Principles Sentence Examples
The principles on which his system rested were these.
Vacherot was a man of high character and adhered strictly to his principles, which were generally opposed to those of the party in power.
Do you think he'll be as tolerant of your principles as I am?
One hypothesis supplants the various principles of life; the rule of absolute mechanism is as complete in the animal as in the cosmos.
The views of Becher on the composition of substances mark little essential advance on those of the two preceding centuries, and the three elements or principles of salt, mercury and sulphur reappear as the vitrifiable, the mercurial and the combustible earths.Advertisement
His advocacy of anti-slavery principles, then frowned upon by the Methodist authorities, aroused opposition, and eventually resulted in his trial for heresy and the revocation of his licence.
But Zumalacarregui, who was noted for his grave and silent disposition and his strong religious principles, disliked the disorderly life of the guerrillas, and when regular forces were organized in the north he entered the 1st battalion of Guipuzcoa as an officer.
Zumalacarregui had no sympathy with the liberal principles which were spreading in Spain, and became noted as what was called a Servil or strong Royalist.
Zumalacarregui was a fine type of the old royalist and religious principles of his people.
These simple business principles do not seem to be generally recognized by the investing public, and mines, whose earning capacity is accurately known, are frequently quoted on the stock markets at prices which cannot possibly yield enough to the purchaser to repay his investment during the probable life of the mine.Advertisement
The same principles as those which had been so successfully applied during the evacuation of the northern areas, were put in force at Helles.
Besides the last two parts of the Principles of Philosophy, the physical writings of Descartes include the Dioptrics and Meteors, as well as passages in the letters.
We look in vain, therefore, for much more than the germs and principles of Presbyterianism in the churches of the first Reformers.
On the other hand, by the application of the principles he thus elucidated he furthered to an immense extent the employment of electricity for the purposes of daily life.
Upon the death of Henry Stuart, Cardinal York, the last of James II.'s descendants, in 1807, the rightful occupant of the British throne according to legitimist principles was to be found among the descendants of Henrietta, daughter of Charles I., who married Philip I., duke of Orleans.Advertisement
The knowledge he displayed of the principles and practice of finance was especially remarkable.
Under the Restoration he defended Liberal principles in the Constitutionnel, of which he was the founder.
It would be useless to attempt to trace in a brief sketch the history of the legal principles embodied in the documents of Anglo-Saxon law.
It is not the purpose of this note to set forth the principles underlying the formation of proper names among the Babylonians and Assyrians, but it may not be out of place to indicate that by the side of such full names, containing three elements (or even more), we have already at an early period the reduction of these elements to two through the combination of the name of a deity with a verbal form merely, or through the omission of the name of the deity.
In 1739 the General Assembly, without any application from him, removed the sentence of deposition which had been passed against him, and restored him to the character and function of a minister of the gospel of Christ, but not that of a minister of the Established Church of Scotland, declaring that he was not eligible for a charge until he should have renounced principles inconsistent with the constitution of the church.Advertisement
After about five years' residence he left without taking a degree, travelled abroad, and in Switzerland imbibed or strengthened those religious principles and that hostility to the Laudian church which were to be the chief motive in his future political career.
Several of the Florence hospitals are of great antiquity, the most important being that of Santa Maria Nuova, which, founded by Folco Portinari, the father of Dante's Beatrice, has been thoroughly renovated according to modern scientific principles.
Early in Elizabeth's reign, however, he wrote a larger catechism, to serve as a statement of Protestant principles; it was printed in 1570, and in the same year appeared his "middle" catechism, designed it would seem for the instruction of "simple curates."
He did not accept the principles of the Revolution, but emigrated.
The general principles of stereochemistry being discussed in Stereoisomerism (q.v.), we proceed to the synthesis of glucose and fructose and then to the derivation of their configurations.Advertisement
Watt, when he invented the steam engine, laid down the principles on which it is based, and they hold good to the present day.
Delbruck now began, with the support of Bismarck, to apply the principles of free trade to Prussian fiscal policy.
His chief work was the Pyrrhonian Principles addressed to Lucius Tubero.
The peculiar properties of snuff are dependent on the presence of free nicotine, free ammonia and the aromatic principles developed during fermentation.
Menshikov understood perfectly the principles on which Peter's reforms were conducted, and was the right hand of the tsar in all his gigantic undertakings.
Arminius died, worn out by uncongenial controversy and ecclesiastical persecution, before his system had been elaborated into the logical consistency it attained in the hands of his celebrated successor, Simon Episcopius; but though inchoate in detail, it was in its principles clear and coherent enough.
Vegetable physiology he pursued with special reference to agriculture, which he held to be the foundation of all trade and industry, but which could not be rationally practised without the guidance of chemical principles.
The variety and seeming confusion which reign in feudal society, under uniform controlling principles, rule also in the ages of beginning.
Underlying all the apparent confusion of fact and practice were certain fundamental principles and relationships, which were alike everywhere, and which really gave shape to everything that was feudal, no matter what its form might be.
There was actually in fact and practice a larger uniformity than this short list implies, because these principles tended to express themselves in similar forms, and because historical derivation from a common source in Frankish feudalism tended to preserve some degree of uniformity in the more important usages.
But the members of the feudal court met, not to fulfil a duty owed to the community, but a private obligation which they had assumed in return for the fiefs they held, and in the history of institutions it is differences of this sort which are the determining principles.
According to legitimist principles, the descendants of Henrietta, through her daughter Marie of Savoy, are entitled to wear the British crown.
Elected to the Ohio House of Representatives in 1845, he became one of the extremest of the state rights Democrats of his section, emphasizing his principles in the legislature in the local and national party conventions, and in the columns of a newspaper, the Western Empire, which he edited at Dayton, Ohio, in 1847-49.
From 1858 to 1863 he was in the lower house of Congress, where he was noted for his strong opposition to the principles and policies of the growing Republican party, his belief that the South had been grievously wronged by the North, his leadership of the Peace Democrats or Copperheads, who were opposed to the prosecution of the war, and his bitter attacks upon the Lincoln administration, which, he said, was destroying the Constitution and would end by destroying civil liberty in the North.
Lamartine tells us that the Arabs regard the trees as endowed with the principles of continual existence, and with reasoning and prescient powers, which enable them to prepare for the changes of the seasons.
