First, nutrition is a very primitive science.
"I hope you don't find all this too primitive," Cade spoke behind her.
Even using extremely primitive technology, we have made marvelous progress.
The Primitive Methodists in Ireland were a small body who in 1817 seceded because they wished to maintain that close connexion with the Church of England which existed at the time of Wesley's death, but in 1878 they rejoined the parent body.
When I saw the fern, I was reminded of primitive plants that I saw in a history video.
War is the ultimate barbarism, the primitive belief that fighting determines who is right—but of course it doesn't.
We will radically improve the primitive, inefficient process that agriculture is today.
The discovery as fossil, in South America, of primitive or ancestral forms of marsupials has given it much support.
Clearly, this already happens today, in a primitive form.
In modern times hepatoscopy still survives among primitive peoples in Borneo, Burma, Uganda, &c.
Winge, a large number of these creatures are primitive monotremes.
The comparative richness of proteaceous plants in Western Australia and South Africa first suggested a common source for these primitive types.
The names of leading legislators, which we so often find recorded in the history of primitive peoples, are symbols and myths, merely serving to mark an historic period or epoch by some definite and personal denomination.
Poor John Field!--I trust he does not read this, unless he will improve by it--thinking to live by some derivative old-country mode in this primitive new country--to catch perch with shiners.
In both these doctrines of a priori science Descartes has not been subverted, but, if anything, corroborated by the results of experimental physics; for the so-called atoms of chemical theory already presuppose, from the Cartesian point of view, certain aggregations of the primitive particles of matter.
It is true that the killing of the god plays a prominent part in primitive cults, as has been shown more particularly through the valuable researches of J.
And because the primitive peoples are unconscious and self-ignorant Homer is represented as being blind.
The other members of the group are relative and dependent, and only to be understood as in various degrees subordinate to the primitive conception.
At Selinitza, near Avlona, there is a remarkable deposit of mineral pitch which was extensively worked in Roman times; mining operations are still carried on here, but in a somewhat primitive fashion.
One of the oldest and most widespread methods of divining the future, both among primitive people and among several of the civilizations of antiquity, was the reading of omens in the signs noted on the liver of the animal offered as a sacrifice to some deity.
They then must be considered as representing an extremely primitive type of mankind, and it is necessary to look far afield for their prehistoric home.
It was even supposed by some that the pond had sunk, and this was one of the primitive forest that formerly stood there.
It was the natural yearning of that portion, any portion of our most primitive ancestor which still survived in us.
At any rate, there seems little doubt that it was the region where creodonts and other primitive mammals were first differentiated from their reptilian ancestors.
Besides the above, in the Trias of North America we have Dromotherium and Microconodon, extremely primitive forms, representing the family From Owen.
A similar conclusion may be drawn from the legend which peopled primitive Rhodes with a population of skilful workers in metal, the "Telchines."
trans., Paulinism: a Contribution to the History of Primitive Christian Theology, 2 vols., 1873, &c.).
that the daily sacrifices which form a feature of advanced cults involved the belief of the daily slaughter of some deity, and even before this stage was reached the primitive belief of the actual identification of the god with the animal must have yielded to some such belief as that the deity in accepting the sacrifice assimilates the animal to his own being, precisely as man assimilates the food that enters into his body.
This belief appears to be of a more primitive character than the view which places the seat of life in the heart, though we are accustomed to think that the latter was the prevailing view in antiquity.
In the circular form it constitutes a natural and even primitive use of the idea of a crown, modified by an equally simple idea of the emanation of light from the head of a superior being, or by the meteorological phenomenon of a halo.
Albanian is peculiarly interesting as the only surviving representative of the so-called Thraco-Illyrian group of languages which formed the primitive speech of the peninsula.
The short period of this evolution is at least one factor in the primitive grade of even the most specialized members of the group. In the advance of their molar teeth from a tritubercular to a grinding type, the author traces a curious parallelism between marsupials and placentals.
As regards the affinities of the creatures to which these jaws belonged, Professor Osborn has referred the Triconodontidae and Amphitheriidae, together with the Curtodontidae (as represented by the English Purbeck Curtodon), to a primitive group of marsupials, while he has assigned the Amblotheriidae and Stylacodontidae to an ancestral assemblage of Insectivora.
He urges that the similarities of some of the primitive races of India and Africa to the aborigines of Australia are indications that they were peopled from one common stock.
