Principalities sentence example
A city occupying approximately the same site had been the capital of one of the principalities into which China was divided some centuries before the Christian era; and during the reigns of the two Tatar dynasties that immediately preceded the Mongols in northern China, viz.
Having become despots, the popes sought to establish their relatives in principalities.
We know from the Assyrian inscriptions that just at the time which Herodotus assigns to Deioces the Medes were divided into numerous small principalities and subjected to the great Assyrian conquerors.
The coming of the Norman ruled that these lands should be neither Saracen nor Greek, nor yet Italian in the same sense as northern Italy, but that they should politically belong to the same group of states as the kingdoms and principalities of feudal Europe.
He became secretary of the embassy in London; was employed on special missions in the principalities and at St Petersburg (1848), and was sent to Egypt as special commissioner in 1851.Advertisement
It had to be divided, therefore, into a number of independent principalities, but it continued to be loosely held together by the dynastic sentiment of the descendants of Rurik and by the patriarchal authority - a sort of patria potestas - of the senior member of the family, called the grand-prince, who ruled in Kiev, " the mother of Russian cities."
What added to the practical difficulties of this arrangement was that the post of grand-prince was not an hereditary dignity in the sense of descending from father to son, but was always to be held by the senior member of the dynasty; and in the subordinate principalities the same principle of succession was applied, so that reigning princes had to be frequently shifted about from one district to another, according as they could establish the strongest claim to vacant principalities.
Here new principalities were founded and new agglomerations of principalities came into existence, some of them having a grand prince who no longer professed allegiance to Kiev.
Unlike the ordinary Russian principalities, it had a republican rather than a monarchical form of government.
They made themselves responsible for the tribute of The other principalities as well as of their own, and gradu- princes of ally they became lieutenants-general of their Mongol Moscow.Advertisement
Already Dimitri of the Don was called the grand-prince of all Russia, but the assumption of such an ambitious title was hardly justified by facts, because there were still in his time principalities with grand princes who claimed to be independent.
Thus all the principalities were brought under the power of Moscow, and in that respect there remained nothing for Ivan the Terrible to do.
He took precautions, however, against any of the dead or moribund principalities being resuscitated, and punished with merciless severity any attempt to resist or undermine his authority.
With the suppression and absorption of the independent principalities the problem was only half solved.
While thus uniting under their vigorous autocratic rule the small rival principalities, the Moscow princes had to keep a watchful eye on their eastern neighbours.Advertisement
The Tatars of the Bug, of the Crimea and of the Kuban were liberated from the suzerainty of the Porte; Azov, Kinburn and all the fortified places of the Crimea were ceded to Russia; the Bosphorus and Dardanelles were opened to Russian merchant vessels; and Russian ambassadors obtained the right to intervene in favour of the inhabitants of the Danubian principalities.
By the peace of Jassy, signed in January 1792, she retained Ochakov and the coast between the Bug and the Dniester, and she secured certain privileges for the Danubian principalities, but the Turks remained in Constantinople, and the realization of the famous Greek project, as it was termed, had to be indefinitely postponed.
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
Its small principalities were entirely dominated by the great Powers, whose weakness or acquiescence alone enabled them to rise above dependence or vassalage.
Subdivided into a number of little local principalities, Palestine was suffering both from internal intrigues and from the designs of this northern power.Advertisement
From it the Oxus, or Amu, flows off to the west, and the Jaxartes, or Syr, to the north, through the Turki state of Khokand, while to the east the waters run down past Kashgar to the central desert of the Gobi, uniting with the streams from the northern slope of the Tibetan plateau that traverse the principalities of Yarkand and Khotan, which are also Turki.
She is a moderately strong empire lying to the north of the great Moslem states, and having for neighbours a series of very weak principalities or semi-civilized tribes.
Then several chiefs carved out principalities of their own from among the ruins of the Mogul Empire.
But these principalities, though independent respecting internal administration, and making war or peace with their neighbours according to opportunity, owned allegiance to the peshwa at Poona as the head of the Mahratta race.
On state occasions heads of principalities would visit Poona by way of acknowledging the superior position of the peshwa.Advertisement
In 180r the bailiwicks to the west of the Rhine were absorbed by France; in 1809 the Order was entirely suppressed, and its lands went to the secular principalities in which they lay.
At that period the Georgians were divided into various petty principalities, the chief of which were Imeretia and Georgia (Kharthlia), owing at times a more or less shadowy allegiance to the sultan of the Ottoman Turks at Constantinople.
In 1770, during the course of a war between Russia and Turkey, the Russians crossed over the Caucasus and assisted the Imeretians to resist the Turks, and from the time of the ensuing peace of Kuchuk-kainarji the Georgian principalities looked to their powerful northern neighbour as their protector against the southern aggressors the Turks.
Oleg, prince of Kiev, extended his rule over this territory - the Ponizie, or "lowlands," which became later a part of the principalities of Volhynia, Kiev and Galicia.