In his later book, Dioptrice (1611), he fully discusses refraction and the use of lenses, showing the action of the double convex lens in the camera obscura, with the principles which regulate its use and the reason of the reversal of the image.
Among other ingenious applications, he used it to determine the form of movement of a vibrating string, by him first successfully reduced to mechanical principles.
With ardent anti-slavery principles, he entered political life as a "Young Whig" opposed to the Mexican War; he became an active Free-Soiler in 1848, and in 1854 took part in the organization in Massachusetts of the new Republican party.
Much of his work was concerned with specific volumes, the conception of which he set forth in a paper published when he was only twenty-two years of age; and the principles he established have formed the basis of subsequent investigations in that subject, although his results have in some cases undergone modification.
When we reflect that the chapter is not narrative, but an abstract exposition of the guiding principles of the movements of several centuries, with many threads of complex thought running along side by side all through the speculation, then the circumstances under which it was reduced to literary form are really astonishing.
In 1840 he published Church Principles considered in their Results.
Before he resigned he completed a second revised tariff, carrying considerably further the principles on which he had acted in the earlier revision of 1842.
His love of freedom steadily developed, and he applied its principles more and more courageously to the problems of government.
The philosophic principles and religious deductions of Dean Mansel he disliked as much as those of Newman, but he respected his arguments more.
The rise of evolution, and the new scientific way of looking at nature and her creative methods, compelled him to rethink and reformulate his theistic principles and conclusions, especially as to the forms under which the relation of God to the world and His action within it could be conceived.
The chief motives were landscapes of a peculiarly wild and romantic type, animal life, trees and flowers, and figtire compositions drawn from Chinese and Buddhist history and Taoist legend; and these, together with the grand aims and strange shortcomings of its principles and the limited range of its methods, were adopted almost without change by Japan.
These artists, at first educated in one of the native schools, obtained from a Hollander in Nagasaki some training in the methods and principles of European painting, and left a few oil paintings in which the laws of light and shade and perspective were correctly observed.
He also published two larger works, Social Statics in 1850, and Principles of Psychology in 1855.
In 1860 he sent out the syllabus of his Synthetic Philosophy in ten volumes, and in spite of frequent ill health had the satisfaction of completing it in 1896 with the third volume of the Principles of Sociology.
Shortly afterwards (1860) he sent out the prospectus of a systematic exposition of his Synthetic Philosophy, of which the first volume, First Principles, appeared in 1862.
In his Principles of Psychology Spencer advocates the genetic explanation of the phenomena of the adult human mind by reference to its infant and animal ancestry.
In the Principles of Sociology Spencer's most influential ideas have been that of the social organism, of the origination of religion out of the worship of ancestral ghosts, of the natural antagonism between nutrition and reproduction, industrialism and warfare.
In the Principles of Ethics Spencer, though relying mainly on the objective order of nature and the intrinsic consequences of actions for the guidance of conduct, conceives the ethical end in a manner intermediate between the hedonist and the evolutionist.
After completing his system (1896) Spencer continued to revise it, and brought out new editions of the Biology (1898-1899) and First Principles (1900).
After all, it wasn't violating any of his principles.
On the European continent the game can scarcely be said to be played on scientific principles.
The fifth Lambeth conference, following as it did close on the great Pan-Anglican congress, is remarkable mainly as a proof of the growth of the influence and many-sided activity of the Anglican Church, and as a conspicuous manifestation of her characteristic principles.
In it we find the principles of a general interpretation, formed without the assistance of any particular philosophy, but consisting of observations and rules which, though already enunciated, and applied in the criticism of the profane writers, had never rigorously been employed in biblical exegesis.
His hatred of revolutionary principles was fanatical.
Sir Henry Parkes was elected president, and he moved a series of resolutions embodying the principles necessary to establish, on an enduring foundation, the structure of a federal government.
At this conference a compromise was effected, something was conceded to the claims of New South Wales, but the main principles of the bill remained intact.
Peacock's original contributions to mathematical science were concerned chiefly with the philosophy of its first principles.
C. Rntgen a few years later, and produced his treatise on the Principles of Mechanics.
It is to the collections formed by these baru-priests as a guidance for themselves and as a basis of instruction for those in training for the priesthood that we owe our knowledge of the parts of the liver to which particular attention was directed, of the signs noted, and of the principles guiding the interpretation of the signs.
At Jena, where he lectured as a Privatdozent at the university, he contributed to the Athenaeum the aphorisms and essays in which the principles of the Romantic school are most definitely stated.
In the same year in which this work appeared, he and his wife Dorothea (1763-1839), a daughter of Moses Mendelssohn, joined the Roman Catholic Church, and from this time he became more and more opposed to the principles of political and religious freedom.
But the principles on which the theory was founded compelled a further advance.
Universal suffrage he rejected as tending "very much to anarchy," spoke against the hasty abolition of either the monarchy or the Lords, and refused entirely to consider the abstract principles brought into the debate.
Cromwell's moderation and freedom from imperiousness were acknowledged even by those least friendly to his principles.
Yet Cromwell's monument is not altogether misplaced in such surroundings, for in him are found the true principles of piety, of justice, of liberty and of governance.
Grattan was a reformer and a patriot without a tincture of democratic ideas; Wolfe Tone was a revolutionary whose principles were drawn from the French Convention.
Democratic principles were gaining ground among the Roman Catholics as well as the Presbyterians.
The express declaration of these antinomian principles is said to have been given by Epiphanes.
His principles are expressed in the admirable letter to Andre Fremyot of October 1604.
Similar principles apply in infinite detail to the treatment of wind instruments, and we must never lose sight of them in speculating as to the reasons why the genius of Beethoven was able to carry instrumentation into worlds of which Haydn and Mozart never dreamt, or why, having gone so far, it left anything unexplored.
A subject so vast and so incapable of classification cannot be discussed here, but its aesthetic principles may be illustrated by the extreme case of the trumpets and horns, which in classical times had no scale except that of the natural harmonic series.
This brings us to the latest radical change effected in instrumentation, the change from symphonic to dramatic principles.
But the greatness of Wagner is shown in the fact that with all the effect his additions have in revolutionizing the resources of orchestration, he never regards his novelties as substitutes for the natural principles of instrumental effect.
It is therefore not a criterion which can do justice to the principles of Wagner's non-symphonic art, for its.
Fleming, The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy and Telephony, p. 416, 2nd ed.
