Primitive sentence example

primitive
  • First, nutrition is a very primitive science.

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  • Even using extremely primitive technology, we have made marvelous progress.

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  • When I saw the fern, I was reminded of primitive plants that I saw in a history video.

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  • The Primitive Methodists in Ireland were a small body who in 1817 seceded because they wished to maintain that close connexion with the Church of England which existed at the time of Wesley's death, but in 1878 they rejoined the parent body.

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  • War is the ultimate barbarism, the primitive belief that fighting determines who is right—but of course it doesn't.

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  • Winge, a large number of these creatures are primitive monotremes.

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  • The calendar was the Syro-Macedonian, a solar, as distinct from the primitive lunar, calendar, which Roman influence disseminated throughout Syria; it was practically a reproduction of the Julian calendar.

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  • Along one line there was a gradual elaboration of the tube until it culminated, so far as structural complexity is concerned, in the so-called trapdoor nests or burrows of various families; along the other line the tubular retreat either retains its primitive simplicity in association with a new structure, the snare or net, or is entirely superseded by the latter.

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  • Our knowledge of the development of the most primitive forms is scanty.

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  • In modern times hepatoscopy still survives among primitive peoples in Borneo, Burma, Uganda, &c.

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  • It was a primitive institution which gradually changed its character by force of circumstances.

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  • The most primitive is hand-picking, the fibre being laboriously pulled from off each seed, as still practised in parts of Africa.

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  • With this primitive machine, worked by hand, about 5 lb of lint is the daily output.

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  • West Africa.-Cotton has long been grown in the various countries on the west coast of Africa, ginned by hand or by very primitive means, spun into yarn, and woven on simple looms into " country cloths "; these are often only a few inches wide, so that any large cloths have to be made by sewing the narrow strips together.

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  • The area under cotton in all British India is about 20,000,000 acres, the crop being grown in a very primitive manner.

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  • In the early days of the petroleum industry the oil was transported in the most primitive manner.

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  • The primitive methods originally in use in the Russian oil-fields have already been described; but these were long ago superseded by pipe-lines, while a great deal of oil is carried by tank steamers on the Caspian to the mouth of the Volga where it is transferred to barges and thence at Tzaritzin to railway tank-cars.

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  • Thus the story of the legists shrinks down to the regular myth of the primitive legislator, used to give an air of respectability to law-books, which really record an unwritten custom.

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  • The crusading states had been founded by adventurers who thirsted for gain; and the primitive appetite did not lose its edge with the progress of time.

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  • The Heteronemertini thus appear to have developed an extra layer of longitudinal fibres internally to those which they inherited from more primitive ancestors, whereas the Metanemertini are no longer in possession of the internal circular layer, but have on the contrary largely developed the external circular one, which has dwindled away in the Heteronemertini.

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  • As to the Mesonemertini, in the most primitive genus, Carinella, we do not find any lateral organs answering to the description above given.

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  • Besides these more highly differentiated organs of vision, more primitive eyes are present in others down to simple stellate pigment specks without any refracting apparatus.

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  • It encloses the primitive alimentary tract.

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  • As the great nature-goddess, the attributes of fertility and reproduction are characteristically hers, as also the accompanying immorality which originally, perhaps, was often nothing more than primitive magic. As patroness of the hunt, later identification with Artemis was inevitable.

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  • There were, however, some ardent spirits who continued to work along the old lines and whose watchword was revivalism, and out of their efforts came the Bible Christian, the Independent Methodist and the Primitive Methodist denominations.

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  • Lorenzo Dow (1777-1834), an eccentric American Methodist revivalist, visited North Staffordshire and spoke of the campmeetings held in America, with the result that on the 31st of May 1807 the first real English gathering of the kind was held on Mow Cop, since regarded as the Mecca of Primitive Methodism.

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  • Clowes, like Crawfoot, was set apart as a preacher to "live by the gospel," and in February 1812 the name "Primitive Methodist" was formally adopted, although for nearly a generation the name "Clowesites" survived in local use.

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  • The first distinct period in the history of Primitive Methodism proper is 1811-1843.

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  • Thenceforward, while the Oxford Movement was awakening one section of the people of England the Primitive Methodists were making themselves felt among other classes of the population.

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  • These were the classes the Primitive Methodists tried to reach, and in doing so they found themselves between two fires.

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  • Since 1885 Primitive Methodism has been developing from a "Connexion" into a "Church," the designation employed since 1902.

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  • The use by the Malays of artificially constructed terms to denote these things may certainly be taken to strengthen the opinion that the Malays arrived in the lands they now inhabit at a comparatively late period in their history, and at a time when they had developed considerably from the original state of primitive man.

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  • The generalized arrangement of the wing-nervure and the nature of the larva, which is less unlike the adult than in other beetles, distinguish this tribe as primitive, although the perfect insects are, in the more dominant families, distinctly specialized.

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  • The Lymexylonidae, a small family of this group, characterized by its slender, undifferentiated feelers and feet, is believed by Lameere to comprise the most primitive of all living beetles, and Sharp lays stress on the undeveloped structure of the tribe generally.

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  • The Ural industry is the older, and is still conducted on primitive methods, wood being largely used for fuel, and the ore and metals being transported by water down the Kama and other rivers.

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  • What constituted in this primitive system of inheritance the strength of a claim was often not easily determined, and even when the legal question was clear enough the law was not always respected by the contending parties.

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  • Like the European settlers on the coast of Africa in more recent times, they wished the barbarians of the interior to be restricted to the use of their primitive weapons.

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  • Hubert and Mauss, while admitting that in all sacrifices is found some idea of purchase or substitution, decline to admit that all have issued from one primitive form.

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  • Until after the War of Independence the primitive topography remained unchanged, but it was afterwards subjected to changes greater than those effected on the site of any other American city.

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  • One of the men to whom Primitive Methodism owes its existence was Hugh Bourne (1772-1852), a millwright of Stoke-upon-Trent.

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  • Thus it appears that the gift theory may after all be primitive; the worship of, or care for, the dead may have supplied in other areas the motive for the transition from offering to sacrifice or the evolution may have been due to the spiritualization of the gods.

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  • For other areas we have often no description of the procedure at all, but merely the briefest outline of the actual process of slaughter, and we are ignorant whether the form of the rite is in reality simple (either from a loss of primitive elements or from never having advanced beyond the stage at which we find it), or whether the absence of detail is due to the inattention or lack of interest of the observer.

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  • How far this scheme of sacrifice holds good for other areas, and in particular for more primitive peoples, is an open question.

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  • In spite of the importance attached to the idea of the common meal by Robertson Smith, it is not a primitive rite of adoption.

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  • It is clear from the evidence of the early Western liturgies that, for at least six centuries, the primitive conception of the nature of the Christian sacrifice remained.

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  • Other ideas no doubt attached themselves to the primitive conception, of which there is no certain evidence in primitive times, e.g.

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  • It is probable that in some primitive sanctuaries no real distinction was made between this stonepillar and the altar or place where the animal was slaughtered.

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  • This narrative has all the marks of primitive simplicity.

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  • This necessarily involved in that primitive age an extreme jealousy of foreign importations or innovations in ritual.

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  • In the historical evolution of Hebrew sacrifice it is remarkable how long this non-ethical and primitive survival of old custom still survived, even far into post-exilian times.

