Principle sentence example

principle
  • The basic principle was that those who worked hard would be rewarded.
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  • The principle of energy makes it clear that the light emitted laterally is not a new creation, but only diverted from the main stream.
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  • It was a basic fundamental principle of the way of life.
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  • The principle of equality of nations that inhabit our country is strictly adhered by.
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  • By one count, rice is the principle source of calories for about half the planet.
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  • The principle of arbitration being accepted, the conditions were quickly arranged.
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  • And the more imbued he became with that principle of love, the more he renounced life and the more completely he destroyed that dreadful barrier which--in the absence of such love-- stands between life and death.
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  • Thus it seemed that this one hillside illustrated the principle of all the operations of Nature.
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  • Hong Kong taxation adopts a territorial principle of taxation.
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  • The ceremony of hoisting a flag and taking possession of the country in the name of the government of the Netherlands was actually performed, but the description of the wildness of the country, and of the fabulous giants by which Tasman's sailors believed it to be inhabited, deterred the Dutch from occupying the island, and by the international principle of " non-user " it passed from their hands.
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  • When the excitement consequent on the gold finds had subsided, there was a considerable reaction against the claims of Labour, and this was greatly helped by the congested state of the labour market; but the principle of an eight-hours day made progress, and was conceded in several trades.
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  • " I can say with truth," he writes to the princess Elizabeth, 9 " that the principle which I have always observed in my studies, and which I believe has helped me most to gain what, knowledge I have, has been never to spend beyond a very few hours daily in thoughts which occupy the imagination, and a very few hours yearly in those which occupy the understanding, and to give all the rest of my time to the relaxation of the senses and the repose of the mind."
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  • That is, agree in principle but decline any personal accountability.
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  • The facts were left to the jury to decide as best they might, and no principle was.
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  • He defined almost every principle that governed commercial transactions in such a manner that his successors had only to apply the rules he had laid down.
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  • And the principle at work in this technology could lead to a cure for other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
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  • Much of Shaftesbury's career, increasingly so as it came near its close, is incapable of defence; but it has escaped most of his critics that his life up to the Restoration, apparently full of inconsistencies, was evidently guided by one leading principle, the determination to uphold the supremacy of parliament, a principle which, however obscured by self-interest, appears also to have underlain his whole political career.
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  • The theory of droit administratif lays down the principle that an agent of the government cannot be prosecuted or sued for acts relating to his administrative functions before the ordinary tribunals.
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  • Leibnitz, in accord with the distinctive principle of his philosophy, affirmed the absolute independence of mind and body as distinct monads, the parallelism of their functions in life being due to the pre-established harmony.
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  • This theorem is called generally the principle of Archimedes.
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  • Its fundamental principle is that, by a combination of glass scales with a micrometer screw, " the chief part of the distance to be measured is read off on the scale; the fractional part of the scalespace is not estimated but measured by the screw."
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  • 21, its principle of construction is shown in figs.
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  • "The law of the State is binding law," was the principle which Samuel enunciated, here carrying to its logical outcome the admonition of Jeremiah.
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  • The Court of Cassation does not give the ultimate decision on a case; it pronounces, not on the question of fact, but on the legal principle at issue, or the competence of the court giving the original decision.
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  • Each army corps consists in principle of two infantry divisions, one cavalry brigade, one brigade of horse and field artillery, one engineer battalion and one squadron of train.
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  • The principle here is to agree to buy a certain amount of a commodity at a certain price from farmers in these countries.
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  • On the one hand the retributive principle itself has been very largely superseded by the protective and the reformative; on the other punishments involving bodily pain have become objectionable to the general sense of society.
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  • Those who favour state connexion and those who oppose it agree in claiming spiritual independence as a fundamental principle of Presbyterianism.
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  • That principle is Spiritual in- equally opposed to Erastianism and to Papacy, to the civil power dominating the Church, and to the ecclesiastical power dominating the state.
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  • If in 1869 he appeared to deviate from this principle by being a candidate at Marseilles for the Corps Legislatif, it was because he yielded to the entreaties of the Imperial government in order to strengthen its goodwill for the Suez Canal.
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  • The censors, being elected on a general ticket, were always more progressive than the convention, which was chosen on the principle of equal township representation.
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  • The astringent principle is a peculiar kind of tannic acid, called by chemists quercitannic, which, yielding more stable compounds with gelatine than other forms, gives oak bark its high value to the tanner.
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  • A bitter principle to which the name of quercin has been applied by Gerber, its discoverer, has also been detected in the acorn of the common oak; the nutritive portion seems chiefly a form of starch.
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  • A spirit has been distilled from acorns in process of germination, when the saccharine principle is most abundant.
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  • Tone himself admitted that with him hatred of England had always been "rather an instinct than a principle," though until his views should become more generally accepted in Ireland he was prepared to work for reform as distinguished from revolution.
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  • Newton had divined the principle of the conservation of energy, so far as it belongs purely to mechanics.
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  • This general law, known as the principle of the "dissipation of energy," was first adequately pointed out by Lord Kelvin in 1852; and was applied by him to some of the principal problems of cosmical physics.
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  • Thus the principle of Carnot involves the conclusion that a greater proportion of the heat possessed by a body at a high temperature can be converted into work than in the case of an equal quantity of heat possessed by a body at a low temperature, so that the availability of heat increases with the temperature.
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  • This shows that the principle of the dissipation of energy has control over the actions of those agents only whose faculties are too gross to enable them to grapple individually with the minute portions of matter which are the seat of energy.
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  • In steam cranes much the same principle obtains in proportioning the boiler; e.g.
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  • In the criminal law the ruling principle was the lex talionis.
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  • Within a few years several methods had been proposed by different inventors, but none was at first very successful, not from any fault in the principle, but because the effect of electrostatic capacity of the line was left out of account in the early arrangements.
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  • Four years later Varley patented his artificial cable, which was the first near approach to a successful solution of the duplex problem on the principle now adopted.
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  • 25, and indicates the general principle involved.
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  • In the undulator apparatus, which is similar in general principle to the " siphon recorder " used in submarine telegraphy, a spring or falling weight moves a paper strip beneath one end of a fine silver tube, the other end of which dips into a vessel containing ink.
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  • The general principle on which the instruments for working long submarine cables are based is that of making the moving parts very light and perfectly free to follow the comparatively slow rise and fall of the electric impulses or waves.
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  • The system of setting nations by the ears with the view of settling the quarrels of a few reigning houses was reduced to absurdity when the people, as in these cases, came to be partitioned and exchanged without the assertion or negation of a single principle affecting their interests or rousing their emotions.
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  • (I) The principle is illustrated in the article Barometer, where a column of mercury of density a and height h, rising in the tube to the To:ricellian vacuum, is balanced by a column of air of density p, which may be supposed to rise as a homogeneous fluid to a height k, called the height of the homogeneous atmosphere.
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  • As stated first by Archimedes, the principle asserts the obvious fact that a body displaces its own volume of water; and he utilized it in the problem of the determination of the adulteration of the crown of Hiero.
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  • In considering the motion of a fluid we shall suppose it non-viscous, so that whatever the state of motion the stress across any section is normal, and the principle of the normality and thence of the equality of fluid pressure can be employed, as in hydrostatics.
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  • Besides, unless His Majesty the Emperor derogates from the principle of our alliance...
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  • Carmen turned and looked at the principle.
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  • The dangerous principle is a narcotic, and the symptoms are usually great nausea, drowsiness, stupor and pains in the joints.
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  • The writs were cancelled, and the principle was established that the issuing of writs rested with the House itself.
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  • Finally, a scheme of ritual for the second temple raises this exclusion to the rank of a principle.
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  • The bark, very dark externally, is an excellent tanning substance; the inner layers form the quercitron of commerce, used by dyers for communicating to fabrics various tints of yellow, and, with iron salts, yielding a series of brown and drab hues; the colouring property depends on a crystalline principle called quercitrin, of which it should contain about 8%.
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  • To succeed the parliamentary soldiers must also be inspired by some great principle, and this was now found in religion.
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  • "Did not that levelling principle," he said, "tend to the reducing of all to an equality?
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  • The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
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  • The inspiring principle had been the defence and support of Protestantism, the question with Cromwell being "whether the Christian world should be all popery."
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  • His policy was in principle the policy of Elizabeth, of Gustavus Adolphus, and - in the following generation - of William of Orange.
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  • Hence it is not surprising that, in those more subtle forms in which energy cannot be readily or completely converted into work, the universality of the principle of energy, its conservation, as regards amount, should for a long while have escaped recognition after it had become familiar in pure dynamics.
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  • The general graphy, principle Arms a and arrangement b, one at eachstation and d B, are connected to the line wire, and are made to rotate simultaneously over metallic segments, 3, 4, and I', 3', 4', at the two stations, so that when the arm a is on segment i at A, then b is on segment I' at B, and so on.
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  • This was the principle of the chemical telegraph proposed by Edward Davy in 1838 and of that proposed by Bain in 1846.
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  • The armature acts on an inking disk on the principle described above, save only that the disk is supplied with ink from a groove in a second wheel, on which it rolls: the grooved wheel is kept turning with one edge in contact with ink in an ink-well.