Fleming, The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy (London, 1906), chap. vii.; also Cantor Lectures on Hertzian wave telegraphy, Lecture iv., Journ.
Fleming, The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy, 1906, p. 73.
The law of f875 therefore still regulates the principles of military service in Italy, though an important modification was made in 190719o8.
Her ancient prestige, her geographical position and the intellectual primacy of her most noble children rendered Italy the battleground of principles that set all Christendom in motion, and by the clash of which she found herself for ever afterwards divided.
But the main issue of the struggle was not in these details of ecclesiastical government; principles had been at stake far deeper and more widely reaching.
But in Italy, although they were severally identified with the papal and imperial parties, they really served as symbols for jealousies which altered in complexion from time to time and place to place, expressing more than antagonistic political principles, and involving differences vital enough to split the social fabric to its foundation.
The struggle is waged by two sets of men who equally love their city, but who would fain rule it upon diametrically opposite principles, and who fight to the death for its possession.
This insurgence of the artisans, in a republic which had been remodelled upon economical principles by Giano della Bellas constitution of 1292, reached a climax in 1378, when the Ciompi rebellion placed the city for a few years in the hands of the Lesser Arts.
The kingdom of Sardinia was administered upon similar principles, but with less of geniality.
His shrewd sense of political expediency and his loyalty to constitutional principles saved .him from the error of obstructing the advent and driving into an aati-dynastic attitude politicians who had succeeded in winning popular favor.
Nicotera, minister of the interior, began his administration of home affairs by a sweeping change in the personnel of the prefects, sub-prefects and public prosecutors, but found himself obliged to incur the wrath of his supporters by prohibiting Radical meetings likely to endanger public order, and by enunciating administrative principles which would have befitted an inveterate Conservative.
They use it with strong condemnation, from the standpoint of rigorous Christian orthodoxy; but it comes into England within very few years upon the Christian side - religion against irreligion - in Bishop John Wilkins's Principles and Duties of Natural Religion (1678).
There are some principles which, as soon as they are presented to the mind and correctly grasped, must be assented to; we see the truth!
Every time we survey a field, we go upon the principles, not of special experience, but of a priori necessity.
To revise one's first principles is to be an intuitionalist no longer.
If there arises a system of philosophy in which all truths are grasped in unity, and it is seen that the principles of things must be what they are, such a philosophy will give us in perfection the idealistic conception of reality and the idealistic guarantees of truth which Kant gave brokenly.
They are based on facts - upon facts in the light of principles - upon principles purely and ultimately upon one principle.
We see by degrees - in general outline or upon general principles 9 - that what is is no other than what must be.
Spencer's " instability of the homogeneous " is perhaps an attempt to perform the impossible (First Principles, chap. xix.).
Butler divests himself in this book .of the principles of " liberty " and " moral fitness " in which personally he believes.3 Part i.
The origin of things, which is also their substance, is thus laid in the simplest and most homogeneous elements or principles.
By this writer the world is explained as a product of three principles - dead matter, and two active forces, heat and cold.
Both principles have sensibility, and thus all products of their collision are sentient, that is, feel pleasure and pain.
The enunciation by Descartes of the conception that the physical universe, whether living or not living, is a mechanism, and that, as such, it is explicable on physical principles.
It does not judge ministers (Brodie-Innes, Comparative Principles of the Laws of England and Scotland, 1903, p. 144).
He took part in the revolution of 1868, wrote the "Manifesto of Cadiz," took office as colonial minister, favoured the candidature of the duc de Montpensier, resigned in 1871, returned to his early Conservative principles, and was a member of Alfonso XII.'s first cabinet.
But these two principles do not find their full expression till we come, in the ascending series, to the Vascular Plants.
For the composition of the numerous liquids and powders special works must be consulted, but the following principles apply generally.
Ptolemy used the word geography to signify the description of the whole oekumene on mathematical principles, while chorography signified the fuller description of a particular region, and topography the very detailed description of a smaller locality.
Basing his work on the principles of Ptolemy, he brings together illustrations from the most recent travellers, and does not hesitate to take as illustrative examples the familiar city of Oxford and his native county of Devon.
It is distinguished from other English geographical books of the period by confining attention to the principles of geography, and not describing the countries of the world.
Humboldt's concrete illustrations and the remarkable power of his personality enabled him to enforce these principles in a way that produced an immediate and lasting effect.
They first prepared a map of the country round Peking, which was submitted to the emperor Kang-hi; and, being satisfied with the accuracy of the European method of surveying, he resolved to have a survey made of the whole empire on the same principles.
Ignoring the fact that some Oligomyodae are mesoand others acromyodian, they tried to combine two irreconcilable principles, namely, mere numbers against quality.
The traditions would seem to point to the institution of new principles in the religion of Yahweh, and would associate with it not merely Moses but those foreign elements which are subsequently found in Israel and Judah.
The remarkably definite and original style formed by Mantegna may be traced out as founded on the study of the antique in Squarcione's atelier, followed by a diligent application of principles of work exemplified by Paolo Uccello and Donatello, with the practical guidance and example of Jacopo Bellini in the sequel.
He was educated in Lyons, and from an early age was imbued with royalist principles.
His great work, the forcing into common law of the principles of civil law, was unaccomplished; but Story says "he seemed about to accomplish [it]; for his arguments before the Supreme Court were crowded with the principles of the Roman Law, wrought into the texture of the Common Law with great success."
So far as political principles are concerned, there is small difference between them.
They thought that it was not sufficient to trust to the ear alone, to determine the principles of music, as did practical musicians like Aristoxenus, but that along with the ear, physical experiments should be employed.
It is still very valuable as a help in ascertaining the principles of ancient music, and gives us the opinions of some of the best ancient writers on the art.
We are here concerned only to examine the general principles of the school in its internal and external relations as forming a definite philosophic unit.
The importance of these principles lies not only in their intrinsic value as an ethical system, but also in the fact that they form the link between Socrates and the Stoics, between the essentially Greek philosophy of the 4th century B.C. and a system of thought which has exercised a profound and far-reaching influence on medieval and modern ethics.
All these men adhered steadfastly to the principles laid down by Antisthenes.
It is an attempt once more to demonstrate all scholastic dogmas out of the book of creation or on principles of natural reason.
Unfortunately (perhaps) Butler prefers to argue on admitted principles; holds much of his own moral belief in reserve; tries to reduce everything to a question of probable fact.