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  • But I refused the permission which Becket solicited of reprinting it; the public curiosity was imperfectly satisfied by a pirated copy of the booksellers of Dublin; and when a copy of the original edition has been discovered in a sale, the primitive value of half-a-crown has risen to the fanciful price of a guinea or thirty shillings."

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  • It seems to point to the supersession of a primitive local Cretan divinity by Demeter, and the adoption of agriculture by the inhabitants, bringing wealth in its train in the form of the fruits of the earth, both vegetable and mineral.

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  • During the commonwealth and empire aes grave was used to denote the old as in contradistinction to the existing depreciated coin; while aes rude was applied to the original oblong coinage of primitive times.

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  • In these forms, however, the third joint is really a complex, which in many families bears in addition a jointed bristle (arista) or style, representing the terminal joints of the primitive antenna.

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  • It is customary to divide the Orthorrhapha into the two divisions Nematocera and Brachycera, in the former of which the antennae are elongate and in a more or less primitive condition, as described above, while in the latter these organs are short, and, as already explained, apparently composed of only three joints.

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  • I 1-24); Caleb's overthrow of the Hebronite giants finds a parallel in David's conflicts before the capture of Jerusalem, and may be associated with the belief that these primitive giants once filled the land (Josh.

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  • Many traces of myth, legend and " primitive " thought survive in the Old Testament, and on the most cautious estimate they presuppose a vitality which is not a little astonishing.

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  • The fish was an early symbol of Christ in primitive and medieval Christian art.

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  • Agriculture is still in a primitive condition; notwithstanding the fertility of the arable land the supply of cereals is far below the requirements of the population.

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  • This more primitive phase of the indigenous culture, of which several distinct stages are traceable, is known as the Early Minoan, and roughly corresponds with the first half of the third millennium B.C. The succeeding period, to which the first palaces are due and to which the name of Middle Minoan is appropriately given, roughly coincides with the Middle Empire of Egypt.

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  • It is a primitive cult similar to that of Early Canaan, illustrated by the pillow stone set up by Jacob, which was literally " Bethel " or the " House of God."

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  • In vowel-sounds Syriac is clearly more primitive than Hebrew (as pointed by the Massoretes), less so than Arabic. Thus Ar.

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  • The Melanochroi are not considered by Huxley to be one of the primitive modifications of mankind, but rather to be the result of the admixture of the Xanthochroi with the Australoid type, next to be mentioned.

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  • The resemblances between primitive Christianity and Buddhism appear to be coincidences, and though both early Greek philosophy and later Alexandrine ideas suggest Indian affinities, there is no clear connexion such as there is between certain aspects of Chinese thought and India.

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  • Agriculture is still carried on in a somewhat primitive fashion, and as a rule the livestock is of an inferior quality, though the breed of horses, of a heavy build and mostly used in agriculture, is held in high esteem.

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  • The cultivation of the soil is, however, attended in many parts with great difficulties owing to the scanty rainfall and the very primitive implements still in use, and in the valley of the Kura heavy losses are frequently incurred from depredations by locusts.

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  • In times of scarcity the Norse peasant-farmer uses the sweetish inner bark, beaten in a mortar and ground in his primitive mill with oats or barley, to eke out a scanty supply of meal, the mixture yielding a tolerably palatable though somewhat resinous substitute for his ordinary flad-brod.

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  • It is absent in the most primitive and symmetrical forms, such as Haliotis and Pleurotomaria.

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  • In the most primitive existing Gastropods the gonad opens into the right kidney (Patellidae, Trochidae, Fissurellidae).

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  • The common limpet is a specially interesting and abundant example of the more primitive Aspidobranchia.

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  • It corresponds to the right of the two primitive ctenidia in the untwisted archaic condition of the molluscan body, and does not project freely into the branchial cavity, but its axis is attached (by concrescence) to the mantle-skirt (roof of the branchial chamber).

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  • E, The trochosphere passing to the veliger stage, dorsal view showing the formation of the primitive shell-sac.

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  • This is clearly the same process in essence as that of the formation of a vitellogenous gland from part of the primitive ovary, or of the feeding of an ovarian egg by the absorption of neighbouring potential eggs; but here the period at which the sacrifice of one egg to another takes place is somewhat late.

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  • In several of the more primitive forms the same torsion occurs as in Streptoneura, viz.

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  • In Clausilia, according to the observations of C. Gegenbaur, the primitive shell-sac does not flatten out and disappear, but takes the form of a flattened closed sac. Within this closed sac a plate of calcareous matter is developed, and after a time the upper wall of the sac disappears, and the calcareous plate continues to grow as the nucleus of the permanent shell.

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  • The permanence of the primitive shell-sac in these slugs is a point of considerable interest.

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  • It is clear enough that the sac is of a different origin from that of Aplysia (described in the section treating of Opisthobranchia), being primitive instead of secondary.

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  • Whether the closed primitive shell-sac of the slugs (and with it the transient embryonic shell-gland of all other Mollusca) is precisely the same thing as the closed sac in which the calcareous pen or shell of the Cephalopod Sepia and its allies is formed, is a further question which we shall consider when dealing with the Cephalopoda.

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  • It is important here to note that Clausilia furnishes us with an exceptional instance of the continuity of the shell or secreted product of the primitive shell - sac with the adult shell.

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  • In most other Mollusca (Anisopleurous Gastropods, Pteropods and Conchifera) there is a want of such continuity; the primitive shell-sac contributes no factor to the permanent shell, or only a very minute FIG.

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  • Thanks to the exploration of Cnossus, we now know that Aegean civilization had its roots in a primitive Neolithic period, of uncertain but very long duration, represented by a stratum which (on that site in particular) is in places nearly 20 ft.

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  • It is true that Cuchulinn seems to stand in a special relation to the Tuatha De Danann leader, the god Lug, but in primitive societies there is always a tendency to ascribe a divine parentage to men who stand out pre-eminently in prowess beyond their fellows.

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  • The head of an insect carries usually four pairs of conspicuous appendages - feelers, mandibles and two pairs of maxillae, so that the presence of four primitive somites is immediately evident.

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  • These have been interpreted as indicating one or more primitive segments between the head and thorax.

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  • Verhoeff (1904) that the hexapodan thorax in reality contains six primitive segments is entirely without embryological support.

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  • The brain innervates the eyes and feelers, and must be regarded as a " syncerebrum " representing the ganglia of the three foremost limb-bearing somites united with the primitive cephalic lobes.

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  • From these facts it appears that the anterior three divisions of the head differ strongly from the posterior three, which greatly resemble thoracic segments; hence it has been thought possible that the anterior divisions may represent a primitive head, to which three segments and their leg-like appendages were subsequently added to form the head as it now exists.

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  • In the cockroach embryo, before the segmentation of the germ-band has begun, the primitive germ-cells can be recognized at the hinder end of the mesoderm, from whose ordinary cells they can be distinguished by their larger size.

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  • Carpenter (1899, 1902-1904) has lately endeavoured to show an exact numerical correspondence in segmentation between the Hexapoda, the Crustacea, the Arachnida, and the most primitive of the Diplopoda.

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  • On either view it may be believed that the Hexapoda arose with the allied classes from a primitive arthropod stock, while the relationships of the class are with the Crustacea, the Chilopoda and the Diplopoda, rather than with the Arachnida.