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  • Wilson constructed various forms of electric wave detector depending on this same principle.
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  • The fundamental principle of the magneto system has been described in connexion with the " Standard board."
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  • With the adoption of relays the signalling between the subscribers and the exchange became automatic, and, with the introduction of the principle of double and automatic supervision on the cord circuits, it became possible for the operators to tell at any instant the state of a connexion.
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  • In another party line system a harmonic principle is employed: the ringing machines deliver alternating currents of four frequencies, while each bell is constructed to operate at a particular frequency only.
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  • Much, however, is effected towards unification, by compulsory military service, it being the principle that no man shall serve within the military district to which he belongs.
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  • On the i7th of July 1898 a national fund for the insurance of workmen against illness and old age was founded by law on the principle of optional registration.
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  • This ratification of the oligarchical principle, together with the establishment in 1311 of the Council of Ten, completed that famous constitution which endured till the extinction of the republic in 1797.
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  • The defeat of General Pepe by the Austrians at Rieti (March 7, 1821) and the re-establishment of King Ferdinands autocratic power under the protection of Austrian bayonets were the effective assertion of this principle.
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  • But the French king soon abandoned his principle of non-intervention.
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  • The year 1885 saw the introduction and adoption of a measure embodying the principle of employers liability for accidents to workmen, a principle subsequently extended and more equitably defined in the spring of 1899.
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  • Such rigidity of principle need not be extended to the affairs of everyday contact between the Vatican and the Italian authorities, with regard to which, indeed, a tacit modus vivendi was easily attainable.
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  • On the principle of contradiction this division is both exhaustive and exclusive; there can be no overlapping, and no members of the original genus or the lower groups are omitted.
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  • Though a strong Tory and supporter of the hereditary principle, James's attacks on Protestantism soon drove him into opposition.
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  • What the modern empiricist needs is a rational bond uniting the individual with the community or with the aggregate of individuals - a rational principle distinguishing high pleasures from low, sanctioning benevolence, and giving authority to moral generalizations drawn from conditions that are past and done with.
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  • Every First Principle of the mind is a starting-point too.
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  • Those who were unwilling to accept evolution, without better grounds than such as are offered by Lamarck, and who therefore preferred to suspend their judgment on the question, found in the principle of selective breeding, pursued in all its applications with marvellous knowledge and skill by Darwin, a valid explanation of the occurrence of varieties and races; and they saw clearly that, if the explanation would apply to species, it would not only solve the problem of their evolution, but that it would account for the facts of teleology, as well as for those of morphology; and for the persistence of some forms of life unchanged through long epochs of time, while others undergo comparatively rapid metamorphosis.
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  • In the application to sound, where we know what we are dealing with, the matter is simple enough in principle, although mathematical difficulties would often stand in the way of the calculations we might wish to make.
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  • By the principle of superposition the whole effect may be found by integration of the partial effects due to each element of the surface, the other elements remaining at rest.
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  • As a rule these equations are established immediately by determining the component acceleration of the fluid particle which is passing through (x, y, z) at the instant t of time considered, and saying that the reversed acceleration or kinetic reaction, combined with the impressed force per unit of mass and pressure-gradient, will according to d'Alembert's principle form a system in equilibrium.
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  • The acid is inert, but picro-podophyllin is the active principle.
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  • The principle of "Napier's bones" may be easily explained by imagir:ing ten rectangular slips of cardboard, each divided into nine squares.
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  • The lawfulness of Church Establishments with due qualifications is perhaps generally recognized in theory, but there is a growing tendency to regard connexion with the state as inexpedient, if not actually contrary to sound Presbyterian principle.
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  • He eloquently and persistently advocated the principle of oneman one-vote as the bed-rock of all democratic reform.
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  • Under the latter prince the country prospered greatly, and having introduced the principle of primogeniture, he died and was succeeded by his infant son, Bernard Ernest Freund (1800-1882), whose mother, Eleanora of Hohenlohe-Langenburg, governed in his name until 1821.
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  • He still defended the Bohemian national movement, and in one of his writings laid down the principle that nationality was one of the interests outside the control of the state.
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  • According to Neubauer, the bark of young oaks contains from 7 to Io% of this principle; in old trees the proportion is much less.
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  • Arrangements not very different in general principle were put into practice in the United States by Fessenden, de Forest and others.
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  • 3 Having got such a mind, we may next inquire whether, on the principle of parsimony, it will not account for more; perhaps for everything in nature!
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  • A more entirely novel and more general principle of Kant's attack upon theism is the challenge of our right to build up the idea of God bit by bit out of different arguments.
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  • The principle of judgment by one's peers is asserted, and is obviously the privilege of every class of freemen, not of the greater lords alone.
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  • This idea of the air as the original principle and source of life and intelligence is much more clearly expressed by a later writer, Diogenes of Apollonia.
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  • Strato appears to reject Aristotle's idea of an original source of movement and life extraneous to the world in favour of an immanent principle.
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  • The formative principle or force of the world is said to contain the several rational germinal forms of things.
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  • This matter is differentiated into particular things (which are not privations but perfections) through the addition of an individualizing principle (haecceitas) to the universal (quidditas).
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  • He argues, from the principle quicquid est in effectibus esse et in causis, that the elements and the whole world have sensation, and thus he appears to derive the organic part of nature out of the so-called " inorganic."
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  • The world consists of a finite number of atoms, which have in their own nature a self-moving force or principle.
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  • Gassendi distinctly argues against the existence of a world-soul or a principle of life in nature.
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  • The formative force in this process of evolution (or " metamorphosis ") is conceived as an intellectual principle (idee generatrice).
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  • Robinet thus laid the foundation of that view of the world as wholly vital, and as a progressive unfolding of a spiritual formative principle, which was afterwards worked out by Schelling.
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  • All material things are assimilated to one another as organic, the vitalizing principle being inherent in all matter.
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  • An organism was to him something controlled by a formative organizing principle.
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  • It can only be understood by subordinating the mechanical conception to the vital, by conceiving the world as one organism animated by a spiritual principle or intelligence (Weltseele).
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  • All these processes are regarded as a series of manifestations of a vital principle in higher and higher forms. Oken, again, who carries Schelling's ideas into the region of biological science, seeks to reconstruct the gradual evolution of the material world out of original matter, which is the first immediate appearance of God, or the absolute.
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  • With Hegel the absolute is itself a dialectic process which contains within itself a principle of progress from difference to difference and from unity to unity.
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  • The conclusions enunciated by Cuvier and Von Baer have been confirmed in principle by all subsequent research into the structure of animals and plants.
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  • Inasmuch as Lamarck attempted to frame a theory of evolution in which the principle of natural selection had no part, the interpretation placed on their work by many bionomical investigators recalls the theories of Lamarck, and the name Neo-Lamarckism has been used of such a school of biologists, particularly active in America.
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  • The fundamental principle of ecclesiastical jurisdiction with its sanction " of excommunication will be found in Christ's words in Matt.
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  • While the prime principle in man is the social, "the next in order is not to yield to the persuasions of the body, when they are not conformable to the rational principle which must govern."
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  • Galen believed in the doctrine of humours originated by Hippocrates, which supposes the condition of the body to depend upon the proper mixture of the four elements, hot, cold, moist and dry, and that drugs possess the same elementary qualities, and that on the principle of contraries one or other was indicated, e.g.
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  • The principle of " one man one shop " is general; a pharmacist may not own more than one shop in the same town.
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  • Applying this principle to the art of poetry, and analysing, line by line and even word by word, the works of great poets, he deduced the law that the beauty of poetry consists in the accuracy, beauty and harmony of individual expression.
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  • The theory of geograph y was advanced by Humboldt mainly by his insistence on the great principle of the unity of nature.
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  • Thus the operator had to remove from ordinary mercury, earth or an earthy principle or quality, and water or a liquid principle, and to fix it by taking away air or a volatile principle.
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  • On principle an ordu would have with it 30 batteries of field artillery, 3 batteries of horse artillery and 3 batteries of mountain artillery, or in all 36 batteries with 216 guns, all batteries being 6 guns strong.
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  • But turbulence in the motion will vitiate the principle that a bounding surface will always consist of the same fluid particles, as we see on the surface of turbulent water.
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  • That principle had been made use of by the Greek authors of the classic age; but of later mathematicians only Hero, Diophantus, &c., ventured to regard lines and surfaces as mere numbers that could be joined to give a new number, their sum.
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  • While Jefferson's "all men are created equal" statement was not meant by him to include slaves, we have broadened the application of the principle and should continue to do so.
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  • Though the words of the order were not clear to the regimental commander, and the question arose whether the troops were to be in marching order or not, it was decided at a consultation between the battalion commanders to present the regiment in parade order, on the principle that it is always better to "bow too low than not bow low enough."
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  • This argument was tacitly accepted or explicitly avowed by almost every writer on the theory of geography, and Carl Ritter distinctly recognized and adopted it as the unifying principle of his system.
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  • The evolutionary theory, more than hinted at in Kant's " Physical Geography," has, since the writings of Charles Darwin, become the unifying principle in geography.
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  • Colchicine is the active principle and may be given in full form in doses of to 1 1 8 grain.