Mansel tried (1858) to play Pascal's game on Kantian principles, developing the sceptical side of 'Kant's many-faceted mind.
In 1749 he furnished a method of applying his principles to the motion of any body of a given figure; and in 1754 he solved the problem of the precession of the equinoxes, determined its quantity and explained the phenomenon of the nutation of the earth's axis.
One of his most important works was the Elements de Philosophic published in 1759, in which he discussed the principles and methods of the different sciences.
The number of described species can now hardly be less than 10o,000, but there is little agreement as to the main principles of a natural classification.
The peasants, as already stated, form a class apart, untouched by the influence of Western civilization, the principles of which they are quite incapable of understanding or appreci.
Instead of conforming to abstract principles of public law and hereditary succession, they strove to enlarge their territories at the expense of their rivals, and to leave them at their death to their sons rather than to their brothers, nephews and more distant relations.
As many of the democratic principles frightened her more moderate and experienced advisers, she wisely refrained from immediately putting them into execution.
Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
While the superficial appearance of the railway tariff is different for different countries, and sometimes for different parts of the same country, the general principles laid down are followed in rate-making by all well-managed lines, whether state or private.
The relative merit of the two systems depends upon the question how we can secure the best efficiency and equity in the application of the principles thus far laid down.
On principles governing railway rates in general, and specifically in England, see Acworth, The Railways and the Traders (London, 1891).
On comparative railway legislation and the principles governing it, see Hadley, Railroad Transportation; its History and its Laws (New York, 1885).
If the draw-bar pull is known to be R v, then applying the same principles to the vehicle alone which above are applied to the whole train, total draw-bar pull = Wvry 2240Wv 2240Wva.
Andrew Jackson Davis was in America the most prominent example of such persons; his work, The Principles of Nature, Her Divine Revelations (New York, 1847), was alleged to have been dictated in "clairvoyant" trance, and before 1848 his followers were expecting a new religious revelation.
It may not be uninteresting here to note the principles which guided him both now and afterwards in his literary purchases.
They brought to the support of that instrument "the areas of intercourse and wealth" (Libby), the influence of the commercial towns, the greater planters, the army officers, creditors and property-holders generally, - in short, of interests that had felt the evils of the weak government of the Confederation, - and alsc of some few true nationalists (few, because there was as yet no general national feeling), actuated by political principles of centralization independently of motives of expediency and self-interest.
The Federalist Party, which may be regarded as definitely organized practically from 1791, was led, leaving Washington aside, by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. A nationalization of the new central government to the full extent warranted by a broad construction of the powers granted to it by the constitution, and a correspondingly strict construction of the powers reserved to the states and the citizens, were the basic principles of Hamilton's policy.
It is sometimes said that Federalism died because the Republicans took over its principles of nationality.
On his return to Liegnitz he helped to spread the principles of the Reformation in the principality and in Silesia, while warning his colleagues against the abuse of the doctrine of justification by faith.
In 1533, in an important synod, he defended against Martin Bucer the principles of religious freedom as well as his own doctrine and life.
In this, indeed, as in other cases, it may be said that the emperor was guided less by any abstract principles than by a common-sense appreciation of the needs and possibilities of the moment.
From this was developed a complete system of Carbonarism, the peculiar principles of which were introduced from Italy by two of Bazard's friends.
He contributed to their journal, Le Producteur; and in 1828 began to give public lectures on the principles of the school (see SAINTSIMoN).
Research is seriously complicated by the growing stores of material, which unfortunately are often utilized without attention to the principles of the various departments of knowledge or aspects of study.
The Talmud shows the influence of that law in many points, and may justly be compared to it as a monument of codification based on great principles.
On the Continent, the movement was more aristocratic and theoretical; it was part of the intellectual renaissance which found its most striking expression in the principles of the French Revolution.
Though the decisions of this body had no binding force on the Jews generally, yet in some important particulars its decrees represent principles widely adopted by the Jewish community.
He was the author of Principles of Mining (1909), based on lectures given at Stanford and at Columbia universities.
Adopting the motto, "My strength is the love of my people," he ruled in strict accordance with constitutional principles, though not hesitating to make the fullest use of the royal prerogative when the intervention of the crown seemed to be required by circumstances.
Following Prjevalsky the Russian explorers, Pevtsov and Roborovski, in 1889-1890 (and again in 1894), added greatly to our knowledge of the topography of western Chinese Turkestan and the northern borders of Tibet; all these Russian expeditions being conducted on scientific principles and yielding results of the highest value.
His reasoning appeared to me to be just; there was, therefore, a necessity to call in question the principles upon which it was founded, or to admit the conclusion."
Such principles are not derived from sensation, but are "suggested" on occasion of sensation, in such a way as to constitute the necessary conditions of our having perceptive experience at all.
Reid has a variety of names for the principles which, by their presence, lift us out of subjectivity into perception.
He calls them "natural judgments," "natural suggestions," "judgments of nature," "judgments immediately inspired by our constitution," "principles of our nature," "first principles," "principles of common sense."
And in regard to Reid's favourite proof of the principles in question by reference to "the consent of ages and nations, of the learned and unlearned," it is only fair to observe that this argument assumes a much more scientific form in the Essays, where it is almost identified with an appeal to "the structure and grammar of all languages."
Although at times he states his principles with a wonderful degree of breadth and insight, he mars the effect by looseness of statement, and by the incorporation of irrelevant psychological matter.
Further, Reid is inclined to state his principles dogmatically rather than as logical deductions.
He wrote An Inquiry into the Principles of Beauty in Grecian Architecture (London, 1822), and the Correspondence of the Earl of Aberdeen has been printed privately under the direction of his son, Lord Stanmore.
He was chosen Fourth of July orator in Hanover, the college town, in 1800, and in his speech appears the substance of the political principles for the develop - ment of which he is chiefly famous.
No man mastered more thoroughly the fundamental principles of government and the currents of feeling which influence the destiny of nations.
His oration in 1825 at the laying of the corner stone of the Bunker Hill monument contained perhaps the clearest statement to be found anywhere of the principles underlying the American War of Independence.
The establishment of these principles was essential to the integrity and permanence of the American Union.
Desultory efforts were made to establish a civil government, but in the main there was no administration formed on statesmanlike principles.
A very charming piece of work of a lighter kind was inspired by a question from his friend, Mrs Katherine Phillips (the "matchless Orinda"), asking "How far is a dear and perfect friendship authorized by the principles of Christianity?"