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  • Some of those zoologists who look to Peripatus, or a similar worm-like form, as representing the direct ancestors of the Hexapoda have laid stress on a larva like the caterpillar of a moth or saw-fly as representing a primitive stage.

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  • The caterpillar, or the maggot, is a specialized larval form characteristic of the most highly developed orders, while the campodeiform larva is the starting-point for the more primitive insects.

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  • Many students of the group, following Brauer, have regarded the Apterygota as representing the original wingless progenitors of the Pterygota, and the many primitive characters shown by the former group lend support to this view.

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  • How wings were acquired by these primitive Pterygota must remain for the present a subject for speculation.

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  • It is hard to arrange the Exopterygota in a linear series, for some of the orders that are remarkably primitive in some respects are rather highly specialized in others.

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  • But the vestigial jaws, numerous Malpighian tubes, and specialized wings of may-flies forbid us to consider the order as on the whole primitive.

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  • The Odonata are in many imaginal and larval characters highly specialized; yet they probably arose with the Ephemeroptera as a divergent offshoot of the same primitive isopteroid stock which developed more directly into the living Isoptera, Plecoptera, Dermaptera and Orthoptera.

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  • This order can be traced with certainty back to the early Jurassic epoch, while the Permian fossil Eugereon, and the living order - specially modified in many respects - of the Thysanoptera indicate steps by which the aberrant suctorial and piercing mouth of the Hemiptera may have been developed from the biting mouth of primitive Isopteroids, by the elongation of some parts and the suppression of others.

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  • We conclude, therefore, that the primitive stock of the former subclass became early differentiated from that of the latter.

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  • The campodeiform larvae of many Coleoptera are indeed far more primitive than the neuropteran larvae, and suggest to us that the Coleoptera - modified as their wing-structure has become - arose very early from the primitive metabolous stock.

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  • They afford an example - paralleled in other classes of the animal kingdom - of an order which, though specialized in some respects, retains many primitive characters, and has won its way to dominance rather by perfection of behaviour, and specially by the development of family life and helpful socialism, than by excessive elaboration of structure.

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  • We would trace the Hymenoptera back therefore to the primitive endopterygote stock.

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  • They could even discern dimly some generalized stock whence had descended whole groups that now differed strangely in habits and appearance - their discernment aided, may be, by some isolated form which yet retained undeniable traces of a primitive structure.

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  • On the other hand the Odontotormae, as exemplified in Ichthyornis, having the primitive biconcave vertebrae, yet possessed the highly specialized feature of teeth in distinct sockets.

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  • Fiirbringer supposes that birds must have begun with toothed forms of small or moderate size, with long tails and four lizard-like feet and bodies clothed with a primitive kind of down.

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  • Here, where he had to deal with the Judaism that believed in a Messiah, he was far better able to do justice to Christianity as a revelation; and so we find that the arguments of this work are much more completely in harmony with primitive Christian theology than those of the Apology.

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  • The dwellings of the primitive settlers in the lagoons were, in all probability, rude huts made of long reeds, such as may be seen to this day in the lagoon of Grado.

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  • The assaults, of the Dalmatian pirates, attracted by the growing wealth of the city, necessitated the building of strong castellated houses, of which no example has come down to our day, but we may gather what they were like from Petrarch's description of his house on the Riva degli Schiavoni, with its two flanking towers, probably retaining the primitive form, and also from the representations of protecting towers which occur in Carpaccio's pictures.

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  • Demons, when they are regarded as spirits, may belong to either of the classes of spirits recognized by primitive animism; that is to say, they may be human, or non-human, separable souls, or discarnate spirits which have never inhabited a body; a sharp distinction is often drawn between these two classes, notably by the Melanesians, the West Africans and others; the Arab jinn, for example, are not reducible to modified human souls; at the same time these classes are frequently conceived as producing identical results, e.g.

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  • It should, however, be remembered that primitive peoples do not distinguish clearly between material and immaterial beings.

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  • But these beliefs are far from being confined to the uncivilized; Greek philosophers like Porphyry, no less than the fathers of the Church, held that the world was pervaded with spirits; side by side with the belief in witchcraft, we can trace through the middle ages the survival of primitive animistic views; and in our own day even these beliefs subsist in unsuspected vigour among the peasantry of the more uneducated European countries.

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  • In fact the ready acceptance of spiritualism testifies to the force with which the primitive animistic way of looking at things appealed to the white races in the middle of the last century.

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  • Especially among the lower races the dead are regarded as hostile; the Australian avoids the grave even of a kinsman and elaborate ceremonies of mourning are found amongst most primitive peoples, whose object seems to be to rid the living of the danger they run by association with the ghost of the dead.

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  • Primitive peoples from the Australians upwards celebrate, usually at fixed intervals, a driving out of hurtful influences.

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  • To the north of the valley of the Drave the duchy is occupied by the Hohe Tauern and the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, which belong to the central zone of the Eastern Alps.

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  • To the east of the Hohe Tauern stretches the group of the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, namely the Pöllauer Alps with the glacier-covered peak of the Hafner Eck (10,041 ft.); the Stang Alps with the highest peak the Eisenhut (8007 ft.); the Saualpe with the highest peak the Grosse Saualpe (6825 ft.); and finally the Koralpen chain or the Stainzer Alps (7023 ft.) separated from the preceding group by the Lavant valley.

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  • Their implements are very primitive, consisting of a plough fashioned from a fork of a tree, and a rude harrow.

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  • Their verse is of a very primitive description, and is chiefly used for purposes of love-making.

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  • A reprint of Primitive Marriage, with "Kinship in Ancient Greece" and some other essays not previously published, appeared in 1876, under the title of Studies in Ancient History.

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  • The new essays in this volume were mostly critical, but one of them, in which perhaps his guessing talent is seen at its best, "The Divisions of the Irish Family," is an elaborate discussion of a problem which has long puzzled both Celtic scholars and jurists; and in another, "On the Classificatory System of Relationship," he propounded a new explanation of a series of facts which, he thought, might throw light upon the early history of society, at the same time putting to the test of those facts the theories he had set forth in Primitive Marriage.

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  • The nervous system, composed of a ring and a ventral cord, retains its primitive connexion with the ectoderm.

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  • Regarding all substances as being composed of one primitive matter - the prima materia, and as owing their specific differences to the presence of different qualities imposed upon it, the alchemist hoped, by taking away these qualities, to obtain the prima materia itself, and then to get from it the particular substance he desired by the addition of the appropriate qualities.

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  • For the first requisites of a primitive settlement - food supply and defence - it afforded every advantage.

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  • Remains of primitive polygonal walls which undoubtedly surrounded the entire area have been found at various points a little within the circuit of the existing parapet.

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  • The various approaches to the citadel on the northern side - the rock-cut flight of steps north-east of the Erechtheum, the stairs leading to the well Clepsydra, and the intermediate passage supposed to have furnished access to the Persians - are all to be attributed to the primitive epoch.

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  • These early fortifications of the Acropolis, ascribed to the primitive non-hellenic Pelasgi, must be distinguished from the Pelasgicum or Pelargicum, which was in all prob ab i l i ty an encircling wall, built round the base of the g citadel and furnished with nine gates from which it derived the name of Enneapylon.