During this process of growth the kingdom stood in relation to two sects of powers - the three Frankish principalities in northern Syria, and the Mahommedan powers both of the Euphrates and the Nile - whose action affected its growth and character.Advertisement
Of the three Frankish principalities, Edessa, founded in 1098 by Baldwin I.
The county of Tripoli, the second of these principalities, had also come under the aegis of Jerusalem at an early date.
The atabegs formed a number of dynasties, which displaced the descendants of the Seljukian amirs in their various principalities.
The first question which arises is that of the relation of the kingdom of Jerusalem to the three counties or principalities of Antioch, Tripoli and Edessa, which acknowledged their dependence upon it.
The rights of the king of Jerusalem chiefly appear when there is a vacancy or a minority in one of the principalities, or when there is dissension either inside one of the principalities or between two of the princes.Advertisement
Like the high court, the court of burgesses had also its assizes 4 - a body of unwritten legal 4 As was noticed above, there were apparently separate assizes for the three principalities, in addition to the assizes of the kingdom.
The barons suspected the crusaders of ulterior motives, and of designing to get new principalities for themselves.
For over a year he stayed in the Holy Land, making little sallies from Acre, and negotiating 2 Of the four Latin principalities of the East, Edessa was the first to fall, being extinguished between 1144 and 1150.
The three Gond principalities of Garha-Mandla, Deogarh and Chanda were nominally subject to the Mogul emperors.
Meanwhile the other independent principalities of Gondwana had in turn succumbed.Advertisement
Hardly provinces proper, but rather client principalities, were the two native kingdoms to which Alexander had left the conquered land beyond the Indus - the kingdoms of Taxiles and Porus.
In Cappadocia two Persian houses, relics of the old aristocracy of Achaemenian days had carved out principalities, one of which became the kingdom of Pontus and the other the kingdom of Cappadocia (in the narrower sense); the former regarding Mithradates (281-266) as its founder, the latter being the creation of the second Ariarathes (?302-?281).
Commagene was independent under a king,MithradatesCallinicus, in the earlier part of the last century B.C. Syria itself in the last days of the Seleucid dynasty is seen to be breaking up into petty principalities, Greek or native.
Shortly afterwards he induced Alphonso d'Este, son of the duke of Ferrara, to marry her, thus establishing her as heiress to one of the most important principalities in Italy (January 1502).
During this period Bosnia became the generally accepted name for the valley of the Bosna (ancient Basanius); and subsequently for several outlying and tributary principalities, notably those of Soli, afterwards Tuzla; Usora, along the south-eastern bank of the Save; Donji Kraj, the later Krajina, Kraina or Turkish Croatia, in the north-west; and Rama, the modern district of Livno.Advertisement
It comprised the principalities of Tribunia or Travunja, with its capital at Trebinje; and Hlum or Hum, the Zachlumia of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, who gives a clear picture of this region as it was in the 10th century.'
At that time a number of principalities had replaced the Seljukian state.
The principalities of Aidin, Menteshe, Sarukhan and Kermian were annexed to Bayezid's dominions to punish their rulers for having joined with the 'Karamanian prince in rebellion.
Janissaries leisure to engage in plots against the sultan, and in order to occupy them and to remove them from the capital advantage was taken of the king of Poland having intervened in the affairs of Transylvania and the principalities to declare war against him.
The sultan determined henceforth to appoint Greeks to the principalities as more likely to be subservient to his will than the natives hitherto appointed.Advertisement
But Austria, which had made a great show of seconding their efforts, now began to unmask her real aims, which were to take advantage of Turkey's embarrassments to push her own claims in the principalities and the Balkan Peninsula.
When, in the spring of 1769, the first serious campaign was opened by a simultaneous attack by three Russian armies on the principalities, the Crimea and the buffer state of Kabardia, the Turks, in spite of ample warning, were unprepared.
In June Romanzov's victory at Kartal made him master of the principalities, and by November the fortresses of Izmail and Kilia, guarding the passage of the Danube, and those of Akkerman and Bender on the Dniester had fallen into the hands of the Russians.
The Porte, unable to resist, was obliged to consent to the convention of Ainali Ka y ak (March 10, 1779) whereby the Russian partisan, Shahin Girai, was recognized as khan of the Crimea, the admission of Russian vessels to navigate Turkish waters was reaffirmed and Russia's right of intervention in the affairs of the Danubian principalities was formally recognized.
Russia, desirous of deriving some return for the support which she had given the sultan during his rupture with the French, induced the Porte to address to her a note in which the right of intervention in the affairs of the principalities, conferred on her by the treaty of Kainarji and reaffirmed in the convention of Ainali Ka y ak, was converted into a specific stipulation that the hospodars should be appointed in future for seven years and should not be dismissed without the concurrence of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople.
But war was nevertheless declared on the 27th of December 1806, and Russia occupied the principalities.