In 1718 was published a new Communion Office taken partly from Primitive Liturgies and partly from the first English Reformed Common Prayer Book,..
Two chief trains of thought have combined in the condemnation of primitive theory and practice.
They are: Methodist New Connexion (founded 1797-1798); Bible Christians (1815); United Methodist Free Churches 2 (about 1836); Primitive Methodists (founded 1807-1810); Independent Methodist Churches (about 1 806); Wesleyan Reform Union (1850, reorganized 1859).
It remains, therefore, to ask whether any information can be had about the language of this primitive -COfolk, and whether they can be identified as the authors of any of the various archaeological strata now recognized on Italian soil.
Radiators (really convectors) were in their primitive design coils of pipe, used to give a larger heating area than the single pipe would afford.
The first family is that of the true or American opossums- Didelphyidae, in which there are five pairs of upper incisors, while the feet are of the presumed primitive arboreal type, the hind foot having the four outer toes subequal and separate, with the first opposable to them all.
From the number of its cheek-teeth, the banded ant-eater has been regarded as related to some of the primitive Jurassic mammals; but this view is disputed by Mr Bensley, who regards this multiplicity of teeth as a degenerate feature.
That in days so remote as to be undateable, a Dravidian people driven from their primitive home in the hills of the Indian Deccan made their way south via Ceylon (where they may to-day be regarded as represented by the Veddahs) and eventually sailed and drifted in their bark boats to the western and north-western shores of Australia.
They were beans cheerfully returning to their wild and primitive state that I cultivated, and my hoe played the Ranz des Vaches for them.
The universal habit of writing and perpetual recourse to written contract even more modified primitive custom and ancient precedent.
There were 67,044 Baptists (2226 United Baptists, 2019 Primitive Baptists and 1513 Free Baptists); 40,011 Roman Catholics; 1 9,993 United Brethren, all of the " New Constitution "; 19,668 Presbyterians; 13,323 Disciples of Christ; 6506 Lutherans, and 5230 Protestant Episcopalians.
Much of the island is stony and unproductive; but cultivation has not been extended nearly as much as would be possible, and the implements are primitive.
3, which identifies the blood with the soul of the animal and therefore prohibits its use fairly represents the current conception both among primitive peoples as well as among those who had advanced along the road of culture and civilization.
SILENUS, a primitive Phrygian deity of woods and springs.
It is state-law; alike self-help, blood-feud, marriage by capture, are absent; though family solidarity, district responsibility, ordeal, the lex talionis, are primitive features that remain.
Belief in a primitive historical revelation, once universal among Christians, has almost disappeared; but belief in a very early and highly moral theism is stoutly defended, chiefly on Australian evidence, by Andrew Lang (The Making of Religion and later works).
In many regions-- Egypt, Babylonia, &c. - individual investigators of the great religions have thought they found traces of an early - one hesitates to write, of a " primitive " - monotheism.
Finally, as regards structure,S the tentacles may retain their primitive hollow nature, or become solid by obliteration of the axial cavity.
According to Wulfert  the primitive germ-cells of Gonothyraea can be distinguished soon after the fixation of the planula, appearing amongst the interstitial cells of the ectoderm.
common flesh, which cannot be assigned more to one individual than another, but consists of a more or less complicated network of tubes, corresponding to the hydrocaulus and hydrorhiza of the primitive independent polypindividual.
The histology described above for the polyp may be taken as the primitive type, from which that From Allman's G y mnoblastic Hydroids, by permission of the Council of the Ray Society.
The sensory cells are slender epithelial cells, often with a cilium or stiff protoplasmic process, and should perhaps be regarded as the only ectoderm-cells which retain the primitive ciliation of the larval ectoderm, otherwise lost in all Hydrozoa.
There is thus a considerable body of evidence to support Bowers view of the primitive nature of the sporophyll.
These intellectual principles are, of course, not without their own ground in physical sensation; but it is evident that Debussy appeals beyond them to a more primitive instinct; and on it he bases an almost perfectly coherent system of which the laws are, like those of i 2th-century music, precisely the opposite of those of classical harmony.
dynasty, and introduced into Egypt by Nubian colonists, perhaps soldiers or enslaved prisoners, who preserved also their own native (and really old Egyptian) burial customs, interring their dead in " pan " graves much resembling those of the primitive Egyptians of two and three thousand years before.
Puri district is rich in historical remains, from the primitive rock-hewn caves of Buddhism - the earliest relics of Indian architecture - to the medieval sun temple at Kanarak and the shrine of Jagannath.
