How to use Principality in a sentence
Indeed, it was not so much a principality as a municipal republic of the Venetian type.
A politique, Bohemund was resolved to engineer the enthusiasm of the crusaders to his own ends; and when his nephew Tancred left the main army at Heraclea, and attempted to establish a footing in Cilicia, the movement may have been already intended as a preparation for Bohemund's eastern principality.
The defeat was decisive; it made impossible the great eastern principality which Bohemund had contemplated.
Freeman "indisputably the third church not in a state of ruin in the principality," its choir furnishing "one of the choicest examples of the Early English style."
The principality is divided between the sultan (vassal of the Dutch government) and the so-called independent prince Paku Alam; Ngawen and Imogiri are enclaves of Surakarta.Advertisement
The total area of the principality is 333 sq.
The general description of the nature and resources of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt applies also to this principality, except that 62% of the whole is devoted to agriculture and pasture and 30% to forests, only about two-fifths of which are coniferous trees.
The principality has one vote in the Reichstag and one in the federal council.
By a law, promulgated in 1896, Sizzo, prince of Leutenberg, was recognized as the heirpresumptive to this principality and, by treaty with Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, to that principality also.
The principality of Satara was held to have lapsed in 1848 by the death of the raja without lineal heirs, and was annexed by the British government.Advertisement
In the same month he erected the republic of Lucca into a principality for Bacciochi and his consort, Elisa Bonaparte.
The principality or the emporium, it is true, would supply motives to the prince and the merchant only; and it may be urged that to the mass of the crusaders the religious motive was all in all.
From the first he had an Eastern principality in his mind's eye; and if we may judge from the follower of Bohemund who wrote the Gesta Francorum, there had already been some talk at Constantinople of Antioch as the seat of this principality.
Bohemund's policy seems to have inspired Baldwin, the brother of Godfrey of Bouillon to emulation; on the one hand he strove to thwart the endeavours of Tancred, the nephew of Bohemund, to begin the foundation of the Eastern principality for his uncle by conquering Cilicia, and, on the other, he founded a principality for himself in Edessa.
Always hostile to the principality, which Bohemund established in spite of his oath, they helped by their hostility to cause the loss of Edessa in 1144, and thus to hasten the disintegration of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem.Advertisement
Here Tancred, followed by Baldwin, turned into Cilicia, and began to take possession of the Cilician towns, and especially of Tarsus - thus beginning, it would seem, the creation of the Norman principality of Antioch.
At Marash, half way between Caesarea and Antioch, Baldwin, who had meanwhile wrested Tarsus from Tancred, rejoined the ranks; but he soon left the main body again, and struck eastward towards Edessa, to found a principality there.
Yet the principality of Godfrey was destined to higher things than that of Bohemund.
Again, in 1104, the Normans, while attempting to capture Harran, were badly defeated on the river Balikh, near Rakka; and this defeat may be said to have been fatal to the chance of a great Norman principality.'
Thus it came about that Alexius and Raymund became allies; and by the aid of Alexius Raymund established, from 1102 onwards, the principality which, with the capture of Tripoli in 1109, became the principality of Tripoli, and barred the advance of Antioch to the south.Advertisement
Meanwhile the principality of Antioch, ruled by Tancred, after the departure of Bohemund (1104-1112), and then by Roger his kinsman (1112-1119), was, during the reign of Baldwin I., busily engaged in disputes both with its Christian neighbours at Edessa and Tripoli, and with the Mahommedan princes of Mardin and Mosul.
In 1376 it was united to the principality of Luneburg, along with which it fell in 1705 to Hanover, and in 1806 to Prussia.
In the 12th century Rzhev belonged to the principality of Smolensk.
Under the rulers of Novgorod it became from 1225 a subordinate principality, and in the 15th century the.
In southern Syria, which had been won by the house of Seleucus from the house of Ptolemy in 198, the independent Jewish principality was set up in 143.Advertisement
In an unsuccessful war against the Croats (1322-26), from which Venice derived the sole advantage, the ban appears to have learned the value of sea-power; immediately afterwards he occupied the principality of Ilium and the Dalmatian littoral between Spalato and the river Narenta.
The death of Stephen Dushan, in 1356, had left his empire defenceless against the Hungarians, Turks and other enemies; and to win help from Bosnia the Servian tsar Lazar ceded to Tvrtko a large tract of territory, including the principality of Tribunia.
His position was endangered by the growing power of his father-in-law, Stephen Vukcic, an ardent Bogomil, who had united Tribunia and Hlum into a single principality.
Egypt, though nominally under Turkish suzerainty, has formed a practically independent principality since 1841, and has been de facto under British protection since 1881.
In the same year Bey Shehr and other portions of the Hamid principality were acquired by purchase from their ruler Hussein Bey, as the Karamanian princes were beginning to cast covetous eyes on them; but the Karamanians were unwilling to resign their claims to be heirs of the Seljukian sultans, and not until the reign of Mahommed II.Advertisement
When Constantinople fell in 1453 the whole country passed into the hands of the Turks, and in their possession it remained until 1878, when, in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Berlin, the northern portion of it was placed under a separate administration, with the title of Eastern Rumelia; this province has now become, to all intents and purposes, a part of the principality of Bulgaria.
Portugal was to be subsequently divided between Spain and France, and a new principality of the Algarve was to be carved out for Godoy.
He made his brother, Antonio, a distinguished soldier, and two nephews, cardinals, and gave to a third nephew, Taddeo, the principality of Palestrina.
Edward III., by the Statute Staple of 1353, declared Carmarthen the sole staple for Wales, ordering that every bale of Welsh wool should be sealed or "cocketed" here before it left the Principality.
There Heracleon, the court favourite and murderer of Antiochus Grypus, was born and made himself a principality (96 B.C.); and there the son of the latter king besieged his brother Philip in the last struggle for the heritage of Seleucus.Advertisement
Suhl, which obtained civic rights in 1527, belonged to the principality of Henneberg, and formed part of the possessions of the kingdom of Saxony assigned to Prussia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
Each group of principalities constituted a separate aimak, and each principality a separate hoshun.
The kingdom of Hungary in its widest extent, or the " Realm of the Crown of St Stephen," comprises Hungary proper (Magyarorszdg), with which is included the former grand principality of Transylvania, and the province of Croatia-Slavonia.
A reign of terror ensued, during which the unfortunate principality was well-nigh ruined.
For more than fifty years after the peace of Vienna the principality of Transylvania continued to be the bulwark of the liberties of the Magyars.Advertisement
During the greater part of this period, however, the titular sovereigns were mere puppets, the reality of power being in the hands of the family of Trinh in Tongking and that of Nguyen in southern Annam, which in 1568 became a separate principality under the name of CochinChina.
The Seljuk invasion of Armenia was followed by an exodus of Armenians southwards, and in 1080 Rhupen, a relative of the last king of Ani, founded in the heart of the Cilician Taurus a small principality, which gradually expanded into the kingdom of Lesser Armenia.