The treaties as to the principalities were renewed; and though Servia was restored to the direct rule of Turkey it was stipulated that clemency was to be observed in the Porte's dealings with the country, which was given the power of regulating its own affairs.
The Treaty of Adrianople, by which the Danubian principalities were erected into practically independent states, the treaty rights of Russia in the navigation of the Bosporus Anapa and Poti in Asia ceded to the tsar, included also a settlement of the Greek question on the terms of the protocol of the 22nd of March.
The acceptance of the principle of complete independence, once more warmly advocated by Metternich, seemed now essential if Greece was not to become, like the principalities, a mere dependency of Russia.
It cannot indeed be said that complete tranquillity prevailed throughout the country meanwhile; disturbances in the principalities and in the Lebanon gave serious trouble, while in 1842 the unsettled state of the Turco-Persian frontier nearly led to war.
On the 22nd Menshikov and the whole of the Russian diplomatic staff left Constantinople; and it was announced that, at the end of the month, the tsar's troops would enter the Danubian principalities.
As the Russians withdrew from the Danubian principalities, Austrian troops occupied them, and by a convention with the Porte the Austrian government undertook to resist by arms any attempt of the Russians to return.
Agriculturists, tanners, merchants and mollahs (priests) were called from Turkestan, and small principalities sprang up on the Irtysh and the Ob.
Each group of principalities constituted a separate aimak, and each principality a separate hoshun.
But during this period a redistribution of territory had occurred in these parts, which converted most of the old banates into semi-independent and violently anti-Magyar principalities.
Vien-Tiane during the 18th century was the most powerful of the Lao principalities, and was feared and respected throughout Indo-China.
The name of Hohenzollern is used much more frequently than the official Sigmaringen to designate the combined principalities.
On the other hand he acquired permanently the important principalities of Smolensk and Bryansk in central Russia.
The chronicle of Villehardouin is justly held to be the very best presentation we possess of the spirit of chivalry - not the designedly exalted and poetized chivalry of the romances, not the self-conscious and deliberate chivalry of the 14th century, but the unsophisticated mode of thinking and acting which brought about the crusades, stimulated the vast literary development of the 12th and 13th centuries, and sent knights-errant, principally though not wholly of French blood, to establish principalities and kingdoms throughout Europe and the nearer East.
In this way Baldwin was able to make himself into practical suzerain of the three Christian principalities of the north, though the suzerainty was, and always continued to be, somewhat nominal.
Silesia, now split up into seventeen principalities, was the bone of contention between them; and when Casimir suddenly invaded that country, took Wschowa, and made Prince Charles of Bohemia a prisoner, war between the two kingdoms actually broke out and Casimir was besieged in Cracow by the Czechs.
At the end of the 10th century the bishops were granted by the emperors the right to exercise temporal jurisdiction over their see, which became one of the most considerable of the ecclesiastical principalities of the Empire.
The Principe is an offshoot from the main theme of the Discorsi, setting forth Machiavelli's views at large and in detail upon the nature of principalities, the method of cementing them, and the qualities of a successful autocrat.
The peninsula was, roughly speaking, divided into principalities and sovereign cities, each of which claimed autocratic j urisdiction.
Indeed, there was reason to believe at this time that the archbishops of Mainz, Trier and Cologne, as well as some other bishops, were planning the secularization of their principalities.
These principalities were ruled by the sons and descendants of the elector Albert Achilles from 1486 to 1603; and, after reverting to the elector of Brandenburg, by the descendants of the elector John George from 1603 to 1791.
In consequence of the political troubles of 1848 Princes Frederick William of HohenzollernHechingen and Charles Anton of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen resigned their principalities, and accordingly these fell to the king of Prussia, who took possession on the 12th of March 1850.
It was divided into two principalities, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and HohenzollernHechingen, until 1850, when these were united.
From that time until 1821 the Greeks monopolized the management of Turkey's foreign relations, and soon established the regular system whereby the chief dragoman passed on as a matter of course to the dignity of hospodar of one of the Danubian principalities.
The distinction of good and bad angels is recognized; we have names, Gabriel 4, and the evil angels Abaddon or Apollyon', Beelzebub 6, and Satan'; ranks are implied, archangels 8, principalities and powers9, thrones and dominions 10.
Servia, Egypt and the principalities were successively the scene of hostilities in which Turkey gained no successes, and in 1807 a British fleet appeared at Constantinople, strange to say to insist on Turkey's yielding to Russia's demands besides dismissing the ambassador of Napoleon I.
A compromise was arrived at in 1686, by which the elector received the lordship of Schwiebus on renouncing his claims to the principalities of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau.
Several of the important ecclesiastical principalities of North Germany were about this time held by members of the Saxon ruling house, and the external influence of the electorate corresponded to its internal prosperity.
Such Thuringian states are Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Altenburg, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, and the two principalities of Reuss, all of which are separately described.