He published his Avis sur l'assiette et la repartition de la taille (1762-1770), and as president of the Societe d'agriculture de Limoges offered prizes for essays on the principles of taxation.
Disappointed after his return to England in 1788 in the hope which he had entertained, through a misapprehension of something said by Lord Lansdowne, of taking a personal part in the legislation of his country, he settled down to the yet higher task of discovering and teaching the principles upon which all sound legislation must proceed.
The great work, upon which he had been engaged for many years, the Principles of Morals and Legislation, was published in 1789.
To be judged fairly, Bentham must be judged as a teacher of the principles of legislation.
With the principles of private morals he really deals only so far as is necessary to enable the reader to appreciate the impulses which have to be controlled by law.
The spread of these principles in Norfolk made it, according to Arthur Young (writing in 1770), one of the best cultivated counties in England.
The fattening of animals was conducted on more scientific principles.
Like her brother, she had all the domestic virtues, and, as was to be expected of a sister of Louis XVI., she was in favour of absolutist principles.
He ceased to attend the society in 1829, but he carried away from it the strengthening memory of failure overcome by persevering effort, and the important doctrinal conviction that a true system of political philosophy was "something much more complex and many-sided than he had previously had any idea of, and that its office was to supply, not a set of model institutions but principles from which the institutions suitable to any given circumstances might be deduced."
In 1865 he agreed to stand as parliamentary candidate for Westminster, on conditions strictly in accordance with his principles.
Though he believed that the lower classes were not yet ripe for socialism, with the principles of which he (unlike James Mill and Bentham) was in general agreement, his whole life was devoted to the amelioration of the conditions of the working classes.
The title of his work, Principles of Political Economy, with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy, though open to criticism, indicated a less narrow and formal conception of the field of the science than had been common amongst his predecessors.
Adam Smith had invariably associated the general principles of the subject with their applications, and in treating those applications had perpetually appealed to other and often far larger considerations than pure political economy affords.
The technical training of the factory or the office, the experience of business, the discharge of practical duties, necessary as they are, do not infallibly open the mind to the large issues of the modern business world, and can never confer the detailed acquaintance with facts and principles which lie outside the daily routine of the individual, but are none the less of vital importance."
The methods applied to economics in the 18th and the early part of the 19th century were no more invented with a special view to that subject than the principles of early railway legislation, in the domain.
Important as it was for thirty or forty years, it will soon be as little read as M'Culloch's Principles.
On the principles we have explained, therefore, the Ricardian economics should supply just that body of general theory which is required in the investigation of modern economic problems, and the reputation of at any rate the leading writers should be as great as ever.
If only people can be got to believe in them, a few abstract principles are quite enough to destroy an institution which it has taken centuries to create.
For these problems we want, not a few old-established general principles which no one seriously calls in question, but genuine constructive and organizing capacity, aided by scientific and detailed knowledge of particular institutions, industries and classes.
The general theory which we require should be sketched in firm and clear outline, leaving the detailed qualifications of broad principles to special studies, where they can be dealt with if it is necessary or desirable, and examined by statistical and other tests.
Shield Nicholson's Principles of Political Economy (3 vols.) not only gives a survey of economic principles since Mill's time, but contains much suggestive and original work.
The career of Napoleon, which had lured France far away from the principles of 1789, now brought her back to that starting-point; just as, in the physical sphere, his campaigns from1796-1814had at first enormously swollen her bulk and then subjected her to a shrinkage still more portentous.
Between 1882 and 1889 a series of papers on certain points in the electromagnetic theory of light and its relation to the various elastic solid theories appeared in the American Journal of Science, and his last work, Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, was issued in 1902.
These principles, combined with his embarrassed manner of public speaking, debarred him from academic advancement.
The Principles of Political Obligation was afterwards published in separate form.
Besides this, Belon disposed the birds known to him according to a definite system, which (rude as we now know it to be) formed a foundation on which several of his successors were content to build, and even to this day traces of its influence may still be discerned in the arrangement followed by writers who have faintly appreciated the principles on which modern taxonomers rest the outline of their schemes.
His principles, however, are those which must still guide taxonomers, notwithstanding that they have in so great a degree overthrown the entire scheme which he propounded.
The new doctrine, loudly proclaiming the discovery of a " Natural" System, led away many from the steady practice which should have followed the teaching of Cuvier (though he in ornithology had not been able to act up to the principles he had lain down) and from the extended study of Comparative Anatomy.
He also split his Grallatores and Natatores (practically identical with the Grallae and Anseres of Linnaeus) each into four sections; but he failed to see - as on his own principles he ought to have seen - that each of these sections was at least equivalent to almost any one of his other " Ordres."
The extraordinary merits of this book, and the admirable fidelity to his principles which Professor Burmeister showed in the difficult task of editing it, were unfortunately overlooked for many years, and perhaps are not sufficiently recognised now.
Otherwise the " principles " on which it is founded are not clear to the ordinary zoologist.
Hence his efforts, praiseworthy as they were from several points of view, and particularly so in regard to some details, failed to satisfy the philosophic taxonomer when generalizations and deeper principles were concerned, and in his practice in respect of certain technicalities of classification he was, in the eyes of the orthodox, a transgressor.
The synod of Reims in 1148 procured papal sanction for four propositions opposed to certain of Gilbert's tenets, and his works were condemned until they should be corrected in accordance with the principles of the church.
Owing to the prohibition of slavery the vast majority of the early immigrants to Ohio came from the North, but, until the Mexican War forced the slavery question into the foreground, the Democrats usually controlled the state, because the principles of that party were more in harmony with frontier ideas of equality.
His Parable of the Wicked Mammon (1528), Obedience of a Christen Man (1528), in which the two great principles of the English Reformation are set out, viz.
The works sent to Clement he regarded as preliminaries, laying down principles which were afterwards to be applied to the sciences.
All these large works Bacon appears to have looked on as preliminaries, introductions, leading to a great work which should embrace the principles of all the sciences.
Civil service reform principles cover the entire municipal administration.
The principles of the great orthodox philosophers of the later scholastic period which begins in the 13th century, Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, were those of moderate realism.
The law of landlord and tenant in the United States is in its principles similar to those of English law.
It was governed under a "plantation covenant" until the 4th of June 1639, when, at a general meeting, the "free planters" adopted the fundamental principles of a new government.
