care of yourself, and if you have any problems, call me.
Beside his problems, hers seemed trivial.
"I have enough problems with this century without resurrecting the last," she continued.
I'm having some problems with messages being intercepted after they leave the planet.
Are these the problems which most concern mankind?
If you have any problems, call Josh.
If you have any problems, call Josh.
Hannah had been a kept woman with no problems since meeting Gio, whereas Katie had always struggled to find her path.
Hannah had been a kept woman with no problems since meeting Gio, whereas Katie had always struggled to find her path.
What part of 'wealthy' were you having problems understanding?
I'm saying their lives will be complicated enough without us adding problems to it.
He knew the state, the town, and what the problems were.
She hadn't helped any by turning their past problems into a monetary issue.
I find MAD a disturbing strategy and see problems with it.
It was too dreadful to be under the burden of these insoluble problems, so he abandoned himself to any distraction in order to forget them.
She has no problems with what I can do?
I guess he and Lori are having problems and he needed someone to talk to.
Hopefully, they grappled with the same problems locating the souls.
Did he come out here to discuss his problems or her options?
Hopefully, they grappled with the same problems locating the souls.
That was my entry to explain to Brennan my pending problems with the Keene detective.
The rest of their problems aren't my concern.
He's had problems with college since our dad died last year.
He was himself always occupied: writing his memoirs, solving problems in higher mathematics, turning snuffboxes on a lathe, working in the garden, or superintending the building that was always going on at his estate.
Without changing his careless attitude, Pierre looked at them over his spectacles unable to understand what they wanted or how they could go on living without having solved the problems that so absorbed him.
A child with coronary problems - hours negotiable - benefits.
He was wrong for using a bottle to settle his problems, and wrong for being unfaithful to his wife.
We have enough to be concerned with today's problems without having to clutter my mind about the happenings of a century ago.
It was a day made for biking and in spite of his body problems, he gave Cynthia Byrne a call to see if she wanted to join him.
I think it is likely that the answers to almost all our medical problems could be found in the data we may already be collecting.
Sharing their problems was a step in the right direction.
Now there were two problems, both stuck on hold, and out of our hands.
With so many problems pending, I desperately needed time to think things through.
"I'm sorry for your problems," he said to Howie as he patted his arm.
You wanna solve both our problems, be there when I do.
Maybe there would be residual problems, like his sleep pattern.
Jetr was stacking a new problem on a pile of other problems he couldn't deal with.
There were other guests at Bird Song and enough regular problems running a country inn without creating any more.
They're paying us for tranquility, not to witness your domestic problems, which should be handled in private, in a lawyer's office.
"I'm sorry about Cynthia's problems," Weller said.
Putting aside her obvious mental problems, Dean guessed she still possessed the ability to try and kill her husband.
Donnie's got a bundle of problems and I know I'll love him, but it scares me to think of the responsibility.
I know you don't know where to turn but there are places that help with problems like yours.
He had assumed all their problems were payback for his wayward life.
Carmen flipped through the book to the part on kidding problems and scanned down the directions.
No problems, I gather.
"Give it time. One man – even Andre – couldn't solve the world's problems. You just have to wait it out. And hope we all come to our senses before the end of the world," Kiki said with a small smile.
In a couple of years, I won't have so many problems searching the memories. It'll be instantaneous, like that! he said and snapped his fingers.
When you and Alex were having problems, I think he hoped you would split up.
I know you don't know where to turn but there are places that help with problems like yours.
No problems, I gather.
Scarcity was the new watchword as the focus turned to all the problems of the future, not all the possibilities.
I see how human ingenuity and new technologies have eliminated previously insoluble problems once we stand back and let free markets do what they do best: direct the allocation of capital to find a solution.
Two problems then arise..
Finally, this system will not just solve for human illness, but all kinds of other problems as well.
A record of all human activity, with anonymity safeguards in place, will allow us all to become part of the solution by putting our minds to work on the problems of the world.
We will discuss the molecular machines called nanites—tiny, molecular-sized robots that will swim around in your body fighting disease, repairing damage, and alerting you to problems (and will likely dramatically increase the human lifespan).
Distributed computing makes enormous computational problems affordable to solve.
So these former farmers got jobs in factories, learned to repair equipment, solved problems, became line managers, suggested improvements to processes, and got paid for their effort.
In fact, let's say his own mother considered donating the portrait he painted of her to Goodwill but decided not to because "the poor have enough problems already."
An important point to make here is this: Historically, the welfare state only emerges to solve problems that private charities either cannot or will not solve.
A modern branch of mathematics having achieved the art of dealing with the infinitely small can now yield solutions in other more complex problems of motion which used to appear insoluble.
Considering the problems they presented, she could hardly blame him for that.
You want me to think of all this as ours, but how can I when you insist that the problems are all yours?
I'm sorry if the lab caused problems, but no one has to sleep there again, at least with Quinn's gizmos operating.
We're trying to come to grips with our day to day problems like the rest of the masses.
"Let's just enjoy the mountain and not think about our problems," she said, stopping to sip from her canteen.
Other problems, at least temporarily, have resolved themselves.
I have enough problems with psycho Immortal demon jackasses.
Dean never ceased to marvel at the difference of high mountain snow from the heavy, wet precipitation of the East and the endless problems it caused with man and auto.
Finally, with a sigh of resignation, he began the fifteen-minute walk back to the awaiting problems of civilization.
"I'll leave Donnie's problems for the guys in white coats to sort it out," Dean answered.
"Heaven's where cats don't shed and the Red Sox win in October—not a dead-end job and money problems," Fred offered.
So, if we have problems, will you go to him?
Didn't they think he had enough problems of his own?
I have enough problems with psycho Immortal demon jackasses.
Finally, with a sigh of resignation, he began the fifteen-minute walk back to the awaiting problems of civilization.
What would we say to Borlaug if we met him in a cornfield and ended up discussing the world's problems over a beer somewhere?
More minds are thinking about more problems, coming up with better solutions.
I think the range of problems that technology can solve is confined to technological problems.
Four of the problems I address in this book—ignorance, disease, famine, and poverty—are purely technical problems.
Many technological problems I don't address in this book, but I believe technology will provide solutions for those also.
All these problems that technology will solve have made our underlying differences worse—but removing these problems will not eliminate those underlying differences.
So this sad experience may have done me good and set me thinking on some of the problems of composition.
One paper has Helen demonstrating problems in geometry by means of her playing blocks.
It must be remembered that Miss Sullivan had to solve her problems unaided by previous experience or the assistance of any other teacher.
I still found more difficulty in mastering problems in mathematics than I did in any other of my studies.
It is to solve some of the problems of life, not only theoretically, but practically.
It is a labor to task the faculties of a man--such problems of profit and loss, of interest, of tare and tret, and gauging of all kinds in it, as demand a universal knowledge.
But they had been inconvenienced enough with all her problems.
For the most part, though, her conversation was interesting and helped keep Lisa's mind off her own problems.
Now everyone in camp knew about her problems.
She could do a lot worse than Davis, but marriage wasn't a solution to her problems.
Due to the closeness of the neighbors, I was fearful of noise causing Howie problems.
A situation arose that ultimately remedied both problems.
Much the case with Howie and Julie, I felt the personal lives of our group deserved their own space to address their own problems.
It was unclear if this action was prompted by Patsy Boyd herself or just some do-gooder trying to clear her desk of problems.
They both knew he spoke the truth—a steady salary would go a long way toward lessening their money problems.
Used to be we didn't have hooligans running around out here causing problems.
He was an excellent speaker and unabashedly told the gathering how he'd found the local sheriff's office in disarray and how it lacked up-to-date tools to deal with modern problems.
Property ownership certainly had its problems.
Sitting around wasn't going to solve any of his problems.
Please call me if you experience any other problems.
Without him, Kris felt as if he were alone trying to solve the world.s problems.
At first glance, Lishana did not seem the kind of mother-in-law that might cause Evelyn problems.
She's so vulnerable and practically incapable of doing anything on her own about her problems.
Just remember, we can't solve all of the world's problems.
He considered stopping for a beer or two but realized bellying up to the bar was no solution to life's problems.
I'm not sure we didn't compound problems.
Later, as they descended the stairs to the hall, Dean commented, "It's nice to think Annie and her friends are up there in heaven smiling down on us, probably thinking that we're nuts for always taking on everyone's problems."
He hadn't left the house yet, so seemed a bit stir crazy, but otherwise was adjusting without problems.
I hope you two have considered all the problems.
Another small smile crossed her face, and she sat down. Gabe left her, knowing even if she did sleep, it wouldn't be long. Death may have ignored their presence in her domain for three days, but something had made her reach out to him now. He knew they'd have problems at some point and only hoped he could get Katie out of the underworld, before his own fate was sealed.
He'd already inadvertently caused her enough problems.
That won't solve your problems.
Alex had once asked if Josh would be the person she turned to when they were having problems.
Personally, I think people would be better off if they'd work out there own problems.
If the child picked up on her fear, it could cause him worse problems.
I don't know what you told that kid, but he marched into Damian's study and demanded I fix his Others problems.
It was a skit about the typical problems faced by both adults and students.
As he rode, problems bobbed to the surface of his mind like driftwood released from quicksand – ready to be plucked from the surface and worked into something useable.
That's just inviting problems – stirring up conflict where it doesn't exist.
Frankly, the idea of doubling their problems was downright frightening.
The animals are used to seeing us, and the horses often graze with them, so I don't think we will have any problems with the safari animals or the natural wildlife.
If he was feeling overwhelmed, the last thing he wanted to do was take on her problems.