He was occupied chiefly with affairs of the principalities of Anspach and Bayreuth, newly acquired by Prussia, and especially in the settlement of disputes with Bavaria as to their boundaries.
When in 1805 the principalities became part of Bavaria, Lang entered the Bavarian service (1806), was ennobled in 1808 and from 1810 to 1817 held the office of archivist in Munich.
If we exclude the abortive invasion of the Danubian principalities by Prince Alexander Ypsilanti (March 1821), which collapsed ignominiously as soon as it was disavowed by the tsar, the theatre of the war was confined to continental Greece, the Morea, and the adjacent narrow seas.
Gedymin still further extended the limits of Lithuania by annexing Kiev, Chernigov and other old Russian principalities.
A second Tatar raid in 1259, less dangerous, perhaps, but certainly more ruinous, than the first invasion - for the principalities of Little Poland and Sandomir were systematically ravaged for three months - still further but Poland formed but a small portion of his vast domains, and Poland's interests were subordinated to the larger demands of an imperial policy which embraced half Europe within its orbit On the death of Louis there ensued an interregnum of two years marked by fierce civil wars, instigated by duke Ziemovit of Masovia, the northernmost province of Poland, the daughter of Louis the Great and the granddaughter of Wladislaus Lokietek, had an equal right, by inheritance, to the thrones of Hungary and Poland.
The Turks themselves were too much occupied elsewhere to pay much attention to the Danubian principalities till the middle of the 15th century.
Had that dynasty been prolonged for another century, there is every reason to suppose that it would also have dealt satisfactorily with Poland's still more dangerous internal difficulties, and arrested the development of that anarchical constitution which was the ruling factor in the ruin of the Republic. Simultaneously with the transformation into a great power of the petty principalities which composed ancient Poland, another and equally momentous political transformation was proceeding within the country itself.
This category includes German places in the Kingdom of Saxony, in the Prussian province of Saxony, in the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, in the Duchies of Anhalt, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, and Saxe-Meiningen, and in the Principalities of Reuss, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
But he had to face two great forces - the East Roman empire, which claimed the whole of his territories and was supported in its claim by Raymund of Toulouse, and the strong Mahommedan principalities in the north-east of Syria.
They were the powers and principalities with whom he was ever at war.
In the latter part of the Toth century it was annexed to the Bohemian principality, but was recaptured by Boleslaus Chrobry, who made it the seat of a bishopric, and it became the capital of one of the most important of the principalities into which Poland was divided from the 12th century onwards.
Lastly, from the very beginning of the 9th century bodies of Scandinavian warriors began to found kingdoms and principalities in all parts of Europe.
It was the Revolution, which at one moment seemed finally to have engulfed the papacy, which in fact preserved it; Febronianism, as a force to be seriously reckoned with, perished in the downfall of the ecclesiastical principalities of the old Empire; Gallicanism perished with the constitutional Church in France, and its principles fell into discredit with a generation which associated it with the Revolution and its excesses.
By1185-1186Saladin had made Egypt supreme over all these principalities, thus achieving what the XVIIIth and XIXth Egyptian dynasties had attempted in vain.
The petty principalities were unable to unite to resist the terrible attack, and Jezira, Edessa, Nasibin, Maridin, &c., fell in 1259-60.
Silesia, already more than half Germanized, had for generations been the battle-ground between the Luxemburgers and the Piasts, and was split up into innumerable principalities which warred incessantly upon their neighbours and each other.
In this reign the system of appointing Phanariote Greeks to the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia was instituted.
In 1809 Bavaria was again engaged in war with Austria on the side of France, and by the treaty signed at Paris on the 28th of February 1810 ceded southern Tirol to Italy and some small districts to Wurttemberg, receiving as compensation parts of Salzburg, the quarters of the Inn and Hausruck and the principalities of Bayreuth and Regensburg.
The present Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1815 out of the duchies of Cleves, Berg, Gelderland and Jiilich, the ecclesiastical principalities of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne, and nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.
Subsequently, as the central power of the German sovereign became weakened, the Rhineland followed the general tendency and split up into numerous small independent principalities, each with its separate vicissitudes and special chronicles.
Aix-la-Chapelle was fixed upon as the place of coronation of the German emperors, and the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulk largely in German history.
In his reign the grand-duchy of Muscovy became practically hereditary, and asserted its supremacy over all the surrounding principalities.
Principalities A narrow strip along the shores Schwarzburg-Sondershausen of the Baltic is covered with Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt -
The second system mentioned above (Burgermeistereiverfassung) prevails in the Rhine province, the Bavarian Palatinate, Hesse, Saxe-Weimar, Anhalt, Waldeck and the principalities of Reuss and Schwarzburg.
The process of division and subdivision which steadily went on broke up Germany into a bewildering multitude of principalities; but as a rule the members of each princely house held together against common enemies, and ultimately they learned to arrange by private treaties that no territory should pass from the family while a single representative survived.
During this century their power was limited by the formation of diets in many of the principalities.