All grass and weeds must be kept down, and the crust must be broken after every rain, but these seem to be the only principles upon which all agree.
It is evident that the buying of cotton on the principles suggested would be calculated to cause great unsteadiness of prices, especially as cotton is not continuously forthcoming, but is produced periodically in harvests.
And this being the case, the complete conditioning causes of the miracle will be found in God and nature together, and in that eternal action and reaction between them which perhaps, although not ordered simply according to general laws, is not void of regulative principles.
Neander's theological position can only be explained in connexion with Schleiermacher, and the manner in which while adopting he modified and carried out the principles of his master.
Two important principles are illustrated by these thoughts, (1) that there is no absolute distinction between the organic and the inorganic, and (2) that the argument from final causes is no explanation of phenomena.
In 1772 appeared anonymously his Doctrines of a Trinity and the Incarnation of God, examined upon the Principles of Reason and Common Sense.
Very convenient and accurate instruments based on the above principles have been devised by Lord Kelvin, and a large variety of these ampere balances, as they are called, suitable for measuring currents from a fraction of an ampere up to many thousands of amperes, have been constructed by that illustrious inventor.
Slavery being against their principles, the younger members of the society waited on the elder.
A few medicated soaps are prepared for internal use, among which are croton soap and jalap soap, both gentler cathartics than the uncompounded medicinal principles.
Espousing the principles of the Revolution in 1789, he was commissioned by the noblesse of the province to draw up the cahier (statement of principles and grievances); and the senechaussee of Montpellier elected him deputy to the states-general of Versailles; but the election was annulled on a technical point.
In the meantime he had done much useful work, especially that of laying down, conjointly with Merlin of Douai, the principles on which the legislation of the revolutionary epoch should be codified.
Though an alchemist, Boyle, in his Sceptical Chemist (1661), cast doubts on the " experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their salt, sulphur and mercury to be the true principles of things," and advanced towards the conception of chemical elements as those constituents of matter which cannot be further decomposed.
They disliked his French origin, and suspected him to be a man of levelling principles.
His guiding principles were still simplicity of administration and speedy extinction of all debt, and everything bent to these objects.
Crawford, whom he regarded as the true heir and representative of the old Jeffersonian principles.
This classical work is still a favourite among students, the improvements on its methods made since its publication being rather in details than in general principles.
After his retirement Colomb devoted himself rather to the history of naval warfare, and to the large principles disclosed by its intelligent study, than to experimental inquiries having an immediate practical aim.
Returned to the Convention in September 1792 he developed moderate, even reactionary views, becoming one of the fiercest opponents of the Mountain, though he never wavered in his support of republican principles.
After the Bourbon restoration Lanjuinais consistently defended the principles of constitutional monarchy, but most of his time was given to religious and political subjects.
This section includes a brief history of the subject, and proceeds to treat of the principles underlying the structure and interrelations of organic compounds.
In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of matter were Aristotle's four elements; the proximate constituents were a " sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different colour.
In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application of the principles of experiment and deduction.
At the same time he clarified the conception of elements and compounds, rejecting the older notions, the four elements of the " vulgar Peripateticks " and the three principles of the " vulgar Stagyrists," and defining an element as a substance incapable of decomposition, and a compound as composed of two or more elements.
Although the system of Berzelius has been modified and extended, its principles survive in the modern notation.
The principles outlined above constitute the foundations of our science; and although it may happen that experiments may be made with which they appear to be not in complete agreement, yet in general they constitute a body of working hypotheses of inestimable value.
His fame rests upon his exposition of the principles necessary to chemistry as a secience, but of his contributions to analytical inorganic chemistry little can be said.
The development of the theory of crystal structure, and the fundamental principles on which is based the classification of crystal forms, are treated in the article Crystallography; in the same place will be found an account of the doctrine of isomorphism, polymorphism and morphotropy.
The medieval studies which Wagner had begun for his work at the libretto of Tannhauser bore rich fruit in his next opera Lohengrin, in which he also developed his principles on a larger scale and with a riper technique than hitherto.
The last two examples at the end of the article on Harmony show almost all that is new in Wagner's harmonic principles.
We have seen (in the articles on Harmony and Music) how harmonic music originated in just this habit of regarding combinations of sound as mere sensations, and how for centuries the habit opposed itself to the intellectual principles of contrapuntal harmony.
These intellectual principles are, of course, not without their own ground in physical sensation; but it is evident that Debussy appeals beyond them to a more primitive instinct; and on it he bases an almost perfectly coherent system of which the laws are, like those of i 2th-century music, precisely the opposite of those of classical harmony.
German literature tells of several literary schools, or groups of writers animated by the same ideas, and working in the spirit of the same principles and by the same poetic methods.
His best-known work is De motu animalium (Rome, 1680-1681), in which he sought to explain the movements of the animal body on mechanical principles; he thus ranks as the founder of the iatrophysical school.
The armies of Alexander's successors were still in the main principles of their organization similar to the army with which Alexander had conquered Asia.
The main principles of this system have been maintained, Slope Degrees 80 75 ' '70 FIG.
The principles on which these divisions were made remain an enigma to the present day.
He was he deals with the principles of mathematical geography, map projections, and sources of information with special reference FIG.
Loriti Glareanus (1527) were the first who dealt scientifically with the principles underlying their construction.
He died in 1798, and the success of the church he founded is a tribute to his personality and to the principles for which he strove.
They believe that an experience of more than 250 years gives ample warrant for the belief that Christ did not command them as a perpetual outward ordinance; on the contrary, they hold that it was alien to His method to lay down minute, outward rules for all time, but that He enunciated principles which His Church should, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, apply to the varying needs of the day.
In 1677 the fundamental laws of West New Jersey were published, and recognized in a most absolute form the principles of democratic equality and perfect freedom of conscience.
A man of literary taste and culture, familiar with the classics, a facile writer of Latin verses' as well as of Ciceronian prose, he was as anxious that the Roman clergy should unite human science and literature with their theological studies as that the laity should be educated in the principles of religion; and to this end he established in Rome a kind of voluntary school board, with members both lay and clerical; and the rivalry of the schools thus founded ultimately obliged the state to include religious teaching in its curriculum.
Already the principles of reason and humanity had been applied to the subject by Seneca.
Thereupon a general outcry was raised by the planters at the acquiescence of the government in the principles of the anti-slavery party.