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  • A portion of the outer wall has been recognized in a piece of primitive masonry discovered near the Odeum of Herodes Atticus; other traces will probably come to light when the northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis have been completely explored.

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  • It seems inconceivable, however, that any other site should have been preferred by the primitive settlers to the Acropolis, which offered the greatest advantages for defence; the Pnyx, owing to its proximity to the centres of civic life, can never have been deserted, and that portion which lay within the city walls must have been fully occupied when Athens was crowded during the Peloponnesian War.

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  • The site of the primitive Agora (apXaia etyopa) was probably in the hollow between the Acropolis and the Pnyx, which formed a convenient meetingplace for the dwellers on the north and south sides of the fortress as well as for its inhabitants.

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  • All the recent Ratitae still possess a considerable number of rather primitive characters, e.g.

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  • Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.

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  • A crystal may be regarded as built up of primitive parallelepipeda, the edges of which are in the ratio of the crystallographic axes, and the angles the axial angles of the crystals.

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  • This idea that the Messianic kingdom of the future on earth should have a definite duration has - like the whole eschatology of the primitive Church - its roots in the Jewish apocalyptic literature, where it appears at a comparatively late period.

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  • Commodian, Victorinus Pettavensis, Lactantius and Sulpicius Severus were all pronounced millennarians, holding by the very details of the primitive Christian expectations.

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  • The bark is completely dog-like, and the primitive hunting instincts have been cultivated into a marvellous aptitude for herding sheep and cattle.

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  • Together with these larger works Dahn wrote many monographs and studies upon primitive German society.

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  • Hence a regular commerce in slaves was established, which was based on the " systematically-prosecuted hunting of man," and indicated an entire perversion of the primitive institution, which was essentially connected with conquest.

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  • It now remains to consider the slavery of primitive origin which has .existed within recent times, or continues to exist, outside of the Western world.

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  • Looking back on these days in 1777, Wesley felt "the Methodists at Oxford were all one body, and, as it were, one soul; zealous for the religion of the Bible, of the Primitive Church, and, in consequence, of the Church of England; as they believed it to come nearer the scriptural and primitive plan than any other national church upon earth."

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  • Love-feasts for fellowship and testimony were also introduced, according to the custom of the primitive church.

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  • It ' Preger is the only writer who has maintained that the three books in their primitive form date from 1254.

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  • Crofting agriculture is conducted on primitive methods, spade tillage being almost universal, and seaweed the principal manure.

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  • But when it is granted that the ancient Hebrews, like other primitive peoples, had their own mythical and traditional figures, the story of Cain becomes less obscure.

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  • His work, Monumenti delle anti christiane primitive, is the first in which the strange misconception, received with unquestioning faith by earlier writers, that the catacombs were exhausted sand-pits adapted by the Christians to the purpose of interment, was dispelled, and the true history of their formation demonstrated.

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  • That facing the entrance was the place of greatest honour, where in many instances the remains of a martyr were deposited, whose tomb, according to primitive usage, served as an altar for the celebration of the eucharist.

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  • In the upper molars the two outer columns or tubercles of the primitive tubercular molar coalesce to form an outer wall, from which proceed two crescentic transverse crests, the connexion between the crests and the wall being slight or imperfect, and the crests themselves sometimes tubercular.

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  • The upper cheek-teeth are short-crowned and without cement, and show distinct traces of the primitive tubercles; the two outer columns form a more or less complete external wall, connected with the inner ones by a pair of nearly straight transverse crests; and the premolars are originally simpler than the molars.

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  • The most primitive group is that of the American Hyracodontidae, !represented in the Oligocene by Hyrachyus, Hyracodon and Triplopus.

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  • In the Lower Oligocene of Europe we have Ronzotherium and in that of America Leptaceratherium (Trigonias), which were primitive species with persistent upper canines and three-toed fore-feet.

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  • Indeed, conditions were relatively primitive so late as 1880, if compared with those of other sugar-producing countries.

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  • Save on the coffee, tobacco and sugar plantations, where competition in large markets has compelled the adoption of adequate modern methods, agriculture in Cuba is still very primitive.

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  • The number of small brick plants is legion, almost all very primitive.

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  • Wagon roads are still of small extent and primitive character save in a very few localities.

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  • They were a tall race of copper hue; fairly intelligent, mild in temperament, who lived in poor huts and practised a limited and primitive agriculture.

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  • The former of these is connected with western Bagdad by a very primitive horse-tramway, also a relic of Midhat Pasha's reforms. The two parts of the city are joined by pontoon bridges, one in the suburbs and one in the main city.

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  • On the other hand, the absence of leaven may recall primitive practice before its introduction as a domestic luxury; sacral rites generally keep alive primitive custom.

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  • America and in Mexico for incising the trees and obtaining the rubber are exceedingly primitive, but survive with little modification at the present day.

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  • The native methods in vogue in Brazil and Mexico are primitive and often injurious to the tree.

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  • Tillage is conducted on very primitive methods.

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  • Mica mining is an industry of considerable importance, especially in India; but here the methods of mining are very primitive and wasteful.

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  • The histology of Brachiopods presents some peculiar and many primitive features.

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  • The casuistry of primitive man is uncompromisingly legal.

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  • These were huge digests of all that popes, councils, primitive fathers had decided on every kind of question pertaining to the confessional - what exactly is a sin, what kind of questions the priests must ask, under what conditions he could give absolution.

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  • The needles of the primitive compasses, being made of iron, would require frequent re-magnetization, and a " stone " for the purpose of " touching the needle " was therefore generally included in the navigator's outfit.

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  • The Arachnida form a distinct class or line of descent in the grade Euarthropoda, diverging (perhaps in common at the start with the Crustacea) from primitive Euarthropods, which gave rise also to the separate lines of descent known as the classes Diplopoda, Crustacea, Chilopoda and Hexapoda.

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  • It seems that there is a primitive tendency in the Arthropoda for the arteries to accompany the nerve cords, and a " supra-spinal " artery - that is to say, an artery in close relation to the ventral nerve cords--has been described in several cases.

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  • Thirdly, those members of a group which, whilst exhibiting undoubted structural characters indicative of their proper assignment to that group, yet are simpler than and inferior in elaboration of their organization to other members of the group, are not necessarily representatives of the earlier and primitive phases in the development of the group - but are very often examples of retrogressive change or degeneration.

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  • Agreements are not necessarily due to common inheritance; simplicity is not necessarily primitive and ancestral.

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  • Leaving that question for consideration in connexion with the systematic statement of the characters of the various groups of Arachnida which follows on p. 475, it is well now to consider the following question, viz., seeing that Limulus and Scorpio are such highly developed and specialized forms, and that they seem to constitute as it were the first and second steps in the series of recognized Arachnida - what do we know, or what are we led to suppose with regard to the more primitive Arachnida from which the Eurypterines and Limulus and Scorpio have sprung ?

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  • Do we know in the recent or fossil condition any such primitive Arachnids ?

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  • With those considerations in mind, the claim of the extinct group of the trilobites to be considered as representatives of the lower and more primitive steps in the Arachnidan genealogy must, it seems, receive a favourable judgment.

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  • The bi-ramose structure of the post-oral limbs, demonstrated by Beecher in the trilobite Triarthrus, is no more inconsistent with its claim to be a primitive Arachnid than is the foliaceous modification of the limbs in Phyllopods inconsistent with their relationship to the Arthrostracous Crustaceans such as Gammarus and Oniscus.