This movement spelled danger to the small principalities and to the free cities, but it gave a powerful impetus to the growth of Brandenburg, of Saxony, of Bavaria and of the Palatinate, and the future of the country seemed likely to remain with the particularist and not with the national idea.
No general reform, they maintained, either in church or state, could be secured while the country was divided into a number of principalities, and their plan was to combine with all those who were discontented with the existing order to attack the princes and to place the emperor at the head of a united nation.
Thus before the Thirty Years War the Empire had virtually ceased to exist, Germany having become a loose confederation of principalities and free cities.
After the Thirty Years War it became fashionable for the heirs of principalities to travel, and especially to spend some time at the court of France.
In his hands, and in those of his prudent successors, it became one of the most flourishing of the North-German principalities.
Meanwhile, alarmed at this tendency, and hopeless of obtaining any general system from the federal diet, the middle states had drawn together; by a treaty signed on the 18th of January 1828 Wurttemberg and Bavaria formed a tariff union, which was joined in the following year by the Hohenzollern principalities; and on the 24th of September 1828 was formed the so-called Middle German Commercial Union (Handelsverein) between Hanover, HesseCassel, the Saxon duchies, Brunswick, Nassau, the principalities of Reuss and Schwarzburg, and the free cities of Frankfort and Bremen, the object of which was to prevent the extension of the Prussian system and, above all, any union of the northern Zollverein with that of Bavaria and WUrttemberg.
A crafty prince, with all the tenacity of his race, Basil succeeded in incorporating with Muscovy the last remnants of the ancient independent principalities, by accusing the princes of Ryazan and Syeversk of conspiracy against him, seizing their persons, and annexing their domains (1517-1523).
By the death of the archduke Sigismund in 1665 he not only gained Tirol, but a considerable sum of money, which he used to buy back the Silesian principalities of Oppeln and Ratibor, pledged by Ferdinand III.
In the minds of Austrian statesmen the question of the free navigation of the Danube, which would have been imperilled by a Russian occupation of the Principalities, outweighed their sense of obligation to Russia, on which the emperor Nicholas had rashly relied.
But, on the withdrawal of the Russian forces from the Principalities, these were occupied by Austrian troops, and on the 2nd of December 1854, a treaty of alliance was signed at Vienna, between Great Britain, Austria and France, by which Austria undertook to occupy Moldavia and Walachia during the continuance of the war and " to defend the frontier of the said principalities against any return of the Russian forces."
The constant changes of sultan led to great disorder in the provinces, and many of the subject principalities endeavoured to shake off the Egyptian yoke.
Austria received the circle of Burgau, and consented that the king of Prussia should take the Franconian principalities.
He would divide with Alexander the empire of the world; as a first step he would leave him in possession of the Danubian principalities and give him a free hand to deal with Finland; and, afterwards, the emperors of the East and West, when the time should be ripe, would drive the Turks from Europe and march across Asia to the conquest of India.
The complete independence of the principalities of Servia,Rumania and Montenegro was recognized.
Most of the small principalities of the Tochari or Kushan became subject to them.
Halicz, which is mentioned in annals as early as 1113, was from 1141 to 1255 the residence of the princes of that name, one of the principalities into which western Russia was then divided.
This category includes German places in the Prussian provinces of Westphalia, Rhineland, and Hesse-Nassau, in the Bavarian Palatinate, in the Grand Duchy of Hesse, and in the Principalities of Birkenfeld, Waldeck-Pyrmont, Lippe, and Schaumburg-Lippe.
The two border principalities of Birbhum and Bankura were accordingly united into a district under a British collector, being, however, separated again in 1793.
It was at Laibach, too, that, on the 19th of March, the emperor Alexander received the news of Ypsilanti's invasion of the Danubian principalities, which heralded the outbreak of the War of Greek Independence, and from Laibach Capo d'Istria addressed to the Greek leader the tsar's repudiation of his action.
The Lutherans interpreted this to mean the right to frame ecclesiastical regulations for various principalities and to make changes in public worship. Luther busied himself in simplifying the service, in giving advice, - anxiously sought for, about the best modes of organising ecclesiastical affairs.
Without waging war Louis made himself virtual arbiter of the fate of the principalities in the north, and his court was always besieged by ambassadors from them.
He seized the capital, Pataliputra, the modern Patna, established himself firmly in the Gangetic valley, and compelled the north-western principalities, Greeks and natives alike, to acknowledge his suzerainty.
Nicholas, though a man of learning and strength of character, brought just reproach on himself for his efforts to found principalities for his nephews and other relations.
In this year, having just inherited Coburg and Eisenach, the three brothers William, Albert and Ernest founded the three principalities of Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Eisenach and Saxe-Gotha.
All towns of any importance, however, were for a considerable time far ahead of the principalities in administration.
These tendencies both princes and lesser nobles naturally tried to thwart, and the mediate towns or Landstddte were finally brought to stricter subjection, at least in the greater principalities such as Austria and Brandenburg.