Leobschiitz existed in the 10th century, and from 1524 to 1623 was the capital of the principality of Jagerndorf.
The principality of Tmutarakan, founded by his grandson Mstislav (988), replaced the kingdom of Khazaria, the last trace of which was extinguished by a joint expedition of Russians and Byzantines (io16).
The bishopric still exists, with jurisdiction over the Cantons of the Grisons, Glarus, Zurich, and the three Forest Cantons, as well as the Austrian principality of Liechtenstein.Advertisement
The territories of Zela and Megalopolis were divided between Lycomedes, the high-priest of Zela and Ateporix, who ruled the principality of Carana (later Sebastopolis).
Besides the civil list the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha enjoys a very large private fortune, amassed chiefly by Ernest I., who sold the principality of Lichtenberg, which the congress of Vienna had bestowed upon him in recognition of his services in 1813, to Prussia for a large sum of money.
It was he who after Austerlitz aggrandized the margravate at the expense of Austria; transformed it into a sovereign principality and raised it to a grand-duchy.
He believed that the recognition of the prince and the artificial ethnical formation of the principality would be pledges of security for France.
Whatever the origin of the Bassarabs may be, the foundation of the Walachian principality is undoubtedly connected with a member of that family, who, according to tradition, came from Transylvania and settled first in Campulung and Tirgovishtea.Advertisement
In 1552, Joinville was made into a principality for the house of Lorraine.
Mlle de Montpensier, the heiress of Mlle de Guise, bequeathed the principality of Joinville to Philip, duke of Orleans (1693).
Nine years later Lubart of Lithuania, who also had claims upon Red Russia, disputed the sway of Poland in that principality.
The security of the kingdom was sensibly promoted by the erection of a cordon of fortresses on its north-eastern borders, and a blow was given to foreign interference when Casimir succeeded in gaining dominant influence over the independent Polish principality of Masovia, which had hitherto gravitated between Bohemia and the Teutonic Order.
The relations of the British with Bhutan commenced in 1772, when the Bhutias invaded the principality of Kuch Behar, a dependency of Bengal.
Until the 14th century Uglich was a separate principality, which extended over eastern Tver.
As a principality Fritzlar continued subject to the archbishopric of Mainz till 1802, when it was incorporated with Hesse.
The see was governed by lay bishops until 1648, when it was formally converted by the treaty of Westphalia into a secular principality for the elector of Brandenburg.
Mogilev is mentioned for the first time in the 14th century as a dependency of the Vitebsk, or of the Mstislavl principality.
The claim of Prussia to the principality of Jagerndorf was the occasion of the first Silesian war (1740-1742), but in the partition, which followed, Austria retained the larger portion of it.
Agriculture and cattle-rearing are the main resources of the inhabitants in both parts of the principality, but the soil is nowhere very fertile.
Fruit is also cultivated in the principality.
For a few years Waldeck was divided into Wildungen and Eisenberg, but in 1692, when the Wildungen branch died out with George Frederick, the imperial field-marshal, the whole principality was united under the rule of Christian Louis of Eisenberg.
The most important fact in the recent history of the principality is its connexion with Prussia, to which reference has already been made.
The principality, which he thus carved out for himself, was occupied, on his death, by Erispoe, duke of Brittany; by him it was handed down to his successors, in whose hands it remained till the beginning of the 10th century.
His sons extended their principality east and west; but the founder of the Chalukya greatness was his grandson Pulakesin II., who succeeded in 608 and proceeded to extend his rule at the expense of his neighbours.
The territory of Schwiebus originally belonged to the principality of Glogau, and in the 16th and 17th centuries was a bone of contention between the electors of Brandenburg and the emperors.
In 1805, after the foundation of the French empire, Napoleon bestowed upon her the principality of Piombino and shortly afterwards Lucca; in 1808 her importunities gained for her the grand duchy of Tuscany.
In this war Prince Napoleon commanded the French corps that occupied Tuscany, and it was expected that he would become ruler of the principality, but he refused to exert any pressure upon the inhabitants, who preferred union with the Italian kingdom.
In 1132 it formed part of the Minsk principality.
After the Mongol invasion of 1239-42 it became the chief town of a separate principality, and continued to be so until the end of the 13th century.
Germain, Versailles and Trianon, while a portion of the ancient principality of resin (Teschen) was adjudicated to it by the Paris Conference (July 1920).
There was, for instance, Mendovg (1240-1263), who submitted to baptism for purely political reasons, checkmated the Teutonic Knights by adroitly seeking the protection of the Holy See, and annexed the principality of Plock to his ever-widening grand duchy, which already included Black Russia, and formed a huge wedge extending southwards from Courland, thus separating Poland from Russia.
His attempt to carve a principality for his son out of Moldavia led to the outbreak of a third war between suzerain and subject in February 1651.
According to Nestor's legend it was founded in 864 by three brothers, Kiy, Shchek and Khoriv, and after their deaths the principality was seized by two Varangians (Scandinavians), Askold and Dir, followers of Rurik, also in 864.
Rurik's successor Oleg conquered Kiev in 882 and made it the chief town of his principality.
For three hundred and seventy-six years it was an independent Russian city; for eighty years (1240-1320) it was subject to the Mongols; for two hundred and forty-nine years (1320-1569) it belonged to the Lithuanian principality; and for eighty-five years to Poland (1569-1654).
A younger branch of the Palaeologi held the principality of Monferrat from 1305 to 1533, when it became extinct.
At that time it belonged to the principality of Chernigov; afterwards it fell under the rule of Poland.
The Principality Of Birkenfeld iS hilly and well-forested; agriculture prospers on the cleared lands, and fruit is grown in the valley of the Nahe, the principal stream.
The former principality of Troppau is now divided between Austria and Prussia, the latter holding the lion's share.
He may have negotiated with Alexius about a principality at Antioch; if he did so, he had little encouragement.
In the latter part of the Toth century it was annexed to the Bohemian principality, but was recaptured by Boleslaus Chrobry, who made it the seat of a bishopric, and it became the capital of one of the most important of the principalities into which Poland was divided from the 12th century onwards.
From about 1276 it ranked as the most important place in the episcopal principality of Kamin, and from 1284 it was a member of the Hanseatic League.
When only five years old John was betrothed (1173) to the heiress of Maurienne and Savoy, a principality which, as dominating the chief routes from France and Burgundy to Italy, enjoyed a consequence out of all proportion to its area.
It embraces the duchies of Schwerin and Gtistrow, the district of Rostock, the principality of Schwerin, and the barony of Wismar, besides several small enclaves (Ahrensberg, Rosson, Tretzeband, &c.) in the adjacent territories.
The principality forms ecclesiastically part of the diocese of Coire, while as regards customs duties it is joined with the Vorarlberg, and as regards postal and coinage arrangements with Austria, which (according to the agreement of 1852, renewed in 1876, by which the principality entered the Austrian customs union) must pay it at least 40,000 crowns annually.
