Prisoners sentence example
The last time I did it, I robbed him of a few prisoners he didn't want to lose.
A narrow, lit walkway extended all the way down the corridor, the only part of the hall out of reach of the arms of the prisoners on either side.
She ignored the instinct and said, "I want to roam around the main house, but I'm really afraid of opening doors to random rooms and finding, you know, hordes of tarantulas that attack me or angry prisoners of war."
Darkyn followed Jade as the madman hauled his two prisoners toward the portal to the shadow world.
I'm pretty sure the prisoners are kept on the same floor as the warriors.Advertisement
The icicles are prison bars on our windows, trapping us, prisoners to this life of sin and degradation...
Your excellency, there are some political prisoners, Meshkov, Vereshchagin...
I don't intend to take any prisoners.
She held her breath as the guardsman on the outside hesitated, seeking out the two prisoners he couldn't see.
They cursed the wolves, but both enjoyed their time being prisoners in their own home.Advertisement
Further floggings are inflicted with the "cat" upon convicted prisoners for breaches of discipline in prison.
Claire didn't look any worse for wear after a day in the offsite location Dusty had scouted as a temporary dungeon for their prisoners.
He was taller than average, over six and a half feet, built like a rock with wide shoulders and tapered abdomen and hips beneath a jumpsuit similar to those worn by the prisoners.
He returned to his partner, lifted the goblets from the tray, and approached the prisoners.
Our prisoners are the only survivors.Advertisement
The Diet, which met in 1839, supported the agitation for the release of the prisoners, and refused to pass any government measures; Metternich long remained obdurate, but the danger of war in 1840 obliged him to give way.
After the defeat of the Romans by Pyrrhus at Heraclea (280), Fabricius was sent to treat for the ransom and exchange of the prisoners.
All attempts to bribe him were unsuccessful, and Pyrrhus is said to have been so impressed that he released the prisoners without ransom (Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 18).
When that passionate young prince, in revenge for a fancied wrong, resolved to drive the English out of Bengal, his first step was to occupy the fortified factory at Cossimbazar, and make prisoners of Hastings and his companions.
His first duty was to examine the Anabaptist prisoners in the Tower.Advertisement
Shishman's son Samuel (976-1014) captured Durazzo; he extended his sway over a great part of the Balkan Peninsula, but was eventually defeated in 1014 by the emperor Basil II., who put out the eyes of 1.5,000 Bulgarian prisoners.
In 1643 Cromwell performed one of his earlier exploits in taking Lowestoft, capturing large supplies and making prisoners of several influential royalists.
Cellular imprisonment was, however, partially adopted for persons awaiting trial., Central prisons, in which prisoners lived and worked in association, had been in existence from the commencement of the i9th century.
There are also reformatory establishments for juvenile offenders, and ddpDts de stireU for prisoners who are travelling, at places where there are no other prisons.
On the 24th an irade announced the restoration of the suspended constitution of 1875; next day, further irades abolished espionage and the censorship, and ordered the release of political prisoners.Advertisement
In 1906 the population of the commune of Algiers was 154,049; the population municipale, which excludes the garrison, prisoners, &c., was 145,280.
In December 1654 Penn and Venables sailed for the West Indies with orders to attack the Spanish colonies and the French shipping; and for the first time since the Plantagenets an English fleet appeared in the Mediterranean, where Blake upheld the supremacy of the English flag, made a treaty with the dey of Algiers, destroyed the castles and ships of the dey of Tunis at Porto Farina on the 4th of April 1655, and liberated the English prisoners captured by the pirates.
The judges and lawyers began to question the legality of his ordinances, and to doubt their competency to convict royalist prisoners of treason.
When the prisoners were landed a fortnight later Sir George Hill recognized Tone in the French adjutant-general's uniform.
Notwithstanding the construction of new prisons and the transformation of old ones, the number of cells for solitary confinement is still insufficient for a complete application of the penal system established by the code of 1890, and the moral effect of the association of the prisoners is not good, though the system of solitary confinement as practised in Italy is little better.Advertisement
The heroism of the prisoners, and Silvio Pellicos account of his imprisonment (Le mie Prigioni), did much to enlist the sympathy of Europe for the Italian cause.
The prisoners included Silvio Spaventa, Luigi Settembrini, Carlo Poerio and many other cultured and worthy citizens.
The Garibaldians, mowed down by the new French chassept rifles, fought until their last cartridges were exhausted, and retreated the next day towards the Italian frontier, leaving 800 prisoners.
Angered by this step, Ras Alula took prisoners the members of an Italian exploring party commanded by Count Salimbeni, and held them as hostages for the evacuation of Wa.
By adroit negotiations with Mangash the Italian general obtained the release of the Italian prisoners in Tigr, and towards the end of May withdrew his whole force north of the Mareb.Advertisement
The treaty having been duly ratified, and an indemnity of 400,000 paid to Menelek, the Shoan prisoners were released, and Major Nerazzini once more returned to Abyssinia with instructions to secure, if possible, Meneleks assent to the definitive retention of the Mareb-Belesa-Muna line by Italy.
This was interrupted by the Indian Mutiny of 1857, but as soon as the neck of that revolt was broken, it became more urgent than ever to provide such a resource, on account of the great number of prisoners falling into British hands.
In 306 the emperor Constantine the Great caused multitudes of Frankish prisoners to be thrown to the beasts here, and in 313 made a similar spectacle of the captive Bructeri.
On the other hand, the more conservative section of the Poles regarded Kollontaj as "a second Robespierre," and he is even suspected of complicity in the outrages of the 17th and, 8th of June 1794, when the Warsaw mob massacred the political prisoners.
In the Toth century IIushiel, one of four prisoners, perhaps from Babylonia, though that is doubtful, was ransomed and settled at Kairawan, where he acquired great reputation as a Talmudist.Advertisement
During this period a number of prisoners of the Petcheneg tribe were settled in the neighbourhood, in all probability the ancestors of the Shop tribe which now inhabits the surrounding districts.
Stolypin, there is no intention of converting the ministerial bench into a prisoners' dock.
Finally, after a crushing defeat in which 2000 of the insurgents were killed and 6000 taken prisoners, he was betrayed by some of his followers and executed in Moscow.
The general release of prisoners, with which he celebrated his impending recall, is typical of his policy.
In the autumn of 1921 he undertook the general supervision of relief work in Russia, first having exacted, as a condition, the release of all American prisoners held by the Soviet authorities.Advertisement
As these were insufficient to give employment to all the prisoners, some were put to work on Yazoo Delta plantations on partnership contracts.
About fifteen were taken prisoners, and of these seven were executed.
The prisoners were lodged at first in the smaller Tower, but were removed to the larger Tower on the 27th of October.
From that moment began new plots for the escape of the prisoners from the Temple, the chief of which were engineered by the Chevalier de Jarjayes, 1 the baron de Batz, 2 and the faithful Lady Atkyns.