Faith in the nearness of Christ's second advent and the establishing of his reign of glory on the earth was undoubtedly a strong point in the primitive Christian Church.
He introduced in his church the primitive custom of the "osculum pacis" and the "agape" celebrated as a common meal with broth.
This, however, is a feature common to Mesopotamian and Egyptian, and perhaps to all primitive art.
Oracular possession of the kind above described is also common among savages and people of lower culture; and Dr Tylor, in his Primitive Culture, ii.
Tylor, Primitive Culture; H.
Elliot Smith has shown 7 the existence of the two racial stocks in Egypt, the predynastic Nilotic and the invading "Armenoid " from Asia, the man of higher cranial capacity to whom the blossoming of the Egyptian civilization and art out of primitive African barbarism is to be ascribed.
Mason, The Historic Martyrs of the Primitive Church (London, 1905); H.
Fir trees and branches from the neighbouring forest are collected and planted in front of the houses, so that for a few hours Hasselt has the appearance of being restored to its primitive condition as a wood.
It is possible that these primitive efforts of American Indians might have been further developed, but the Spanish conquest put a stop to all progress, and for a consecutive history of the map and map-making we must turn to the Old World, and trace this history from Egypt and Babylon, through Greece, to our own age.
Brooks regards these organs as sensory, serving for the sense of balance, and representing a primitive stage of the tentaculocysts of Trachylinae; Linko, on the other hand, finding no nerve-elements connected with them, regards them as digestive (?) in function.
Weismann.) I, Ideally primitive method of budding, in which the mouth is formed first (Ia), next the tentacles (Ib), and lastly the umbrella.
The question still remains open, however, which of the two types of person may be regarded as the most primitive, the most ancient in the race-history of the Hydromedusae.
Balfour put forward the view that the polyp was the more primitive type, and that the medusa is a special modification of the polyp for reproductive purposes, the result of division of labour in a polypcolony, whereby special reproductive persons become detached and acquire organs of locomotion for spreading the species.
The Hertwigs when they discovered the endoderm-lamella showed on morphological grounds that polyp and medusa are independent types, each produced by modification in different directions of a more primitive type represented in development by the actinulastage.
In their most primitive form they are seen in Velella as " gonosiphons," which possess mouths like the ordinary sterile siphons and bud free medusae.
In conclusion, it is noteworthy that though resorting to utterly fanciful hypotheses respecting the order of the development of the world, Anaximander agrees with modern evolutionists in conceiving the heavenly bodies as arising out of an aggregation of diffused matter, and in assigning to organic life an origin in the inorganic materials of the primitive earth (pristine mud).
Diogenes distinctly taught that the world is of finite duration, and will be renewed out of the primitive substance.
Empedocles took an important step in the direction of modern conceptions of physical evolution by teaching that all things arise, not by transformations of some primitive form of matter, but by various combinations of a number of permanent elements.
Lucretius regards the primitive atoms (first beginnings or first bodies) as seeds out of which individual things are developed.
Lucretius touches on the development of man out of a primitive, hardy, beast-like condition.
The process is conceived as an infinite series of variations or specifications of one primitive and common type.
The organic world (like the world as a whole) arises out of a primitive chaos, namely, the infusorial slime.
Buffon (1753-1778), at first a partisan of the absolute immutability of species, subsequently appears to have believed that larger or smaller groups of species have been produced by the modification of a primitive stock; but he contributed nothing to the general doctrine of evolution.
When a series of the modifications of an anatomical structure has been sufficiently examined, it is frequently possible to decide that one particular condition is primitive, ancestral or central, and that the other conditions have been derived from it.
Duchesne's opinion, being not continuous but, following the primitive Roman custom, broken by intervals.
SPARASSODONTA, a zoological name applied to a group of primitive carnivorous mammals from the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia, represented by the genera Borhyaena, Prothylacinus, Amphiproviverra, &c. By their first describer, Dr F.
The male gametophyte is represented by one or few cells and, except in a few primitive forms where the male cell still retains the motile character as in the Pteridophyta, is carried passively to the macrospore in a development of the pollen grain, the pollen tube.
The Spermatophyta fall into two classes, Gymncsperms (q.v.) and Angiosperms; the former are the more primitive group, appearing earlier in geological time and showing more resemblance in the course of their life-history to the Pteridophyta.