In 1904 the revenues of the principality amounted to 888,931 crowns, and its expenditure to 802,163 crowns.
In 1719 these new acquisitions were raised by the emperor into a principality under the name of Liechtenstein, which formed part successively of the Holy Roman Empire (till 1806) and of the German Confederation (1815-1866), having been sovereign1806-1815as well as since 1866.
In modern times Asturias formed a captaincy-general, divided into Asturias d'Oviedo, which corresponds with the limits of the ancient principality, and Asturias de Santillana, which now constitutes the western half of Santander.
The district of Berchtesgaden was formerly an independent spiritual principality, founded in ltoo and secularized in 1803.
At its inception the Latin kingdom of the Holy Land was within a little of becoming an ecclesiastical principality, ruled by a patriarch under the authority of the pope.
The clergy, indeed, received a large share; but the government of the Latin principality remained lay and military, the only form of government possible for a colony surrounded by perils and camped in a hostile country.
Silesia was henceforth constituted as a separate principality, and in 1201 its political severance from Poland became complete.
In May 1831 he was made an active privy councillor, was appointed chief of the department for the principality of Neuchatel, in July became secretary of state for foreign affairs, and in the spring of 1832, on Bernstorff's retirement, succeeded him as head of the ministry.
Her father, who succeeded to the principality of Anhalt-Zerbst in 1746 and died in 1747, was a general in the Prussian service, and, at the time of her birth, was military commandant at Stettin.
This paper soon became an oracle in Wales, and played a great part in stirring up the nationalist movement in the principality.
It appears as the capital of an independent principality at the beginning of the 14th century.
Dismantled by order of Charlemagne, it became in the 9th century the capital of an independent principality, the rival of that of Benevento, and was surrounded by strong fortifications.
At the peace of Westphalia (1648), accordingly, Hesse-Cassel was augmented by the larger part of the countship of Schaumburg and by the abbey of Hersfeld, secularized as a principality of the Empire.
The Order of SS Cyril and Methodius was instituted in 1909 by King Ferdinand to commemorate the elevation of the principality to the position of an independent kingdom.
On the cession of the principality to Prussia in 1791 the order was transferred and King Frederick William raised it to that place in Prussian orders which it has since maintained.
It was richly endowed by Charlemagne and became an ecclesiastical principality in the 12th century, passing under the protection of the landgraves of Hesse in 1423.
As a secular principality Hersfeld passed to Hesse, and with electoral Hesse was united with Prussia in 1866.
He helped William of Orange to make his descent on England; added various places, including the principality of Neuchatel, to his lands; and exercised some influence on the course of European politics by placing his large and efficient army at the disposal of the emperor and his allies (see Brandenburg).
His little principality of Glogau soon became famous as a'model state, and as governor of Silesia he suppressed the robber knights with an iron hand, protected the law-abiding classes, and revived commerce.
In 1744 it became the seat of government of the principality NassauUsingen, and was from 1815 to 1866 the capital of the duchy of Nassau, when it passed with that duchy to Prussia.
In the war of 1805, in accordance with a treaty of alliance signed at Wurzburg on the 23rd of September, Bavarian troops, for the first time since Charles VII., fought side by side with the French, and by the treaty of Pressburg, signed on the 26th of December, the principality of Eichstadt, the margraviate of Burgau, the lordship of Vorarlberg, the countships of Hohenems and Konigsegg-Rothenfels, the lordships of Argen and Tetnang, and the city of Lindau with its territory were to be added to Bavaria.
In 1821 a small mediate principality was formed out of the old lordship of Ratibor and certain ecclesiastical domains, and was conferred upon Victor Amadeus, landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg, as compensation for some Hessian territory absorbed by Prussia.
On the division of territory which followed his father's death in 1440, Albert received the principality of Ansbach; and although his resources were very meagre he soon took a leading place among the German princes, and was especially prominent in resisting the attempts of the towns to obtain selfgovernment.
The town of Samudera was at that period the seat of an important principality in the north of the island, whose current name is probably a corruption of this word.
The small district of Wetzlar in the midst of the province of Hesse also belongs to the Rhine Province, which, on the other hand, surrounds the Oldenburg principality of Birkenfeld.
He annexed the principality of Suzdal to Moscovy, together with Murom, Kozelsk Peremyshl, and other places; reduced the grand-duchy of Rostov to a state of vassalage; and acquired territory from the republic of Great Novgorod by treaty.
From the middle of the 17th century, when this region was annexed by the Turks, until about the middle of the 19th century, the vilayet of Bagdad was the largest province of the Turkish empire, constituting at times an almost independent principality.
The territories of the former principality of Cleves and of the countship of Mark (comprising very nearly the basin of the Ruhr), which went to Brandenburg in 1609, must, however, be excepted.
In this assembly the voting power was somewhat differently distributed; but the attempt to make it bear some proportion to the importance of the various states, worked out so badly that Austria had only four times the voting power of the tiny principality of Liechtenstein.
Henceforward all the German states that had survived the struggle of 1866, with the exception of the empire of Austria, the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, and the principality of Liechtenstein, were incorporated in a permanent federal state under the leadership of Prussia.
None,however, has yet imitated the prince of Waldeck,who in 1867, at the wish of hi,s own subjects, transferred the administration of his principality to Prussia.
The local estates still meet, and the principality still forms a separate administra.
There was not a state, not the smallest principality, in which some authoritative but imperfect law or code had not been published.
He was a nephew of Marcellinus, prince of Dalmatia, whom he succeeded in his principality.
In conformity with the customs and commercial compact between the two states, renewed in 1899, the monarchy constitutes one identical customs and commercial territory, inclusive of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the principality of Liechtenstein.
The general political situation prevented Leopold from taking full advantage of this, and the peace of Vasvar (August ro) left the Turks in possession of Nagyvarad (Grosswardein) and the fortress of Ersekujvar (Neuhausel), Transylvania being recognized as an independent principality.
In the end the Moslem conquests in Sicily became an Aghlabite principality owning at best a formal superiority in the princes of I K airawan.
To the Apulian duchy he added (1136) the Norman principality of Capua, Naples (1138), the last dependency of the Eastern empire in Italy, and (1140) the Abruzzi, an undoubted land of the Western empire.
This, on his reconciliation with Pope Innocent II., he exchanged for " king of Sicily and of the duchy of Apulia and of the principality of Capua."
On the death of his cousin, Jean Louis Charles, duc de Longueville (1646-1694), Conti in accordance with his cousin's will, claimed the principality of Neuchatel against Marie, duchesse de Nemours (1625-1707), a sister of the duke.
The P4JrJy dispute began with a struggle over the succession in relations the principality of Karaman, where the two sultans favored rival candidates, and the Ottoman sultan ur ey.
With the disappearance of the Rigsraad, which, as representing the Danish crown, had hitherto exercised sovereignty over both kingdoms, Norway ceased to be a subject principality.
Urban was vain, self-willed and extremely conscious of his position; he accepted the papacy chiefly as a temporal principality, and made it his first care to provide for its defence and to render it formidable.