It is not to be understood as marking the introduction into the principalities of the Greek element, which had already established itself firmly in both provinces, to both of which Greek princes had been appointed before the 18th century.
But whereas the Greek families of earlier introduction gradually became merged in their country of adoption, the later immigrants retained their separate nationality and grew to be powerful agents for furthering the spread of Graecism in the principalities.
The decline of the Mogul empire gave free play to the turbulent spirit of the Jats and Gujars, many of whose chieftains succeeded in carving out petty principalities for themselves at the expense of their neighbours.
The popes, as the phrase went, became Spanish chaplains, with a fixed territory guaranteed to them by Spanish arms; apart from the addition of Ferrara and one or two other petty principalities on the extinction of the reigning house, its boundaries remained unchanged till Napoleonic times.
It appears, then, that towards the middle of the second millennium before Christ, the Iranians made a great forward movement to the West, and that certain of their princesat first, probably in the role of mercenary leadersreached Mesopotamia and Syria and there founded principalities of their own., much as did the Germans under the Roman Empire, the Normans.
On the same footing were the spiritual principalities, with their great temple-property; as Bambyce in Syria, the two Comanas in Cappadocia, and so forth.
The empress, as usual, richly rewarded her comes with pensions and principalities.
In some cases the secularization of episcopal principalities at the Reformation led to the survival of the title of bishop as a purely secular distinction.
On the union of the two principalities under Alexander Couza (December 1861) the Church was declared autocephalous under a metropolitan at Bucharest; and the fact was recognized by the patriarchs, as it was in the case of Servia, after the treaty of Berlin had guaranteed their independence.
In 1820, on the refusal of Count Capo d'Istria to accept the post of president of the Greek Hetairia Philike, Ypsilanti was elected, and in 1821 he placed himself at the head of the insurrection against the Turks in the Danubian principalities.
Had he advanced on Ibraila he might have prevented the Turks entering the principalities and so forced Russia to accept the fait accompli.
In 1871 both principalities became members of the new German empire.
For as the angels were mismanaging the world, owing to their individual lust for rule, he had come to set things straight, and had descended under a changed form, likening himself to the Principalities and Powers through whom he passed, so that among men he appeared as a man, though he was not a man, and was thought to have suffered in Judaea, though he had not suffered.
He tells us also that he gave barbaric names to the " principalities and powers," and that he was the beginning of the Gnostics.
He counted on baffling them by forming a counter league of the principalities of northern Italy, and by raising the Turks against Venice, and the Germans and Swiss against France.
Until the end of the 12th century Hindu princes governed in a number of petty principalities, till, in 1199, Mahommed Bakhtiyar Khilji was appointed to lead the first Mussulman invasion into Bengal.
The two principalities of Walachia of and Moldavia developed separately, and each has its separate annals.
About the year 1774 it first - becomes possible to trace the progress of these ality Danubian Principalities in a single narrative, owing to the uniform system of administration adopted by the Turkish authorities, and the rapid contemporary growth of a national consciousness among the Vlachs.
By previous concert with the Moldavian voivode Aaron, on the 13th of November 1594, the Turkish guards and settlers in the two principalities were massacred at a given signal.
As prince of Transylvania he summoned diets in 1599 and 1600, and, having expelled the voivode of Moldavia, united under his sceptre three principalities.
Carra, a Swiss who had been tutor to Prince Ghica's children, and who published in 1781 an account of the actual state of the principalities, speaks of some of the boiars as possessing a taste for French literature and even for the works of Voltaire, a tendency actively combated by the patriarch of Constantinople.
The people of the principalities were to enjoy all the privileges that they had possessed under Mahomet IV.; they were to be freed from tribute for two years, as some compensation for the ruinous effects of the last war; they were to pay a moderate tribute; the agents of Walachia and Moldavia at Constantinople were to enjoy the rights of national representatives, and the Russian minister at the Porte should on occasion watch over the interests of the principalities.
The stipulations of the treaty, though deficient in precision (the Walachians, for instance, had no authentic record of the privileges enjoyed under Mahomet IV.), formed the basis of future liberties in both principalities; but for the moment all reforms were postponed.
The Divan seemed intent on restoring the old system of government in its entirety, but in 1783 the Russian representative extracted from the sultan a decree (hattisherif) defining more precisely the liberties of the principalities and fixing the amount of the annual tribute - for Walachia 619 purses exclusive of various "presents" amounting to 130,000 piasters, and for Moldavia 1 3 5 purses and further gifts to the extent of 115,000 piasters.
By the peace of Jassy in 1792 the Dniester was recognized as the Russian frontier, and the privileges of the principalities as specified in the hattisherif confirmed.
Exaction followed exaction, and in 1802 Russia resolved to assert her treaty rights in favour of the oppressed inhabitants of the principalities.
The Turkish troops then employed in the principalities were to be paid off, and one year's tribute remitted for the purpose.