She expended large sums in trying to secure the escape of the prisoners of the Temple.Advertisement
But after their commanders had been taken prisoners the Greeks forced their way to the Black Sea.
But as it has no accommodation for a garrison, it is now only occupied by a small guard of British troops in charge of prisoners.
In 1901 Bellary was chosen as one of the places of detention in India for Boer prisoners of war.
Frequently it was terribly overcrowded (by as many as 1200 prisoners at a time), the inmates often suffered great privations, and many died or were physically disabled for the remainder of their lives.
This tract he named " Nonesuch," and here he attempted to establish a small body of soldiers who had occupied a less favourable site in the vicinity; but they objected to the change and, being attacked by the Indians, sought the protection of Smith, who made prisoners of their leaders, with the result, apparently, that the settlement was abandoned.
Unsuccessful attempts were made in February and March 1864 to free the Federal prisoners in Richmond by means of cavalry raids.
These terms, it should be noted, would have kept Napoleon's empire intact except in Illyria; while the peace would have enabled him to reorganize his army and recover a host of French prisoners from Russia.
The return of French prisoners from Russia, Germany, England and Spain would furnish him with an army far larger than that which had won renown in 1814.
The retorts of the prisoners were notable.
He determined to treat prisoners captured from submarines, in view of their breaches of the laws of war, with more severity than ordinary prisoners; but the Germans retaliated harshly on the most noteworthy English prisoners in their hands, and Mr. Balfour, on succeeding Mr. Churchill, gave up this discrimination.
His policy was to preserve constitutional government in the South and strengthen the anti-war party in the North by convincing it that the Lincoln administration had abandoned such government; to the same end he urged, in 1864, the unconditional discharge of Federal prisoners in the South.
Mounds of bones marked his road, witnesses of devastations which other historians record in detail; Christian prisoners, from Germany, he found in the heart of "Tartary" (at Talas); the ceremony of passing between two fires he was compelled to observe, as a bringer of gifts to a dead khan, gifts which were of course treated by the Mongols as evidence of submission.
On Seavey's Island Admiral Cervera and other Spanish officers and sailors captured during the SpanishAmerican War were held prisoners in July - September 1898.
He favoured the death penalty for spies, but after the war advocated amnesty for political prisoners.
Here the sultan reiterated terms which he had already offered several times before - the cession of most of the kingdom of Jerusalem, the surrender of the cross (captured by Saladin in 1187), and the restoration of all prisoners.
In the battle which ensued under the walls of Seville, Abdallah and his auxiliaries were routed with great slaughter, the Cid returning to Burgos with many prisoners and a rich booty.
There is no penitentiary; the convicts are hired to the one highest bidder who contracts for their labour, and who undertakes, moreover, to lease all other persons convicted during the term of the lease, and sub-leases the prisoners.
Decrepit prisoners were formerly leased, but in 1906 the lease excluded such as were thought unfit by the state prison physician.
The 1232 convicts " on hand" at the close of 1908 were held in 38 camps, 4 being the minimum, and 160 the maximum number, at a camp. In 1908 two central hospitals for the prisoners were maintained by the lessee company.
With the co-operation of the Indians under their chief Saturiba he captured Fort San Mateo in the spring of 1568, and on the spot where the garrison of Fort Caroline had been executed, he hanged his Spanish prisoners, inscribing on a tablet of pine the words, " I do this not as unto Spaniards but as to traitors, robbers and murderers."
In 869 the see of Athens became an archbishopric. In 995 Attica was ravaged by the Bulgarians under their tsar Samuel, but Athens escaped; after the defeat of Samuel at Belasitza (1014) the emperor Basil II., who blinded 15,000 Bulgarian prisoners, came to Athens and celebrated his triumph by a thanksgiving service in the Parthenon (1018).
His patience won him many friends; and when he and his companions remained in prison while the other prisoners managed to escape, their conduct excited much admiration.
On the morning of the 19th of August 1779 the British garrison was surprised by Major Henry Lee ("Light Horse Harry"), who with about 50o men took 159 prisoners and lost only 2 killed and 3 wounded, one of the most brilliant exploits during the War of Independence.
On June 24, 200 Russian soldiers landed on Mount Athos, and a month later 600 of the monks were deported to Russia, where they were distributed as prisoners in various monasteries.
Here he came under the influence of certain terrorist prisoners, notably of Lebois, editor of the Journal de l'egalite, afterwards of the Ami du peuple, papers which carried on the traditions of Marat.
On Fructidor 10 and 11 (27th and 28th of August), when the prisoners were removed from Paris, there were tentative efforts at a riot with a view to rescue, but these were easily suppressed.
On Prairial 7 (26th of April 1797) Babeuf and Darthe were condemned to death; some of the prisoners, including Buonarroti, were exiled; the rest, including Vadier and his fellow-conventionals, were acquitted.
Colonel Swayne thrice defeated the enemy, who lost 1200 men and 600 taken prisoners, and the mullah fled across the Haud, taking refuge with the Mijertin in Italian territory.
Before this time Columbus had proposed an exchange of his Carib prisoners as slaves against live stock to be furnished to Haiti by Spanish merchants.
He actually sent home, in 1494, above Soo Indian prisoners taken in wars with the caciques, who, he suggested, might be sold as slaves at Seville.
But, after a royal order had been issued for their sale, Queen Isabella, interested by what she had heard of the gentle and hospitable character of the natives and of their docility, procured a letter to be written to Bishop Fonseca, the superintendent of Indian affairs, suspending the order until inquiry should be made into the causes for which they had been made prisoners, and into the lawfulness of their sale.
In 1730 William Morgan, an Irish student, visited the gaol and reported that there was a great opening for work among the prisoners.
Rosecrans, who on the 3/4 of October 1862 was fiercely attacked here by General Earl von Dorn, whom he repulsed, both sides suffering considerable losses in killed and wounded, and the Confederates leaving many prisoners behind.
King Sigismund of Hungary barely escaped in a fishing boat; his army was cut to pieces to a man; among the prisoners taken was Jean Sans Peur, brother of the king of France.
The enemy's escape annoyed him greatly, the absence of captured guns and prisoners reminded him too much of his Russian experiences, and he redoubled his.
About 1153, Ivor Bach (or the Little), a neighbouring Welsh chieftain, seized the castle and for a time held William, earl of Gloucester, and the countess prisoners in the hills.
They remained in a Tirolese prison until December 1795, when there was an exchange of prisoners on the release of Madame Royale, daughter of Louis XVI., from the Temple.
Guillaume arrived too late to help Vivien, was himself defeated, and returned alone to his wife Guibourc, leaving his knights all dead or prisoners.
After having lost half of /7"' his men in a battle, Duclerc and all his surviving companions were made prisoners.