A circular was soon after sent to the governors and marshals of the nobility all over Russia proper, informing them of this desire of the Lithuanian nobles, and setting out the fundamental principles which should be observed " if the nobles of the provinces should express a similar desire."
Shortly before Catherine's death the friends quarrelled over a tragedy which the princess had allowed to find a place in the publications of the Academy, though it contained revolutionary principles, according to the empress.
His long life enabled him to perfect the organization of Methodism and to inspire his preachers and people with his own ideals, while he had conquered opposition by unwearying patience and by close adherence to the principles which he sought to teach.
His life corresponded in all points to his principles.
This book, probably published after the death of its author and probably interpolated by his disciples, contains, besides Joachimite principles, an affirmation even clearer than that of Gherardo da Borgo of the elect character of the Franciscan order, as well as extremely violent attacks on the papacy.
First one man was trained for the work by himself, then he was sent to a district for six months, where, (for £8 a year) he taught gratis the children and young people (in fact, all comers) reading and Christian principles.
He wrote Correlation Papers - Archaean and Algonkian (1892), Some Principles Controlling the Deposition of Ores (1901).
He had adopted the principles of the Revolution, and in 1798 he commenced his political life as a member of the Council of Five Hundred.
During the Hundred Days he was vice-president of the chamber of deputies, and when the allied armies entered Paris he drew up the declaration in which the chamber asserted the necessity of maintaining the principles of government that had been established at the Revolution.
While the priests developed the sacrificial ritual, it was the prophets that represented the theocratic element of the national life - they devoted themselves to their task with noteworthy persistence and ability, and their efforts were crowned with success; but their virtue of singlemindedness carried with it the defect of narrowness - they despised all peoples and all countries but their own, and were intolerant of opinions, held by their fellow-citizens, that were not wholly in accordance with their own principles.
The proof of the six premisses requires an elaborate investigation into the general properties of classes and relations which can be deduced by the strictest reasoning from our ultimate logical principles.
Also it is purely arbitrary to erect the consequences of these six principles into a separate science.
They are excellent principles of the highest value, but they are in no sense the necessary premisses which must be proved before any other propositions of cardinal numbers can be established.
Under the general heading "Analysis" occur the subheadings "Foundations of Analysis," with the topics theory of functions of real variables, series and other infinite processes, principles and elements of the differential and of the integral calculus, definite integrals, and calculus of variations; "Theory of Functions of Complex Variables," with the topics functions of one variable and of several variables; "Algebraic Functions and their Integrals," with the topics algebraic functions of one and of several variables, elliptic functions and single theta functions, Abelian integrals; "Other Special Functions," with the topics Euler's, Legendre's, Bessel's and automorphic functions; "Differential Equations," with the topics existence theorems, methods of solution, general theory; "Differential Forms and Differential Invariants," with the topics differential forms, including Pfaffians, transformation of differential forms, including tangential (or contact) transformations, differential invariants; "Analytical Methods connected with Physical Subjects," with the topics harmonic analysis, Fourier's series, the differential equations of applied mathematics, Dirichlet's problem; "Difference Equations and Functional Equations," with the topics recurring series, solution of equations of finite differences and functional equations.
This survey of the existing developments of pure mathematics confirms the conclusions arrived at from the previous survey of the theoretical principles of the subject.
Primarily their system was based on the great principles enunciated by the immediate successors of the Prophet, especially by Omar, involving the absolute distinction between, and impartiality of treatment of, the Mussulman conquerors and the i As Dedeagatch is gaining, and will gradually gain, importance, it has been included in this table.
They in their turn distributed the lands so acquired among their sons and principal emirs on strictly feudal principles, the feudatory lands being styled ziamet and timar, a system long continued by their successors in regard to the territories which they conquered.
So far as the extreme claims of the tsar were concerned, neither Austria nor Prussia was willing to concede them, and both had joined with France and Great Britain in presenting, on the 12th of December 1853, an identical note at St Petersburg, drawn up at the Conference of Vienna, reaffirming the principles of the treaty of 1841.
It was his great good fortune to find abundant unused material for his Life of Hume, and to be the first to introduce the principles of historical research into the history of Scotland.
He sat for a short time (1845-1846) as a member of the Chamber of Deputies, but lost his seat owing to his enthusiastic adoption of the principles of free trade.
In accordance with the principles of energetics, any change which involves a decrease in the total available energy of the system will tend to occur, and thus the necessary and sufficient condition for the production of electromotive force is that the available energy of the system should decrease when the current flows.
Indeed, it may be said, that the political principles which he instilled into the youthful monarch were faithfully followed by Charles during the whole of his reign.
Pope Leo had indeed, in a letter to the Franciscan ministergeneral (November 1898), and in an encyclical to the French clergy (September 1899), vigorously emphasized the traditionalist principles of his encyclical Providentissimus of 1893; he had even, much to his prompt regret, signed the unfortunate decree of the Roman Inquisition, January 1897, prohibiting all doubt as to the authenticity of the "Three Heavenly Witnesses" passage, John v.
Any frank recognition of the abbe's even general principles involves the abandonment of the identification of theology with scholasticism or even with specifically ancient thought in general.
The great object of 17th-century moralists had been to find some general principle from which the whole of ethics could be deduced; common-sense, by turning its back on abstract principles of every kind, forced the philosophers to come down to the solid earth, and start by inquiring how the world does make up its mind in fact.
His treatise De monetae cudendae ratione, 1526 (first printed in 1816), written by order of King Sigismund I., is an exposition of the principles on which it was proposed to reform the currency of the Prussian provinces of Poland.
Starting from the two Socratic principles of virtue and happiness, he emphasized the second, and made pleasure the criterion of life.
But on the 19th of May 1841 he preached at Boston a sermon on "the transient and permanent in Christianity," which presented in embryo the main principles and ideas of his final theological position, and the preaching of which determined his subsequent relations to the churches with which he was connected and to the whole ecclesiastical world.
His oriental studies were reshaped by diligent perusal of the works of Schultens; for the Halle school, with all its learning, had no conception of the principles on which a fruitful connexion between Biblical and Oriental learning could be established.
The present article is a digest, mainly from an experimental standpoint, of the leading facts and principles of magnetic science.
Terminology And Elementary Principles In what follows the C.G.S.
Thomson (Applications of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry, 47) that on dynamical principles there must be a reciprocal relation between the changes of dimensions produced by magnetization and the changes of magnetization attending mechanical strain.