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  • He did not often talk about religion; he had not much of the accredited phraseology of piety even when he discoursed on spiritual topics; but more than most men he was directed by religious principle and feeling in all his conduct.
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  • Among these was Judah IJayyuj of Cordova, the father of modern Hebrew grammar, who first established the principle of tri-literal roots.
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  • As quarried or mined free sulphur is always contaminated with limestone, gypsum, clay, &c.; the principle underlying its extraction from these impurities is one of simple liquation, i.e.
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  • Indianapolis is governed under a form of government adopted originally in a special charter of 1891 and in 1905 incorporated in the new state municipal code, which was based upon it, It provides for a mayor elected every four years, a single legislative chamber, a common council, and various administrative departments - of public safety, public health, &c. The guiding principle of the charter, which is generally accepted as a model of its kind, is that of the complete separation of powers and the absolute placing of responsibility.
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  • This same general idea comes out both in the constitution of Servius and in the constitution of Solon, though the application of the principle is different in the two cases.
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  • For a certain class of citizens to be condemned, by virtue of their birth, to political disfranchisement is as flatly against every principle of democracy as for a certain class of citizens to enjoy exclusive rights by reason of birth.
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  • The strictness of the principle of admission or exclusion differs at the various German courts, and has tended to be modified by the growth of a new aristocracy of wealth; but a single instance known to the present writer may serve to illustrate the fundamental divergence of German (a fortiori Austrian) ideas from English in this matter.
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  • Antisthenes adopted this principle in its most literal sense, and proceeded to explain "knowledge" in the narrowest terms of practical action and decision, excluding from the conception everything except the problem of individual will realizing itself in the sphere of ordinary existence.
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  • British and American divines, on the other hand, are slow to suspect that a new apologetic principle may mean a new system of apologetics, to say nothing of a new dogmatic. Among the evangelicals, for the most part, natural theology, far from being rejected, is not even modified, and certain doctrines continue to be described as incomprehensible mysteries.
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  • But the principle is hardly ever carried out to the end.
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  • In 1744 Alembert applied this principle to the theory of the equilibrium and the motion of fluids (Trcite de l'equilibre et du mouvement des fluides), and all the problems before solved by geometricians became in some measure its corollaries.
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  • - At the last General Synod (1909) they repeated their old fundamental principle that "the Holy Scriptures are our only rule of faith and practice"; but at the same time they declared that their interpretation of Scripture agreed substantially with the Nicene Creed, the Westminster and Augsburg Confessions, and the Thirty-nine Articles.
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  • There is also present a minute quantity of a bitter principle.
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  • In conformity with this principle he denied that the existence of God was capable of being proved, or that the nature of God was capable of being comprehended.
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  • He thus arrives at the principle of Relativity; harmony and unity consist in diversity and multiplicity.
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  • Naturally he selects fire, according to him the most complete embodiment of the process of Becoming, as the principle of empirical existence, out of which all things, including even the soul, grow by way of a quasi condensation, and into which all things must in course of time be again resolved.
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  • From the town The judge (ispravnik), who, in spite of the principle laid ordinary down in 1864, combines judicial and administrative functions, an appeal lies (as in the case of the justices of the peace) to an assembly of such judges; from these again there is an appeal to the district court (okrugniya sud), consisting of three judges; 4 from this to the court of appeal (sudebniya palata); while over this again is the senate, which, as the supreme court of cassation, can send a case for retrial for reason shown.
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  • To understand the problem of the Raskolniki it is necessary to bear two things in mind: the fundamental principle of Eastern Orthodoxy as distinct from Western Catholicism, and the practical identification in Russia of the National Church with the National State.
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  • Such are the Philippovsti, founded by one Philip (who burned himself alive for Christ's sake in 1 743), who have exalted self-immolation into a principle; the Stranniki (pilgrims) and Byeguni (runners), who interpret Matt.
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  • Both the Molokani and the Dukhobortsi deny the authority of the civil government as such, and object on principle to military service.
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  • What added to the practical difficulties of this arrangement was that the post of grand-prince was not an hereditary dignity in the sense of descending from father to son, but was always to be held by the senior member of the dynasty; and in the subordinate principalities the same principle of succession was applied, so that reigning princes had to be frequently shifted about from one district to another, according as they could establish the strongest claim to vacant principalities.
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  • 'This attempt of Russia to secure the sole prestige of liberating Greece was, however, frustrated by the action of the other Powers in putting forward the principle of the independence of the new Greek state, with a further extension of frontiers.
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  • Prince Mirski resigned, his resignation being immediately followed by a reactionary imperial manifesto reaffirming the principle of autocracy (February 18th).
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  • The organs of government seemed paralysed by the repudiation of the principle on which their authority was based, and the empire to be in danger of falling into complete anarchy.
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  • But if rates are to be fixed by agreement, and not by competition, what principle can be recognized as a legitimate basis of railway rate-making?
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  • The first efforts at railway legislation were governed by the equal mileage principle; that is, the attempt was made to make rates proportionate to the distance.
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  • Whatever the ostensible form of a railway tariff, the contribution of the different shipments of freight to these general expenses is determined on the principle of charging what the traffic will bear.
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  • Under this principle, rates are reduced where the increase of business which follows such reduction makes the change a profitable one.
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  • Rightly applied, however, it is the only sound economic principle.
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  • In the practical carrying out of this principle, railways divide all articles of freight into classes, the highest of which are charged two or three, or even four times the rates of the lowest.
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  • Finally, the legislation of 1888 put into the hands of a reorganized Railway Commission and of the Board of Trade powers none the less important in principle because their action has been less in its practical effect than the advocates of active control demanded.
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  • Its primary purpose was to embody in statutory form the commonlaw principle of equal treatment under like circumstances, and to provide machinery for enforcement.
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  • This is in line with the provisions in the Constitution of the United States regarding the protection of property, but the difficulty in applying the principle to the railway situation lies in the fact that costs have to be met by averaging the returns on the total amount cf business done, and it is often impossible, in specific instances, to secure a rate which can be considered to yield a fair return on the specific service rendered.
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  • 27 a the wagons is necessary to get them into station order this is effected on the same principle.
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  • This body pursued the subject with more or less diligence, and in 1884 laid down the principle that the automatic coupler should be one acting in a vertical plane - that is, the engaging faces should be free to move up and down within a considerable range, in order to provide for the differences in the height of cars.
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  • By the fixing of this principle the task of the inventor was considerably simplified.
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  • The principle was patented, but the company owning the patent undertook to permit its free use by railway companies which were members of the Master Car Builders' Association, and thus threw open the underlying principle to competition.
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  • In principle it had been invented by Sir Marc I.
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  • This principle of construction has since been followed in the construction of the Boston subway, of the Chemin de Fer Metropolitain in Paris, and of the New York underground railway.
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  • He initiated in 1866 the spectroscopic observation of sunspots; applied Doppler's principle in 1869 to determine the radial velocities of the chromospheric gases; and successfully investigated the chemistry of the sun from 1872 onward.
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  • His public career was marked by great independence and fidelity to principle.
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  • It is well known that if energy disappears in one form it reappears in another, and this principle applied to the sun will explain the famous difficulty.
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  • They believed in the existence of two gods, a good (whose son was Christ) and an evil (whose son was Satan); matter is the creation of the evil principle, and therefore essentially evil, and the greatest of all sins is sexual intercourse, even in marriage; sinful also is the possession of material goods, and the eating of flesh meat, and many other things.
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  • This affords an example of a principle which had been stated by Hess in a very general form under the name of the Law of Constant Heat Sums - namely, that the thermal effect of a given chemical action is the same, independently of the character and number of the stages in which it takes place.
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  • Hess also stated another principle on empirical grounds, which, although admitting of many exceptions, is of considerable utility and significance.
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  • Julius Thomsen was the first investigator who deliberately adopted the principle of the conservation of energy as the basis of a thermochemical system.
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  • Whilst this principle is undoubtedly applicable to the great majority of chemical actions under ordinary conditions, it is subject to numerous exceptions, and cannot therefore be taken (as its authors originally intended) as a secure basis for theoretical reasoning on the connexion between thermal effect and chemical affinity.
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  • The existence of reactions which are reversible on slight alteration of conditions at once invalidates the principle, for if the action proceeding in one direction evolves heat, it must absorb heat when proceeding in the reverse direction.
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  • As the principle was abandoned even by its authors, it is now only of historical importance, although for many years it exerted considerable influence on thermochemical research.
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  • The principle of separation was abandoned.
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  • This ruling may be interpreted as part of a campaign directed against the counsellors of Alexander or as an instance of their general principle that intention is equivalent to commission in the eye of the Law.
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  • To Samuel of Nehardea belongs the honour of formulating the principle which made it possible for Jews to live under alien laws.
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  • Islam, on the other hand, had no theoretic place in its scheme for tolerated religions; its principle was fundamentally intolerant.
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  • Acting on the constitutional principle that the king's right to convene did not interfere with the church's independent right to hold assemblies, they sat till the 10th of December, deposed all the Scottish bishops, excommunicated a number of them, repealed all acts favouring episcopacy, and reconstituted the Scottish Kirk on thorough Presbyterian principles.
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  • With the one the observance of the day of the month, with the other the observance of the day of the week, was the guiding principle.