It was totally unprofessional – as it was right now discussing their problems with Sam.
What did he know about her or their problems?
Their personal problems seemed small at this point.
The problems of city life faded to nonexistence.
So give him to someone else who's having aphid problems.
You have problems dating and can't get an acting job?
The third and concluding volume, which was to treat in a more condensed form the principal problems of practical philosophy, of philosophy of art and religion, never appeared.
He was no follower of their ideas, indeed often opposed to them; but he derived from Bacon an increasing stimulus towards the investigation of certain great problems of history and philosophy, while Grotius proved valuable in his study of philosophic jurisprudence.
Many problems confronted Leo X.
Other problems connected with his family interests served to complicate the situation and eventually to prevent the successful consummation of many of his plans.
This system is of much service in following out mathematical, physical and chemical problems in which it is necessary to represent four variables.
The majority of them are addressed to Mersenne, and deal with problems of physics, musical theory (in which he took a special interest), and mathematics.
But such a hypothetical simplicity is the necessary step for solving the more complex problems of nature.
In 1859 he began, in concert with Sir William Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin), to work on problems respecting the making and use of cables, and the importance of his researches on the resistance of gutta-percha was at once recognized.
With God as "First Cause" or "Moral Legislator" theology has no concern; nor is it interested in the "speculative" problems indicated by the traditional doctrine of the Trinity.
Deep into the night he would continue his studies, stimulating his senses by occasional cups of wine, and even in his dreams problems would pursue him and work out their solution.
The wild and inaccessible character of the country, the fierce and lawless disposition of the people, the difficulties presented by their language and their complex social institutions, and the inability of the Turkish authorities to afford a safe conduct in the remoter districts, combine to render Albania almost unknown to the foreign traveller, and many of its geographical problems still remain unsolved.
As in every western city, particularly those in mining regions whose sites attained speculative values, Denver had grave problems with " squatters " or " landjumpers "in her early years; and there was the usual gambling and outlawry, sometimes extra-legally repressed by vigilantes.
"What kept these bodies apart was their separate historic origin and development, but especially the alienation caused by the ` Voluntary Controversy ' which had its roots in the difficult problems of civil law in its relation to religion, and the stumbling-block of the civil magistrate's authority in relation to the Christian conscience."
The chief type of agricultural society is the cornice agricole, an association for the discussion of agricultural problems and the organization of provincial shows.
The council of state (conseil detat) is the principal council of the head of the state and his ministers, who consult it on various legislative problems, more particularly on questions of administration.
The following branches have especially felt his influence: - chemical physics, capillarity and viscosity, theory of gases, flow of liquids, photography, optics, colour vision, wave theory, electric and magnetic problems, electrical measurements, elasticity, sound and hydrodynamics.
Modern naturalists consider that many of the problems of Australia's remarkable fauna and flora can be best explained by the following hypothesis: - The region now covered by the antarctic ice-cap was in early Tertiary times favoured by a mild climate; here lay an antarctic continent or archipelago.
These local researches, and the more comprehensive attempts of Leichhardt and Mitchell to solve the chief problems of.
the great questions upon which the country was divided, were settled within twenty years of the granting of self-government.1 With the disposal of these important problems, politics in Australia became a struggle for office between men whose political principles were very much alike, and the tenure of power enjoyed by the various governments did not depend upon the principles of administration so much as upon the personal fitness of the head of the ministry, and the acceptability of his ministry to the members of the more popular branch of the legislature.
The new president was a man comparatively little known outside the state of Illinois, and many of his supporters, doubtful of his ability to deal with the difficult problems of 1861, looked to Seward as the most experienced man of the administration and the one who should direct its policy.
Political problems were not to be so resolved, but practically.
This general law, known as the principle of the "dissipation of energy," was first adequately pointed out by Lord Kelvin in 1852; and was applied by him to some of the principal problems of cosmical physics.
Fichte's general views on philosophy seem to have changed considerably as he advanced in years, and his influence has been impaired by certain inconsistencies and an appearance of eclecticism, which is strengthened by his predominantly historical treatment of problems, his desire to include divergent systems within his own, and his conciliatory tone.
His disappearance snapped the chief link with the heroic period, and removed from the helm of state a ruler of large heart, great experience and civil courage, at a moment when elements of continuity were needed and vital problems of internal reorganization had still to be faced.
The period between May 1881 and July 1887 occupied, in the region of foreign affairs, by the negotiation, conclusion and renewal of the triple alliance, by the Bulgarian crisis and by the dawn of an Italian colonial policy, was marked at home by urgent political and economic problems, and by the parliamentary phenomena known as trasformismo.
Such a philosophy makes little serious attempt at constructive work in antiquity; but, upon the first great victories of physical science in modern times, a desire arose to extend the new and wonderfully fruitful method to the ultimate problems of speculation.
One great change and only one since Kant's day has affected the outlook upon theistic problems - the increasing belief in evolution.
The new method of definition which Socrates applied to problems of human conduct was extended by Plato to the whole universe of the knowable.
This reveals the empiricist temper, and points to an attempted empiricist solution of great problems. Butler holds that more ambitious philosophies are valid, but he shrinks from their use.
Yet since in these systems inquiries into the esse and fieri of the world are rarely distinguished with any precision, it will be necessary to indicate very briefly the general outlines of the system so far as they are necessary for understanding their bearing on the problems of evolution.
Upon our knowledge of its minute structure or cytology, combined with a study of its physiological activities, depends the ultimate solution of all the important problems of nutrition.
The investigation of these may raise and solve interesting physiological problems, but throw no light on the facts and genetic relationship which a rational explanation of distribution requires.
The problems of geography had been lightened by the destructive criticism of the French cartographer D'Anville (who had purged the map of the world of the last remnants of traditional fact unverified by modern observations) and rendered richer by the dawn of the new era of scientific travel, when Kant brought his logical powers to bear upon them.
One of the chief problems the association wished to solve was that of the exist ence and course of the river Niger, which was believed by some authorities to be identical with the Congo.
The great problems involved in the study of geographical distribution must therefore be based mainly upon the other classes, both vertebrate and invertebrate, which, moreover, enjoy less great facilities of locomotion than the birds.
The question of the use of the vernacular or of Hebrew is bound up with the differences between the orthodox and the liberal or reform parties, complicated by the many problems involved.
He married in 1895 Helen Dendy, herself the author of books on social problems. During 1903-8 he was professor of moral philosophy at St.
In 1744 Alembert applied this principle to the theory of the equilibrium and the motion of fluids (Trcite de l'equilibre et du mouvement des fluides), and all the problems before solved by geometricians became in some measure its corollaries.
On the chronological problems see also P. Meyer, Arist.
There are certain fundamental relations common to all tractive problems, and these are briefly considered in §§ i and 2, after which the article refers particularly to steam locomotives, although §§ 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, and 10 have a general application to all modes of traction.
Roberval was one of those mathematicians who, just before the invention of the infinitesimal calculus, occupied their attention with problems which are only soluble, or can be most easily solved, by some method involving limits or infinitesimals, and in the solution of which accordingly the calculus is always now employed.
HEBREW RELIGION (I) Introductory.-To trace the history of the religion of the Hebrews is a complex task, because the literary sources from which our knowledge of that history is derived are themselves complex and replete with problems as to age and authorship, some of which have been solved according to the consensus of nearly all the best scholars, but some of which still await solution or are matters of dispute.
The course of his narrative is unperplexed by doubtful or insoluble problems. The painting is filled in with primary colours and with a free hand; and any sense of crudity which may be awakened by close inspection is compensated by the vigour and massive effectiveness of the whole.
Some of his political speeches have been published under the titles Present Day Problems (1908), and Polticial Issues and Outlooks (1909).
Such superb self-confidence can accomplish much, and it undoubtedly helped to form Fustel's talent and to give to his style that admirable concision which subjugates even when it fails to convince; but a student instinctively distrusts an historian who settles the most controverted problems with such impassioned assurance.
There are, of course, numerous problems relating to the nature, limits and dates of the two recensions, of the incorporated sources, and of other sources (whether early or late) of independent origin; and here there is naturally room for much divergence of opinion.
Problems of the Earliest History.
The events form one of the fundamental problems of biblical history.
Moab was probably tributary; the position of Judah and Edom is involved with the chronological problems. According to the Judaean annals, the " people of Judah " set Azariah (Uzziah) upon his father's throne; and to his long reign of fifty-two years are ascribed conquests over Philistia and Edom, the fortification of Jerusalem and the reorganization of the army.
The last few years of the Judaean kingdom present several difficult problems.
It raises many serious problems which concentrate upon that age which is of the greatest importance for the biblical and theological student.
But the problems are admittedly complicated, and since one is necessarily dependent upon scanty narratives arranged and rearranged by later hands in accordance with their own historical theories, it is difficult to lay stress upon internal evidence which appears to be conclusive for this or that reconstruction.
The complexity of modern knowledge and the interrelation of its different branches are often insufficiently realized, and that by writers who differ widely in the application of such material as they use to their particular views of the manifold problems of the Old Testament.
A remarkable &c, expedition by Baron Toll in 1892 through the regions watered by the Lena, resulted in the collection of material which Afghan- will greatly help to elucidate some of the problems which beset the geological history of the world, proving inter alia the primeval existence of a boreal zone of the Jurassic sea round the North Pole.
To such fields may be added the yet more complicated problems of those reflex waves which flowed backwards from India into the border highlands.
The ultimate victory of England seems due less to any particular aptitude for dealing with oriental problems than to a better command of the seas and to considerations of European politics.