They occupied the principalities from 1806 to 1812.
By the peace of Bucharest, however, in 1812, the principalities were restored to the sultan under the former conditions, with the exception of Bessarabia, which was ceded to the tsar.
The growing solidarity between the two Ruman principalities received a striking illustration in 1816, when the Walachian and Moldavian hospodars published together a code applicable to both countries, and which had been elaborated by a joint commission.
Vladimirescu was slain by a Greek revolutionary agent, but Ypsilanti rashly continuing his enterprise after he had been repudiated by the Russian emperor, his forces were finally crushed by the Turks at Dragashani, in Walachia, and at Skuleni, in Moldavia; and the result of his revolt was a Turkish occupation of the principalities.
By the convention of Akkerman between the Russians and the Turks in 1826 the privileges of the principalities were once more confirmed, and they were again ratified in 1829, under Russian guarantee, by the peace of Adrianople.
Adria- By this peace all the towns on the left bank of the Danube were restored to the principalities, and the Porte undertook to refrain from fortifying any position on the Walachian side of the river.
The principalities were to enjoy commercial freedom, and the right of establishing a quarantine cordon along the Danube or elsewhere.
On the entry of the Russian troops into the principalities in 1853, the hospodars fled to Vienna, leaving the government in the hands of their ministers.
Austrian troops occupied the principalities, and the hospodars returned to their posts.
By the treaty of Paris in 1856 the principalities with their existing privileges were placed under the collective guarantee of the contracting Powers, while remaining under the Paris, suzerainty of the Porte - the Porte on its part engag 1856.
The existing laws and statutes of both principalities were to be revised by a European Commission, sitting at Bucharest, and their work was to be assisted by a Divan or national council which the Porte was to convoke for the purpose in each of the two provinces, and in which all classes of Walachian and Moldavian society were to be represented.
The European commission, in arriving at its conclusions, was to take into consideration the opinion expressed by the representative councils; the Powers were to come to terms with the Porte as to the recommendations of the commission; and the final result was to be embodied in a hattisherif of the sultan, which was to lay down the definitive organization of the two principalities.
On their meeting in September they at once proceeded to vote with unanimity the union of the two principalities into a single state under princi- the name of Romania (Rumania), to be governed by a foreign prince elected from one of the reigning dynasties of Europe, and having a single representative assembly.
By the convention concluded by the European congress at Paris in 1858, it was decided that the principalities should continue as heretofore to be governed each by its own prince.
The principalities, however, determined to elect Prince Charles, the of Prince second son of Prince Charles Antony of HohenzollernSigmaringen.
The king of Prussia, however, had agreed that the new hospodar should be a native of the principalities, and could not therefore openly approve of Prince Charles's election.
The historians of the time under pressure of political exigencies did not scruple to invent treaties between the Porte and the Rumanian principalities.
The Glykis, a Greek printing firm in Venice, published many popular books in Rumanian which found their way into the principalities.
From the East the fashion was carried back to France; but there the erection of certain fiefs into " principalities," which became common in the 15th and 16th centuries, certainly implied no concession of independent sovereignty, and the title of " prince " thus bestowed ranked below that of " duke," being sometimes borne by cadet branches of ducal houses, e.g.
In the 17th century some half-dozen more principalities were created, of which that of SchwarzburgSondershausen (1697) survives as a sovereign house.
Mavrocordato, Ypsilanti, Soutzo, who formerly supplied hospodars to the Turkish principalities on the Danube.
The country was politically split up into little principalities, most of them governed by some petty despot, whose interests were not often the same as those of the community.
The remaining territories may conveniently be divided into a small cluster of independent zamindaris, situated in the wild and hilly tracts at the northern extremity of the Sahyadri range, and certain principalities which, from their history or geographical position, are to some extent isolated from the rest of the presidency.
The political administration of the native states is under the superintendence of British agents placed at the principal native courts; their position varies in different states according to the relations in which the principalities stand with the paramount power.
Russiaor rather her, tsar resolved on.the occupation of the Danubian principalities; the British ministrythough the quarrel did not directly concern Great Britainsent a fleet to the Dardanelles and placed it under Lord Stratfords orders.
In October the Porte, encouraged by the presence of the British fleet in the Bosporus, took the bold step of summoning the Russians to evacuate the principalities.
An ultimatum was soon afterwards addressed to Russia requiring her to evacuate the principalities, and war began.
The Russians were forced to retire, and the principalities were evacuated.
Primarily intended for the hereditary dominions of Maximilian, these bodies were also intended for the whole Empire; and the Hofrat was to deal with "all and every business which may flow in from the Empire, Christendom at large, or the king's hereditary principalities."
But it was difficult to work such a body both for the Empire and for the hereditary principalities; and under Ferdinand I.
Basil gained some successes against the Saracens (995); but his most important work in the East was the annexation of the principalities of Armenia.
The provincial kingdoms had split up into more or less independent principalities, almost constantly at war with each other.