At this time also he exerted himself for the reform of justice in the ecclesiastical courts, for the uniformity of the law of marriage (which he held should be a purely civil contract) and for giving prisoners charged with felony the benefit of counsel.
The Commons had ordered to be printed, among other papers, a report of the inspectors of prisons on Newgate, which stated that an obscene book, published by Stockdale, was given to the prisoners to read.
He was indicted for treason by a Virginia grand jury, persistent efforts were made to connect him with the assassination of President Lincoln, he was unjustly charged with having deliberately and wilfully caused the sufferings and deaths of Union prisoners at Andersonville and for two years he was denied trial or bail.
Nineteen were sentenced to death, but in the case of seven of the prisoners the sentence was commuted.
Meantime, in February 1908, the governor - Sir Matthew Nathan, who had succeeded Sir Henry McCallum in August 1907 - had made a tour in Zululand, on which occasion some 1500 of the prisoners taken in the rebellion of 1906 were released.
The diet of 1839 refused to proceed to business till the political prisoners had been released, and, while in the Lower Chamber the reforming majority was larger than ever, a Liberal party was now also formed in the Upper House under the brilliant leadership of Count Louis Batthyany and Baron Joseph EdtvOs.
During the winter of 1915 delegates of the Yugoslav Committee, with the Tsar's special permission, began enrolling volunteers from among the prisoners on the Russian front; and by March 1916 a division of 23,000 men had been concentrated at Odessa, and a second was formed later.
Half the men were killed and wounded; the other half including some officers, were taken prisoners.
Captain Elliot, one of the prisoners, who had been released on parole, was shot dead by Boers while crossing the Vaal, and Captain Lambert, another paroled prisoner who accompanied Elliot, was also shot, but escaped.
In the negotiations which followed, President Kruger at length agreed to extend " most favoured nation " privileges to British subjects in reference to compulsory military service, and five British subjects who had been sent as prisoners to the front were released.
Jameson and his men were conveyed to Pretoria as prisoners, and subsequently handed over to the high commissioner (Sir Hercules Robinson, who had succeeded Sir Henry Loch in June 1895).
The engagement was disastrous to the British, who had undertaken far too comprehensive an attack, and the Natal Field Force was obliged to fall back upon Ladysmith with the loss of 1500 men, including a large number of prisoners belonging to the left column under Lieut.-Colonel F.R.C. Carleton,who were cut off at Nicholson's Nek and forced to surrender by a mixed force of Transvaalers and Free Staters under Christian de Wet.
The gold mines were now securely in the possession of the British, and on the 5th of June Lord Roberts's army occupied the capital of the Transvaal practically without resistance, setting free about 3000 British prisoners of war detained there.
On the 30th of August the remainder of the British prisoners were released at Nooitgedacht.
The number of Boer prisoners in the hands of the British at the end of the war was about 40,000.
For many years the castles and prisons of Haverfordwest and Pembroke were filled to overflowing with French prisoners of war.
The latter visited the Paulician fortress Tephrike to treat for the release of Byzantine prisoners.
An interesting example of the long plain variety is afforded by the prisoners of Lachish before Sennacherib (701 B.C.); the circumstances and a comparison of the details would point to its being essentially a simple dress indicative of mourning and humiliation.
To Pretoria Dr Jameson and his troopers were brought prisoners (January 1896) after the fight at Doornkop (to be handed over in few days to the British government), and thither also were brought the Reform Committee prisoners from Johannesburg.
He was followed, arrested, his niece seized separately, and sent to join him in custody; and the two, with the secretary Collini, were kept close prisoners at an inn called the Goat.
Ten years after this, one of the most famous scenes in the streets of London occurred, when Edward the Black Prince brought the French King John and other prisoners after the battle of Poitiers to England.
In most places they have become extinct or absorbed in the surrounding populations owing to their habit of incorporating prisoners in the tribe.
The mob and some of the soldiers became menacing in their attitude towards the prisoners, so that it was deemed advisable to convey them to one or other of the Berlin prisons.
But at this moment the archers, taking their hatchets, swords or other weapons, penetrated the gaps in the now disordered French, who could not move to cope with their unarmoured assailants, and were slaughtered or taken prisoners to a man.
The closing scene of the battle was a half-hearted attack made by a body of fugitives, which led merely to the slaughter of the French prisoners, which was ordered by Henry because he had not enough men both to guard them and to meet the attack.
The French lost 5000 of noble birth killed, including the constable, 3 dukes, 5 counts and 90 barons; 1000 more were taken prisoners, amongst them the duke of Orleans (the Charles d'Orleans of literature).
The prisoners, who were most barbarously treated, remained captive for over four years.
Baird's mother, on hearing that her son and other prisoners were in fetters, is said to have remarked, "God help the chiel chained to oor Davie."
One of these officials in the Tanganyika region was in April 1912 sentenced to ten years' imprisonment for summarily executing 11 native prisoners, including 4 women and a child.
Elsewhere we see the victorious prince beating down a vanquished enemy, and superintending the execution of other prisoners who are being sacrificed to the gods, while in one curious scene he is striking with his mace a sort of wicker-work cage filled with naked men.
Prisoners began to arrive in February 1864, before the prison was completed and before adequate supplies had been received, and in May their number amounted to about 12,000.
In June the stockade was enlarged so as to include 262 acres, but the congestion was only temporarily relieved, and in August the number of prisoners exceeded 32,000.
During the summer of 1864 the prisoners suffered greatly from hunger, exposure and disease, and in seven months about a third of them died.
In the autumn, after the capture of Atlanta, all the prisoners who could be moved were sent to Millen, Georgia and Florence, South Carolina.
At Millen better arrangements prevailed, and when, after Sherman began his march to the sea, the prisoners were returned to Andersonville, the conditions there were somewhat improved.
During the war 49,485 prisoners were received at the Andersonville prison, and of these about 13,000 died.
The terrible conditions obtaining there were due to the lack of food supplies in the Confederate States, the incompetence of the prison officials, and the refusal of the Federal authorities in 1864 to make exchanges of prisoners, thus filling the stockade with unlooked-for numbers.
The excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal increased with the growth of Robespierre's ascendancy in the Committee of Public Safety; and on the 10th of June 1794 was promulgated, at his instigation, the infamous Law of 22 Prairial, which forbade prisoners to employ counsel for their defence, suppressed the hearing of witnesses and made death the sole penalty.
Before 22 Prairial the Revolutionary Tribunal had pronounced 1220 death-sentences in thirteen months; during the forty-nine days between the passing of the law and the fall of Robespierre 1376 persons were condemned, including many innocent victims. The lists of prisoners to be sent before the tribunal were prepared by a popular commission sitting at the museum, and signed, after revision, by the Committee of General Security and the Committee of Public Safety jointly.
Among his prisoners was Therese, the divorced wife of the comte de Fontenay, and daughter of the Spanish banker, Francois Cabarrus, one of the most fascinating women of her time, and Tallien not only spared her life but fell in love with her.