The Celtic principality in Cornwall, which seems to have survived at least till 926, must long have been practically dependent on Wessex.
It remained an independent principality until the 12th century, resisting the repeated attacks of the princes of Kiev; those of Pskov, Lithuania, and the Livonian Knights, however, proved more effective, and Polotsk fell under Lithuanian rule in 1320.
In 1765 Maria Theresa made it a grand principality (GrossfÃ¼rstentum).
Since that time the Magyarization of the principality has steadily been carried through, in spite of the bitter protests and discontent of both the Saxons and Rumanians.
As an administrator of his principality he displayed rare energy, issuing numerous ordinances, appointing expert officials, and in particular establishing the finances on a scientific basis.
The independence of Greece was acknowledged in 1829, that of Servia (as a tributary principality) in 1830.
A large Bulgarian principality was created extending from the Danube to the Aegean and from the Black Sea to the river Drin in Albania; it received a considerable coast-line on the Aegean and abutted on the Gulf of Salonica under the walls of that town.
The treaty of Berlin followed, which limited the principality to the country between the Danube and the Balkans, created the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia south of the Balkans, and left the remainder of the proposed Bulgarian state under Turkish rule.
Being at last betrayed, it was given to Bohemund, prince of Tarentum, and it remained the capital of a Latin principality for nearly two centuries.
In 1400, Louis II., duke of Bourbon, acquired the northern part of the Dombes, together with the lordship of Beaujeu, and two years later bought the southern part from the sires de Thoire, forming the whole into a new sovereign principality of the Dombes, with Trevoux as its capital.
The principality was confiscated by King Francis I.
He was succeeded, as prince of Dombes, by his brother the count of Eu, who in 1762 surrendered the principality to the crown.
The little principality of Dombes showed in some respects signs of a vigorous life; the prince's mint and printing works at Trevoux were long famous, and the college at Thoissey was well endowed and influential.
Brycheiniog was then converted into a lordship marcher and passed to the Fitzwalter, de Breos, the Bohun and the Stafford families in succession, remaining unaffected by the Statute of Rhuddlan (1282), as it formed part of the marches, and not of the principality of Wales.
Fraustadt was founded by Silesians in 1348, and afterwards belonged to the principality of Glogau.
Przemysl, one of the oldest towns in Galicia, claims to have been founded in the 8th century, and was at one time capital of a large independent principality.
In 1683 it became the capital of a principality which in 1826 was united to Saxe-Meiningen.
Delegates from the elector of Saxony met it as it crossed the boundaries of the principality.
In 1648 the bishopric was converted into a secular principality under the elector of Brandenburg.
In 1648 Stade became the capital of the principality of Bremen under the Swedes; and in 1719 it was ceded to Hanover, the fate of which it has since shared.
Bukovina was originally a part of the principality of Moldavia, whose ancient capital Suczawa was situated in this province.
The principality of Lubeck, lying north of the state, is a constituent of the grand-duchy of Oldenburg.
Louis set out to govern his principality as though it were an independent state.
The native principality of Kashmir occupies the north-western angle of India.
At about the same time the province of the Carnatic, or all that large portion of southern India ruled by the nawab of Arcot, and also the principality of Tanjore, were placed under direct British administration, thus constituting the Madras presidency almost as it has existed to the present day.
Amir Khan consented to disband his army, on condition of being guaranteed the possession of what is now the principality of Tonk.
In the same year the Rajput state of Karauli was saved by the interposition of the court of directors, who drew a fine distinction between a dependent principality and a protected ally.
Torgau is said to have existed as the capital of a distinct principality in the time of the German king Henry I., but early in the 14th century it was in the possession of the margraves of Meissen and later of the electors of Saxony, who frequently resided here.
For the history of the principality see von Leuthe, Archiv fiir Geschichte and Verfassung des Furstentums Luneburg (Celle, 1854-1863).
Hon ., who had created for himself a principality in the vicinity of Madam (Ctesiphon).
A certain Baridi, who had carved out for himself a principality in the province of Basra, marched against Bagdad and made himself master of the capital, but was soon driven out by the Dailamite general 1 See Defremery, Memoire sur les Emirs al-Omara (Paris, 1848).
Eisenach fell to Saxe-Weimar in 1644, and although the enlarged principality of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach was temporarily split up into the lines Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Eisenach and Saxe-Jena, it was again united under Ernest Augustus, who began to reign in 1728, and the adoption of the principle of primogeniture about this time secured it against further divisions.
In 1785 it was made into a principality of the duke of Aosta.
Gustavus Adolphus gave the abbey as a principality to William, landgrave of Hesse, but William's rule only lasted for ten years.
In 1816 the greater part of the principality was ceded by Prussia to Hesse-Cassel, a smaller portion being united with Bavaria.
As capital of Transylvania and the seat of the Transylvanian diets, Kolozsvar from 1830 to 1848 became the centre of the Hungarian national movement in the grand principality; and in December 1848 it was taken and garrisoned by the Hungarians under General Bern.
In 1390 Prince Vasili of Moscow, in alliance with Toktamish, khan of the Golden Horde of the Mongols, took Nizhniy and established his own governors there; in 1417 it was definitely annexed to Moscow, becoming a stronghold for the further advance of that principality towards the east.
The principality entered the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807 and the German League in 1815.
The discarded regent lived for some time in rebellion, endeavouring to establish an independent principality in Malwa, but at last he was forced to cast himself on Akbar's mercy.
Almost at the same date that visionary revival of the Western Empire, which had imposed for six centuries upon the imagination of medieval Europe, hampering Italy and impeding the consolidation of Germany, ceased to reckon among political actualities; while its more robust rival, the Roman Church, seemed likely to sink into the rank of a petty Italian principality.
It rises in the government of Orel, among hills which also send tributaries to the Dnieper and the Don, and receives on the left the Upa, the Zhizdra, the Ugra (300 m.), the Moskva, on which steamers ply up to Moscow, the Klyazma (J95 m.), on whose banks arose the middle-Russian principality of Suzdal, and on the right the navigable Tsna (255 m.) and Moksha.
In common parlance, as well as for judicial purposes of circuits, the Principality is divided into North Wales and South Wales, each of which consists of six counties.
A striking peculiarity of the Principality is the prevalence of Scriptural place-names; a circumstance due undoubtedly to the popular religious movements of the 19th century.
These figures prove a steady upward tendency, but the increase itself is confined entirely to the industrial districts of the Principality, and in a special degree to Glamorganshire; while the agricultural counties, such as Pembroke, Merioneth, Cardigan or Montgomery, present a continuous though slight decrease owing to local emigration to the centres of industry.
It will be noted, therefore, that the vast mass of the inhabitants of Wales are settled in the industrial area which covers the northern districts of Glamorganshire and the southeastern corner of Carmarthenshire; whilst central Wales, comprising the four counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Merioneth and Montgomery, forms the least populous portion of the Principality.