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  • Convinced as he was of the necessity for union and reform, he contributed more than any one to the adoption of the principle that, since the schism had survived the council of Pisa, it was necessary again to take up the work for a fundamental union, without considering the rights of John XXIII.
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  • In its charities Cleveland has carried far the principle of coOperation, seeking to obviate through a welfare federation the waste in soliciting contributions.
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  • They are a despite done to the principle of individual or separate existence.
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  • The intellect combines what the understanding separates; hence Nicolas teaches the principle of the coincidentia contradictoriorum.
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  • Lvov, he founded the Octobrist party, in the hope that the Tsar's Government would recognize the necessity of great reforms and work with the moderate Liberals of the Zemstvos while safeguarding the monarchical principle.
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  • The same principle of maintaining an intervening width of neutral territory between the two countries is definitely established throughout the eastern borders of Afghanistan, along the full length of which a definite boundary has been demarcated to the point where it touches the northern limits of Baluchistan on the Gomal river.
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  • The word "monarchy" has, however, outlived this original meaning, and is now used, when used at all, somewhat loosely of states ruled over by hereditary sovereigns, as distinct from republics with elected presidents; or for the "monarchical principle," as opposed to the republican, involved in this distinction.
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  • The monarchical principle was shaken to its foundations by the English revolution of 1688; it was shattered by the French revolution of 1789; and though it survives as a political force, more or less strongly, in most European countries, "monarchists," in the strict sense of the word, are everywhere a small and dwindling minority.
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  • The purely hereditary principle was of comparatively late growth, the outcome of obvious convenience, exalted under the influence of various forces into a religious or quasi-religious dogma.
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  • He had carefully studied the English constitution in England, and he hoped to establish in France a system similar in principle: but without any slavish imitation of the details of the English constitution.
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  • Differences arising out of the M ` Leod case were adjusted by extend - ing the principle of extradition.
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  • He had con - vinced the Supreme Court, and established the principle in American jurisprudence, that whenever a power is granted by a Constitution, everything that is fairly and reasonably involved in the exercise of that power is granted also.
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  • The government of the church is chiefly according to the congregational principle, and the women have an equal voice with the men; but annual meetings, attended by the bishops, teachers and other delegates from the several congregations are held, and at these sessions the larger questions involving church polity are considered and decided by a committee of five bishops.
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  • An early secession from the general body of Dunkers was that of the Seventh Day Dunkers, whose distinctive principle was that the seventh day was the true Sabbath.
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  • To call it "pessimism" is merely to apply to it a characteristically Western principle according to which happiness is impossible without personality.
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  • Their finances were indeed excellent; they kept regular accounts, and had already developed the modern principle of separating the civil list from the expenses of the government; but when they brought the tables of moneychangers into the temple, they were doing as the Templars had done before them, and were likely to suffer as the Templars had suffered.
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  • Sir Charles Wheatstone discovered its principle and applied it as early as 1838 to the construction of a cumbrous but effective instrument, in which the binocular pictures were made to combine by means of mirrors.
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  • His special work was the exposition of the Old and New Testaments in the light of his great Oriental learning and according to his characteristic principle of "natural explanation."
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  • He mapped out the whole subject, dividing and subdividing it in accordance with the principle of "dichotomy."
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  • His object in the Traite des verites premieres (1717), his best-known work, is to discover the ultimate principle of knowledge.
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  • In 1871 he emphasized the significance and promise of the principle of the dissipation of energy.
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  • In the subsequent years the principle, which had already made great progress in Ireland, began to obtain a hold in England and Wales, where, in 1906, there were 145 local co-operative societies with a turn-over of £350,000.
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  • The rotations extending to five, six, seven or more years are, in most cases, only adaptations of the principle to variations of soil, altitude, aspect, climate, markets and other local conditions.
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  • In the fattening of animals for the butcher the principle of 2 Returns for only ten months were available for this year.
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  • The principle of this act in regard to foreign animals was that of free importation, with power for the Privy Council to prohibit or subject to quarantine and slaughter, as circumstances seemed to require.
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  • But he watched all public incidents with a vigilant eye, and seized every passing opportunity of exposing departures from sound principle in parliament and courts of justice.
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  • In parliament he adhered to his life-long principle of doing only work that needed to be done, and that nobody else seemed equally able or willing to do.
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  • What is to be the principle of selection?
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  • It is much more likely than not that some principle which for the moment seems new, some distinction which we may flatter ourselves has not been observed before, has been pointed out over and over again by previous writers, although, owing to special circumstances, it may not have received the notice it deserved.
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  • The system itself aims in principle at being thoroughly monistic; but, since matter, although created by God out of nothing, was regarded merely as the sphere in which souls are punished and purified, the system is pervaded by a strongly dualistic element.
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  • General du Teil, younger brother of the baron, had recently published a work, L' Usage de l'artillerie nouvelle; and it is now known that Bonaparte derived from this work and from those of Guibert and Bourcet that leading principle, concentration of effort against one point of the enemy's line, which he had advocated at Toulon and which he everywhere put in force in his campaigns.
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  • While restoring the principle of universal suffrage, which had been partially abrogated in 1795, Sieyes rendered this system of election practically a nullity.
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  • The same centralizing tendency is strongly marked in the organization of the university of France, the general principle of which was set forth in May 1806, while the details were arranged by that of March the 17th, 1808.
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  • The horror aroused by this crime did not long deaden the feeling, at least in official circles, that something must be done to introduce the principle of heredity, as the surest means of counteracting the aims of conspirators.
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  • Only by the existence of some "principle which renders all relations possible and is itself determined by none of them"; an eternal self-consciousness which knows in whole what we know in part.
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  • His conduct was evidently regulated by strict principle and not by mere caprice.
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  • Like nearly all his predecessors since Aelian, he adopted an alphabetical arrangement, though this was not too pedantically preserved, and did not hinder him from placing together the kinds of birds which he supposed (and generally supposed rightly) to have the most resemblance to that one whose name, being best known, was chosen for the headpiece (as it were) of his particular theme, thus recognizing to some extent the principle of classification.3 Belon, with perhaps less book-learning than his contemporary, was evidently no mean scholar, and undoubtedly had more practical knowledge of birds - their internal as well as external structure.
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  • With certain modifications in principle not very important, but characterized by much more elaborate detail, Aldrovandus adopted Belon's method of arrangement, but in a few respects there is a manifest retrogression.
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  • In the following year Vigors returned to the subject in some papers published in the recently established Zoological Journal, and found an energetic condisciple and coadjutor in Swainson, who, for more than a dozen years - to the end, in fact, of his career as an ornithological writer was instant in season and out of season in pressing on all his readers the views he had, through Vigors, adopted from Macleay, though not without some modification of detail if not of principle.
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  • On the whole Brandt's labours were of no small service in asserting the principle that consideration must be paid to osteology; for his position was such as to gain more attention to his views than some of his less favourably placed brethren had succeeded in doing.
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  • This will perhaps be the most convenient place to mention another kind of classification of birds, which, based on a principle wholly different from those that have just been explained, requires a few words, though it has not been productive, parte.
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  • Yet the idea of a " physiological " arrangement on the same kind of principle found another follower, or, as he thought, inventor, in Edward Newman, who in 1850 communicated N ewman.
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  • He is credited with the invention of the anchor escapement for clocks, and also with the application of spiral springs to the balances of watches, together with the explanation of their action by the principle Ut tensio sic vis (1676).
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  • In Der Kampf urns Dasein am Himmel von Prel endeavoured to apply the Darwinian doctrine of organic evolution not only to the sphere of consciousness but also even more widely as the philosophical principle of the world.
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  • Burning-glasses were in common use, and spectacles it does not appear he made, although he was probably acquainted with the principle of their construction.
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  • He considered the incarnation of Christ as the necessary manifestation to man of an eternal sonship in the divine nature, apart from which those filial qualities which God demands from man could have no sanction; by faith as used in Scripture he understood to be meant a certain moral or spiritual activity or energy which virtually implied salvation, because it implied the existence of a principle of spiritual life possessed of an immortal power.
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  • The conception of the Unconscious, by which von Hartmann describes his ultimate metaphysical principle, is not at bottom as paradoxical as it sounds, being merely a new and mysterious designation for the Absolute of German metaphysicians.
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  • The principle of all tenancies of this kind is that something has been done by the party estopped, amounting to an admission which he cannot be allowed to contradict.
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  • The principle on which the work is based is that plants have their individualities and tend to transmit them to their progeny.
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  • The practice may be modified according to the size of estate by selecting more than one plant each year, but the principle remains unaltered.
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  • The third, which is not distinct in principle from the two preceding, is that such limited speculation in cotton buying on the part of spinners worried with other matters would not be likely to steady the cotton market in any high degree.
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  • " Miracula sine doctrina nihil valent " is the principle now generally recognized.
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  • The President made it clear that he regarded the conference merely as a step in securing international understanding and good will; he advocated the convening of succeeding conferences as a possible means of securing an international association for the promotion of peace, and he approved the principle of substituting an understanding between the United States, Great Britain, France and Japan regarding Far-Eastern problems, for the existing Anglo-Japanese Treaty.