Disputes with the king arose over the disposal of the Scottish prisoners, Percy insisting on his right to hold Douglas as his personal prisoner, and he was summoned to court to explain.
Again invading the island, he was again attacked and defeated by the same adversaries, leaving a brother and son, or, as some authorities aver, a wife and son, prisoners in their hands.
The Pisan fleet of three hundred sail, commanded by the archbishop Pietro Moriconi, attacked the Balearic Isles, where as many as 20,000 Christians were said to be held captive by the Moslems, and returned loaded with spoil and with a multitude of Christian and Moslem prisoners.
The chroniclers speak of 5000 killed and 1 i,000 prisoners; and, although these figures must be exaggerated, so great was the number of captives taken by the Genoese as to give rise to the saying - "To see Pisa, you must now go to Genoa."
At the height of his country's disasters he sought to confirm his own power by making terms with the Florentines, by yielding certain castles to Lucca, and by neglecting to conclude negotiations with the Genoese for the release of the prisoners, lest these should all prove more or less hostile to himself.
They likewise received a ransom of 160,000 lire for their Pisan prisoners.
The viceroy and all his officers were taken prisoners, and the Spanish power in Peru came to an end.
It is said that at least Bernardo del Nero would have been spared had Savonarola raised his voice, but, although refraining from any active part against the prisoners, the prior would not ask mercy for them.
The prisoners were conveyed to the Palazzo Vecchio, and Savonarola was lodged in the tower cell which had once harboured Cosimo de' Medici.
The signory refused to send their prisoners to Rome, but they did Rome's behests.
As the prisoners, clad in penitential haircloth, were led across the bridge, wanton boys thrust sharp sticks between the planks to wound their feet.
His memory is stained by one act of needless cruelty, the massacre of over two thousand Saracen prisoners at Acre; and his fury, when thwarted or humbled, was ungovernable.
But as they had appealed to Napoleon, who would not suffer his name to be mentioned, the government had to allow the matter to be hushed up, and the prisoners were acquitted.
Twelve years later it was captured by Timur, who built a wall with the corpses of his prisoners.
The priest Symonds, and Simnel were taken prisoners.
In the ensuing trial at Richmond the prisoners were released for lack of sufficient evidence to convict, and Wilkinson himself emerged with a much damaged reputation.
In 1722 the Turkish prisoners and slaves, then very numerous, formed a conspiracy to rise and seize the island..
Although numerous reinforcements arrived, he would have found it very difficult to storm the place previous to the inundation of the Nile but for treachery within the citadel; the Greeks who remained there were either made prisoners or put to the sword.
A few scattered units managed to escape, and the left wing retreated unmolested, but at the cost of about 3000 casualties the Allies inflicted a loss of 6000 killed and wounded and 9000 prisoners on the enemy, who were, moreover, so shaken that they never recovered their confidence to the end of the campaign.
The corps lost heavily, though some prisoners and guns were taken.
The captures of the corps came to over 4,000 prisoners and 87 guns; the attacking strength of the Australians was less than 6,000 and the casualties were just over r,000 in all.
The 18th was checked after capturing Ronssoy and the 12th and 58th after taking Epehy; 2,300 prisoners were taken and io guns.
In the series of operations, described above, the Third and Fourth British Armies had engaged 15 divisions against 29 of the German Second and Seventeenth Armies, and had taken from them close on 12,000 prisoners and 100 guns.
Four thousand prisoners and roo guns had been taken in this day's advance of some 7,000 yd.
During its course the First Army's line had been advanced close on eight miles; its four divisions had driven back the 13 German divisions engaged by the Seventeenth Army on their front, and taken from them over 7,000 prisoners, 205 guns and 950 machine-guns, besides inflicting losses in killed and wounded which certainly far outweighed their own casualties.
Thirteen German divisions had been forced to give ground before 12 British, and had left behind them many prisoners and guns during the five days' fighting.
Despite the comparative failure of the Composite Corps the attack had on the whole been a brilliant success, seven Allied divisions having defeated nine enemy divisions ensconced in immensely powerful works, capturing from them 5,300 prisoners and ioo guns and effecting such a wide breach in the last German line of defence that its complete capture in a few days was assured.
One of the first measures to which he directed his attention was the withdrawal of the power of nominating juries from the judges, and the imparting, of a right of peremptory challenge to prisoners.
In the following campaign, after desperate fighting to the north of the Danube in the mountainous region of Transylvania, Sarmizegethusa, the capital of Decebalus, was taken, and he was forced to terms. He agreed to raze all fortresses, to surrender all weapons, prisoners and !Roman deserters, and to become a dependent prince under the suzerainty of Rome.
But it had captured twenty-seven Confederate battle flags and as many prisoners as it had men when the fighting ceased.
The position and treatment of captives or prisoners of war is now dealt with fully in chapter ii.
Houston now assumed active command and retreated before Santa Anna until he reached the San Jacinto river, where he dealt the enemy a crushing blow and brought the war to an end; nearly all of Santa Anna's army were killed, wounded or taken prisoners, and even Santa Anna himself was captured the next day, while the Texans lost only two killed and twenty-three wounded.
After bold and repeated overtures for an exchange of prisoners - an important matter, both because the American frigates had no place in which to - stow away their prisoners, and because of the maltreatment _ of American captives in such prisons as Dartmoor - exchanges began at the end of March 1779, although there were annoying delays, and immediately after November 1781 there was a long break in the agreement; and the Americans discharged from English prisons were constantly in need of money.
In the medieval Church there were seven "corporal" and seven "spiritual works of mercy" (opera misericordiae); these were (a) the giving of food to the hungry and drink to the thirsty, the clothing of the naked, the visitation of the sick and of prisoners, the receiving of strangers, and the burial of the dead; (b) the conversion of sinners, teaching of the ignorant, giving of counsel to the doubtful, forgiveness of injuries, patience under wrong, prayer for the living and for the dead.
He and two other Europeans were seized and made prisoners.
The deliberations of 1561 resulted in the various reforms, the suspension of persecution and the liberation of Huguenot prisoners.
In the first, which was fought on the 5th and 6th of September 1634, the hitherto invincible Swedish army, commanded by Duke Bernhard of Saxe Weimar and Marshal Horn, was defeated with great loss by a somewhat superior army of Imperialists and Spaniards under General Gallas, Horn and 3000 men being made prisoners and 6000 killed or mortally wounded.
Lincoln pursued them to Petersham, Worcester county, where on the 4th of February he routed them and took 150 prisoners.
On the 15th of April 1648 he was one of the many noble Polish prisoners who fell into the ' hands of Chmielnicki at the battle of "Yellow Waters," and was sent in chains to the Crimea, whence he was ransomed in 1649.