The chief mineral product of the Principality is coal, of which the output amounts to over 23,000,000 tons annually.
Slate quarries are very numerous throughout the Principality, the finest quality of slate being obtained in the neighbourhood of Bangor and Carnarvon, where the Penrhyn and Bethesda quarries give employment to many thousands of workmen.
The extensive tracts of unenclosed and often unirnprovable land, which still cover a large area in the Principality, especially in the five counties of Cardigan, Radnor, Brecon, Montgomery and Merioneth, support numerous flocks of the small mountain sheep, the flesh of which supplies the highly prized Welsh mutton.
The two principal railways serving the Principality are the London & North-Western, which passes along the North Wales coast-line by way of Conway and Bangor, crosses the Menai Strait and has its terminus at Holyhead; and the Great Western, which traverses South Wales by way of Cardiff, Landore, Llanelly and Carmarthen, and has its principal terminal station at Fishguard Harbour.
In all acts of parliament Wales is invariably included under the term of " England and Wales " and whenever an act, or any section of an act, is intended to apply to the Principality alone, then Wales is always coupled with Monmouthshire.
A separate act on behalf of Welsh education was likewise passed in 1889, when the Welsh Intermediate Education Act made special provision for intermediate and technical education throughout the Principality and Monmouthshire.
Since the expulsion of the religious orders from France in 1903 several communities of French monks and nuns have taken up their abode in the Principality.
In 1081 William himself visited the Principality, and even penetrated as far west as St Davids.
This enlightened prince died in 1196, and as at his death the house of Dynevor ceased to be of any further political importance, the overlordship of all Wales became vested indisputably in the house of Gwynedd, which from this point onwards may be considered as representing in itself alone the independent principality of Wales.
For after the battle of Evesham a treaty was concluded between the English king and the Welsh prince at Montgomery, whereby the latter was confirmed in his principality of Gwynedd and was permitted to receive the homage of all the Welsh barons, save that of the head of the house of Dynevor, which the king reserved to himself; whilst the four fertile cantrefs of Perfeddwlad, lying between Gwynedd and the earldom of Chester, were granted to the prince.
On Palm Sunday 1282, in a time of peace, David suddenly attacked and burnt Hawarden Castle, whereupon all Wales was up in arms. Edward, greatly angered and now bent on putting an end for ever to the independence of the Principality, hastened into Wales; but whilst the king was campaigning in Gwynedd, Prince Llewelyn himself was slain in an obscure skirmish on the 11th of December 1282 at Cefn-ybedd, near Builth on the Wye, whither he had gone to rouse the people of Brycheiniog.
Coal, copper, timber, iron, and especially wool, were exported from the Principality, and by the Statute Staple of 1353 Carmarthen was declared the sole staple for the whole Welsh wool trade, every bale of wool having first to be sealed or " cocketed " at this important town, which during the 14th century may almost be accounted as the English capital of the Principality, so greatly was it favoured by the Plantagenet monarchs.
The Yorkist faction seems to have been strongest in the eastern portion of the Principality, where the Mortimers were all-powerful, but later the close connexion of the house of Lancaster with Owen Tudor, a gentleman of Anglesea (beheaded in 1461) who had married Catherine of France, widow of Henry V., did much to invite Welsh sympathy on behalf of the claims of Henry Tudor his grandson, who claimed the English throne by right of his grandmother.
This act of union was followed in 1542 by an " Act for certain Ordinances in the King's Majesty's Dominion and Principality of Wales " (34 & 35 Henry VIII.), which placed the court of the president and council of Wales and the Marches on a legal footing.
With the peaceful absorption of the Principality into the realm of the Tudor sovereigns, the subsequent course of Welsh history assumes mainly a religious and educational character.
But for this sudden revival of Cymric literature under the patronage of Elizabeth (for the obtaining of which Wales must ever owe a deep debt of gratitude to Bishop Richard Davies, " her second St David "), there is every reason to believe that the ancient language of the Principality must either have drifted into a number of corrupt dialects, as it then showed symptoms of doing, or else have tended to ultimate extinction, much as the Cornish tongue perished in the 17th century.
So striking was the devotion shown throughout the Principality to the king, who fought his last disastrous campaign in the friendly counties of Wales and the Marches, that on the final victory of the parliament there was passed within a month of Charles's execution 1 Sometimes known as vicar of Llandingat, his church being in that parish.
With the old national Church enthralled by English political prelates, and consequently hindered from ministering to the special needs of the people, the progress of dissent throughout the Principality was naturally rapid.
All the religious bodies, including the Church, have been extremely active in educational and pastoral work; whilst the peculiar religious movement known as a revival (Diwygiad) has occurred from time to time throughout the Principality, notably in the years 1859 and 1904.
But the most remarkable phenomenon in modern Wales has been the evident growth of a strong national sentiment, the evolution of a new Welsh Renaissance, which demanded special recognition of the Principality's claims by the Imperial parliament.
Welsh, the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Britons, is the domestic tongue of the majority of the inhabitants of the Principality.
During the earlier half of the 17th century the number of Welsh Bibles distributed throughout the Principality could hardly have exceeded 8000 in all, and except the Bible there was scarcely any Welsh work of importance in circulation.
The enthusiastic course of the Methodist movement under Howell Harris, Daniel Rowland and William Williams; the establishment of Welsh Sunday Schools; the founding of the Bible Society under Thomas Charles of Bala; and the revival early in the 19th century of the Eisteddfodau (the ancient bardic contests of music, poetry and learning), have all contributed to extend the use of the Welsh language and to strengthen its hold as a popular medium of education throughout the Principality.
In 1832 that portion of the province denominated Upper Assam was formed into an independent native state, and conferred upon Purandhar Singh, the ex-rajah of the country; but the administration of this chief proved unsatisfactory, and in 1838 his principality was reunited with the British dominions.
Persia claimed the principality of Herat as part of the empire of Nadir, but her pretensions had been satisfied by payments of tribute or evasive replies.
He succeeded his mother in the principality of Antioch in 1163, and first appears prominently in 1164, as regent of the kingdom of Jerusalem during the expedition of Amalric I.
He determined to take holy orders, in the expectation that he would become cardinal, and then pope, when he would wrest from the Venetians his principality of Verona, of which the republic had despoiled his ancestors.
After great suffering Hsiian Tsang reached Igu, the seat of a Turkish principality, and pursued his way along the southern foot of the T'ian-shan, which he crossed by a glacier pass (vividly described) in the longitude of Lake Issyk-kul.
From 1762 to 1771 there was even a parlement for the principality of Dombes.
In 283 B.C. Philetaerus rebelled, Lysimachus died without being able to put down the revolt, and Pergamum became the capital of a little principality.
In 1174 the principality passed by marriage to Bertrand de Baux, and there were nine princes of this line.
William of Orange-Nassau was but eleven years old when he succeeded to the principality.
The result was that at the peace of Utrecht in 1713, the king of Prussia abandoned the principality to the king of France in exchange for compensation elsewhere, and John William Friso gained the barren title and became William IV.