For the literary problems of these books, see also Samuel (Books).
It simply consisted iri the application, to the elucidation of these complex problems, of the exact methods of chemical and physical research.
Among the great variety of problems solved are problems leading to determinate equations of the first degree in one, two, three or four variables, to determinate quadratic equations, and to indeterminate equations of the first degree in one or more variables, which are, however, transformed into determinate equations by arbitrarily assuming a value for one of the required numbers, Diophantus being always satisfied with a rational, even if fractional, result and not requiring a solution in integers.
But the bulk of the work consists of problems leading to indeterminate equations of the second degree, and these universally take the form that one or two (and never more) linear or quadratic functions of one variable x are to be made rational square numbers by finding a suitable value for x.
A few problems lead to indeterminate equations of the third and fourth degrees, an easy indeterminate equation of the sixth degree being also found.
contains problems of finding rational right-angled triangles such that different functions of their parts (the sides and the area) are squares.
interspersing them with his own problems. Next Xylander (Wilhelm I-Iolzmann) published a Latin translation (Basel, 1575), an altogether meritorious work, especially having regard to the difficulties he had with the text of his MS. The Greek text was first edited by C. G.
He was able to gather around him a group of congenial friends and pupils, such as the Mills, the Austins and Bowring, with whom he could discuss the problems upon which he was engaged, and by whom several of his books were practically rewritten from the mass of rough though orderly memoranda which the master had himself prepared.
Copious extracts from a diary kept by him at this time are given by Bain; they show how methodically he read and wrote, studied chemistry and botany, tackled advanced mathematical problems, made notes on the scenery and the people and customs of the country.
The outcome of this period of depression was a broadening of his outlook on the problems which he had set himself to solve.
Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.
When the world has settled down to the new conditions, if it ever does so, we may be confronted with problems similar to those which our forefathers had to solve.
In common with other sciences, economics makes use of " abstractions"; but if for some problems we employ symbolic processes of reasoning, we must keep clearly in view the limits of their significance, and neither endow the symbols with attributes they can never possess, nor lose sight of the realities behind them.
As in modern problems, so in those of past times, a man requires for success qualities quite distinct from those conferred by merely academic training and the use of scientific methods.
A correct sense of proportion and the faculty of seizing upon the dominant factors in an historical problem are the result partly of the possession of certain natural gifts in which many individuals and some nations are conspicuously wanting, partly of general knowledge of the working of the economic and political institutions of the period we are studying, partly of what takes the place of practical experience in relation to modern problems, namely, detailed acquaintance with different kinds of original sources and the historical imagination by which we can realize the life and the ideals of past generations.
Suppose we have selected one of the numerous subsidiary problems suggested by the general inquiry, and obtained such full and complete information about one particular industry that we of a can tabulate the wages of the workers for a long series of years.
Under the conditions we have described, many of the most interesting problems of our own time, when they are once defined, resolve themselves into statistical inquiries.
Definite economic problems can very rarely be dealt with by merely quantitative methods.
In modern problems we can watch the economic machine actually at work, cross-examine our witnesses, see that delicate interplay of passions and interests which cannot be set down or described in a document, and acquire a certain sense of touch in relation to the questions at issue which manuscripts and records cannot impart.
We can therefore substitute sound diagnosis for guesswork more frequently in modern than in historical problems.
Suppose, now, we ignore the writers who were inaugurating neit methods, investigating special problems or laboriously collecting facts, and concentrate attention on the dominant school, with its long series of writers from Adam Smith to John Stuart Mill.
On the principles we have explained, therefore, the Ricardian economics should supply just that body of general theory which is required in the investigation of modern economic problems, and the reputation of at any rate the leading writers should be as great as ever.
We think that the decay of interest in these writers involves a real loss, and that students of modern problems may do worse than read Ricardo and his school.
Their achievements in the r9th century will be fully acknowledged, but the relevance of their work to the problems of the zoth century will be admitted less than at the present time.
He employed the theory with wonderful success in unravelling the problems of his time.
But the net result of the development of the doctrine of rent is that all problems in which this factor appears, and they embrace the whole range of economic theory, must apparently be treated on their merits.
But a new institution cannot be made on the same terms. The modern industrial system has brought with it an immense variety of practical problems which nations must solve on pain of industrial and commercial ruin.
For these problems we want, not a few old-established general principles which no one seriously calls in question, but genuine constructive and organizing capacity, aided by scientific and detailed knowledge of particular institutions, industries and classes.
Just as the historical school grew up along with the greatest constructive achievement of the 29th century, namely, the consolidation of Germany, so the application to modern problems of the methods of that school has been called forth by the constructive needs of the present generation.
That is, original investigation of special problems has to be carried out on a more gigantic scale than any economist of the historical school ever dreamt of or the world requires, with the certain knowledge that at the end of it all the general theory will not correspond with the facts of life.
The scientific study of practical problems and difficulties is (generally speaking, and with honourable exceptions) far more advanced in almost every civilized country than it is in England, where the limited scale upon which such work is carried on, the indifference of statesmen, officials and business men, and the incapacity of the public to understand the close relation between scientific study and practical success, contrast very unfavourably with the state of affairs in Germany or the United States.
Where his fundamental conception admits of it, he tries to solve historical problems by historical methods.
details of this post-embryonic development furnish some of the most interesting facts and problems to the students of the Hexapoda.
The rivalries of the mainland cities were continued at closer quarters inside the narrow circuit of the lagoons, and there was, moreover, the initial schism between the indigenous fisher population and the town-bred refugees, and these facts constitute the first of the problems which now affronted the growing community: the internal problem of fusion and development.
The early history of the republic is chiefly concerned with the solution of these two problems.
He also shows how his method may be used to determine some curious and long-discussed problems, such as the light of the stars, the ebb and flow of the tide, the motion of the balance.
We cannot do more than refer to Charles for discussions as to how this theory of nature is connected with the metaphysical problems of force and matter, with the logical doctrine of universals, and in general with Bacon's theory of knowledge.
The narrow streets and the traffic congestion of the business district presented difficult problems of urban transit, but the system is of exceptional efficiency.
He published Aristoteles fiber die Farben (1849), Aristoteles' acht Blcher der Physik (1857), and numerous minor articles on smaller points, such as the authenticity of the thirty-eight books of the Problems. The work by which he is best known is the Geschichte der Logik im Abendland (Leipzig, 1855-1870).
Packard and many others; mimicry and allied problems by H.
The second is that spinners being required to give attention to two distinct classes of problems would be less likely as a body to become complete masters of either.
He made clear his belief that the question was closely connected with the problems of the Pacific and Far East, and invitations were also sent accordingly to China and to the smaller European powers with Far-Eastern interests - Holland, Belgium and Portugal.
The President made it clear that he regarded the conference merely as a step in securing international understanding and good will; he advocated the convening of succeeding conferences as a possible means of securing an international association for the promotion of peace, and he approved the principle of substituting an understanding between the United States, Great Britain, France and Japan regarding Far-Eastern problems, for the existing Anglo-Japanese Treaty.
He had faced difficult problems with independence and yet he had been able to inaugurate something of an " era of good feeling."
He did not deal with the history of the people, with economic or social problems - the dignity of history was to him a reality.
Yet the high court, which decided all problems of descent, would naturally intervene if a problem of descent arose, as it frequently did, in the kingdom; and thus the barons had the right of deciding between different claimants, and also of formally "approving" each new successor to the throne.
Indian affairs furnished the most serious problems of the new Territory of Florida.
Problems in artillery occupy two out of nine books; the sixth treats of fortification; the ninth gives several examples of the solution of cubic equations.
The supreme importance of a study of Greek antiquities on the spot, long understood by scholars in Europe and in America, has gradually come to be recognized in England, where a close attention to ancient texts, not always adequately supplemented by a course of local study and observation, formerly fostered a peculiarly conservative attitude in regard to the problems of Greek archaeology.
Entering the Royal Marines in 1854, he rose to be captain in 1867, retiring in 1869; and thenceforth he devoted himself to the study of naval and military problems, on which he had already published some excellent essays.
Moreover, the higher problems of rhythmic movement in the classical sonata forms are far beyond the scope of academic teaching; which is compelled to be contented with a practical plausibility of musical design; and the instrumental music which was considered the highest style of art in 18 3 0 was as far beyond Wagner's early command of such plausibility as it was obviously already becoming a mere academic game.
These accessories are indispensable if it be proposed to solve the problems usually propounded in books on the " use of the globes," but can be dispensed with if the globe is to serve only as a map of the world.
In biological chemistry he worked at the problems of animal heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations.
Bible teaching is the central part of the school session: the lessons are mainly concerned with life's practical problems. The spirit of brotherliness which prevails is largely the secret of the success of the movement.
They did much to excite thinking, and advanced many problems by more than one step, but they did not furnish a coherent system, and the doctrines which were then new have since been worked out with greater consistency and clearness.
The presentation was accompanied by a kind of mathematical performance, in which Leonardo solved several hard problems proposed to him by John of Palermo, an imperial notary, whose name is met with in several documents dated between 1221 and 1240.
The methods which Leonardo made use of in solving those problems fill the Liber quadratorum, the Flos, and a Letter to Magister Theodore.
In his Practica geometriae plain traces of the use of the Roman agrimensores are met with; in his Liber abaci old Egyptian problems reveal their origin by the reappearance of the very numbers in which the problem is given, though one cannot guess through what channel they came to Leonardo's knowledge.
They teach further the solution of problems leading to equations of the first and second degree, to determinate and indeterminate equations, not by single and double position only, but by real algebra, proved by means of geometric constructions, and including the use of letters as symbols for known numbers, the unknown quantity being called res and its square census.