Worth in the early morning of the 8th of September these buildings were defended by more than io,000 Mexicans under Generals Leon, Alvarez and Perez, and they were captured only after a most desperate fight, which cost the Americans 787 killed and wounded and the Mexicans at least 2000 killed, wounded, and prisoners.
Women could adopt prisoners of war, in which case the latter became their younger sons.
Several of the prelates perished, and many were carried prisoners to the camp of the emperor.
The British loss in killed, wounded and missing was 324; the American loss was about Boo or 900 killed and 1000 prisoners, besides arms and baggage.
The railways and constabulary of the two colonies were (1903) placed under an inter-colonial council; active measures were taken for the repatriation of the prisoners of war and the residents in the concentration camps, and in every direction vigorous and successful efforts were made to repair the ravages of the war.
Human sacrifices were very frequently offered to Odin, especially prisoners taken in battle.
He razed the walls and allowed the women, children and priests to retire in safety to Liege, but the male prisoners he either hanged or drowned in the river by causing them to be cast from the projecting cliff of Bouvignes.
The British government were on the point of demanding reparation for this act in a peremptory manner which could hardly have meant anything but war, but Prince Albert insisted on revising Lord Russell's despatch in a way which gave the American government an opportunity to concede the surrender of the prisoners without humiliation.
White (1842-1875) surprised this guard, released about 15 prisoners, and captured 60 or more Confederates.
In September this was taken by storm; Kolokotrones rode in triumph to the citadel over streets carpeted with the dead; and the crowning triumph of the Cross was celebrated by a cold-blooded massacre of 2000 prisoners of all ages and both sexes.
By a law passed in 1903, the ancient system of recruiting the army and navy from the descendants of former prisoners of war was abolished in favour of compulsory service by all able-bodied men.
He took refuge in France, and when he and Ferdinand were both prisoners of Napoleon's, he was with difficulty restrained from assaulting his son.
Under the direction of General Hugh Mercer some American troops reached Richmond on the morning of the 16th of October 1776, and in an engagement which immediately followed they were victorious; but, as they were retreating with their prisoners, British reinforcements arrived and in a second engagement at Fresh Kill (now Green Ridge) they were routed with considerable loss.
A second raid was made against Richmond early in August 1777; and on the 22nd of the same month American troops under General John Sullivan fought the British at several places, inflicted a loss of about 200 killed, wounded and prisoners and destroyed considerable quantities of stores.
In the latter half of the 18th century it served as a kind of bastille for political prisoners, and is now used as a museum in which a rather nondescript collection of articles, some from Mexico, has been allowed to accumulate.
In Scythia an old iron sword served as the symbol of the god, to which yearly sacrifices of cattle and horses were made, and in earlier times (as apparently also at Sparta) human victims, selected from prisoners of war, were offered.
Of 70,000 prisoners taken by Serbia early in the war 35,000 were Czechs.
Even the peasants, who had suffered severely from the wholesale establishment of prisoners of war as serfs on the estates of the nobles, still preserved the rights of personal liberty and free transit from place to place, whence their name of lazigi.
Only when brute force in its extremest form had been ruthlessly employed, only when three senators and some deputies had been arrested in full session by Russian grenadiers and sent as prisoners to Kaluga, did the opposition collapse.
The influence of the priests kept up the fanaticism of the peasants, and a great manifestation of religious feeling took place on Easter eve, but the republican soldiers taken prisoners were often maltreated and even tortured.
The prisoners were to be tried by military commissions, and the sole penalty was death with confiscation of property.
In 1810 he was about to enter upon his new post of governor of Rome when he was, unexpectedly, elected successor to the Swedish throne, partly because a large part of the Swedish army, in view of future complications with Russia, were in favour of electing a soldier, and partly because Bernadotte was very popular in Sweden, owing to the kindness he had shown to the Swedish prisoners during the late war with Denmark.
In 1664 he accepted the responsibility for the care of the sick and wounded and the prisoners in the Dutch war.
Bryant's (or Bryan's) Station, near Lexington, was besieged in August 1782 by about 600 Indians under the notorious Simon Girty, who after raising the siege drew the defenders, numbering fewer than 200, into an ambush and in the battle of Blue Licks which ensued the Kentuckians lost about 67 killed .and 7 prisoners.
In 1773 the mine was leased by the General Court and was fitted up as a public gaol and workhouse (called Newgate Prison), the prisoners being employed in mining.
Coxcoxtli used the help of the Aztecs against the Xochimilco people; but his own nation, horrified at their bloodthirsty sacrifice of prisoners, drove them out to the islands and swamps of the great salt lagoon, where they are said to have taken to making their chinampas or floating gardens of mud heaped on rafts of reeds and brush, which in later times were so remarkable a feature of Mexico.
It was not merely for conquest and tribute that the fierce Mexicans ravaged the neighbourlands, but they had a stronger motive than either in the desire to obtain multitudes of prisoners whose hearts were to be torn out by the sacrificing priests to propitiate a pantheon of gods who well personified their bloodthirsty worshippers.
Prisoners of war were mostly doomed to sacrifice, but other classes of slaves were mildly treated, retaining civil rights, and their children were born free.
During the 19th century Cavite was the centre of political disturbances in the Philippines; in 1896 on the parade ground thirteen political prisoners were executed, and to their memory a monument was erected in 1906 at the head of the isthmus connecting with the main peninsula.
Montgomery was killed and many of his men taken prisoners.
Washington, still retreating with a constantly diminishing force, suddenly turned upon Lieutenant-Colonel Rall's advanced corps of Hessians at Trenton on the 26th of December and captured nearly l000 prisoners.
The British lost about woo, one-half of whom were prisoners.
An army of io,000 men was immediately sent by Eric to John's duchy of Finland, and John and his consort were seized, brought over to Sweden and detained as prisoners of state in Gripsholm Castle.
On the following day Eric murdered Nils in his cell with his own hand, and by his order the other prisoners were despatched by the royal provost marshal forthwith.
On one occasion he threw some of his prisoners, men, women and children, over a precipice, and on another he had a party of seventy shot.
Twice he declined the offer of a portfolio in the Neapolitan cabinet, and upon the triumph of the reactionary party undertook the defence of the Liberal political prisoners.
In three weeks Fanti had conquered the Marche and Umbria and taken 28,000 prisoners.
Among interesting landmarks are the Federal Inn (1763),(1763), in which President Washington was entertained in 1794, and which has been used as a banking house since 1814; the old county gaol (1770), used as such until 1848; and the site of the "Hessian Camp," where some of the prisoners captured during the War of Independence were confined.
During the War of Independence Reading was an inland depot for supplies for the American army, and prisoners of war were sent here in large numbers.
His sympathetic nature was influenced by indignation against the brutal methods adopted towards prisoners, especially political prisoners, and by the stern measures which the government of the tsar felt compelled to adopt in order to repress the revolutionary movement.