The great dukedom of Benevento in the south, with its neighbour Spoleto, threatened at one time to be a separate principality, and even to the last resisted, with varying success, the full claims of the royal authority at Pavia.
Then, in the larger political struggles and changes of Europe, they were incorporated into a kingdom, or principality or duchy, carved out to suit the interest of a foreigner, or to make a heritage for the nephew of a pope.
The next events that are recorded by the oldest chroniclers, such as Cosmas, refer to the foundation of a Bohemian principality by Krok (or Crocus) and his daughter Libussa.
Siegen was the capital of an early principality belonging to the house of Nassau; and from 1606 onwards it gave name to the junior branch of Nassau-Siegen.
Above all, when Prince Boris, the heir-apparent of the principality, was received into the Bulgarian Church on 14th February 1896, the emperor of Russia was his godfather.
In later times it seems in some sort to have been revived under Byzantine protection, and from time to time Byzantine officers built fortresses and exercised authority at Bosporus, which was constituted an archbishopric. They also held Ta Matarcha on the Asiatic side of the strait, a town which in the 10th and iith centuries became the seat of the Russian principality of Tmutarakan, which in its turn gave place to Tatar domination.
Wurzburg is quaintly and irregularly built; many of the houses are interesting specimens of medieval architecture; and the numerous old churches recall the fact that it was long the capital of an ecclesiastical principality.
In 1905 the population of the principality was 70,603.
The chief industrial product consists of woollen goods, and the manufacture centres in the capital Gera, the largest of the six towns of the principality.
Region, which stretches from the Scottish border to the division centre of England, running south; (3) Wales, occupying the peninsula between the Mersey and the Bristol Channel, and extending beyond the political boundaries of the principality to include Shropshire and Hereford; and (4) the peninsula of Cornwall and Devon.
There was a settlement of the Teutonic Order here, and for some years previous to 1848 the town was the capital of the small principality of Reuss-Schleiz.
It is supposed to have been founded in the 7th century; in the 11th century it was known as Luchesk, and was the chief town of an independent principality.
From 1603 to 1847 Cothen was the capital of the principality, later duchy, of Anhalt-Cuthen.
France had become Ludovico's enemy; and Louis XII., the pope and Venice had formed a league to divide his principality among them.
Walachian contingents were continually employed by the Turks in their Polish wars, and the settlement of Greeks in an official or mercantile capacity in the principality provoked grave discontent, which on one occasion took the form of a massacre.
A scion of the rival Cantacuzenian family was elected by the pasha's orders, and he, after exhausting the principality for the benefit of the Divan, was in turn deposed and executed in 1716.
They were nominated by imperial firman without a shadow of free election, and were deposed and transferred from one principality to another, executed or reappointed, like so many pashas.
In 1769 the Russian general Romanzov occupied the principality, the bishops and clergy took an oath of fidelity to the empress Catherine, and a deputation of boiars followed.
Turkish rule was, however, definitely restored by the treaty of Kutchuk Kainardji, in 1774; and as from this period onwards Walachian history is closely connected with that of Moldavia, it may be convenient before continuing this review to turn to the earlier history of the sister principality.
Bessarabia had been detached from the rest of the principality and placed under the direct control of the military authorities.
To refute this charge, the ministry proposed the elevation of the Rumanian principality into the kingdom of Rumania.
They usually called the place Cerchio, a corruption of the Russian name K'rtchev (whence Kerch), which appears in the 11th century inscription of Tmutarakan (a Russian principality at the north foot of the Caucasus).
From Italy the use of the title spread - first, with the Crusaders, to the Holy Land, where Bohemund, son of Tancred, took the style of prince of Antioch; next, with the Latin conquerors, into the East Roman Empire, where in 1205 William de Champlette, a cadet of the house of Champagne, founded the principality of Achaea and the Morea.
Until recent years the title " prince " was never conferred on anybody except the heir-apparent to the Crown, and his principality is a peerage.
But Edward the Black Prince was the original grantee of the principality as well as of the dukedom, under p p y the special limitations which have continued in force to the present day.
His attempt to carve a principality for his son out of Moldavia, which Poland regarded as her vassal, led to the outbreak in 1651 of a third war between subject and suzerain, which speedily assumed the dignity and the dimensions of a crusade.
Besides containing the government buildings of the little principality, Rudolstadt is well provided with schools and other institutions, including a library of 65,000 volumes.
By the second Prussia secured some small additions of territory, including part of Gelderland and Neuchatel; in return France definitely and finally obtained the principality of Orange.
It was in Kandyan times the home of a prince who ruled Uva as a principality.
In 1277, however, the king grew tired of waiting, invaded the principality and drove his recalcitrant vassal up into the fastnesses of Snowdon, where famine compelled him to surrender as winter was beginning.
After this the king abode for more than a year in Wales, organizing the newly conquered principality into a group of counties, and founding many castles, with dependent towns, within its limits.
For the next two centuries and a half the lands west of Dee and Wye were divided between the new counties, forming the principality of Wales, and the marches where the old feudal franchises continued, till the marcher-lordships gradually fell by forfeiture or marriage to the crown.
In 1301 the kings eldest surviving son Edward, who had been born at Carnarvon in 1284, was created prince of Wales, and invested with the principality, which henceforth became the regular appanage of the heirs of the English crown.
All posts of dignity and emolument were kept for their personal adherents, and a new and formidable dignity was conferred on Mortimer himself, when he was made both justiciar of the principality of Wales, and also earl of March, in which lay both his own broad lands and the estates of Despenser and Arundel, which he had shamelessly appropriated.
Even more menacing to the kings prosperity was the news that another squadron had appeared off the coast of Wales, and landed stores and succours for Glendower, who had now conquered the whole principality save a few isolated fortresses.
The principality of Eisenach fell to the Saxon house of Wettin in 1440, and in the partition of 1485 formed part of the territories given to the Ernestine line.
In 17 9 1 the last margrave of Anspach sold his principality to Frederick William II., king of Prussia; it was transferred by Napoleon to Bavaria in 1806, an act which was confirmed by the congress of Vienna in 1815.
In 1633 Bernhard, duke of SaxeWeimar, hoping to create a principality for himself out of the ecclesiastical lands, had taken the title of duke of Franconia, but his hopes were destroyed by his defeat at NÃ¶rdlingen in 1634.
Early in the 15th century Hanau became the capital of a principality of the Empire, which on the death of Count Reinhard in 1451 was partitioned between the Hanau-Miinzenberg and HanauLichtenberg lines, but was reunited in 1642 when the elder line became extinct.
In 1785 the whole province was united to Hesse-Cassel, and in 1803 it became an independent principality.
From his Thracian principality he levied several wars against the Servians.
Alarmed at the principality forming near him, Henry invaded Ireland in person, landing near Waterford on the 18th of October 1172.
A born warrior, he speedily raised the little struggling Polish principality on the Vistula to the rank of a great power.