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  • His guiding principle in treating both of the history and of the present condition of the church was - that Christianity has room for the various tendencies of human nature, and aims at permeating and glorifying them all; that according to the divine plan these various tendencies are to occur successively and simultaneously and to counterbalance each other, so that the freedom and variety of the development of the spiritual life ought not to be forced into a single dogmatic form" (Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology, p. 280).
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  • The principle of this system consists essentially in the use of rotating hollow drilling rods or casing, to which is attached the drilling-bit and through which a continuous stream of water, under a pressure of 40 to loo lb.
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  • Hutchinson of New York, laid a short line from the Tarr Farm wells to the refinery, which passed over a hill, the oil being moved on the syphon principle, and a year later constructed another three miles long to the railway.
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  • The improvements introduced in 1890 and 1891, whereby this state of affairs was put an end to, consisted in the introduction of the principle of supply by meter, and the adoption of a comprehensive system of reducing the initial pressure of the gas, so as to diminish loss by leakage.
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  • During those fifteen years the kingdom of Jerusalem was agitated by a struggle between the native barons, championing the principle that sovereignty resided in the collective baronage, and taking their stand on the assizes, and Frederick II., claiming sovereignty for himself, and opposing to the assizes the feudal law of Sicily.
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  • Amperemeters may then be classified according to the physical principle on which they are constructed.
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  • Hot-wire instruments working on the sag principle can be used in any position if properly constructed, and are very portable.
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  • A much better form of electromagnetic ammeter can be constructed on a principle now extensively employed, which consists in pivoting in the strong field of a permanent magnet a small coil through which a part of the current to be measured is sent.
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  • She is everywhere the great female principle, answering to the Baal of the Canaanites and Phoenicians 2 and to the Dagon of the Philistines.
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  • The idea of transmutation, in the country of its origin, had a philosophical basis, and was linked up with the Greek theories of matter there current; thus, by supplying a central philosophical principle, it to some extent unified and focussed chemical effort, which previously, so far as it existed at all, had been expended on acquiring empirical acquaintance with a mass of disconnected technical processes.
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  • But while there are thus some grounds for supposing that the idea of transmutation grew out of the practical receipts of Alexandrian Egypt, the alchemy which embraced it as a leading principle was also strongly affected by Eastern influences such as magic and astrology.
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  • This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.
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  • Inflamed with a hatred of France just then rising to the dignity of a party principle, they found in Gallatin an enemy who was both by origin and opinion peculiarly obnoxious to them.
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  • These disputes involved questions of principle which had long occupied Henry's attention, and Becket's defiant attitude was answered by the famous Constitutions of Clarendon, in which the king defined, professedly according to ancient use and custom, the relations of Church and State.
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  • In the third place, the rejection of the Wilmot Proviso and the acceptance (as regards New Mexico and Utah) of "Squatter Sovereignty" meant the adoption of a new principle in dealing with slavery in the territories, which, although it did not apply to the same territory, was antagonistic to the Missouri Compromise of 1820.
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  • To the physicist matter is presented in three leading forms - solids, liquids and gases; and although further subdivisions have been rendered necessary with the growth of knowledge the same principle is retained, namely, a classification based on properties having no relation to composition.
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  • The existence of a fundamental principle, unalterable and indestructible, prevailing alike through physical and chemical changes, was generally accepted.
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  • Much discussion had centred about fire or the "igneous principle."
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  • On the one hand, it had been held that when a substance was burned or calcined, it combined with an " air "; on the other hand, the operation was supposed to be attended by the destruc tion or loss of the igneous principle.
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  • The objections of the antiphlogistonists, such as the fact that calces weigh more than the original metals instead of less as the theory suggests, were answered by postulating that phlogiston was a principle of levity, or even completely ignored as an accident, the change of qualities being regarded as the only matter of importance.
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  • Sometimes this principle has weight, and sometimes it has not; sometimes it is free fire and sometimes it is fire combined with the earthy element; sometimes it passes through the pores of vessels, sometimes these are impervious to it; it explains both causticity and non-causticity, transparency and opacity, colours and their absence; it is a veritable Proteus changing in form at each instant."
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  • By his insistence upon the use of the balance as a quantitative check upon the masses involved in all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to establish by his own investigations and the results achieved by others the principle now known as the " conservation of mass."
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  • The phlogistonists endeavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becher, in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes.
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  • It was so early recognized as characteristic of Chopin that a magnificent example may be seen at the end of Schumann's little tone-portrait of him in the Carnaval: a very advanced Wagnerian passage on another principle constitutes the bulk of the development in the first movement of Beethoven's sonata Les Adieux; while even in the " Golden Age " of music, and within the limits of pure diatonic concord, the unexpectedness of many of Palestrina's chords is hardly less Wagnerian than the perfect smoothness of the melodic lines which combine to produce them.
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  • They are an extension of the principle on which gongs and cymbals and all instruments without notes of determinate pitch are employed in otherwise polyphonic music.
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  • The principle on which their treatment proceeded is stated by him in the following memorable words: "To make vicious and abandoned people happy," he says, "it has generally been supposed necessary first to make them virtuous.
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  • It also possesses a Latin school, an arsenal, and a modern prison built on the isolated-cell principle.
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  • Each had a different principle of strength.
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  • The king's state dress was the same in principle as that worn by the Macedonian or Thessalian horsemen, as the uniform of his own cavalry officers.
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  • This principle must naturally be adhered to when delineating the features of the ground.
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  • The parallels or climata 2 drawn through places, of which the longest day is of equal length and the decimation (distance) from the equator is the same, he maintained, ought to have been inserted at equal intervals, say of half an hour, and the meridians inserted on a like principle.
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  • In 1888 it was proposed by the public debt administration to undertake the collection of specified revenues to be set aside for the provision of railway guarantees, the principle to be followed being, generally, that such revenues should consist of the tithes of the districts through which the railways would pass, and that the public debt should hand over to guaranteed railway companies the amounts of their guarantees before transmitting to the imperial government any of the proceeds of the revenue so collected.
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  • The government adopted this proposal, and laid down as a principle that it would guarantee the gross receipts per kilometre of guaranteed railways, such gross receipts to be settled for each railway on its own merits.
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  • But there is no evidence for his "cyclic date" of 2517 B.C., on which his system depended, and there is little doubt that the beginning of the historical period of Berossus is to be set, not in 2506 B.C., but in 2232 B.C. The two systems of Sayce,' that of Rogers,' the three systems of Winckler, 5 both those of Delitzsch, 6 and that of Maspero, 7 may be grouped together, for they are based on the same principle.
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  • The balance of opinion was in favour of those of the first group of writers, who avoided emendations of the figures and were content to follow the Kings' List and to ignore its apparent discrepancies with other chronological data; but it is now admitted that the general principle underlying the third group of theories was actually nearer the truth.
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  • On the other hand, the death-blow has been given to the principle of emendation of the figures, which for so long has found favour among a considerable body of German writers.
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  • The principle of personality, however, gradually gave way to that of territoriality; and in every district, at least north of the Loire, customs were formed in which were combined in varying proportions Roman law, ecclesiastical law and the various Germanic laws.
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  • Under the guidance of such a principle the writer naturally expected the world's culmination in evil to be the immediate precursor of God's intervention on behalf of the righteous, and every fresh growth in evil to be an additional sign that the time was at hand.
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  • The principle of this mode of pruning is to train in at considerable length, according to their strength, shoots of the last year's growth for producing shoots to bear fruit in the present; these rods are afterwards cut away and replaced by young shoots trained up during the preceding summer; and these are in their turn cut out in the following autumn after bearing, and replaced by shoots of that summer's growth.
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  • The chief constituent is a bitter neutral principle known as quassin.
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  • Forgetful or ignorant of the great principle announced and established by Rilleux, they have mostly devoted their energies and ingenuity to contriving all sorts of complicated arrangements to give the juice the density required, by passing and repassing it over the heating surface of the apparatus, the saving of a few square feet of which would seem to have been their main object.
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  • Since Howard published his invention the vacuum pan has been greatly improved and altered in shape and power, and especially of recent years, and the advantages of concentrating in vacuo having been acknowledged, the system has been adopted in many other industries, and crowds of inventors have turned their attention to the principle.
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  • Instead of the small slicers, machines made on the same principle, but with disks 7 ft.
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  • By these and similar arguments he arrives at the fundamental principle of Scepticism, the radical and universal opposition of causes; panti logo logos antikeitai.
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  • Until clearer evidence of foreign influence is found, it may, however, be safer to regard it simply as a new application of the old gild principle, though this new application may have been stimulated by continental example.
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  • A third type is made on the "balance" principle, two plough beams with mould-boards being placed at right angles to one another, so that while the right-hand plough is at work the left-hand is elevated above the ground.
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  • In the United Kingdom steam ploughing is generally carried on on the double-engine system (introduced by Messrs John Fowler about 1865), in which case two sets of ploughs are arranged on the one-way balance principle, so that while one set is at work the other is carried clear of the ground.
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  • Calvin's first principle, the absolute sovereignty of God, had been so applied as to make the divine decree determine alike the acts and the destinies of men; and his formal principle had been so construed as to invest his system with the authority of the source whence it professed to have been drawn.
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  • The fundamental principle of the Frankish military system, that the man served at his own expense, was still unchanged.