It was enriched by Charles the Bald with two castles, and a Benedictine abbey dedicated to Saint Corneille, the monks of which retained down to the 18th century the privilege of acting for three days as lords of Compiegne, with full power to release prisoners, condemn the guilty, and even inflict sentence of death.
The sacrifice of foreign prisoners before a god, a regular scene on temple walls, is perhaps only symbolical, at any rate for the later days of Egyptian history, but foreign intruders must often have suffered rude treatment at the hands of the Egyptians, in spite of the generally mild character of the latter.
Finally, in the spirit of Plato's Phaedo and the dialogue Eudemus, the Protrepticus holds that the soul is bound to the sentient members of the body as prisoners in Etruria are bound face to face with corpses; whereas the later view of the De Anima is that the soul is the vital principle of the body and the body the necessary organ of the soul.
Sheriffs whose prisoners suffer mob violence may be impeached.
Reports of abuses under this system caused the legislature in 1901 to order a special investigation, the results of which led in 1903 to a new system of leasing to contractors, whereby the prisoners are kept under the direct supervision of state officials.
On galloping after the princes he found the crowd once more pressing on the escort and threatening an attack; and fearing that he would be unable to bring his prisoners into Delhi he shot them with his own hand.
In 1897 this was supplanted by the contract system, by which a prison commission accepted contracts for convict labour, but the prisoners were cared for by state officials.
There is a story that in 1122 Joscelin (Jocelyn) of Courtenay, and Baldwin II., king of Jerusalem, both prisoners of the Amir Balak in its castle, were murdered by being cast from its cliffs after an attempted rescue.
It was, however, discovered shortly before the time fixed for its execution in March 1560, and an ambush having been prepared, most of the conspirators were either killed or taken prisoners.
A few formed bodies escaped across the ravine, but Metzko and threefourths of his men were killed or taken prisoners.
The French losses were about zo,000, or a little over zo%, those of the Allies 38,000 killed, wounded and prisoners (the latter 23,000) or z9%.
The French then fell back with their booty and prisoners to Breisach, a strong garrison being left in Freiburg.
On the 24th of January 1895 she formally renounced all claim to the throne and took the oath of allegiance to the republic. The ex-queen and forty-eight others were granted conditional pardon on the 7th of September, and on the following New Year's Day the remaining prisoners were set at liberty.
An agitation begun by the Philadelphia society for assisting distressed prisoners in 1776, checked for a time by the War of Independence,.
The suggested origin of the name Antwerp from Hand-werpen (hand-throwing), because a mythical robber chief indulged in the practice of cutting off his prisoners' hands and throwing them into the Scheldt, appeared to Motley rather farfetched, but it is less reasonable to trace it, as he inclines to do, from an t werf (on the wharf), seeing that the form Andhunerbo existed in the 6th century on the separation of Austrasia and Neustria.
The general prison for Scotland, south of the South Inch, was originally erected in 1812 as a depat for French prisoners, but was remodelled as a convict prison in 1840 and afterwards enlarged.
Since 1886 the prisoners have been employed upon the construction of a vast harbour of refuge, for which the breakwater extends from Boddam Point northwards across the bay.
It was his function also to display and guard in battle the banner of the baron or banneret or the pennon of the knight he served, to raise him from the ground if he were unhorsed, to supply him with another or his own horse if his was disabled or killed, to receive and keep any prisoners he might take, to fight by his side if he was unequally matched, to rescue him if captured, to bear him to a place of safety if wounded, and to bury him honourably when dead.
And also among the Englishmen there were certain rascals that went afoot with great knives, and they went in among the men of arms, and slew and murdered many as they lay on the ground, both earls, barons, knights and squires, whereof the king of England was after displeased, for he had rather they had been taken prisoners."
How far Edward's solicitude was disinterested may be gauged from Froissart's parallel remark about the battle of Aljubarrota, where, as at Agincourt, the handful of victors were obliged by a sudden panic to slay their prisoners.
For they slew as many good prisoners as would well have been worth, one with another, four hundred thousand franks."
In 1402 Lord Thomas de Berkeley bought, as a speculation, 24 Scottish prisoners.
After his release in October he commanded cavalry in East Tennessee, making successful raids into Virginia and North Carolina, and on the 12th of April 1865 defeated a Confederate force near Salisbury, North Carolina, and captured a large number of prisoners.
According to tradition, he remained in captivity until 250, when after the defeat of the Carthaginians at Panormus he was sent to Rome on parole to negotiate a peace or exchange of prisoners.
The tale was probably invented by the annalists to excuse the cruel treatment of the Carthaginian prisoners by the Romans.
Terry, who had succeeded General Butler in command, stormed the fort with the help of the marines and sailors, and took 2000 prisoners and 169 guns.
The objection raised against these establishments is that the prisoners do not represent the real vagabondage of the country, but a class of more or less voluntary inmates.
The whole proceedings were illegal, and the illegality was consummated by the prisoners being brought before a special tribunal of 24 judges, nearly all of whom were personal enemies of the accused.
In 1631 a large Spanish fleet carrying a picked force of 6000 soldiers, for the invasion of Zeeland, was completely c destroyed by the Dutch in the Slaak and the troops made prisoners.
The prisoners were released, and public thanks were rendered to the prince by the various provincial states for " his great trouble, care and prudence."
Such was the position to which John de Witt, a young man of twenty-eight years of age, belonging to one of the most influential patrician families of Dordrecht (his father, Jacob de Witt, was one of the prisoners of Loevenstein) was appointed in 1653.
There were two periods, called the great Adai and little Adai, at which human victims, chiefly prisoners of war or condemned criminals, were immolated.
Negotiations for their release were begun, but the Europeans were still prisoners when the sale of Elmina occurred.
After this act with the principal chiefs were arrested and taken as prisoners to Cape Coast, where they were embarked on board H.M.S.
Great Britain released her prisoners on the 4th of June, and on the 17th of June was signed the convention which terminated the Baltic campaign.
He was a deputy to the provincial congress of New Jersey from May to August 1775, and from May 1777 until July 1778 was the commissary-general of prisoners, with the rank of colonel, in the continental army.
In 1663 it suffered from another Indian attack, a number of„ the inhabitants being slain or taken prisoners.
At Merxplas, near the Dutch frontier, is the agricultural criminal colony at which an average number of two thousand prisoners are kept employed in comparative liberty within the radius of the convict settlement.
Gardner, and captured 1364 prisoners and 14 pieces of artillery.
In Bibilid prison, in the Santa Cruz district, nearly 80% of the prisoners of the archipelago are confined; it is under the control of the department of public instruction and its inmates are given an opportunity to learn one or more useful trades.
Conquering Pharaohs brought home trains of prisoners and spoil, embassies came thither of strange people in every variety of costume and of every hue of skin, from Ethiopia, Puoni (Punt), Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Libya, and the islands of the Mediterranean, bringing precious stones, rare animals, beautiful slaves, costly garments and vessels of gold and silver, while the ground shook with the movement of colossal architraves, statues and obelisks.