The early governors seemingly had orders to deal as fairly as possible with the natives, and this involved them in quarrels with the "conquerors," whose object was to carve out principalities for themselves, and who only nominally respected the sovereign's wishes.
A score of shifting principalities, each ready to help the Christians to destroy the others, took the place of the caliphate.
While on his guard against his northern foes, Gedymin from 1316 to 1340 was aggrandizing himself at the expense of the numerous Russian principalities in the south and east, whose incessant conflicts with each other wrought the ruin of them all.
Prussia, though opposed by all the German states except a few principalities in the north, completely defeated all her enemies, and at the end of a few weeks the whole of Germany lay at her feet.
Having persuaded his step-brothers to surrender the principalities bequeathed to them by the great elector, he assisted William of Orange to make his descent on England; then in 1688 allied himself with other German princes against Louis XIV., and afterwards fought for the Empire against both France and Turkey.
Below the confluence of the Punjab rivers into the single stream of the Indus the territory of loose tribes was succeeded by another group of regular principalities, under the rajahs called by the Greeks Musicanus, Oxycanus and Sambus.
Venice hoped to intervene in Romagna and establish her protectorate over the principalities, but this Julius was determined to prevent, and after trying in vain to use Cesare as a means of keeping out the Venetians, he had him arrested.
They are skilful agriculturists and artisans, especially in textile fabrics and the manufacture of arms. Though native rule is tyrannical and arbitrary, especially in the principalities of Badung and Tabanan, trade and industry could not flourish if insecurity of persons and property existed to any great extent.
During the next 170 years (1054-1224) no less than 64 principalities had a more or less ephemeral existence, 293 princes put forward succession-claims, and their disputes led to 83 civil wars.
Not only so, but they could count, at the very least, on a benevolent neutrality from the native population; while from the Armenian principalities in the S.E.
The sultans of Egypt were stirred to fresh activity by the attacks of the Mongols; and as Syria became the battleground of the two, the Latin principalities of Syria were fated to fall as the prize of victory to one or other of the combatants.
The Danubian principalities were also ruled by native princes until the Phanariote period (see Phanariotes).
But in the principalities, where the Vlach peasants regarded the Phanariots as worse oppressors than the Turks, the movement had little chance of success; it was doomed from the moment that the emperor Alexander disavowed Ypsilanti's claim to his support (See Alexander I.).
In 1859 the Danubian principalities, deliberately left separate by the Congress of Paris, carried out their long-cherished design of union by electing Prince Cuza both in Moldavia and in Walachia, a contingency which the powers had not taken into account, and to which in the end they gave a grudging assent (see Rumania).
Both Servia and Bulgaria were by this time split up into half a dozen principalities which, as much for religious as for political reasons, preferred paying tribute to the Turks to acknowledging the hegemony of Hungary.
The division of Sigmaringen is composed of the two formerly sovereign principalities of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Hechingen (see Hohenzollern), and has an area of 440 sq.
In carrying out the provisions of the treaty, an assurance was given by the British government that the rights of those interested in the transfer should be scrupulously respected, and the host of petty native principalities in the province is the best proof of the sincerity and good faith with which this clause has been carried out.
In 1695 these two branches of the family entered conjointly into an agreement with Brandenburg, which provided that, in case of the extinction of either of the Swabian branches, the remaining branch should inherit its lands; and if both branches became extinct the principalities should revert to Brandenburg.
Two works remain still to be mentioned - a comprehensive history of both principalities by an anonymous author, probably the Spatar Milescu, who finished his eventful life as ambassador of Russia to China (still in MS.), and the Hronicul Moldo-Vlahilor of Prince Demetrius Cantemir (see Cantemir), more an apology for the Roman origin of the Rumanians than a true history.
During his reign Poland suffered much humiliation from the attempts of her subject principalities, Prussia and Moldavia, to throw off her yoke.
Among the principalities of that northern region the first place was long held by Novgorod.
It was intended that Russia should take what remained of the northern coast of the Black Sea, Austria should annex the Turkish provinces contiguous to her territory, the Danubian principalities and Bessarabia should be formed into an independent kingdom called Dacia, the Turks should be expelled from Europe, the Byzantine empire should be resuscitated, and the grand-duke Constantine, second son of the Russian heir-apparent, should be placed on the throne of the Palaeologi.
The influence of the Italian towns did not make itself greatly felt till after the end of the First Crusade, when it made possible the foundation of a kingdom in Jerusalem, in addition to the three principalities established by Bohemund, Baldwin and Raymond; but during the course of the Crusade itself the Italian ships which hugged the shores of Syria were able to supply the crusaders with provisions and munition of war, and to render help in the sieges of Antioch and Jerusalem.4 Sea-power had thus some influence in determining the victory of the crusaders.
In 1814 he was appointed administrator of the Orange principalities; and, when the prince of Orange became king of the Netherlands, Baron Gagern became his prime minister.