Captured in 1205 by William of Champlitte and Villehardouin, the city became the capital and its archbishop the primate of the principality of Achaea.
Galicia (or Halicz) took its rise, along with the neighbouring principality of Lodomeria (or Vladimir), in the course of the 12th century - the seat of the ruling dynasty being Halicz or Halitch.
Since he could not dismember the kingdom of France, his only course was to reconstitute the ancient kingdom of Lotharingia; while the conquest of the principality of Liege and of the duchy of Gelderland, and the temporary occupation of Alsace, pledged to him by Sigismund of Austria, made him greedy for Germany.
The de Buades, however, were a family of distinction in the principality of Beam.
It includes the towns of Monaco (3292), Condamine (6218) and Monte Carlo (3794) The principality at one time included Mentone and Roccabruna, now known as Roquebrune, which towns, however, were ceded to France in 1861 for a sum of four million francs.
The ruler of the principality, Prince Albert, born 1848, succeeded his father, Prince Charles III., in 1889.
The prince is absolute ruler, as there is no parliament in the principality.
The National Convention annexed the principality to France in 1793; restored to the Goyon Grimaldis by the Treaty of Paris in 1814, it was placed by that of Vienna under the protection of Sardinia.
With the transference of Nice to France in 1860 the principality passed again under French protection.
At the time of the Afghan invasion of Mir Mahmud (1722), Malik Mahommed Kaiani was the resident ruler in Seistan, and by league with the invader or other intrigue he secured for himself that particular principality and a great part of Khorasan also.
The town was first mentioned in 1242, and was formerly the capital of a principality embracing about 1200 sq.
In Murcia the duke whom the Arabs knew as Tadmir became a tributary prince, and his family retained the principality for generations.
By the reign of Charles the Fat a principality had been founded.
One of his most important territorial accretions, the principality of Halicz-Vladimir, was obtained by the marriage of his son Lubart with the daughter of the Haliczian prince; the other, Kiev, apparently by conquest.
In the 10th century it was the capital of the principality of Volhynia.
The obvious danger of such a course caused no small anxiety in the principality, and the diet of Torda even went so far as to demand a fresh coronation oath from Sigismund, and, on his refusal to render it, threatened him with deposition.
Others migrated to Cappadocia or to Cilicia, where the Bagratid Rhupen had founded, 1080, a small principality which, gradually extending its limits, became the kingdom of Lesser Armenia.
The city of Bolgari was destroyed by the Mongols in 1238, and again by Tamerlane early in the following century, after which it served as the capital of the Khans (sovereign princes) of the Golden Horde of Mongols, and finally, in the second half of the 15th century it became a part of the principality of Kazan, and so eventually of Russia.
In 1252 the town, which had been raised from its ashes by Henry I., the Bearded, became the capital of a principality of Glogau, and in 1482 town and district were united to the Bohemian crown.
To secure his position he at once entered into relation with the Normans, now firmly established in southern Italy, and later in the year the new alliance was cemented at Melfi, where Nicholas II., accompanied by Hildebrand, Cardinal Humbert and the abbot Desiderius of Monte Cassino, solemnly invested Robert Guiscard with the duchies of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily, and Richard of Aversa with the principality of Capua, in return for 'oaths of fealty and the promise of assistance in guarding the rights of the Church.
Presteign is the most easterly spot on the Welsh border, a circumstance that is noted in the Cymric expression to mark the extreme breadth of the Principality - o Tyddewi i Llanandras (" from St Davids to Presteign").
Bayreuth was formerly the capital of a principality of the same name, which was annexed in 1791 to the kingdom of Prussia.
On Henry's death in 1252 his three sons partitioned the principality and founded respectively the lines of Aschersleben, Bernburg and Zerbst.
After the peace of Passau in 1552 he bought back his principality, but as he was childless he surrendered it in 1562 to his kinsmen the princes of Anhalt-Dessau.
About 1546 the three brothers divided their principality and founded the lines of Zerbst, Plotzkau and Dessau.
The principality was ravaged during the Thirty Years' War, and in the earlier part of this struggle Christian I.
In 1635 an arrangement was made by the various princes of Anhalt, which gave a certain authority to the eldest member of the family, who was thus able to represent the principality as a whole.
The growth of Prussia provided Anhalt with a formidable neighbour, and the establishment and practice of primogeniture by all branches of the family prevented further divisions of the principality.
The sons of Leopold's eldest son were excluded from the succession on account of the marriage of their father being morganatic, and the principality passed in 1747 to his second son, Leopold II.
The kingdom of Middle Anglia, which appears to have included the counties of Northampton, Rutland, Huntingdon, and parts of Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Leicestershire and Lincolnshire, was formed into a dependent principality under his son Peada.
His intent was to become sole lord and to aggrandize his tiny principality.
The stage was then clear for the top two Welsh player to have a principality Closed encounter.
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They are scheduled to play on a rig called the principality Of Sealand sometime this summer.
A spokesman for the tiny principality 's ruler Prince Rainier would only say he " believed " a ceremony had taken place in Germany.
Better known as " Sealand ", the fort was acquired in the 1960s by Roy Bates, who declared it an independent principality.
His parochial loyalty was such that he would rather face death than seek a new life in any other principality.
After restoring some degree of peace and prosperity in his principality, Galen had to contend with a formidable insurrection on the part of the citizens of Munster; but at length this was crushed, and the bellicose bishop, who maintained a strong army, became an important personage in Europe.
About 1278 it became the capital of a principality, with an area of about moo sq.
The area of the former electoral principality was 3210 sq.
In the East, Constantinople, from its principality, acquired special administrative pre-eminence, naturally followed, as in the case of " old Rome," by judicial pre-eminence.
His administrative authority was confined to his own principality, but when territorial disputes arose between two or more of his relations, his paternal influence was exercised in the interests of peace and justice.
Nominally it was an hereditary monarchy, but the warlike, turbulent nobles systematically encroached on the sovereign power till they reduced it to a mere shadow and made it elective, with the result that the kingdom of Poland, including the principality of Lithuania, was at last, politically speaking, the most anarchical country in Europe.
Naumann humbly began at COthen a treatise on the birds of the principality of Anhalt, which on its completion in 1804 was found to have swollen into an ornithology of northern Germany and the neighbouring countries.
Raymond of Provence, the third and last of the great politiques of the First Crusade, was, like Baldwin, envious of Bohemund; and jealousy drove him first to attempt to wrest Antioch from Bohemund, and then to found a principality of Tripoli to the south of Antioch, which would check the growth of his power.
Raymund of Provence refused to accept their nomination, nominally on the pious ground that he did not wish to reign where Christ had suffered on the cross; though one may suspect that the establishment of a principality in Tripoli - in which he had been interrupted by the pressure of the pilgrims - was still the first object of his ambition.
Thus the peace of Szatmar assured to the Hungarian nation all that it had won by former compacts with the Habsburgs; but whereas hitherto the Transylvanian principality had been the permanent guardian of all such compacts, and the authority of the reigning house had been counterpoised by the Turk, the effect and validity of the peace of Szatmar depended entirely upon the support it might derive from the nation itself.