- To find a square number which remains a square after the addition and subtraction of 5, put to our mathematician in presence of the emperor by John of Palermo, who, perhaps, was quite enough Leonardo's friend to set him such problems only as he had himself asked for.
In the Letter to Magister Theodore indeterminate problems are chiefly worked, and Leonardo hints at his being able to solve by a general method any problem of this kind not exceeding the first degree.
Bolton, A Few Civic Problems of Greater Cleveland (Cleveland, 1897); "Plan of School Administration," by S.
The new archbishop, without being one of the English divines who have made notable contributions to theological learning, already had a great reputation for ecclesiastical statesmanship; and in subsequent years his diplomatic abilities found ample scope in dealing not only with the difficulties caused in the church by doctrinal questions, but pre-eminently with the education crisis, and with the new problems arising in the enlarged Anglican Communion.
These problems are, however, certain to be solved in the near future, and then probably caoutchouc may be formed in other ways than from isoprene.
And the Church policy, as old as the times of Constantine, to crush utterly the man who brings more problems and pressure than the bulk of traditional Christians can, at the time, either digest or resist with a fair discrimination, seemed to the authorities the one means to save the very difficult situation.
The basin thus presents interesting problems. The existence of wide valleys where the small upper waters of the Cherwell, Evenlode and Coln now flow, the occurrence of waterborne deposits in their beds from the northwest of England and from Wales, and the fact that the Thames, like its lower southern tributaries which pierce the North Downs, has been able to maintain a deep valley through the chalk elevation at Goring, are considered to point to the former existence of a much larger river, in the system of which were included the upper waters of the present Severn, Dee and other rivers of the west.
Seneca even made the discussion of such problems into a regular discipline, claiming that their concrete character gave an interest in morality to those who had no love for abstractions; while they prevented those who had from losing themselves in the clouds.
The determination of this ratio is one of the most difficult problems in the lunar theory.
Nevertheless, many important problems relating to the distribution of magnetic induction may be solved by methods similar to those employed for the solution of analogous problems in electricity.
The question of the rights of the national minorities and the enforcement of the Land Act were among the problems of the day that led on June 3 1921 to the fall of the Cabinet of Ulmanis.
This double cultivation of his scientific powers had the happiest effect on his subsequent work; for the greatest achievements of Riemann were effected by the application in pure mathematics generally of a method (theory of potential) which had up to this time been used solely in the solution of certain problems that arise in mathematical physics.
At the age of nineteen he communicated to Leonhard Euler his idea of a general method of dealing with "isoperimetrical" problems, known later as the Calculus of Variations.
The calculus of variations lay undeveloped in Euler's mode of treating isoperimetrical problems. The fruitful method, again, of the variation of elements was introduced by Euler, but adopted and perfected by Lagrange, who first recognized its supreme importance to the analytical investigation of the planetary movements.
Lagrange saw in the problems of nature so many occasions for analytical triumphs; Laplace regarded analytical triumphs as the means of solving the problems of nature.
To Lagrange, perhaps more than to any other, the theory of differential equations is indebted for its position as a science, rather than a collection of ingenious artifices for the solution of particular problems. To the calculus of finite differences he contributed the beautiful formula of interpolation which bears his name; although substantially the same result seems to have been previously obtained by Euler.
Such is the historical basis which we seem to be able to lay for the study of the exegetical problems of the book.
The name doctor scholasticus was applied originally to any teacher in such an ecclesiastical gymnasium, but gradually the study of dialectic or logic overshadowed the more elementary disciplines, and the general acceptation of " doctor " came to be one who occupied himself with the teaching of logic. The philosophy of the later Scholastics is more extended in its scope; but to the end of the medieval period philosophy centres in the discussion of the same logical problems which began to agitate the teachers of the 9th and 1 oth centuries.
It is divisible into two well-marked periods - the first extending to the end of the 12th century and embracing as its chief names Roscellinus, Anselm, William of Champeaux and Abelard, while the second extended from the beginning of the 13th century to the Renaissance and the general distraction of men's thoughts from the problems and methods of Scholasticism.
The remark overlooks two facts - firstly that the main objects of theology and philosophy are identical, though the td°f ogyod method of treatment is different, and secondly that logical discussion commonly leads up to metaphysical problems, and that this was pre-eminently the case with the logic of the Schoolmen.
Their chief works are in the shape of commentaries upon the writings of "the philosopher."' Their problems and solutions alike spring from the master's dicta - from the need of reconciling these with one another and with the conclusions of Christian theology.
That of Windelband, though going less into detail, is a remarkably fresh treatment of the problems involved.
He approached history as a politician and confined himself to those periods and characters in which great political problems were being worked out: above all, he was a patriotic historian, and he never wandered far from Prussia.
The beds of these rivers, as well as that of the Danube, are continually changing, forming morasses and pools, and rendering the country near their banks marshy, Notwithstanding the work already done, such as canalizing and regulating the rivers, the erection of dams, &c., the problems of preventing inundations, and of reclaiming the marshes, have not yet been satisfactorily solved.
2 Racial Problems, p. 202.
The ethnographical map of Hungary does much to explain the political problems of the country.
2 The distribution of the races is analysed in greater detail in Mr Seton-Watson's Racial Problems, p. 3 seq.
Tisza's successor, 2 See for this Mr Seton-Watson's Racial Problems of Hungary, passim.
It was at once seen that this elaborate scheme was intended 3 Seton-Watson, Racial Problems, p. 194.
Seton-Watson (Scotus Viator), Racial Problems in Hungary (London, 1908), a strong criticism of the Magyar attitude towards the Slav subject races, especially the Slovaks, with documents and a full bibliography.
Other novelists belonging to this school are: Desiderius Malonyai (Az utolso, " The Last "; Judith konyve, " The Book of Judith "; Tanulmdnyfejek, "Typical Heads "); Julius Pekar (Dodo fohadnagy problemai, " Lieutenant Dodo's Problems "; Az aranykesztyus kisasszony, " The Maid with the Golden Gloves "; A szoborszep asszony, " The Lady as Beautiful as a Statue "; Az esztendo legenddja, " The Legend of the Year "); Thomas Kobor (Aszfalt, " Asphalt "; 0 akarta, " He Wanted It "; A csillagok fele, " Towards the Stars "); Stephen Szomahazy (Huszonnegy Ora, " Twenty-four Hours "; A Clairette Keringd, " The Clairette Valse "; Pdratlan szerddk, " Incomparable Wednesdays "; Nydri felhok, " Clouds of Summer "); Zoltan Thury (Ullrich fdhadnagy es egyeb tortenetek, " Lieutenant Ullrich and other Tales "; Urak es parasztok, " Gentlemen and Peasants "); also Desiderius Szomory, Odon Gero, Arpad Abonyi, Koloman Szanto, Edward Sas, Julius Vertesi, Tibor Denes, Akos Pinter, the Misses Janka and Stephanie Wohl, Mrs Sigismund Gyarmathy and others.
The general working of the great machine was now laid bare, and it needed a further advance of knowledge to bring a fresh set of problems within reach of investigation.
4to, Paris, 1799) contains methods for calculating the movements of translation and rotation of the heavenly bodies, for determining their figures, and resolving tidal problems; the second, especially dedicated to the improvement of tables, exhibits in the third and fourth volumes (1802 and 1805) the application of these formulae; while a fifth volume, published in three instalments, 1823-1825, comprises the results of Laplace's latest researches, together with a valuable history of progress in each separate branch of his subject.
To this lofty quality of intellect he added a rare sagacity in perceiving analogies, and in detecting the new truths that lay concealed in his formulae, and a tenacity of mental grip, by which problems, once seized, were held fast, year after year, until they yielded up their solutions.
These researches derive additional importance from having introduced two powerful engines of analysis for the treatment of physical problems, Laplace's coefficients and the potential function.
The theory of probabilities, which Laplace described as common sense expressed in mathematical language, engaged his attention from its importance in physics and astronomy; and he applied his theory, not only to the ordinary problems of chances, but also to the inquiry into the causes of phenomena, vital statistics and future events.
He was also the first to consider the difficult problems involved in equations of mixed differences, and to prove that an equation in finite differences of the first degree and the second order might always be converted into a continued fraction.
Of the four supplements added by the author (1816-1825) he tells us that the problems in the last were contributed by his son.
Expressed Equations.-The simplest forms of arithmetical equation arise out of abbreviated solutions of particular problems. In accordance with ï¿½ 15, it is desirable that our statements should be statements of equality of quantities rather than of numbers; and it is convenient in the early stages to have a distinctive notation, e.g.
(iv.) Thus the problems of determining the roots of an equation P = o and of finding the factors of P, when P is a rational integral function of x, are the same.
Ordinary algebra developed very gradually as a kind of shorthand, devised to abbreviate the discussion of arithmetical problems and the statement of arithmetical facts.
The particular problem - a heap (hau) and its seventh makes 19 - is solved as we should now solve a simple equation; but Ahmes varies his methods in other similar problems. This discovery carries the invention of algebra back to about 1700 B.C., if not earlier.
Notwithstanding the prolixity of writers and the number of the writings, all attempts at extracting an algebraic analysis from their geometrical theorems and problems have been fruitless, and it is generally conceded that their analysis was geometrical and had little or no affinity to algebra.
In the body of the work he displays considerable ingenuity in reducing his problems to simple equations, which admit either of direct solution, or fall into the class known as indeterminate equations.