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  • The chief of these are the following: the relation of vassal and lord; the principle that every holder of land is a tenant and not an owner, until the highest rank is reached, sometimes even the conception rules in that rank; that the tenure by which a thing of value is held is one of honourable service, not intended to be economic, but moral and political in character; the principle of mutual obligations of loyalty, protection and service binding together all the ranks of this society from the highest to the lowest; and the principle of contract between lord and tenant, as determining all rights, controlling their modification, and forming the foundation of all law.
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  • (whether it preceded or followed their mission in Acts xiii.-xiv.), shows that, while gifted with true intuitions, he was not strong in thinking out his position to all its issues on principle, and that it was here that Paul was so immensely his superior.
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  • 6 that he adhered to Paul's principle of self-support in his mission work, and from Col.
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  • But the principle still is that what has been well said once need not be told again in other words.
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  • Many of the furnaces now in constant use depend mainly on this principle, a core of granular carbon fragments stamped together in the direct line between the electrodes, as in Acheson's carborundum furnace, being substituted for the carbon pencils.
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  • Chaplet has patented a muffle or tube furnace, similar in principle, for use on a larger scale, with a number of electrodes placed above and below the muffle-tube.
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  • This principle, first asserted by a resolution of the House of Commons in the earl of Danby's case (May 5, 1679), forms one of the provisions of the Act of Settlement, 12 & 13 Will.
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  • Indeed, he vigorously attacked rationalism, as distinguished from the rational principle, charging it with being unscientific inasmuch as it ignored the historical significance of Christianity, shut its eyes to individuality and failed to give religious feeling its due.
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  • It is the active principle of the allied drug scammony.
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  • Slowly he restored the national prestige, for he asserted loyalty to France as the first principle of policy and brought about the Anglo-Russian agreement in Persia of Aug.
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  • His observations led him to the view that a glacier is an imperfect fluid or a viscous body which is urged down slopes of a certain inclination by the mutual pressure of its parts, and involved him in some controversy with Tyndall and others both as to priority and to scientific principle.
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  • This is the principle of the
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  • - The invention of this instrument has generally been ascribed, as in the ninth edition of this work, to the famous Neapolitan savant of the 16th century, Giovanni Battista della Porta, but as a matter of fact the principle of the simple camera obscura, or darkened chamber with a small aperture in a window or shutter, was well known and in practical use for observing eclipses long before his time.
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  • His arrangement of concave and plane mirrors, by which the realistic images of objects inside the house or in the street could be rendered visible though intangible, there alluded to, may apply to a camera on Cardan's principle or to a method of aerial projection by means of concave mirrors, which Bacon was quite familiar with, and indeed was known long before his time.
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  • They do not seem to have used a lens, or thought of using the telescope for projecting an enlarged image on Kepler's principle.
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  • Sir Isaac Newton, in his Opticks (1704), explains the principle of the camera obscura with single convex lens and its analogy with vision in illustration of his seventh axiom, which aptly embodies the correct solution of Aristotle's old problem.
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  • Like Mach, he started from the principle of economy of thinking, and in the Kritik endeavoured to explain pure experience in relation to knowledge and environment.
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  • The causticity of alkaline bodies was explained at that time as depending on the presence in them of the principle of fire, "phlogiston"; quicklime, for instance, was chalk which had taken up phlogiston, and when mild alkalis such as sodium or potassium carbonate were causticized by its aid, the phlogiston was supposed to pass from it to them.
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  • The first is theoretic or spiritual, aiming at the development of a new principle of co-ordinating social relations, and the formation of the system of general ideas which are destined to guide society.
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  • Moliere's medical student accounts for it by a soporific principle contained in the opium.
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  • Comte's principle of classification is that the dependence and order of scientific study follows the dependence of the phenomena.
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  • Its very principle implies the absorption of all that great thinkers had achieved; while incorporating their results it extended their methods..
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  • Spencer's two chief points are these: (i) He denies that the principle of Criticism the development of the sciences is the principle of on Comte's decreasing generality; he asserts that there are as classifica= many examples of the advent of a science being tion.
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  • The individualistic principle was shown in the jealousy of the towns toward the central government, and in the establishment of legislative supremacy over the executive and the judiciary.
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  • A convention summoned without any authority from the legislature, and elected on the principle of universal manhood suffrage, met at Providence, October 4-November 18, 1841, and drafted a frame of government which came to be known as the People's Constitution.
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  • But in doing this he did not so much call his fellow-countrymen to develop freely their own national sentiments and ideas as send them back to classical example and principle.
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  • The first principle to which he looked for national salvation was, that the"duties of governors are strictly and peculiarly religious, and that legislatures, like individuals, are bound to carry throughout their acts the spirit of the high truths they have acknowledged."
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  • He contended that the Church, as established by law, was to be " maintained for its truth," and that this principle, if good for England, was good also for Ireland.
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  • In spite of Gladstone's skilful appeal to the constituencies to sanction the principle of Home Rule, as distinct from the practical provisions of his late bill, the general election resulted in a majority of considerably over loo against his policy, and Lord Salisbury resumed office.
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  • He stood equally remote from the old Voluntary principle, that " the State had nothing to do with religion," and from the sacerdotal position that the clergy stood in an apostolic succession, and either constituted the Church or were the persons into whose hands its guidance had been committed.
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  • The underlying principle is to reproduce natures scenic beauties, all the features being drawn to scale, so that however restricted the space, there shall be no violation of proportion.
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  • Yo = the positive principle.
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  • The naturalistic principle Natural- was by no means a new one; some of the old Chinese istk masters were naturalistic in a broad and, noble manner, Sc 00.
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  • It was a farmers son named OkyO, trained in his youth to paint in the Chinese manner, who was first bold enough to adopt as a canon what his predecessors had only admitted under rare exceptions, the principle of an exact imitation of nature.
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  • The principle usually followed in the electrolytic refining of metals is to cast the impure metal into plates, which are exposed as anodes in a suitable solvent, commonly a salt of the metal under treatment.
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  • Kellner has also patented a "bleaching-block," as he terms it, consisting of a frame carrying parallel plates similar in principle to those last described.
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  • Specially devoted to English literature were the Bibliotheque anglaise (1716-1728), the Memoires litteraires de la Grande Bretagne (1720-1724), the Bibliotheque britannique (1733-1734), and the Journal britannique (1750-1757) of Maty,' who took for his principle, " pour penser avec liberte it faut penser seul."
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  • His criticism on the ministers' bill for the government of India was sound in principle, though the evils he foresaw did not arise.
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  • To Harley himself he was bound by gratitude and by a substantial agreement in principle, but with the rest of the Tory ministry he had no sympathy.
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  • At the Reformation Luther laid down the principle that the civil government is concerned with the province of the external and temporal life, and has nothing to do with faith and conscience.
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  • "The first split was due to uncertainty regarding the principle which should rule the succession to the Caliphate.
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  • Somewhat similar views were promoted by Becher, who named the principle acidum primogenium, and held that it was composed of the Paracelsian elements " earth " and "water."
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  • Theoretical conceptions were revived by Stahl, who held that acids were the fundamentals of all salts, and the erroneous idea that sulphuric acid was the principle of all acids.
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  • This principle more or less prevailed until it was overthrown by Lavoisier's doctrine that oxygen was the acid-producing element; Lavoisier being led to this conclusion by the almost general observation that acids were produced when non-metallic elements were burnt.
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  • In later years Berzelius renounced the " oxygen acid " theory, but not before Davy, and, almost simultaneously, Dulong, had submitted that hydrogen and not oxygen was the acidifying principle.
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  • Elsewhere he was the artizan-god Ptah, who with his hammer broke the egg; sometimes Thoth, the moon-god and principle of intelligence, who spoke the world into existence.'
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  • It was the first modern attempt to define Lithuania ethnographically, to respect national minorities and continue the connexion with Russia upon the federative principle.
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  • S netona President of the State, and composed the statute for the election of the Constituent Assembly by universal, equal, direct and secret franchise according to a proportional system based on d'Hondt's distributive principle which contains elaborate safeguards against the tyranny of the majority.
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  • He was one of those who took a middle course in the non-intrusion controversy, holding that the fitness of those who were presented to parishes should be judged by the presbyteries - the principle of Lord Aberdeen's Bill.
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  • It depends on the principle that if two condensers of capacity C I and C2 are respectively charged to potentials V I and V2, and then joined in parallel with terminals of opposite charge together, the resulting potential difference of the two condensers will be V, such that V = (C,V 2 -CiV2) /(C1+C2) (16); and hence if V is zero we have C I: C2 = V2 The method is carried out by charging the two condensers to be compared at the two sections of a high resistance joining the ends of a battery which is divided into two parts by a movable contact.'
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  • In accordance with this principle, Eucken has given considerable attention to social and educational problems.
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  • A subsidy treaty with the sea powers (April 1 9, 1 794) filled his coffers; but the insurrection in Poland that followed the partition of 1793, and the threat of the isolated intervention of Russia, hurried him into the separate treaty of Basel with the French Republic (April 5, 1795), which was regarded by the great monarchies as a betrayal, and left Prussia morally isolated in Europe on the eve of the titanic struggle between the monarchical principle and the new political creed of the Revolution.