The principality of Aschaffenburg, deriving its name from the city, comprehended an area of 654 English sq.
Amadeus did homage, in 1405, to the bishop for those of the newly acquired lands which he held from the bishop. But, after his power had been strengthened by his elevation (1417) by the emperor to the rank of a duke, and by his succession to the principality of Piedmont (1418, long held by a cadet branch of his house), Amadeus tried to purchase Geneva from its bishop, John of Pierre-Seise or Rochetaillee (1418-1422).
The most famous member of the family was Andrea Doria, perpetual censor of Genoa in 1528 and admiral to the emperor Charles V., who was created prince of Melfi (1531) and marquis of Tursi (in the kingdom of Naples) in 1555 The marquisate of Civiez and the county of Cavallamonte were conferred on the family in 1576, the duchy of Tursi in 1594, the principality of Avella in 1607, the duchy of Avigliano in 1613.
In 1657 she was appointed regent on behalf of her son for the principality of Orange, but the difficulties of her position led her to implore the assistance of Louis XIV., and the French king answered by seizing Orange himself.
A curious difficulty, a relic of an older state of society, aros in the principality of Lippe, in consequence of the extinction of the elder ruling line and a dispute as to the succession (see LIPPE).
Another instance of the emperors interference, constitutionally of more importance as directly affecting the rights of the German sovereigns, was in the question of the succession to the principality of Lippe (see LIPPE).
In 1765 Maria Theresa made it a grand principality (GrossfÃƒ¼rstentum).
Since the beginning of the 19th century dissent has been strongly represented in the Principality, the combined numbers of the various Nonconformist bodies far outstripping the adherents of the Church.
The greed and tyranny of several of the commissioners, and the bigotry and mismanagement of well-meaning fanatics such as Cradock and Powell, soon wrought dire confusion throughout the whole Principality, so that a monster petition, signed alike by moderate Puritans and by High Churchmen, was prepared for presentation to parliament in 1652 by Colonel Edward Freeman, attorney-general for South Wales.
With so powerful a press behind it, it is no wonder that Welsh political dissent was largely responsible for the changed attitude of the Imperial government in its treatment of the Principality - as evinced in the Sunday Closing Act of 1881, a measure which was very dear to the strong temperance party in Wales, and in the Welsh Intermediate Education Act, granted by Lord Salisbury's government in 1889.
In the beginning of the 16th century one of its leading citizens, Francesco Burlamacchi, made a noble attempt to give political cohesion to Italy, but perished on the scaffold (1548); his statue by Ulisse Cambi was erected on the Piazza San Michele in 1863.1', As a principality formed in 1805 by Napoleon in favour of his sister Elisa and her husband Bacchiocchi, Lucca was for a few years wonderfully prosperous.
A considerable body of Vlachs doubtless emigrated from Hungary at this time, and founded in Walachia a principality dependent 1 Walachia east of the Olt, not to be confused with the Meyc BAaxia in southern Macedonia (see Balkan Peninsula).
In 1633 Bernhard, duke of SaxeWeimar, hoping to create a principality for himself out of the ecclesiastical lands, had taken the title of duke of Franconia, but his hopes were destroyed by his defeat at NÃƒ¶rdlingen in 1634.
In 728 the Arabs entered into possession, and established a principality in the city, which they called Bab-el-Abwab ("the principal gate"), Bab-el-Khadid ("the iron gate"), and Seraill-el-Dagab ("the golden throne").
In his dealings with Turkey, the suzerain power, he displayed considerable acuteness; he gained the confidence of the Sultan, whom he flattered and occasionally menaced; and aided by the ambassadors of the friendly powers, he succeeded in obtaining on two occasions important concessions for the Bulgarian episcopate in Macedonia (see Macedonia), while securing the tacit sanction of the Porte for the technically illegal situation in the principality.
Ipek has been incorrectly identified by some writers with Doclea or Dioclea (Dukle in Montenegro), the birthplace of Diocletian, and the capital of a small principality which was overthrown by the Bulgarians in the 11th century.
In September 1108 he regained his principality; but the struggle with Tancred continued, until it was composed by Baldwin in 1109.
For the next ten years Baldwin ruled his principality with success, if not without severity.
When Bulgaria under the Berlin Treaty was constituted an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of Turkey, the tsar recommended his nephew to the Bulgarians as a candidate for the newly created throne, and Prince Alexander was elected prince of Bulgaria by unanimous vote of the Grand Sobranye (April 29, 1879).
St Mary's in Builth, took its name from the ancient territorial division of Buallt in which it is situated, which was, according to Nennius, an independent principality in the beginning of the 9th century, and later a cantrev, corresponding to the modern hundred of Builth.
Under the Moors it became an independent principality, which was destroyed by Ferdinand II.
The little republic of Lucca, along with Piombino, was now awarded as a principality by the emperor to Elisa Bonaparte and her husband, Bacciocchi.
Italy had developed some important commercial interests in Montenegro, and anything which strengthened the position of that principality was a guarantee against further Austrian encroachments.
After one more unsuccessful attempt, in 1700, to recover his principality, he settled down at Galata with his wife.
Alexander now contemplated sending Cesare to Romagna to subdue the turbulent local despots, and with the help of the French king carve a principality for himself out of those territories owing nominal allegiance to the pope.
In Catalonia " Pragmatics," letters from the prince, issued to restrain jurisdiction assumed by ecclesiastical judges contrary to the customs of the principality.
The only Latin countries in which conflict has not arisen appear to be the principality of Andorra and the republic of San Marino (Giron y Areas, SituaciOn juridica de la Iglesia Catolica, Madrid, 1905, p. 173 et seq.).
In 1541 he received Bayreuth as his share of the family lands, and as the chief town of his principality was Kulmbach he is sometimes referred to as the margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.
It is certainly derived, through Rossiya, from Slavonic Rus or Ros (Byzantine `Pws or `Pc o-oc), a name first given to the Scandinavians who founded a principality on the Dnieper in the 9th century; and afterwards extended to the collection of Russian states of which this principality formed the nucleus.
The principality which was to become the nucleus of the future Russian empire was not Novgorod with its democratic institutions, but its eastern neighbour Moscow, in which the popular assembly played a very insignificant part, and the supreme law was the will of the prince.
There was no longer within the Russian land any independent principality in which an asylum could be found, and emigration to a principality beyond the frontier, such as Lithuania, was regarded as treason, for which the property of the fugitive would be confiscated and his family might be punished.
Here lay the principality of Lithuania and beyond it the kingdom of Poland, two loosely conglomerated states which had been created by the Piast and Gedymin dynasties in pretty much the same way as the tsardom of Muscovy had been created by the descendants of Rurik.
On the death of Casimir, king of Poland and grand-prince of Lithuania, in 1492, the kingdom and the principality ceased to be united and Ivan III.