Regarding it as important that all reasoning with reference to magnetism should be conducted without any uncertain assumptions, he worked out a mathematical theory upon the sole foundation of a few wellknown facts and principles.
By Ancillon he was grounded in religion, in history and political science, his natural taste for the antique and the picturesque making it easy for his tutor to impress upon him his own hatred of the Revolution and its principles.
These principles are illustrated in his Hellenika.
In 1823 he was selected along with Dufrenoy by Brochant de Villiers, the professor of geology in the Ecole des Mines, to accompany him on a scientific tour to England and Scotland, in order to inspect the mining and metallurgical establishments of the country, and to study the principles on which Greenough's geological map of England (1820) had been prepared, with a view to the construction of a similar map of France.
In expounding the principles of the differential calculus, he started, as it were, from the level of his pupils, and ascended with them by almost insensible gradations from elementary to abstruse conceptions.
It was his just boast to have transformed mechanics (defined by him as a "geometry of four dimensions") into a branch of analysis, and to have exhibited the so-called mechanical "principles" as simple results of the calculus.
With Kant, reason (Vernunft) is the power of synthesizing into unity, by means of comprehensive principles, the concepts provided by the intellect (Verstand).
In Aristotle the Xl yos of a thing is its definition, including its formal cause, while the ultimate principles of a science are apxal, the "reasons" (in a common modern sense) which explain all its particular facts.'
It may be that, just as the usages of civilized nations have slowly crystallized into international law, so there may come a time when the political principles that govern states in relation to each other will be so clearly defined and so generally accepted as to acquire something of a legal or quasi-legal character.
These causes and the fermentation of liberal principles produced by the French Revolution originated a conspiracy in Lisbon in 1817, which was, however, discovered in time to prevent its success.
The idea of free government filled the people with enthusiasm, and the principles of a representative legislature were freely adopted, the first care being for the election of deputies to the Cortes of Lisbon to take part in framing the new constitution.
The experiment of republican government had proved so discreditable, and had so wearied the country of cabals, that men hitherto known for their sympathy with democratic principles became more monarchical than the regent himself; and under this influence a movement to give the regency into the hands of the princess Donna Januaria, now in her 18th year, was set on foot.
His main object, however, like that of Brougham, was the amelioration of the law, more by the abolition of cumbrous technicalities than by the assertion of new and striking principles.
On no great subject did his principles rise above the commonplace of party, nor had he the magnanimity which excuses rather than aggravates the faults of others.
The end of the period was thus brought about by the internal decay of its method and principles quite as much as by the variety of external causes which contributed to transfer men's interests to other subjects.
As Cousin says, " Realism and Nominalism were undoubtedly there in germ, but their true principles with their necessary consequences remained profoundly unknown; their connexion with all the great questions of religion and politics was not even suspected.
In this production Cobden advocated the same principles of peace, nonintervention, retrenchment and free trade to which he continued faithful to the last day of his life.
In many of the principal capitals he was invited to public banquets, which afforded him an opportunity of propagating those principles of which he was regarded as the apostle.
But beside these public demonstrations he sought and found access in private to many of the leading statesmen, in the various countries he visited, with a view to indoctrinate them with the same principles.
He then addressed himself to the French ministers, and had much earnest conversation, especially with Rouher, whom he found well inclined to the economical and commercial principles which he advocated.
The Austrian diet was transferred on the i 5th of November to Kremsier, remote from revolutionary influences; and, though the government still thought it prudent to proclaim its constitutional principles, it also proclaimed its intention to preserve the unity of the monarchy.
Fortunately, in Kalman Tisza, the leader of the Liberal From the first, Tisza was exposed to the violent attacks of the opposition, which embraced, not only the party of Independence, champions of the principles of 1848, but the so-called National party, led by the brilliant orator Count Albert Apponyi, which aimed at much the same ends but looked upon the Compromise of 1867 as a convenient substructure on which to build up the Magyar state.
The philosophical labours of the already mentioned John Erdelyi and of Augustus Greguss won for them well-deserved recognition, the latter especially being famous for his aesthetical productions, in which he appears to follow out the principles of Vischer.
He wrote to the great geometer a letter on the principles of mechanics, which evoked an immediate and enthusiastic response.
That it formed the starting-point, and largely prescribed the course of thought on the subject of planetary origin is due to the simplicity of its assumptions, and the clearness of the mechanical principles involved, rather than to any cogent evidence of its truth.
The ardour of his republican principles gave place, after the 18th Brumaire, to devotion towards the first consul, a sentiment promptly rewarded with the post of minister of the interior.
Laplace published in 1779 the method of generating functions, the foundation of his theory of probabilities, and the first part of his Theorie analytique is devoted to the exposition of its principles, which in their simplest form consist in treating the successive values of any function as the coefficients in the expansion of another function with reference to a different variable.
He was also a supporter of the principles of the economists, and Quesnay called him his wellbeloved disciple.
There are also cases in which graphics and mensuration are used jointly; a variable numerical quantity is represented by a graph, and the principles of mensuration are then applied to determine related numerical quantities.
This study was inaugurated by George Peacock, who was one of the earliest mathematicians to recognize the symbolic character of the fundamental principles of algebra.
Under the present heading it is proposed only to discuss briefly the various types of episcopacy actually existing, and the different principles that they represent.
Ten days later 26 Serb deputies from the various provinces of the monarchy, met at Zara, indorsed the principles embodied in the Resolution of Fiume and declared in favour of joint political action between Croats and Serbs.
The signatories were careful to disclaim all idea of a pact or treaty, and to define the declaration as a mere statement of ideals and principles which could not acquire binding force until ratified by elected representatives of the nation as a whole.
This offer was made in the knowledge that the memorandum addressed by President Wilson two days previously to Orlando and Sonnino had met with rejection, and was indeed well calculated to heighten the contrast between the outlook of the two rival nations toward Wilsonian principles.
The American note reaffirmed these principles as the accepted basis of armistice and peace, and insisted on applying the same methods toward Austria-Hungary as Germany.
On April 23 President Wilson followed up this private memorandum by a public manifesto to the Italian nation, in which he repudiated the Pact of London and appealed for the application of the same principles on the Adriatic as those enforced against Germany.
It may be well therefore to remember that precisely these laws apply to a secondary wave of sound, which can be investigated upon the strictest mechanical