His travels and mercantile experience had led E t u eopre him to conclude that the Hindu methods of computing were in advance of those then in general use, and in 1202 he published his Liber Abaci, which treats of both algebra and arithmetic. In this work, which is of great historical interest, since it was published about two centuries before the art of printing was discovered, he adopts the Arabic notation for numbers, and solves many problems, both arithmetical and algebraical.
So far the development of algebra and geometry had been mutually independent, except for a few isolated applications of geometrical constructions to the solution of algebraical problems. Certain minds had long suspected the advantages which would accrue from the unrestricted application of algebra to geometry, but it was not until the advent of the philosopher Rene Descartes that the co-ordination was effected.
Diophantine problems were revived by Gaspar Bachet, Pierre Fermat and Euler; the modern theory of numbers was founded by Fermat and developed by Euler, Lagrange and others; and the theory of probability was attacked by Blaise Pascal and Fermat, their work being subsequently expanded by James Bernoulli, Abraham de Moivre, Pierre Simon Laplace and others.
Fortunately the new Giolitti and Vesnie Cabinets showed equal moderation and skill in restraining the hotheads on both sides, and the new Foreign Minister, Count Sforza, was assisted by a personal knowledge of Serbian and Balkan problems all too rare among western statesmen.
Here Cuvier was imperfectly formulating, without recognizing the real physical basis of the phenomena, the results of the laws of heredity, which were subsequently investigated and brought to bear on the problems of animal structure by Darwin.
But it must not be forgotten that the problems presented by human communities are extremely complex, and that the absence of any selection of healthy or desirable stock in the breeding of human communities leads to undesirable consequences.
A different treatment is then necessary, and for some of the problems which arise under this head the method of Abbe is convenient.
In theoretical investigations these problems are usually treated as of two dimensions only, everything being referred to the plane passing through the luminous point and perpendicular to the diffracting edges, supposed to be straight and parallel.
When the functions C and S have once been calculated, the discussion of various diffraction problems is much facilitated by the idea, due to M.
Problems not limited to two dimensions, such for example as the shadow of a circular disk, present great difficulties, and have not hitherto been treated by a rigorous method; but there is no reason to suppose that Fresnel's results would be departed from materially.
Wellhausen made his name famous by his critical investigations into Old Testament history and the composition of the Hexateuch, the uncompromising scientific attitude he adopted in testing its problems bringing him into antagonism with the older school of biblical interpreters.
Now the rise of the problems of individual faith is the mark of the age that followed Jeremiah, while the confident assertion of national righteousness under misfortune is a characteristic mark of pious Judaism after Ezra, in the period of the law but not earlier.
One of the first problems which confronted the Botha ministry was the attitude to be adopted towards the other British colonies in South Africa.
Cook, Rights and Wrongs of the Transvaal War (1901); Lionel Phillips, Transvaal Problems (1905).
The identity and personality of this "Friend of God," who bulks so largely in the great collection of mystical literature, and is everywhere treated as a half supernatural character, is one of the most difficult problems -in the history of mysticism.
That every one who has capacity to understand the law is presumed to know it is a very necessary principle, for otherwise the courts would be continually occupied in endeavouring to solve problems which by their very impracticability would render the administration of justice next to impossible.
P. Mahaffy, Problems in Greek History, ch.
The number of field battalions was nearly doubled, two-thirds of the artillery received breech-loading rifled guns, the infantry had for some years had the breech-loading "needlegun," and steps were initiated to train an adequate number of staff officers to a uniform appreciation of strategical problems, based on Moltke's personal interpretation of Clausewitz's Vom Kriege.
From the foregoing it will be gathered that the problems in pathology are many-sided and require to be attacked from all points of vantage; and the subject falls naturally into certain great divisions, the chief of which are the following: I.
This, one of the most difficult problems of pathology, is being attacked by many able workers, who are all striving from different standpoints to elucidate the nature of these new formations, which spring from the normal tissues in which they develop and which they destroy.
285; Farmer, " Present Position of some Cell Problems," Nature (1898), lviii.
For applications of the hodograph to the solution of kinematical problems see Mechanics.
The remarkable discovery of the dual nature of the nervous system, of its duplex development as a lower and upper system of "neurons," has shed much light upon the problems of practical medicine, but this construction is described under Brain; Neuropathology; Muscle And Nerve, &C.
No one shows truer courage, not marred by irreverence, in confronting the great problems of human destiny, or greater strength in triumphing over human weakness.
Dr Hopkinson presented a rare combination of practical with theoretical ability, and his achievements in pure scientific research are not less intrinsically notable than the skill with which he applied their results to the solution of concrete engineering problems. His original work is contained in more than sixty papers, all written with a complete mastery both of style and of subject-matter.
Moreover, his association with glass manufacture led him to study the refractive indices of different kinds of glass; he further undertook abstruse researches on electrostatic capacity, the phenomena of the residual charge, and other problems arising out of Clerk Maxwell's electro-magnetic theory.
One of the most serious administrative problems met with in London is that of locomotion, especially as regards the regulation of traffic in the principal thoroughfares and at the busiest crossings.
The special difficulties which attend deep mining, in addition to the problems of hoisting ore and raising water from great depths, are the increase of temperature of the rocks and the pressure of the overlying strata.
It was more fully developed in his Traite des fluides, published in 1744, in which he gave simple and elegant solutions of problems relating to the equilibrium and motion of fluids.
(X.) Hydrostatics Hydrostatics is a science which grew originally out of a number of isolated practical problems; but it satisfies the requirement of perfect accuracy in its application to phenomena, the largest and smallest, of the behaviour of a fluid.
The practical problems of fluid motion, which are amenable to mathematical analysis when viscosity is taken into account, are excluded from treatment here, as constituting a separate branch called "hydraulics" (q.v.).
Other arrangements of the constants n, a, b, a' will give the results of special problems considered by J.
Two corners B 1 and in the wall xA, with a' = -00, and n =I, will give the solution, by duplication, of a jet issuing by a reentrant mouthpiece placed symmetrically in the end wall of the channel; or else of the channel blocked partially by a diaphragm across the middle, with edges turned back symmetrically, problems discussed by J.
In subsequent history there is a good deal of resemblance between the capitularies' legislation of Charlemagne and his successors on one hand, the acts of Alfred, Edward the Elder, ZEthelstan and Edgar on the other, a resemblance called forth less by direct borrowing of Frankish institutions than by the similarity of political problems and condition.
In this section an attempt is made to indicate briefly the causes which have led to so great a diversity of opinion, and to describe in outline the principles underlying the chief schemes of chronology that have been suggested; a short account will then be given of the latest discoveries in this branch of research, and of the manner in which they affect the problems at issue.
The publication of fresh chronological material in 1906 and 1907 placed a new complexion on the problems at issue, and enabled us to correct several preconceptions, and to reconcile or explain the apparently conflicting data.
For further details regarding the formation of Sumerian and Babylonian-Assyrian proper names, as well as for an indication of the problems involved and the difficulties still existing, especially in the case of Sumerian names,' see the three excellent works now at our disposal for the Sumerian, the old Babylonian, and the neoBabylonian period respectively, by Huber, Die Personennamen den Keilschrifturkunden aus der Zeit der Konige von Ur and Nisin (Leipzig, 1907); Ranke, Early Babylonian Proper Names (Philadelphia, 1905); and Tallqvist, Neu-Babylonisches Namenbuch (Helsingfors, 1905).
Old Testament prophecy had addressed itself to both these problems, though it was hardly conscious of the claims of the latter.
But later, with the growing claims of the individual and the acknowledgment of these in the religious and intellectual life, both problems, and especially the latter, pressed themselves irresistibly on the notice of religious thinkers, and made it impossible for any conception of the divine rule and righteousness to gain acceptance, which did not render adequate satisfaction to the claims of both problems. To render such satisfaction was the task undertaken by apocalyptic, as well as to vindicate the righteousness of God alike in respect of the individual and of the nation.
Among his writings are: Railroads, Their Origin and Problems (1878); Three Episodes of Massachusetts History (1892); a biography of his father, Charles Francis Adams (1900); Lee at Appomattox and Other Papers (1902); Theodore Lyman and Robert Charles Winthrop, Jr., Two Memoirs (1906); and Three Phi Beta Kappa Addresses (1907).
The curve also permits the solution of the problems of duplicating a cube and trisecting an angle.
This knowledge, however, is by no means positivistic or empirical, but on the contrary it is dialectical and a priori synthetic, brought about by the spiritual categories; and from it there constantly arise new problems, an ever new position of the fundamental categories.
The treatment and solution of these problems is what is called " philosophy " in the strict sense of the word, which for that reason coincides with methodology speculatively understood.
Among the most noteworthy workers at the problems involved in the question of the influence of soil in the production of disease we find yen Foder, Pettenkofer, Levy, Fleck, von Naegeli, Schleesing, Muntz and Warrington.
m., accounts for about a third of this area, but some of the most favoured districts in Arabia - Asir and northern Yemen - remain unexplored, and the hydrography of the Dawasir basin offers some interesting problems, while a great field remains for the archaeologist in the seat of the old Sabaean kingdom from Jauf to the Hadramut valley.
Other nations, indeed, had attempted the highest problems in religion; but Israel alone, in the providence of God, had succeeded, for Israel alone had been inspired.
Although deficient in technical training, he handled with great skill the difficult problems which were presented by the Civil War.
127 9, these problems were taken up by three almost contemporaneous writers on optics, two of whom, Roger Bacon and John Peckham, were Englishmen, and Vitello or Witelo, a Pole.