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  • This would lead to the supposition that the great development of metasomatic carapace is a primitive and not a late character, were it not for the fact that Paradcxides and Atops, with an inconspicuous telsonic carapace and numerous free somites, are also Cambrian in age, the latter indeed anterior in horizon to Agnostus.

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  • In primitive forms the respiratory lamellae of the appendages of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th, or of the 1st and 2nd mesosomatic somites are sunk beneath the surface of the body, and become adapted to breathe atmospheric oxygen, forming the leaves of the so-called lung-books.

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  • The appendages of the mesosoma generally suppressed; in the more primitive forms one or two pairs may be retained as organs subservient to reproduction or silkspinning.

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  • Appendages of 2nd pair not underlying the mouth, but freely movable and, except in primitive forms, furnished with a maxillary lobe; the rest of the limb like the legs, tipped with a single claw and quite unmodified (except in a').

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  • The picture gallery is equally important in its way, affording a survey both of the earlier Bolognese paintings and of the works of the Bolognese eclectics of the 16th and 17th centuries, the Caracci, Guido Reni, Domenichino, Guercino, &c. The primitive masters are not of great excellence, but the works of the masters of the 15th century, especially those of Francesco Francia (1450-1517) and Lorenzo Costa of Ferrara (1460-1535), are of considerable merit.

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  • The Reformation brought in radical changes, which were on the whole a return to the primitive type.

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  • They appealed not to the school divines, but to Scripture and primitive antiquity.

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  • Laplace treated the subject from the point of view of the gradual aggregation and cooling of a mass of matter, and demonstrated that the form which such a mass would ultimately assume must be an ellipsoid of revolution whose equator was determined by the primitive plane of maximum areas.

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  • To the primitive two-cell-layered form, the hypothetical ancestor of all Metazoa or Enterozoa, Haeckel gave the name Gastraea; the em- bryonic form which represents in the individual growth from the egg this ancestral condition he called a " gastrula."

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  • Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.

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  • The kingdom of Assyria, which was the outgrowth of the primitive settlement on the site of the city of Assur, was developed by a probably gradual process of colonization in the rich vales of the middle Tigris region, a district watered by the Tigris itself and also by several tributary streams, the chief of which was the lower Zab.'

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  • This was the primitive process all over the world; in the East, South America and similar regions it still holds its own.

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  • It is then on the whole probable that the Paulicians who appear in Armenian records as early as 550, and were afterwards= called Thonraki, by the Greeks by the Armenian name Paulikiani, were the remains of a primitive adoptionist Christianity, widely dispersed in the east and already condemned under the name of Pauliani by the council of Nice in 325.

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  • Modesty therefore is highly conventional, and to discover its origin the most primitive tribes must be observed.

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  • Primitive adornment in its earliest stages may be divided into three classes; first the moulding of the body itself to certain local standards of beauty.

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  • Doubtless many of the smaller objects with which primitive man adorned himself, especially trophies from the animal world, were supposed to exert some beneficial or protective influence on the wearer, or to produce in him the distinguishing characteristics attributed to the object, or to the whole of which the object was a part.

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  • The fact that both male and female costume amongst the primitive Aegean peoples is derivable from the simple loin-cloth with additions is rightly used by Mackenzie as a proof that their original home is not to be sought in the colder regions of central Europe, but in a warm climate such as that of North Africa.

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  • The epithelial cells are then able to pass from their normal position, in consequence of which they proliferate and at the same time revert to a more primitive type of cell.

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  • Probably nowhere can the actual historical progress from the primitive use of animal sacrifices to the later refinement of burning incense be more clearly traced than in the pages of the Old Testament, where no mention of the latter rite occurs before the period of the Mosaic legislation; but in the monuments of ancient Egypt the authentic traces of the use of incense that still exist carry us back to a much earlier date.

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  • The slighting references to it by the Christian fathers are no more an argument against its existence in the primitive church than the similar denunciations by the Jewish prophets of burnt-offerings and sacrifices are any proof that there were no such rites as the offering of incense, and of the blood of bulls and fat of rams, in the worship of the temple at Jerusalem.

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  • In Egypt, however, no traces have at present been found of the industry in a rudimentary condition, and the vases which have been classified as " primitive " bear witness to an elaboration of technique far in advance of the experimental period.

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  • The " primitive " vessels which have been found in Egypt are small in size and consist of columnar stibium jars, flattened bottles and amphorae, all decorated with zigzag lines, tiny wide-mouthed vases on feet and minute jugs.

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  • The " primitive " glass-worker reversed this process.

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  • Glass is made in several parts of India - as Patna and Mysore - by very simple and primitive methods, and the results are correspondingly defective.

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  • The site is one of great strength, and is now occupied by a fort, in the construction of which traces of the outer walls and of huts, and several wells and a cistern, all belonging to the primitive village, were discovered, and also the remains of a villa of the end of the Republic.

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  • The primitive seaport of the country, Eridu, the seat of the worship of Ea the culture-god, was a little south of Ur (at Abu Shahrain or Nowawis on the west side of the Euphrates).

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  • In the deepest part of the excavations, however, inscribed clay tablets and fragments of stone vases are still found, though the cuneiform characters upon them are of a very archaic type, and sometimes even retain their primitive pictorial forms.

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  • The sculptures belong to a primitive period of art.

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  • In its primitive sense the word persists in the vocabulary of coal-miners.

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  • This narrative of the Baptist's birth seems to embody some very primitive features, Hebraic and Palestinian in character, and possibly at one time independent of the Christian tradition.

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  • Alphonse de Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 158) points out that the epoch of its introduction into different countries agrees with the idea that its origin was in India, Cochin-China or the Malay Archipelago, and regards it as most probable that its primitive range extended from Bengal to Cochin-China.

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  • In primitive religions inclusive of almost every serious offence even in fields now regarded as merely social or political, its scope is gradually lessened to a single part of one section of ecclesiastical criminology, following inversely the development of the idea of holiness from the concrete to the abstract, from fetishism to mysticism.

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  • The primitive defence against sacrilege lay directly in the nature of sacred things, those that held a curse for any violation or profanation.

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  • In contrast to these segmented or " merozoic " Cestodes, a few primitive forms have preserved a unisegmental' character and form the Monozoa or Cestodaria.

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  • Those Cestodes which possess no very distinct organ of attachment (such, for example, as Gyrocotyle) have no distinct ganglionic thickening more pronounced at one end of the body than at the other; and as these are forms which have retained more primitive features than the rest, and show closer affinity to the Trematodes, it seems highly probable that the complicated nervous thickening found in the scolex, and often compared with the " brain " of other Platyelmia, is a structure sui generis developed within the limits of the sub-class.

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  • The terminal or first-formed proglottis is sterile, and contains the primitive and (except in a few genera) the only excretory pore.

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  • Domburg is pleasantly situated at the foot of the dunes on the west side of the island, and in modern times has become a popular but primitive watering-place.

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  • Actual government in the feudal age was primitive and undifferentiated.

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  • Although this primitive furnace could be made to act, its efficiency was low, and the use of a separate fire was disadvantageous.

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  • The two parts of this play, like all those by Castro, have the genuine ring of the old romances; and, from their intense nationality, no less than for their primitive poetry and flowing versification, were among the most popular pieces of their day.