The French slept on the battlefield, and then returned to camp with their trophies and 8000 prisoners.
Spartacus was a capable and energetic leader; he did his best to check the excesses of the lawless bands which he commanded, and treated his prisoners with humanity.
The total Federal loss (including the garrisons at Winchester and Martinsburg) amounted to 44 killed (the commander was mortally wounded), 12,520 prisoners, and 13,000 small arms. For this terrible loss to the Union army the responsibility seems to have been General Halleck's, though the blame was officially put on Colonel Miles, who died immediately after the surrender.
Public opinion in America almost unanimously sustained the act; but Lincoln, convinced that the rights of Great Britain as a neutral ha .d been violated, promptly, upon the demand of England, ordered the liberation of the prisoners (26th of December).
The rising in the other parts of northern Germany was also put down, and the two leaders of political Lutheranism were prisoners in the emperors hands.
The verdict of the court, was a serious rebuff for the government; after a preliminary investigation of nine months, and a public trial of a fortnight, the major charges against the prisoners were dismissed, and six of them were condemned only to short terms of imprisonment for conspiracy.
A theorist who lived mainly in his study, Godwin yet came forward boldly to stand by prisoners arraigned of high treason in that same year-1794.
Paches cleared the Asiatic seas of the enemy, reduced the other towns of Mytilene and returned to Athens with upwards of 1000 prisoners.
The thousand' oligarchic prisoners were however executed,.
These successful campaigns were probably not very costly, and prisoners, plunder and tribute poured in from them to enrich Egypt.
Before the preparations for the departure of the French were completed, orders came to Sir Sidney Smith from the British government, forbidding the carrying out of the convention unless the French army were treated as prisoners of war; and when these were communicated to Klber he cancelled the orders previously given to the troops, and proceeded to put the country in a state of defence.
They offered an heroic resistance, but were overpowered, and iiome killed, some made prisoners; among the last was Osman Bey al-BardIsI, who was severely wounded.
General Hutchinson, British informed of this treachery, immediately assumed Turks and threatening measures against the Turks, and in MaineS consequence the killed, wounded and prisoners were Iukes.
Thus was the pasha relieved of his two most formidable enemies; and shortly after he defeated Shahin Bey, with the loss to the latter of his artillery and baggage and 300 men killed or taken prisoners.
The messenger, however, was unable to penetrate to the spot; and the advanced guard, consisting of a detachment of the 31st, two companies of the 78th, one of the 35th, and De Rolls egiment, with a picquet of dragoons, the whole mustering 733 men, was surrounded, and, after a gallant resistance, the hurvivors, who had expended all their ammunition, became prisoners of war.
Some hundreds of British heads were now eposed on stakes in Cairo, and the prisoners were marched between these mutilated remains of their countrymen.
The release of the Denshawai prisoners in January 1908 and the death of Mustafa Kamel in the following month had a quieting effect on the public mind; while the fact that in the elections (December 1907) for the legislative council and the general assembly only 5% of the electors went to the polls, afforded a striking commentary alike on the appreciation of the average Egyptian of the value of parliamentafy institutions and of the claims of the Nationalist members of the assembly to represent the Egyptian people.
Wodehouse headed off a part of this force from the river at Argin, and, after a sharp action, completely defeated it, killing 900, among whom were many important amirs, and taking 50o prisoners and 12 banners, with very small loss to his own troops.
Wad en Nejumi, most of his amirs, and more than I 200 Arabs were killed; 4000 prisoners and 147 standards were taken, and the dervish army practically destroyed.
Kitchener, who was at the time governor of the Red Sea littoral, judiciously arranged a combination of them to overthrow Osman Digna, with the result that his stronghold at Tamai was captured on the 7th of October, 200 of his men killed, and 5o prisoners, 17 guns and a vast store of rifles and ammunition captured.
King John, the negus of Abyssinia, burning to avenge this defeat, marched, in February 1889, with an enormous army to Gallabat, where the amir Zeki Tumal commanded the khalifas forces, some 60,000 strong, and had strongly fortified the town and the camp. On the 9th of March 1889 the Abyssinians made a terrific onslaught, stormed and burnt the town, and took thousands of prisoners.
The Abyssinians decided to retire, fighting ceased, and they moved off with their prisoners and the wounded negus.
That night the king died, and the greater part of the army having gone ahead with the prisoners, a party of Arabs pursued the rearguard, which consisted of the kings bodyguard, routed them, and captured the kings body, which was sent to Omdurman to confirm the report of a brilliant victory sent by Zeki Tumal to the khalifa.
On arriving at Dufile in August 1888, Emin and Jephson were made prisoners by the Egyptian mutineers.
The co-operation of the two columns was admirably timed, and on the morning of the 7th the dervish camp was surrounded, and, after a sharp fight, Hamuda and many amirs and about 1000 men were killed, and 500 prisoners taken.
Guns, small arms and ammunition, with large stores of grain and dates, were captured, many prisoners taken, while hundreds surrendered voluntarily, among them a brother of the amir Wad en Nejumi.
He arrived on the 7th of August and captured it by storm, the dervishes losing 250 killed and 50 prisoners.
After several reconnaissances in which fighting took place with Mahmuds outposts, it was ascertained from prisoners that their army was short of provisions and that great leakage was going on.
The dervish loss was over 10,0cc killed, as many wounded, and 5000 prisoners.
Eventually, and long after the imperial army had begun its retreat, the gallant schiltron was ridden down and annihilated by a charge of three thousand men-at-arms. Reginald was taken prisoner in the melee; and the prisoners also included two other counts, Ferdinand and William Longsword, twenty-five barons and over a hundred knights.
On the r3th the prisoners reached the Tower, and on the next day Monmouth was allowed to see James.
The department was divided into three branches - (r) the section which censored the correspondence of prisoners of war in the United Kingdom and British prisoners in enemy countries; (2) the private correspondence section which dealt with letters from members of the British Expeditionary Force, letters and parcels to and from certain foreign countries, press messages sent abroad by other means than cable, and newspapers.
In the state prison of Nouvelle Force at Le Palais political prisoners have at various times been confined.
By eloquence, readiness of wit, and adroit flattery of the jury he contrived to secure his acquittal in the face of the open hostility of the judge - a unique achievement at a time when the condemnation of prisoners whom the authorities wished to convict was a mere matter of course.
Prisoners of war have indeed done scientific service as labourers on certain sites.
Bruce followed, and was defeated in Methven wood; the prisoners of rank, his brother Nigel, and Atholl, with others, were hanged, and his two bishops were presently secured.
Of the prisoners an unknown number died of hunger in Durham cathedral, others were sold to slavery in the colonies.
In February 1409 Harlech was also recaptured, and Owen's wife, daughter and grandchildren were taken prisoners.