About the same time Francesco Maurolico, or Maurolycus, the eminent mathematician of Messina, in his Theore y nata de Lumine et Umbra, written in 1521, fully investigated the optical problems connected with vision and the passage of rays of light through small apertures with and without lenses, and made great advances in this direction over his predecessors.
The first to take up the camera obscura after Porta was Kepler, who used it in the old way for solar observations in 1600, and in his Ad Vitellionem Paralipomena (1604) discusses the early problems of the passages of light through small apertures, and the rationale of the simple dark chamber.
Most of the writers already noticed worked out the problems connected with the projection of images in the camera obscura more by actual practice than by calculation, but William Molyneux, of Dublin, seems to have been the first to treat them mathematically in his Dioptrica Nova (1692), which was also the first work in English on the subject, and is otherwise an interesting book.
also several optical problems relating to lenses of various forms and their combinations for telescopic projection, rules for finding foci, &c. He does not, however, mention the camera obscura as an instrument in use, but in John Harris's Lexicon Technicum (1704) we find that the camera obscura with the arrangement called the "scioptric ball," and known as scioptricks, was on sale in London, and after this must have been in common use as a sketching instrument or as a show.
In 1815 he entered the cathedral school at Christiania, and three years later he gave proof of his mathematical genius by his brilliant solutions of the original problems proposed by B.
There he came under the influence of Kant, who was just then passing from physical to metaphysical problems. Without becoming a disciple of Kant, young Herder was deeply stimulated to fresh critical inquiry by that thinker's revolutionary ideas in philosophy.
To Kant's lectures and conversations he further owed something of his large interest in cosmological and anthropological problems. Among the writers whom he most carefully read were Plato, Hume, Shaftesbury, Leibnitz, Diderot and Rousseau.
Instead of discoursing on the corporate conscience of the state and the endowments of the Church, the importance of Christian education, and the theological unfitness of the Jews to sit in parliament, he is solving business-like problems about foreign tariffs and the exportation of machinery; waxing eloquent over the regulation of railways, and a graduated tax on corn; subtle on the monetary merits of half-farthings, and great in the mysterious lore of quassia and cocculus indicus.
His love of freedom steadily developed, and he applied its principles more and more courageously to the problems of government.
He has, indeed, described in graphic terms the greatest of the more superficial changes he underwent; how he had " carried into logical and ethical problems the maxims and postulates of physical knowledge," and had moved within the narrow lines drawn by the philosophical instructions of the class-room " interpreting human phenomena by the analogy of external nature "; how he served in willing captivity " the ` empirical ' and ` necessarian ' mode of thought," even though " shocked " by the dogmatism and acrid humours " of certain distinguished representatives "; 1 and how in a period of " second education " at Berlin, " mainly under the admirable guidance of Professor Trendelenburg," he experienced " a new intellectual birth" which " was essentially the gift of fresh conceptions, the unsealing of hidden openings of self-consciousness, with unmeasured corridors and sacred halls behind; and, once gained, was more or less available throughout the history of philosophy, and lifted the darkness from the pages of Kant and even Hegel."
But besides the vocation he had freely selected and assiduously laboured to fulfil, two more external influences helped to shape Martineau's mind and define his problem and his work; the awakening of English thought to the problems which underlie both philosophy and religion, and the new and higher opportunities offered for their discussion in the periodical press.
As thus used, it was a term which governed the problems of speculative theism rather than those connected with the historical origin, the evolution and the organization of religion.
These criticisms mean that his most elaborate discussions came forty years too late, for they were concerned with problems which agitated the middle rather than the end of the 19th century.
A period of interruption now ensued, owing to domestic troubles and foreign complications, and when, in 1878, the government was able to devote attention once again to railway problems, it found the treasury empty.
A failure to solve the problems of metaphysics must always remain a failure, in spite of all protestations that it was inevitable; and it in no wise justifies an advance to so selfcontradictory an asylum ignorantiae as the Unknowable.
This assertion of the divinity of Christ triumphed, but other problems at once emerged.
or the graces of a Marlborough, he grasped the central problems of his time with more clearness, or advanced solutions with more ultimate success, than any other statesman of his age.
See also Stechow, Aeschinis Oratoris vita (1841); Marchand, Charakteristik des Redners Aschines (1876); Castets, Eschine, l'Orateur (1875); for the political problems see histories of Greece, esp. A.
Among his best known works are: Demiurgos (3 vols., 1852-1854), a "Mysterium," in which he attempted to deal with the problems of human existence, but the work found little favour; Nibelunge, an epic poem in alliterative verse, in two parts, (1) Sigfriedsage (1867-1868; 13th ed.
Aelius Stilo Praeconinus, who was the teacher of Varro and Cicero, much interest had been taken in literary and linguistic problems at Rome.
Only a few problems can be discussed of the many which are raised by the insufficient and conflicting evidence at our disposal.
The following are the problems: - (1) Was there a Dorian invasion as described in the legends; and, if not, how did the tradition arise?
A very powerful method of attacking problems in electrical distribution was first made known by Lord Kelvin in 1845 and is described as the method of electrical images.'
All philosophy is philosophy of life, the development of a new culture, not mere intellectualism, but the application of a vital religious inspiration to the practical problems of society.
In accordance with this principle, Eucken has given considerable attention to social and educational problems.
This method of representation is applicable to certain kinds of problems, and has been developed by Macfarlane Gray and other writers in its application to the steam engine.
It shows the influence of Arminian theology against Calvinism, which was vigorously upheld in the Quin-particular formula, put forward by the synod of Dort in 1619 to uphold the five points of Calvinism, after heated discussion, in which English delegates took part, of the problems of divine omniscience and human free-will.
As with the epistle of James, the problems of the writing centre " upon the superscription, which addresses in Pauline phraseology (1 Thess.
It will be sufficient here to point out in general terms the import of the message of archaeological discovery in the Victorian Era in its bearings upon the great problems of world-history.
Notwithstanding the allurements of the subject, such conservative historians as Grote were disposed to regard the problems of early Grecian history as inscrutable, and to content themselves with the recital of traditions without attempting to establish their relationship with actual facts.
He was peculiarly adapted for the wise and skilful treatment of difficult problems in the spirit of an international set, playing the great game of diplomacy with grace and honour.
He proposed the problem of the catenary or curve formed by a chain suspended by its two extremities, accepted Leibnitz's construction of the curve and solved more complicated problems relating to it.
His inaugural discourse was on the "new analysis," which he so successfully applied in investigating various problems both in pure and applied mathematics.
One of these problems, illustrated by experiment, deals with an ingenious mode of propelling vessels by the reaction of water ejected from the stern.
These topics raise serious historical problems (see JEws: History, § 21).
But, though this method has been applied in its fullness, and that by the keenest exegetes, there remains a consciousness that it has failed to solve many of the problems of the book.
Now modern scholars have with varying success used in turn these three hypotheses with a view to the solution of the problems of the New Testament Apocalypse.
It might be supposed that all possible methods had now been considered, and that a combination of the three methods which have established their validity in relation to the interpretation of the Apocalypse would be adequate to the solution of all the problems of the book, but this is not so; for even when each in turn has vindicated the provinces in the book that rightly belong to it, and brought intelligibility into these areas, there still remain outlying regions which they fail to illumine.
But, though a few of the leading thoughts of this chapter may be obvious, we are plunged into problems that all but defy solution when we essay to discover its origin or interpret its details.
See Peace Conference and WAR; also Sir T.Barclay, supplement to Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy, for comparison of texts of 1899 and 1907.
His views on the problems of Arianism, and his attempt to reconcile it with orthodox theology, are contained in A Specimen of True Philosophy (1730, reprinted in Metaphysical Tracts, 1837) and Logology, or a Treatise on the Logos in Seven Sermons on John i.
The value of his work consists not only in the stores of material which he collected, but also in the success with which he dealt with many of the problems raised by the inscriptions.
The remainder of the year he spent at Zurich, slowly perfecting his thoughts on the fundamental problems left for solution in the Kantian philosophy.
Pascal treated these numbers in his Traite du triangle arithmetique (1665), using them to develop a theory of combinations and to solve problems in proba-, bility.
In this way the principle of continuity, which is the basis of the method of Fluxions and the whole of modern mathematics, may be applied to the analysis of problems connected with material bodies by assuming them, for the purpose of this analysis, to be homogeneous.
The planetary theory and other particular dynamical problems likewise occupied his attention from time to time.
Todhunter also published keys to the problems in his textbooks on algebra and trigonometry; and a biographical work, William Whewell, account of his writings and correspondence (1876), in addition to many original papers in scientific journals.
He deals, on the contrary, almost exclusively with the social, financial, educational, industrial and general moral problems of the day.
Harris; 4 (b) of confident application to the central problems of logic, ethics and politics, fine art and religion, and as a principle of constructive criticism and interpretation chiefly in T.
He published Presidential Problems (New York, 1904), made up in part of lectures at Princeton University, and Fishing and Hunting Sketches (1906).
In these lectures Duchesne touches cleverly upon the most delicate problems, and, without any elaborate display of erudition, presents conclusions of which account must be taken.
That there are many hard problems connected with the fascinating book of Amos cannot be denied.
Mensuration involves the use of geometrical theorems, but it is not concerned with problems of geometrical construction.
This sacrifice of local autonomy was in a measure prepared for by an earlier centralizing movement proper to the churches themselves, whereby those in certain areas met in conference or " synod " to formulate a common policy on local problems. Such inter-church meetings cannot be traced back beyond the latter half of the 2nd century, and were purely ad hoc and informal, called to consider specific questions like Montanism and Easter observance.