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  • The Heruli remained heathen until the overthrow of their kingdom, and retained many striking primitive customs. When threatened with death by disease or old age, they were required to call in an executioner, who stabbed them on the pyre.

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  • The Incas had made much progress in weaving, and specimens of their fabrics, both plain and coloured, are to be found in many museums. The Spanish introduced their own methods, and their primitive looms are still to be found among the Indians of the interior who weave the coarse material from which their own garments are made.

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  • There is, however, no certain evidence that the Israelites in historical times had any consciousness of the primitive significance of the name.

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  • Amongst the best known of his works, besides those alluded to, are Wanderings and Adventures in Persia (1867); Sketches of Central Asia (1868); History of Bokhara (1873); Manners in Oriental Countries (1876); Primitive Civilization of the Turko-Tatar People (1879) Origin of the Magyars (1882); The Turkish People (1885); and Western Culture in Eastern Lands (1906) .

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  • Eye-spots are general and the nervous system maintains a primitive diffused condition.

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  • However this may be, remnants of their primitive superhuman qualities cling to the Celtic heroes long after they have been transfigured, under the influence of Christianity and chivalry, into the heroes of the medieval Arthurian romance, types - for the most part - of the knightly virtues as these were conceived by the middle ages; while shadowy memories of early myths live on, strangely disguised, in certain of the episodes repeated uncritically by the medieval poets.

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  • Arrived at this stage of development, the Annals now began to lose their primitive character, and henceforward became more and more indistinguishable from the Chronicles.

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  • In the north is a range of primitive trap-hills known as the Cauvery chain, extending eastwards from the Nilgiris, and rising in places to a height of 4000 ft.

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  • It was during the solitude of his voyage to France, when on deck at night, that he first shaped his idea of the genesis of primitive poetry, and of the gradual evolution of humanity.

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  • That is to say, in tracing back the later acquisitions of civilization to impulses which are as old as the dawn of primitive culture, he did not, as the modern evolutionist does, lay stress on the superiority of the later to the earlier stages of human development, but rather became enamoured of the simplicity and spontaneity of those early impulses which, since they are the oldest, easily come to look like the most real and precious.

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  • The text shows a curious mingling of sources; the real primitive Perceval story, the Enfances, is omitted; he grows up in his father's house and goes to court at his wish.

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  • To many the interest of such stories will depend on their parallelism to the Biblical account in Genesis i.; the anthropologist, however, will be attracted by them in proportion as they illustrate the more primitive phases of human culture.

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  • In spite of the frequent overgrowth of a luxuriant imagination, the leading ideas of really primitive cosmogonies are extremely simple.

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  • Ilysiidae Xenopeltidae Colubridae Aglypha Typhlopidae Boidae Glauconiidae 'This means that the Boidae retain most primitive characters.

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  • Likewise primitive, but in various respects degraded, mainly owing to burrowing habits, are the Typhlopidae with the Ilysiidae, and Uropeltidae as a terminal branch, and on the other hand the Glauconiidae.

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  • This metre was employed in ritual hymns, which seem to have assumed definite shapes out of the exclamations of a primitive priesthood engaged in a rude ceremonial dance.

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  • The most primitive is the rubbing together of the concentrated crushings with mercury in iron mortars.

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  • In their train came the great field preachers of Wales, like John Elias and Christmas Evans, and later the Primitive Methodists, who by their camp meetings and itinerancies kept religious enthusiasm alive when Wesleyan Methodism was in peril of hardening.

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  • Werth der Decretalen des falschen Isidorus, 1848), on the primitive history of mankind (Urgeschichte des menschlichen schlechts, 1855), on Hildebrand (Papst Gregorius VII.

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  • To-day such a thing can hardly be done within the United States, for nowhere does the primitive wilderness exist save here and there in shreds and patches.

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  • We are not concerned with the question whether the earliest forms of recorded religious consciousness such as animism, or totemism, or fetishism, were themselves degradations of a primitive revelation or not.

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  • Zahn's reasoned argument stands in contrast to the blind reliance on tradition shown by Macdonald, The Symbol of the Apostles, and the fanciful reconstruction of the primitive creed by Baeumer, Harnack or Seeberg.

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  • A peculiar passage, more valuable for the light it throws upon primitive ideas than for its contribution to the history of Abram, narrates the patriarch's visit to Egypt.

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  • Tegea was one of the most ancient cities of Peloponnesus; tradition ascribed its concentration (synoecism) out of eight or nine primitive cantons to a mythical king Aleus.

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  • Salomon Reinach, guided by the analogy of similar practices among the aborigines of Australia, and noticing that these primitive pictures represent none but animals that formed the staple food of the age and place, and that they are usually found in the deepest and darkest recesses of the caves where they could only be drawn and seen by torchlight, has argued that they were not intended for artistic gratification (a late motive in human art), but were magical representations destined to influence and perhaps attract the hunter's quarry.

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  • The world had never quite forgotten the history of the primitive Greeks as it had forgotten the Mesopotamians, the Himyaritic nations and the Hittites; but it remembered their deeds only in the form of poetical myths and traditions.

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  • The researches of the archaeologist are, in short, tending to reconstruct the primitive classical history; and here, as in the Orient, it is evident that historians of the earlier day were constantly blinded by a misconception as to the antiquity of civilization.

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  • The name first appears in the list of primitive Zoroastrian settlements contained in the Vendidad Sade, where, however, like most of the names in the same list, - such as Sughudu (Sogdiana), Mouru (Mer y or Margus), Haraquiti (Arachotus or Arghand-ab), Haetumant (Etymander or Helmund), and Ragha (or Argha-stan),--it seems to apply to the river or river-basin, which was the special centre of population.

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  • These animals are, in fact, descendants of the small ancestral ungulates which have retained all the primitive characters of the latter accompanied by a huge increase in bodily size.

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  • In the basal Eocene of North America the Amblypoda were represented by extremely primitive, five-toed, small ungulates such as Periptychus and Pantolambda, each of these typifying a family.

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  • On the other hand, Vieta was well skilled in most modern artifices, aiming at a simplification of equations by the substitution of new quantities having a certain connexion with the primitive unknown quantities.

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  • The wings in the Hymenoptera show a marked reduction in the number of nervures as compared with more primitive insects.

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  • But the most natural division is obtained by the separation of the saw-flies as a primitive sub-order, characterized by the imperfect union of the first abdominal segment with the thorax, and by the broad base of the abdomen, so that there is no median constriction or " waist," and by the presence of thoracic legs - usually also of abdominal pro-legs - in the larva.

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  • As a Hebrew scholar he made a special study of the history of the Hebrew text, which led him to the conclusion that the vowel points and accents are not an original part of the Hebrew language, but were inserted by the Massorete Jews of Tiberias, not earlier than the 5th century A.D., and that the primitive Hebrew characters are those now known as the Samaritan, while the square characters are Aramaic and were substituted for the more ancient at the time of the captivity.

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  • His ideas of sexual morality were primitive.

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  • First, there was the primitive Christian apocalypse embracing the letters and the seals written by John Mark soon after A.D.

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  • The primitive Artiodactyla thus probably had the typical number (44) of incisor, canine and molar teeth, brachyodont molars, conical odontoid process, four distinct toes on each foot, with metacarpal, metatarsal and all the tarsal bones distinct, and no frontal appendages.