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  • This is the cycle employed by Carnot for the establishment of his fundamental principle of reversibility as the criterion of perfect efficiency in a heat engine.
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  • - Carnot adopted as the analytical expression of his principle the statement that the efficiency W/H, or the work obtainable per unit of heat by means of a perfect engine taking in heat at a temperature t° C. and rejecting heat at o° C., must be some function F(t) of the temperature t, the lower limit o° C. being supposed constant.
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  • 26 a apply the principle directly in this form, as it would require an exact knowledge of the properties of substances through a wide range of temperature.
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  • The principle in this form is readily applicable to all cases, and is independent of any view with regard to the nature of the heat.
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  • Joule (1845) was the first to prove it approximately by direct experiment, but did not see his way to reconcile Carnot's principle, as stated by Clapeyron, with the mechanical theory.
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  • With this definition of temperature 0, if the heat H is measured in work units, the expression of Carnot's principle for an infinitesimal cycle of range do reduces to the simple form dW/d9=H/0.
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  • In all such cases there is necessarily, by Carnot's principle, a loss of efficiency or available energy, accompanied by an increase of entropy, which serves as a convenient measure or criterion of the loss.
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  • The report was received so cordially in the House of Commons that Mr. Montagu was able to claim at the end of the debate as " a remarkable fact " that all speakers admitted the principle of self-government for India.
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  • That he was such he denied more than once (Lemire, Le Cardinal Manning et son action sociale, Paris, 1893, p. 210), nor was he ever a Socialist in principle; but he favoured some of the methods of Socialism, because they alone seemed to him practically to meet the case of that pressing poverty which appealed to his heart.
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  • Augustine teaches that the Father and the Son are the one principle of the Being of the Spirit.
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  • (6) While Trajan felt bound to carry out the established principle his personal view was to some extent opposed to it.
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  • His great principle was that of Harmony or Balance, and he based it on the general ground of good taste or feeling as opposed to the method of reason.
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  • From this principle, it follows (I) that the distinction between right and wrong is part of the constitution of human nature; (2) that morality stands apart from theology, and the moral qualities of actions are determined apart from the arbitrary will of God; (3) that the ultimate test of an action is its tendency to promote the general harmony or welfare; (4) that appetite and reason concur in the determination of action; and (5) that the moralist is not concerned to solve the problem of freewill and determinism.
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  • Strickland established a new system of education based on the principle of beginning from the bottom, by teaching to read and write in Maltese as the medium for assimilating, at a further stage, either English or Italian, one at a time, and aiming at imparting general knowledge in colloquial English.
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  • The next following council of Orleans, 533, broke in upon this principle, by declaring that a bishop could not reclaim from his clergy any grants made to them by his predecessor, excepting in cases of misconduct.
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  • If, therefore, the walls of the enclosure held the gas that is directly in contact with them, this equilibrium would be the actual state of affairs; and it would follow from the principle of Archimedes that, when extraneous forces such as gravity are not considered, the gas would exert no resultant force on any body immersed in it.
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  • Poynting has separated the two effects experimentally on the principle that the radiometer pressure acts along the normal, while the radiation pressure acts along the ray which may be directed obliquely.
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  • German historians have not made matters more clear by treating the Letters on the principle of "the higher criticism" of Homer and the Bible.
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  • While these writings were generally intelligible, and therefore of the greatest didactic importance, the principle of homogeneity, first enunciated by Vieta, was so far in advance of his times that most readers seem to have passed it over without adverting to its value.
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  • During the three centuries that have elapsed between Vieta's day and our own several changes of opinion have taken place on this subject, till the principle has at last proved so far victorious that modern mathematicians like to make homogeneous such equations as are not so from the beginning, in order to get values of a symmetrical shape.
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  • The principle of this method is as follows: - In the ordinary air expuls i on method, the vapour always mixes to some extent with the air in the tube, and this involves a reduction of the pressure of the vapour.
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  • The principle may be thus stated: the solid is weighed in air, and then in water.
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  • The principle is readily adapted to the determination of the relative densities of two liquids, for it is obvious that if W be the weight of a solid body in air, W, and W2 its weights when immersed in the liquids, then W - W, and W - W 2 are the weights of equal volumes of the liquids, and therefore the relative density is the quotient (W - W,)/(W - W2).
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  • Acting on a principle quite different from any previously discussed is the capillary hydrometer or staktometer of Brewster, which is based upon the difference in the surface tension and density of pure water, and of mixtures of alcohol and water in varying proportions.
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  • "Carnot's principle" is fundamental in the theory of thermodynamics.
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  • An officer whose nature, as the event showed, was interpenetrated with the spirit of legality was a fitting servant of a revolution whose aim it was to substitute legality for personal caprice as the dominant principle of affairs.
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  • The first public school law, passed in 1829, was based largely on the principle of " local option," each school district being left free to determine the character of its own school or even to decide, if it wished, against having any school at all.
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  • Helmholtz in his " Ophthalmometer " has employed Clausen's principle, but arranges the plates so that both move symmetrically in opposite directions with respect to the telescope axis.
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  • It is essentially the same in principle as Amici's micrometer, except that the divided lens is an achromatic positive instead of a negative lens.
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  • Brooke, a midshipman of the U.S.N., invented the principle on the " Valdivia " in 1898-1899, and to those of the " Belgica " already foreshadowed by Nicolaus Cusanus in the 15th century in 1897-1898, the " Gauss " in 1902-1903, and the " Scotia " and by Robert Hooke in the 17th, of using a heavy weight so in 1903-1904.
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  • The soundings of the Dutch expedition on hung on the sounding-tube that it was automatically released the " Siboga " during1899-1900in the eastern part of the on striking the bottom and left behind, while the light brass tube Malay seas and those of the German surveying ship " Planet " containing a sample of the deposit was easily hauled up. This in 1906 in the South Atlantic, Indian and North Pacific Oceans principle has been adopted universally for deep soundings, and were notable, and Sir John Murray's expedition on the " Michael is now applied in many forms. In 1855 Maury published Sars " in the Atlantic in 1910 obtained important results.
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  • Sigsbee's small water-bottle on the double valve principle actuated by a propeller requires extremely skilful handling to enable it to give good results.
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  • Since 1870 thermometers on this principle have been in use for regular observations at German coast and light-ship stations.
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  • The second form of deep-sea thermometer is the self-registering maximum and minimum on James Six's principle.
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  • The principle is to have a constriction in the tube above the bulb so proportioned that when the instrument is upright it acts in every way as an ordinary mercurial thermometer, but when it is inverted the thread of mercury breaks at the constriction, and the portion above the point runs down the now reversed tube and remains there as a measure of the temperature at the moment of turning over.
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  • It has the advantage over the thermometer on Six's principle that, being filled with mercury, it does not require such long immersion to take the temperature of the water.
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  • The latter phenomenon is most clearly shown by the stripes of cold water along the west coasts of Africa and America, the current running along the coast tending to draw its water away seawards on the surface and the principle of continuity requiring the updraught of the cool deep layers to take its place.
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  • Like the Arabian logicians, and some of the scholastics, who held that ideas existed in a threefold form - ante res, in rebus and post res - he laid down the principle that the archetypal ideas existed metaphysically in the ultimate unity or intelligence, physically in the world of things, and logically in signs, symbols or notions.
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  • This unity is God, the universal substance, - the one and only principle, or causa immanens, - that which is in things and yet is distinct from them as the universal is distinct from the particular.
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  • He is living, active intelligence, the principle of motion and creation, realizing himself in the infinitely various forms of activity that constitute individual things.
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  • By analysing the bank accounts of certain members of the "ring," he obtained legal proof of the principle on which the spoils had been divided.
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  • The pivot of this part is the logical principle of contradiction.
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  • The principle of proving a mineral field by boring is illustrated by fig.
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  • This derangement being carefully noted, another bore to the outcrop on the same principle is put down for the purpose of proving the seam C; the nature of the strata at first is found to agree with the latter part of that bored through in No.
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  • The second great principle of working is that known as longwall or long-work, in which the coal is taken away either in broad faces from roads about 40 or 50 yds.
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  • The great increase in the size of the pillars in the best modern collieries worked upon this principle has, however, done much to approximate the two systems to an equality in other respects.
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  • These are similar in principle to the Baird machine, the cutting agent being a flat link chain carrying a double set of chisel points, which are drawn across the coal face at the rate of about 5 ft.
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  • The newer forms are based upon the principle, first enunciated by Professor Theodor Schwann in 1854, of carrying compressed oxygen instead of air, and returning the products of respiration through a regenerator containing absorptive media for carbonic acid and water, the purified current being returned to the mouth with an addition of fresh oxygen.
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  • The result is that although the forms of apparatus utilized for this purpose are all based on the one fundamental principle of bringing about the contact of the carbide with the water which is to enter into double decomposition with it, they have been multiplied in number to a very large extent by the methods employed in order to ensure control in working, and to get away from the dangers and inconveniences which are inseparable from a too rapid generation.
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  • Billwiller introduced the idea of sucking air into the flame at or just below the burner tip, and at this juncture the Naphey or Dolan burner was introduced in America, the principle employed being to use two small and widely separated jets instead of the two openings of the union jet burner, and to make each a minute bunsen, the acetylene dragging in from the base of the nipple enough air to surround and protect it while burning from contact with the steatite.