But after half a century's further experience, public opinion, stimulated by growing need for common action in relation to certain practical problems of home and foreign work, proved ripe for the realization of the earlier idea in its double form.
The years following the settlement of the four colonies were occupied in the solution of problems in church and civil government and in the preparation for the proper training of ministers.
Since the middle of the 19th century an attempt has been made to meet the problems arising from a rapid industrial and social development by creating bureaus or commissions to exercise a central control over local officials, corporations and even private individuals, and as most of the heads of these bureaus and the commissions are appointed by the governor the importance of that officer has increased.
The defence of the northern frontier was a heavy burden to New York, but by its problems the growth of the union of the colonies was promoted.
He was the author of The Religious Aspects of Philosophy (1885); California (1886, in the American Commonwealth Series) The Feud of Oakfield Creek (1887, a novel); The Spirit of Modern Philosophy (1892); The Conception of God (1895); Studies of Good and Evil (1898); The World and the Individual (2 vols., 1900-1, Gifford Lectures at the university of Aberdeen); The Conception of Immortality (1900); Outlines of Psychology (1903); Herbert Spencer: An Estimate and Review (1904); The Philosophy of Loyalty (1908); Race Questions, Provincialism and Other American Problems (1908);' William James and Other Essays on the Philosophy of Life (1911); Bross Lectures on the Sources of Religious Insight (1912); The Problem of Christianity (2 vols., 1913, lectures before Manchester College, Oxford); War and Insurance (1914); The Hope of the Great Community (1916, war addresses) and the posthumously published Lectures on Modern Idealism (1919).
It became known as the "Delian problem" or the "problem of the duplication of the cube," and ranks in historical importance with the problems of "trisecting an angle" and "squaring the circle."
Archytas of Tarentum (c. 430 B.C.) solved the problems by means of sections of a half cylinder; according to Eutocius, Menaechmus solved them by means of the intersections of conic sections; and Eudoxus also gave a solution.
These problems were also attacked by the Arabian mathematicians; Tobit ben Korra (836-901) is credited with a solution, while Abul Gud solved it by means of a parabola and an equilateral hyperbola.
Large sections of the old history are devoted to the religion and politics of the ten tribes, which are altogether unintelligible and uninteresting when measured by a strictly Levitical standard; and in general the whole problems and struggles of the prophetic period turn on points which had ceased to be cardinal in the life of the New Jerusalem, which was no longer called to decide between the claims of the Word of Yahweh and the exigencies of political.
By means of this coalition the Ministry succeeded, indeed, in passing the military service reforms on April 24 1911 (reduction of the three years' service to two years, combined with an increase in the contingent of recruits); but this completely exhausted its parliamentary strength, and the first parliamentary suffrage Parliament ended with but poor results in the midst of unsolved national problems.
Immediately afterwards the Reichsrat adjourned for the summer holidays (July 26), without having ventured on any steps towards the solution of the great problems of State.
The task is one of extraordinary difficulty, for the textual problems of the various writings are complex and confused: the Greek original is extant in a few cases only (the Commentary on Daniel, the Refutation, on Antichrist, parts of the Chronicle, and some fragments); for the rest we are dependent on fragments of translations, chiefly Slavonic, all of which are not even published.
attention to the problems of a sovereign's position in England, was.
Marat declares that physiology alone can solve the problems of the connexion between soul and body, and proposes the existence of a nervous fluid as the true solution.
How far such adaptations are produced afresh in each generation, whether or no their effects are transmitted to descendants and so directly modify the stock, to what extent adaptations characteristic of a species or variety have come about by selection of individuals capable, in each generation, of responding favourably, or how far by the selection of individuals fortuitously suitable to the environment, or, how far, possibly by the inheritance of the responses to the environment, are problems of biology not yet definitely solved.
Metaphysics, again, is concerned with the ultimate problems of matter and spirit; it endeavours to go behind the phenomena of sense and focus its attention on the fundamental truths which are the only logical bases of natural science.
For the scientific problems connected with oscillation see Mechanics and Oscillograph.
The problems particularly of the primitive history were first brought into clear light by him, and all subsequent work upon the subject must acknowledge its indebtedness to him.
But the controversy about predestination, which, in the 9th century, Hincmar and Hrabanus fought out with the monk Gottschalk of Fulda, as well as the discussions that arose from the definition of the doctrine of transubstantiation of Radbert, enable us to gauge the intellectual energy with which theological problems were once more being handled.
Curtiss, Protection and Prosperity: an Account of Tariff Legislation and its Effect in Europe and America (1896); Sir C. Dilke, Problems of Greater Britain (London, 1890); Dowell, History of Taxes and Taxation in England; T.
Among other publications by him were An American Four-in-hand in Britain (1883), Round the World (1884), The Empire of Business (1902), a Life of James Watt (1905) and Problems of To-day (1908).
The Letters contain a discussion of many of the principal problems in psychology and ethics.
The second volume (1817) relates to the Eulerian integrals, and to various integrals and series, developments, mechanical problems, &c., connected with the integral calculus; this volume contains also a numerical table of the values of the gamma function.
They ranged from such problems as the land settlement of the Punjab, or the introduction of civil marriage to provide for the needs of unorthodox Hindus, to the question how far the study of Persian should be required or encouraged among European civil servants.
Meanwhile separate committees were formed for the discussion of special problems. Thus a special committee was appointed consisting of the five German powers to discuss the constitution which was to replace the Holy Roman Empire, another to settle that of Switzerland, and others for other minor questions.
In 1832 Lamennais, with his friends Lacordaire and Montalembert, visited Germany, and obtained considerable sympathy in their attempts to bring about a modification of the Roman Catholic attitude to modern problems. Dbllinger seems to have regarded favourably the removal, by the Bavarian government, in 1841, of Professor Kaiser from his chair, because he had taught the infallibility of the pope.
Yet at least he was ready to meet their leaders, to address them, and to discuss difficult problems with them.
by Hugh Brown), The True Principles of Gunnery (1777); Didion, Helie, Hugoniot, Vallier, Baills, &c., Balistique (French); Siacci, Balistica (Italian) Mayevski, Zabudski, Balistique (Russian); La Llave, 011ero, Mata, &c., Balistica (Spanish); Bashforth, The Motion of Projectiles (1872); The Bashforth Chronograph (1890); Ingalls, Exterior and Interior Ballistics, Handbook of Problems in Direct and Indirect Fire; Bruff, Ordnance and Gunnery; Cranz, Compendium der Ballistik (1898); The Official Text-Book of Gunnery (1902); Charbonnier, Balistique (1905); Lissak, Ordnance and Gunnery (1907).
In addition to his labours on neurological and even physiological problems he made many contributions to other branches of medicine, his published works dealing, among other topics, with liver and kidney diseases, gout and pulmonary phthisis.
The Wisdomliterature of the Hebrews concerned itself with what we should call the philosophy of human nature, and sometimes also of physical nature as well; its writers observed human character, studied action in its consequences, laid down maxims for education and conduct, and reflected on the moral problems which human society presents.
But two things, the extent of the influence of criticism and the relation of archaeology and criticism, yet remain for consideration, in the course of which it will be possible just to indicate some other problems awaiting solution.
If the reasons suggested above are not adequate, then we must set down the questioned epistles to some disciple of St Paul, who has carried the ideas and principles of his master a step farther or has applied them to a different set of problems and conditions.
Besides these works the chief efforts of textual critics since WH have been directed towards the elucidation of minor problems, and the promulgation of certain hypotheses to explain the characteristics either of individual MSS.
From the time of Jeremiah downwards the perennial interest of Old-Testament thought lies in the working out of the problems of personal religion and of the idea of a spiritual fellowship of faith transcending all national limitation; and these are the motives not only of the lyrics of the Psalter but of the greater theodiceas of Isa.
So long as the great problems of religion could be envisaged as problems of the relation of Yahweh to Israel as a nation the prophets continued to speak and to bring forth new truths; but the ultimate result was that it became apparent that the idea of moral government involved the destruction of Israel, and then the function of prophecy was gone because it was essentiall y national in its objects.
By ignoring the free poetical form of prophecy, and still more by ignoring the fact that the prophetic pictures of the ideal future of Israel could not be literally fulfilled after the fall of the ancient state had entirely changed the sphere in which the problems of true religion had to be worked out, it was possible to find a great mass of unfulfilled prophecy which might form the basis of eschatological constructions.
For in requiring these religions to impart certain prescribed religious truths, and to inculcate the highest moral tone, it burdened them with problems to which they were unequal.
New and unheard-of orders of amphibians, reptiles and mammals came to the surface of knowledge, revolutionizing thought, demonstrating the evolution theory, and solving some of the most important problems of descent.
These latter discoveries supply us with the ancestry of the elephants and many other forms. They round out our knowledge of Tertiary history, but leave the problems of the Cretaceous mammals and of their relations to Tertiary mammals still unsolved.
Geographers are practically helpless as historians, and problems of the former elevation and distribution of the land and sea masses depend for their solution chiefly upon the palaeontologist.
Sclater, Alfred Russel Wallace and others, largely upon the present distribution of animal life, is now encountering through palaeontology a new and fascinating series of problems. In brief, it must connect living distribution with distribution in past time, and develop a system which will be in harmony with the main facts of zoology and palaeontology.
- As historian the palaeontologist always has before him as one of his most fascinating problems phylogeny, or the restoration of the great tree of animal descent.
de zoologie, session de Bern, 1904), " The Present Problems of Palaeontology " (Address before Section of Zool.
The question of the derivation of the myth of the Primal Man is still one of the unsolved problems of religious history.