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  • Finally, we have in the Pliocene of India the genus Tetraconodon, remarkable for the enormous size attained by the bluntly conical premolars; as the molars are purely bunodont, this genus seems to be a late and specialized survivor of a primitive type..

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  • The primitive fact under which might be gathered the special conditions of that synthesis which we call cognition was this unity.

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  • Moreover, while Kant in a quite similar manner pointed out that intuition had special conditions, space and time, he did not show any link of connexion between these and the primitive conditions of pure cognition.

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  • Of such primitive principles, the absolutely necessary conditions of possible cognition, only three are thinkable - one perfectly unconditioned both in form and matter; a second, unconditioned in form but not in matter; a third, unconditioned in matter but not in form.

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  • The primitive condition of all intelligence is that the ego shall posit, affirm or be aware of itself.

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  • But in consciousness there is equally given a primitive act of op-positing, or contra-positing, formally distinct from the act of position, but materially determined, in so far as what is op-posited must be the negative of that which was posited.

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  • The history of the practice of excommunication may be traced through (1) pagan analogues, (2) Hebrew custom, (3) primitive Christian practice, (4) medieval and monastic usage, (5) modern survivals in existing Christian churches.

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  • Primitive Semitic customs recognize that when persons are laid under a ban or taboo (herem) restrictions are imposed on contact with them, and that the breach of these involves supernatural dangers.

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  • Calico, fire-arms and swords had replaced the primitive bark-cloth and bymwanga, spear, while under the teaching of the missionary- 1884.

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  • There are, in addition, various other forms (Seroand Exo-sporidia), also primitive in character, but which are as yet too insufficiently known for it to be certain whether they are of distinct ordinal rank, or should be placed with the Haplosporidia.

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  • The agora is of unsymmetrical form; its sides are bordered by porticoes, interrupted by streets, like the primitive agora of Elis as described by Pausanias, and unlike the regular agoras of Ionic type.

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  • By the reformed Churches, including the Church of England, the festival is not observed, having been rejected at the Reformation as being neither primitive nor founded upon any "certain warrant of Holy Scripture."

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  • Farther east, Nantucket, a smaller island of triangular shape, is likewise the home of a seafaring folk who still retain in some degree primitive habits, though summer visitors are more and more affecting its life.

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  • Failures there have been many, and scandals not a few in Benedictine history; but it may be said with truth that there does not appear to have been ever a period of widespread or universal corruption, however much at times and in places primitive love may have waxed cold.

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  • Each congregation has its president, who is merely a president, with limited powers, and not a general superior like the Provincials of other orders; so that the primitive Benedictine principle of each monastery being self-contained and autonomous is preserved.

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  • The organization of the French colonies, though industrially ruinous, gave them Illustrations representative of the primitive cultures of Central America, Mexico and Peru (q.q.v.) selected and arranged by Dr Walter Lehmann of the Royal Ethnographical Museum, Norwich.

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  • Other institutional investigations have been prosecuted, the result of all which will be an intelligent comprehension of the philology of a primitive race.

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  • All textile work was done by hand; the only devices known were the bark peeler and beater, the shredder, the flint-knife, the spindle, the rope-twister, the bodkin, the warp-beam and the most primitive harness.

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  • The old apparatus of hunting and fishing is quite primitive.

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  • For such an isolated community may have preserved primitive customs for some time after they had generally disappeared.

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  • Ancient tombs with fragments of vases have also been found, and there are cases which have been used as primitive tombs or dwellings, and a group of some fifty tumuli near Altamura.

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  • Tapirs are an ancient group with many of the original characters of the primitive Ungulates of the Oligocene period, and have undergone but little change since the Miocene.

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  • Its foundation is attributed to Aeneas (whereas Laurentum was the primitive city of King Latinus), who named it after his wife Lavinia.

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  • These, the two senses recognized by Congregationalism, remained the only ones known to primitive Christianity.

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  • These, in proportion as they revived a primitive type of piety, tended to recover also some of its forms of organization.

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  • In certain Anabaptist circles the primitive idea of a " covenant " between believers and God as conditioning all their life, especially one with another, was revived (Champlin Burrage, The Church-Covenant Idea, Philadelphia, 1904).

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  • This act of ordaining ministers, probably after the Genevan order - which they certainly used from May 1568 - and their excommunication of certain deserters from their " church " (so Grindal), clearly mark the fact that this body of some 200 persons had now deliberately taken up a position outside the national church, as being themselves a " church " in a truer sense than any parish church, inasmuch as they conformed to the primitive pattern.

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  • Congregationalism in America has thus spread from New England, its primitive home, over the West to the Pacific, but has never had more than a slight foothold in the Southern states.

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  • Peace, railways, telegraphs (including cable connexion with Europe), agricultural machinery and a larger population had carried New Zealand beyond the primitive stage.

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  • He plays off the sects against the Catholic Church, the primitive age against the present, Christ against the apostles, the various revisions of the Bible against the trustworthiness of the text and so forth, though he admits that everything was not really so bad at first as it is at present."

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  • There is no doubt that it contains an element of truth; as among the Romans the gradual deification of ancestors and the apotheosis of emperors were prominent features of religious development, so among primitive peoples it is possible to trace the evolution of family and tribal gods from great chiefs and warriors.

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  • Nearly 33% of the population, 127,637 persons, were returned officially at the census of 1904 as of " no religion," under which head are classed the natives who retain their primitive forms of belief, for which see Kaffirs, Bechuanas, &c.

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  • Just as the Gathas (the ancient Zoroastrian hymns) omit Gaokerena, and the Hebrew prophets on the whole avoid mythological phrases, so this old Hebrew thinker prunes the primitive exuberance of the traditional myth.

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  • From the Kenites, at any rate, they may have received, not only a strong religious impulse, but a store of tales of the primitive age, and these stories too may have been partly influenced by Babylonian traditions.

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  • Let t be the statical breaking strength of a bar, loaded once gradually up to fracture (t = breaking load divided by original area of section); u the breaking strength of a bar loaded and unloaded an indefinitely great number of times, the stress varying from u to o alternately (this is termed the primitive strength); and, lastly, let s be the breaking strength of a bar subjected to an indefinitely great number of repetitions of stresses equal and opposite in sign (tension and thrust), so that the stress ranges alternately from s to -s.

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  • The derivation of his name and his primitive character are very uncertain.

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  • But though the notion of luck plays an important part in early thought, it seems improbable that the primitive Greeks would have personified a mere abstraction.

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  • If he was evolved from the wind, his character had become so anthropomorphic that the Greeks had practically lost the knowledge of his primitive significance; nor did Greek cult ever associate him with the wind.

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  • On the mountain above it (2073 ft.) are the fine remains of the fortifications of a city built in a very primitive style, in cyclopean blocks of local limestone; within the walls are traces of buildings, and a massive terrace which supported some edifice of importance.

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  • This is a universal trait of primitive Christian writings; so that to speak of primitive Christian "literature" at all is hardly accurate, and tends to an artificial handling of their contents.

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  • It is in contrast to these that the Didache is justly felt to be genuinely primitive and of a piece with the Apostolic Fathers.