Their dissatisfaction with the treaties signed in 1795 and 1804 caused them to espouse the British cause in the War of 1812, and in 1812 they captured Fort Dearborn on the present site of Chicago, and massacred many of the prisoners.
For a time his headquarters were in Chicago, and an elaborate attempt to liberate Confederate prisoners in Chicago (known as the Camp Douglas Conspiracy) was thwarted by a discovery of the plans.
At the accession of Queen Mary, the duke of Norfolk and other state prisoners of high rank were in the Tower along with him; but the queen, on her first entry into London, set them all at liberty.
Baum being mortally wounded and 700 men taken prisoners.
In 61 B.C. Pompey celebrated the third of a series of triumphs over Africa, Europe and Asia, and in his train, among the prisoners of war, was Aristobulus, king of Judaea.
Hawley retreated to Linlithgow, leaving all his baggage, 700 prisoners and seven guns in the enemy's hands.
Ninety-five prisoners were afterwards recovered.
To avenge these disasters and recover the prisoners preparations were made in India on a fitting scale; but it was the 16th of April 1842 before General Pollock could relieve Jalalabad, after forcing the Khyber Pass.
The prisoners were happily recovered from Bamian.
The remainder surrendered after a feeble resistance, and were thrown as prisoners into the " black hole " or military jail of Fort William, a room 18 ft.
A few prisoners, mostly women, children and officers, were considerately treated by the orders of Akbar Khan.
The great bazar at Kabul was blown up with gunpowder to fix a stigma upon the city; the prisoners were recovered; and all marched back to India, leaving Dost Mahommed to take undisputed possession of his throne.
The following year, at the instance of Great Britain and France, Ferdinand commuted the sentences of some of the political prisoners to exile.
The chief point of interest in this suburb is the conical hill known as the Cerro, or " mount," from which the city takes its name, on which stands an old Spanish fort, sometimes garrisoned and sometimes used for the incarceration of political prisoners.
Four of their chiefs were taken prisoners and executed in Manila.
It was now fully recognized that the reformation of prisoners could best be attempted by seclusion, "employment and religious instruction."
Besides the building of Millbank it had promulgated many acts for the amelioration of prisoners.
Thus an act which provided for the classification of prisoners had remained a dead letter; even the separation of the males from the females was not a universal rule.
The state of the prison, the desperation of the prisoners, broadly hinted in their conversation and plainly expressed in their conduct, the uproar of oaths, complaints and obscenity, the indescribable stench, presented together a concentration of the utmost misery and the utmost guilt."
Yet this was in 1818, when the legislature was setting a praiseworthy example - when half a million had been spent in providing large airy cells for a thousand prisoners.
Many of these are now accepted as axioms in prison treatment; for instance, that female officers only should have charge of female prisoners, that prisoners of both sexes should be kept apart and constantly employed.
It was laid down in these that over and above safe custody it was essential to preserve health, improve morals, and enforce hard labour on all prisoners sentenced to it.
In 18 3 a select committee of the House of Commons went into the whole subject of secondary punishment and reported that, as the difficulties in the way of an effective classification of prisoners were insurmountable, they were strongly in favour of the confinement of prisoners in separate cells, recommending that the whole of the prisons should be altered accordingly and the expense borne by the public exchequer.
Another select committee, this time of the House of Lords, returned to the subject in 1835, and after a long investigation re-enunciated the theory that all prisoners should be kept separate from one another.
Many prisoners became insane; health was generally impaired and life greatly endangered.
While the prisoners were still separated at night or meals, they were suffered to labour in association, but under a rule of silence ruthlessly and rigorously maintained.
In England, moreover, which, if not the first to adopt separation in principle, certainly gave the largest effect to it in practice, continuous cellular confinement for short terms is ceasing to be the inevitable rule; and although it has been retained in cases of penal servitude for the first six months, it was in 1899 practically abandoned for lesser sentences, and all prisoners after the first month work together in association under surveillance.
At another point, Dartmoor, a prison already stood available, although it had not been occupied since the last war, when ten thousand French and American prisoners had been incarcerated in it.
The cells inhabited by prisoners (and separate cellular confinement was now very general) were of different dimensions - variously lighted, warmed and ventilated.
The duration had been at first fixed at eighteen months, but it was proved that the prisoners' minds had become enfeebled by this long isolation, and the period was limited to nine months.
He urged that all existing plans were inefficacious, and he advocated a new scheme by which the labour of all prisoners should be applied to agriculture in district prisons.
The regime undergone is cellular; able-bodied prisoners are kept in strict separation for at least a month, and during that time subjected to severe labour; although the term of first-class hard labour and of purely penal character no longer exists.
In the first stage, which was limited to six months, but which it is proposed to reduce to one month, the convict passes his whole time in his cell apart from other prisoners, engaged at 'some industrial employment.
In all cases the bricks have been made, the stone quarried and dressed, the timber sawn, the iron cast, forged and wrought by the prisoners.
Further modifications have been introduced from time to time in the British penal system, tending mostly to milder discipline, more intelligent classification of prisoners and a certain amelioration of their lot.
It was feared that the removal of this powerful deterrent would adversely affect discipline, but on the contrary, the yearly average of prison offences has diminished from 147 to 131 per thousand prisoners, and it has been felt by the authorities that the limitation was salutary and wise.
Yet a third improvement was permission conceded to prisoners locked up in default of payment of fine, to obtain a reduction of time proportionate to part payment of the fine.
The gain in this was great, seeing that no more than 6 to 8% were actually sent to gaol after the commission of a second offence, and that there was therefore a very distinct saving in expense of maintenance of prisoners incarcerated.
The bulk of the prisoners live and labour in common.
A great feature has been the execution of public works by prisoners in a state of semi-liberty beyond prison walls - the practical adoption of the so-called "Irish" or intermediate prison - and good results are seen in road-making and the improvement of river courses.
India retains association as the system most suitable for its criminal classes, with other methods generally abandoned in Great Britain, such as the employment of wellconducted prisoners as auxiliaries in prison discipline and service; deportation is still the penalty for the worst offences and is carried out on a large scale and with satisfactory results in the Andaman Islands.
In Denmark all convicted prisoners pass through several stages, from cellular treatment to the intermediate prison and conditional liberty.
The cellular regime is applicable to prisoners between 18 and 30, and to first offenders of 50 years of age, the term being fixed by the governor of the gaol, but never exceeding three years.
Sweden, which adopted the cellular system in 1842, has now cells sufficient for prisoners sentenced to two years and less., There are three principal central prisons, one at Langholm near Stockholm, a second at Malmo and a third at Mya Varfet near Gothenburg.
It is only a short time since the local gaol in the city of New York, "the Tombs," a house of detention for prisoners awaiting trial, was described in an official report to the state legislature as "a disgraces.
Prison management is essentially a local concern, but some general features are common to all states, such a