The explorations made by Dr Lehmann in 1909 in the famous ruins of Teotihuacan, near Mexico city throw new light upon certain chronological problems. Like the excavations made by Dr Max Uhle in Peru, they tend to determine the relative antiquity of the different periods of the ancient civilization.
and in Salvador, furnish important material for the investigation of the obscure problems of the Toltecs and Olmecs, and of the extension of Maya peoples on the Atlantic coast of the Mexican Gulf from Campeche as far as Tabasco and Vera Cruz.
3 by the absorbing character of the internal problems of Prussia.
His philosophical writings are the successive ma-iifestations of a restless highly endowed spirit, striving unsuccessfully after a solution of its own problems. Such unity as they possess is a unity of tendency and endeavour; in some respects the final form they assumed is the least satisfactory.
Mendeleeff's original work covered a wide range, from questions in applied chemistry to the most general problems of chemical and physical theory.
Augustine in his later writings against the Manichaeans deals chiefly with the following problems: (I) the relation between knowledge and faith, and between reason and authority; (2) the nature of good and evil, and the origin of the latter; (3) the existence of free will, and its relation to the divine omnipotence; (4) the relation of the evil in the world to the divine government.
The large province of the Basin ranges, an arid region throughout, even though it reaches the sea in southern California, involves some novel problems in its description.
The explanation of the apparent conformity of the strata from the Cambrian to the Pennsylvanian in some parts of the west, with no fossils defining with certainty any horizon between the Ordovician and the Mississippian, is one of the open problems in the geology of the United States.
cabinet has little to do in the way of devising parliamentary tactics, or of preparing bills, or of discussing problems of foreign policy.
contains A Bibliography of Municipal Problems and City Conditions.
Goodnows Municipal Government (New York, 1909), City Government in the United States (ibid., 1904); Municipal Problems (ibid., 1897) and Municipal Home Rule (ibid., 1895); J.
Wilcox, The American City: A Problem -in Democracy (ibid., 1904); and Great Cities in America: Their Problems and Government (ibid., 1910); H, E.
Woodburn, American Politics: Political Parties and Party Problems in the United States (ibid., 1903); Lucy M.
Smith, The Spirit of American Government: A Study of the Constitution, its Origin, Influence and Relation to Democracy (New York, 1907); Albert Shaw, Political Problems in American Development (New York, (1907); D.
Dewey, National Problems (ibid., 1907).
Euclid devotes his third book entirely to theorems and problems relating to the circle, and certain lines and angles, which he defines in introducing the propositions.
The problem of finding a square equal in area to a given circle, like all problems, may be increased in difficulty by the imposition of restrictions; consequently under the designation there may be embraced quite a variety of geometrical problems. It has to be noted, however, that, when the " squaring " of the circle is especially spoken of, it is almost always tacitly assumed that the restrictions are those of the Euclidean geometry.
This correlative numerical problem and the two purely geometrical problems are inseparably connected historically.
As in the case of the process of 6 It is thus manifest that by his first construction Snell gave an approximate solution of two great problems of antiquity.
Essentially, therefore, Descartes's process is that known later as the process of isoperimeters, and often attributed wholly to Schwab.2 In 16J5 appeared the Arithmetica Infinitorum of John Wallis, where numerous problems of quadrature are dealt with, the curves being now represented in Cartesian co-ordinates, and algebra playing an important part.
Rudio, Geschichte des Problems von der Quadratur des Zirkels M.
Halley added in his edition (1710) a restoration of Book viii., in which he was guided by the fact that Pappus gives lemmas "to the seventh and eighth books" under that one heading, as well as by the statement of Apollonius himself that the use of the seventh book was illustrated by the problems solved in the eighth.
One is situated at Lethbridge, southern Alberta, where problems will be investigated concerning agriculture upon irrigated land and dry farming under conditions of a scanty rainfall.
(For the history of Lower and Upper Canada, now Quebec and Ontario, the separate articles must be consulted.) Each province had special problems; the French in Lower Canada aimed at securing political power for their own race, while in Upper Canada there was no race problem, and the great struggle was for independence of official control and in all essential matters for government by the people.
Many times in the course of his investigations the critic will be confronted with problems which cannot be resolved by xxvi.
He studied with earnest zeal the Greek philosophers; Plato in particular, and the writings of the Stoics, he had fully at command, and his treatise De Anima shows that he himself was able to investigate and discuss philosophical problems. From the philosophers he had been led to the medical writers, whose treatises plainly had a place in his working library.
He rejected the Platonic hypothesis of forms, and affirmed that they are not separate but common, without however as yet having advanced to a constructive metaphysics of his own; while at the same time, after having at first adopted his master's dialectical treatment of metaphysical problems, he soon passed from dialogues to didactic works,, which had the result of separating metaphysics from dialectic. The all-important consequence of this first departure from Platonism was that Aristotle became and remained primarily a metaphysician.
C. Miscellaneous 1.1 Hpo/ Xb,LCara: Problemata: Problems on various subjects [gradually collected by the Peripatetics from partly Aristotelian materials, according to Zeller].
With him, as with the Greeks generally, the problems of philosophy are the nature and origin of being and of good: it is not as with too many of us a mere science of mind.
One of the first problems of the new commonwealth was that of finance.
2 for the use of the older prophecies in the solution of new problems of faith.
It contained very complicated problems affecting deeply the economic, social and political.
had little of the special knowledge required for dealing successfully with such problems,.
were devoted to expounding his views, or rather his doctrines, on social and industrial problems, on education, morals and religion, wherein art becomes an incidental and instrumental means to a higher and more spiritual life.
41 to 52) he was principally occupied with social problems. From 1871 to 1885 (aet.
But the negative part of Ruskin's teaching on economics, social and political problems, has been much more effective than the positive part of his teaching.
The " Young Turkish " government has problems to face which will be equally difficult, if it insists on endeavouring to institute centralized government in Turkey on the French model.
See Barclay, Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy (1907).
See Barclay, Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy, 0907), p. 137 seq.
1 Within the limit of this article it is not possible to give a complete account of this most intricate branch of physics; the writer therefore confines himself to a summary of the problems which now engage scientific attention, referring the reader for details to H.
The qualification that the circular function must apply to all time is important, and unless it is recognized as a necessary condition of homogeneity, confusion in the more intricate problems or radiation becomes inevitable.
contains geometrical problems, plane and solid.
The rest of the book treats of the trisection of an angle, and the solution of more general problems of the same kind by means of the quadratrix and spiral.
It is one of the most important problems in ancient history to determine what was the ethnological relation of these tribes, whom we may call " Safine," to the people of Rome on the one hand, and the earlier stratum or strata of population in Italy on the other.
The problems of the relations of the life of the State and the life of the individual, which Aristotle ever suggests and never solves, are problems with which the Christian Church has at least attempted to deal."
In connexion with this Biran treats most of the obscure problems which arise in dealing with conscious experience, such as the mode by which the organism is cognized, the mode by which the organism is distinguished from extra-organic things, and the nature of those general ideas by which the relations of things are known to us - cause, power, force, &c.
But has Haeckel solved the problems of mind ?
In 1888 Mr Balfour served on the Gold and Silver Commission, currency problems from the standpoint of bimetallism being among the more academic subjects which had engaged his attention.
His championship of the voluntary schools, his adroit parliamentary handling of the problems opened up by the so-called "crisis in the Church" caused by the Protestant movement against ritualistic practices, and his pronouncement in favour of a Roman Catholic university for Ireland - for which he outlined a scheme that met with much adverse criticism both from his colleagues and his party, - were the most important aspects of Mr Balfour's activity during these years.
But his wide range of knowledge and interests, his intellectual finesse, his personal hold over his supporters, his statesmanlike grasp upon imperial problems and his oratorical ability, had been proved to a remarkable degree; and in foreign affairs his tenure of power had been conspicuously successful.
Thus two problems presented themselves: the restoration of the papal state, which had been reduced to chaos by the Borgias; and the liberation of the Holy See from the onerous dependence on France - in other words, the expulsion of the French " barbarians " from Italy.
The war demanded both in Germany and France the sacrifice of all available energy and public spirit; while the Kulturkampf, by bringing into relief the question of the external existence of the Church, thrust all internal dogmatic interests and problems completely into the background.
and it was brought about one of the most momentous the French changes in the attitude of the Church towards the Republic. problems of the times and their impelling forces.
Henceforward, whatever other subjects might from time to time claim his attention, it was from among electrical phenomena that he selected those problems to which he applied the full force of his mind, and which he kept persistently in view, even when year after year his attempts to solve them had been baffled.
40, and that of the anointing of Christ in Bethany given by Mark and Matthew, are among the chief problems. The controversy has given rise to a great mass of literature, discussions of which will be found in the lives of Christ, the biblical encyclopaedias and the commentaries on St John.
In 1882 he was elected to parliament and proved an active worker on committees, speaking frequently and well on foreign and colonial affairs, railway, agricultural, social and fiscal problems. In 1891, as member of the committee of inquiry on Eritrea, he opposed the African policy of both the Crispi and the Rudini Cabinets.
During the next few years he devoted himself to travel in the near East and in North Africa and to the study of the problems concerning those regions.
Though not so prominent as Huxley in detailed controversy over theological problems, he played an important part in educating the public mind in the attitude which the development of natural philosophy entailed towards dogma and religious authority.
In addition to the difficulties presented by the Bible as an historical record, and the literary problems which textual and other critics have investigated, the modern freethinker denies that the Christianity of the New Testament or its interpretation by modern theologians affords a coherent theory of human life and duty.
Two subsidiary or minor problems remained over.
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