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  • Numerous indications accordingly point to a corresponding primitive zodiac. Setting aside as doubtful evidence derived from interpretations of cuneiform inscriptions, we meet, in connexion with Mithraic and Mylittic legends, reminiscences of a zodiac and religious calendar in which the Bull led the way.'

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  • The first Babylonian month Nisan, dedicated to Anu and Bel, was that of " sacrifice "; and its association with the Ram as the chief primitive object of sacrifice is thus intelligible.'

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  • The explanation of this seeming anomaly is to be found in the primitive destination of the " animals " to the purposes of an " horary zodiac."

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  • Positive proof of the high antiquity of the Hindu lunar zodiac is nevertheless afforded by the undoubted fact that the primitive series opened with Krittika (the Pleiades) as the sign of the vernal equinox.

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  • Primitive methods obtain, but the Siamese are efficient cultivators and secure good harvests nevertheless.

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  • On the other hand, the precipitation on the Tibetan plateau is so copious, and so uniformly distributed, that it is able to retain the loosened material in situ, and causes it to heap itself up in rounded masses on the flanks of the mountains that are its primitive source of origin, these projecting in great part like skeletons from the midst of their own ruins."

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  • The primitive character of Ares has been much discussed.

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  • Polemic interest led a number of Lutheran scholars of the 16th century to publish the Magdeburg Centuries (1 559 ff.), in which they undertook to show the primitive character of the Protestant faith in contrast with the alleged corruptions of Roman Catholicism.

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  • The problems particularly of the primitive history were first brought into clear light by him, and all subsequent work upon the subject must acknowledge its indebtedness to him.

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  • Worship. - The primitive belief in the immediate presence of the Spirit affected the religious services of the Church.

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  • Two tendencies appeared in the thought of the primitive Church, the one to regard Christianity as a law given by God for the government of men's lives, with the promise of a blessed immortality as a reward for its observance; the other to view it as a means by which the corrupt and mortal nature of man is transformed, so that he becomes a spiritual and holy being.

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  • Owing to the once prevalent desire of the adherents of one or another polity to find support in primitive precept or practice, the question has assumed a prominence out of proportion to its real importance, and the few and scattered references in early Christian writings have been made the basis for various elaborate theories.

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  • There were many of them in the primitive Church, and only gradually did the term come to be applied exclusively to the twelve and Paul.

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  • Their ideal was a return to that simplicity of primitive Christendom which they believed they found revealed in the New Testament and in the writings of the early Fathers.

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  • Their object had been to purify the Church of medieval accretions, and to restore the primitive model in the light of the new learning; the idea of rival " churches," differing in their fundamental doctrines and in their principles of organization, existing side by side, was as abhorrent to them as to the most rigid partisan of Roman centralization.

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  • The close inter-relation which existed in primitive society between magic, priesthood and kingship has been indicated by Frazer in his Early History of the Kingship. His remarks throw some light on the early character of priesthood as well as kingship. " When once a special class of sorcerers has been segregated from the community and entrusted by it with the discharge of duties on which the public safety and welfare are believed to depend, these men gradually rise to wealth and power till their leaders blossom out into sacred kings."

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  • It must be borne in mind that primitive humanity is not governed by logical distinctions.

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  • The kahin, therefore, is not a degraded priest but such a soothsayer as is found in most primitive societies, and the Canaanite priests grew out of these early revealers.

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  • The later recension of this Vision was used by Jerome, and a more primitive form of the text by the Archontici according to Epiphanius.

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  • The Hydrozoa may be defined, therefore, as Cnidaria in which two types of individual, the polyp and the medusa, may be present, each type developed along divergent lines from the primitive actinula form.

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  • M`Lennan's theory of primitive society with owing its plausible appearance of universal validity to general neglect of the Indo-European evidence and misapprehension of such portions of it as M`Lennan did attempt to handle.

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  • Trust, not distrust, is the primitive attitude of the mind.

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  • There is only one answer; the principal cause of this complete and irretrievable collapse is to be sought for in the folly, egotism and selfishness of the Polish gentry, whose insane dislike of all discipline, including even the salutary discipline of regular government, converted Poland into something very like a primitive tribal community at the very time when every European statesman, including the more enlightened of the Poles themselves, clearly recognized that the political future belonged to the strongly centralized monarchies, which were everywhere rising on the ruins of feudalism.

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  • It was against this primitive state of things that the Czartoryscy struggled, and struggled in vain.

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  • However, as the primitive practice of public penance for sins died out in the Church, there grew up a system of equivalent, or nominally equivalent, private penances.

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  • Near it lie many remains of a primitive city, and about half a mile east is the rock-seat conjecturally identified with Pausanias' "Throne of Pelops."

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  • The primitive stone-roofed oratory is supposed to have been a hermit's cell.

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  • Nations in a primitive state of civilization were not, and are not, conscious of the need.

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  • It is probably true to say that no other primitive Christian writing has had so marked an effect on all later attempts to systematize the Christian creed.

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  • Codrington (Melanesian Languages) has adduced evidence to prove that Melanesia is the most primitive form of the oceanic stock-language, and that both Malays and Polynesians speak later dialects of this archaic form of speech.

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  • Tot/15,s de Acosta, governor from 1797 to 1809, confirmed this report, and stated that the Indians were clothed in bark, and compelled in many cases to borrow even this primitive attire when the law required their attendance at church.

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  • Their life is still in many respects very primitive; their houses are generally built of logs, their clothes are often of homespun, Indian corn and ham form a large part of their diet, and their means of transportation are the saddle-horse and sleds and wheeled carts drawn by oxen or mules.

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  • Seers there had been of old as in other primitive nations; of the two Hebrew words literally corresponding to our seer, roeh and hozeh, the second is found also in Arabic, and seems to belong to the primitive Semitic vocabulary.

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  • Clear indications of a primitive magical modus operandi appear as survivals in the narratives of the pre-exilian prophets.

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  • To us God's sovereignty over nature often seems the hardest thing to conceive; but to primitive peoples who know nothing of laws of nature, His moral sovereignty is a much more difficult conception.

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  • From three quarters primitive Christian prophecy was exposed to danger - first, from the permanent officials of the congregation, who, in the interests of order, peace and security could not but look with suspicion on the activity of excited prophets; second, from the prophets themselves, in so far as an increasing number of dishonest characters was found amongst them, whose object was to levy contributions on the churches; I.

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  • Scheele's power as an experimental investigator has seldom if ever been surpassed, and his accuracy is most remarkable when his primitive apparatus, his want of assistance, his place of residence, and the undeveloped state of chemical and physical science in his time, are all taken into account.

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  • The founder, George Rapp, after livingwith his would-be primitive Christian followers at Harmony, Butler county, Pennsylvania, in 1803-1814, and in 1815-1824 in New Harmony, Indiana, which he then sold to Robert Owen, settled here in 1824 and rapidly built up a village, in which each family received a house and garden.

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  • Sir C. Warren has derived a primitive unit from a proportion of the human body, by ascertaining the probable mean height of the ancient people in Egypt, and so thereby has derived a standard from the stature of man.

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  • For instance, Lepsius (3) supposed two primitive cubits of 13.2 and 20.63, to account for 28 digits being only 20.4 when free from the cubit of 20.63--the first 24 digits being in some cases made shorter on the cubits to agree with the true digit standard, while the remaining 4 are lengthened to fill up to 20.6.

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