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  • On the National Insurance bill in 1911 he pointed out that a fundamental change of opinion had taken place, both parties now accepting the principle that social welfare was the care of the State.
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  • Carpentier, and the principle has been used in the Raffard brake.
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  • White's A New Century of Inventions (Manchester, 1822), illustrates possibly the earliest application of this principle to dynamometry.
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  • We shall here note only three points: - (a) the origin in Kant; (b) the fundamental principle and method of the Wissenschaftslehre; (c) the connexion with the later writings.
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  • Only in the sphere of practical reason, where the intelligible nature prescribed to itself its own laws, was there the possibility of systematic deduction from a single principle.
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  • (b) What, then, is this single principle, and how does it work itself out into system?
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  • In this way the principle of continuity, which is the basis of the method of Fluxions and the whole of modern mathematics, may be applied to the analysis of problems connected with material bodies by assuming them, for the purpose of this analysis, to be homogeneous.
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  • His logical mind and determined support of the autocratic principle gained the tsar's entire confidence.
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  • The imposition of these taxes was bitterly resented in the colonies, where it quickly crystallized public opinion round the principle of " No taxation without representation."
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  • In the year before (1742) he had planned the " Pennsylvania fire-place," better known as the " Franklin stove," which saved fuel, heated all the room, and had the same principle as the hot-air furnace; the stove was never patented by Franklin, but was described in his pamphlet dated 1744.
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  • By means of lighted candles violently dashed to the ground and extinguished the faithful were graphically taught the meaning of the greater excommunication - though in a somewhat misleading way, for it is a fundamental principle of the canon law that disciplina est excommunicatio, non eradicatio.
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  • In the churches which consciously shaped their polity at or after the Reformation the principle of excommunication is preserved in the practice of church discipline.
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  • The text was followed by a critical apparatus, the first part of which consisted of an introduction to the criticism of the New Testament, in the thirty-fourth section of which he laid down and explained his celebrated canon, "Proclivi scriptioni praestat ardua" (" The difficult reading is to be preferred to that which is easy"), the soundness of which, as a general principle, has been recognized by succeeding critics.
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  • The next effort of Talleyrand was to screen France under the principle of legitimacy and to prevent the scheme of partition on which several of the German statesmen were bent.
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  • He combined the principle of pure living with that of free thinking, and held that instruction must have regard to the mental capacity of the hearer.
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  • This provision, introducing an entirely new principle into the American governmental system, came into effect in January 1903, and was employed in the following year when a previously elected councilman who was "recalled" by petition and was unsuccessful in the 1904 election brought suit to hold his office, and on a mere technicality the Supreme Court of the state declared the recall election invalid.
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  • The laws of the Carolingian empire provided that one excom municated by the Church who did not make his peace p within a year and a day should be outlawed, and this general principle was not lost sight of.
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  • The principle cujus regio ejus religio was adopted, according to which each secular ruler might choose between the old faith and the Lutheran.
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  • The terrible events in Minster, which was controlled for a short time (1533-34) by a group of Anabaptists under the leadership of John of Leiden, the introduction of polygamy (which appears to have been a peculiar accident rather than a general principle), the speedy capture of the town by an alliance of Catholic and Protestant princes, and the ruthless retribution inflicted by the victors, have been cherished by ecclesiastical writers as a choice and convincing instance of the natural fruits of a rejection of infant baptism.
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  • Accordingly Plato conceived of them as forming a system and finding their reality in the degree in which they embody the one all-embracing idea and conceived of not under the form of an efficient but of a final cause, an inner principle of action or tendency in things to realize the fullness of their own nature which in the last resort was identical with the nature of the whole.
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  • In this way the Good was made to appear as an end imposed upon things from without by a creative intelligence instead of as an inner principle of adaptation.
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  • As we advance from the logic to the metaphysics and from that to his ontology, it becomes clear that the concepts are only " categories " or predicates of a reality lying outside of them, and there is an ultimate division between the world as the object or matter of thought and the thinking or moving principle which gives its life.
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  • Apart from one or two of the greatest minds, notably Dante, what appealed to the thinkers of the middle ages was not the idea of reality as a progressive self-revelation of an inner principle working through nature and human life, but the formal principles of classification which it seemed to offer for a material of thought and action given from another source.
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  • Suffice it to say that in spite of its spiritualistic starting-point its general result was to give a stimulus to the prevailing scientific tendency as represented by Galileo, Kepler and Harvey to the principle of mechanical explanations of the phenomena of the universe.
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  • Leibnitz's principle of the " nisi intellectus ipse " was expanded by him into a demon stration the completest yet effected by philosophy of the part played by the subject not merely in the manipulation of the material of experience but in the actual constitution of the object that is known.
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  • Hegel carried this principle further than had yet been done.
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  • In so far as the older doctrine is open to the charge of neglecting the conative and teleological side of experience it can afford to be grateful to its critics for recalling it to its own eponymous principle of the priority of the "ideal " to the " idea," of needs to the conception of their object.
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  • The real issue comes into view in the attempt, undertaken in the interest of freedom, to substitute for the notion of the world as a cosmos pervaded by no discernible principle and in its essence indifferent to the form impressed upon it by its active parts.
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  • On behalf of the older it may be confidently affirmed that no solution is likely to find general acceptance which involves the rejection of the conception of unity and intelligible order as the primary principle of our world.
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  • The assertion of this principle by Kant was, we have seen, the corner-stone of idealistic philosophy in general, underlying as it does the conception of a permanent subject not less than that of a permanent object.
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  • Oldness, sameness, permanence of principle and direction, these must be, otherwise there is nothing; but newness of embodiment, existence, realization also, otherwise nothing is.
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  • Another synod at Cambridge in 1647 more formally established the principle of state control.
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  • The victory of the democratic principle was entirely new in the Netherlands, though it had been anticipated in Florence, and was perhaps inspired by Italian example.
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  • The guns constructed on this principle yielded such excellent results, both in range and accuracy, that they were adopted by the British government in 1859, Armstrong himself being appointed engineer of rifled ordnance and receiving the honour of knighthood.
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  • Great Britain thus originated a principle of gun construction which has since been universally followed, and obtained an armament superior to that possessed by any other country at that time.
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  • Each congregation has its president, who is merely a president, with limited powers, and not a general superior like the Provincials of other orders; so that the primitive Benedictine principle of each monastery being self-contained and autonomous is preserved.
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  • As early as the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818), however, the question of the relations of Spain and her colonies had been brought up and the suggestion made of concerted intervention, to put an end to a state of things scandalous in itself and dangerous, if only by force of example, to the monarchical principle.
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  • Instruction in the use of sights was based on the principle of securing uniformity in laying; for this reason fine sighting was discountenanced and laying by full sight enjoined.
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  • It is obtained by different means in different countries, but the principle is the same.
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  • The principle of combined sight and range-finder had long been known, Automatic and was embodied in the so-called " Italian " sight, but, sights.
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  • The results of these peace efforts were perhaps surprisingly mediocre, but it must be borne in mind that not only was the military organization of the dioceses always very imperfect, but feudal society, so long as it retained political power, was inherently hostile to the principle and practice of private peace.
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  • Like the Cynics and the Cyrenaics, Euclides started from the Socratic principle that virtue is knowledge.
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  • He had enunciated in his theses the far-reaching new principle that the congregation, and not the hierarchy, was the representative of the Church; and he sought henceforward to reorganize the Swiss constitution on the principles of representative democracy so as to reduce the wholly disproportionate voting power which, till then, the Forest Cantons had exercised.
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  • Napoleon spent the early morning in closing up his army, and writing what proved to be the most important letter of the campaign to Ney (Charleroi, about 8 A.M.): "I have adopted as the general principle for this campaign to divide my army into two wings and a reserve....
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  • Here, in its simplest form, is the principle that underlies Napoleon's strategy in 1815.
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  • Without sharing Montalembert's antipathy to the bastioned trace, and his predilection for high masonry caponiers, he followed out the principle of retarding the development of the attack, and provided for the most active defence.
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  • This "Carnot wall," and, in general, Carnot's principle of active defence, played a great part in the rise of modern fortification.
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  • The principle of the astrolabe is explained in fig.
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  • In 1868 he proved incandescent carbon-vapours to be the main source of cometary light; and on the 23rd of April in the same year applied Doppler's principle to the detection and measurement of stellar velocities in the line of sight.
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  • The above is a particular case of a general principle that the obtaining of an expression such as Ih(uo+4u1+u2) or lk(vo-1-3v 1 +3v 2 +v 3) is an operation performed on uo or vo, and that this operation is the suns of a number of operations such as that which obtains 3huo or 1kvo.
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  • The general principle is that the numerical data from which a particular result is to be deduced are in general not exact, but are given only to a certain degree of accuracy.
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  • The principle resembles that used in wire drawing.
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  • In contrast to both of these, which in different ways express the principle of clerical or official authority, Congregationalism represents the principle of democracy in religion.
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  • It springs from the religious principle that each body of believers in actual church-fellowship must be free of all external human control, in order the more fully to obey the will of God as conveyed to conscience by His Spirit.
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