A recently discovered fossil group, the Pteridospermae have characters intermediate between the Ptendophyta and the more primitive seedplants.
B, Plant of the primitive Siphoneous Green Alga Protosiphon botryoides.
The primitive cell sends colorless tubelets (rhizoids, rh.) into the mud on which it grows.
In the liverworts we find fixation of the thallus by water-absorbing rhizoids; in certain forms with a localized region of water-absorption the development of a primitive hydrom or water-conducting system; and in others with rather a massive type of thallus the differentiation of a special assimilative and transpiring system.
From the primitive uniform Systems. mass of undifferentiated assimilating cells, which we may conceive of as the starting-point of differentiation, though such an undifferentiated body is only actually realized in the thallus of the lower Algae, there is, (1) on the one hand, a specialization of a surface layer regulating the immediate relations of the plant with its surroundings.
The remaining tissue of the plant-body, a tissue that we must regard phylogenetically as the remnant of the undifferentiated tissu~ of the primitive thallus, but which often undergoes further different,iation of its own, the better to fulfil its characteristically vital functions for the whole plant, is known, from its peripheral position in relation to the primitively central conducting tissue, as (3) the cortex.
The cortex, as has been said, is in its origin the remains of th~ primitive assimilating tissue of the plant, after differentiatioi of the surface layer and the conducting system.
In all green plants which have a special protective epidermis, the cortex of the shoot has to perform the primitive fundamental function of carbon assimilation.
The whole tissue system is known as the stelar system (from the way in which in primitive forms it runs through the whole axis of the plant in the form of a column).
All the surviving forms, however, have a completely established double system with the specific characters alluded to, and since there is every reason to believe that the conditions of evolution of the primitive Pteridophyte must have been essentially similar to those of the Bryophytes, the various stages in the evolution of the conducting system of the latter (p. 732) are very useful to compare with the arrangements met with in the former.
or many protoxylems. When the protoxylem strands are situated at the periphery of the stele, abutting on the pericycle, as in all roots, and many of the more primitive Pteridophyte stems, the stele is said to be exarch.
When the protoxylems have an intermediate position the stele is inesarch (many Pteridophytes and some of the more primitive Phanerogams).
As the primitive stele of a Pteridophyte is traced upwards from the primary rout into the stem, the phloem becomes continuous round the xylem.
In others a central parenchyma or primetive pith a new region of the primitive stelar conjunctiveappears in the centre of the xylem.
To this type of steIn having a ground-tissue pith, whether with or without internal phloem, is given the name siphonostele to distinguish it from the solid haplostele characteristic of the root, the first-formed portion of the stem, and in the more primitive Pteridophytes, of the whole of the axis.
The vascular supply of the leaf (leaf-trace) consists of a single strand only in the haplostelic and some of the more primitive siphonostelic forms. In the microphyllous groups Leaf.trace of Pteridophytes (Lycopodiales and Equisetales) in and Petlolar which the leaves are small relatively to the stem, the Strands, single bundle destined for each leaf is a small strand whose departure causes no disturbance in the cauline stele.
In the haplostelic ferns the leaf-trace appears as a single strand with a tendency to assume the shape of a horseshoe on cross-section, and this type is also found in the more primitive solenostelic types.
In the petiole these strands may increase in number by branching, and thotigh usually reducible to the outline of the primitive horseshoe, more or less elaborated, they may in some of the complex polycylic dictyostelic types (Marattiaceae) be arranged in several concentric circles, thus imitating the arrangement of strands formed in the stem.
There is good reason to believe that the haplostele is primitive in the evolution of the vascular system.
It is found in most of P all I of those Pteridophytes which we have other reasons for e considering as primitive types, and essentially the same Ontogeny type is found, as we have seen, in the independently with developed primitive conducting system of the mossPh.~logeny.
It is probable that this type of stele is a modification of a primitive protostele, in which the main mass of stelar xylem has become much reduced and incidentally separated from the leaftraces.
It is possible to suppose that this condition is derived from the astelic condition already referred to, but the evidence on the whole leads to the conclusion that it has ansen byan increase in the number of the bundles within the stele, the individuality of the bundle asserting itself after its escape from the original bundle-ring of the primitive cylinder.
In other cases, however, continuous primitive stele is developed, extending from the primar stem to the primary root, the leaf-traces arising later.
The evidence scarcely admits of a decision as to which of these methods is to be regarded as primitive in descent.
In cases where the development of the embryo is advanced at the resting period, traces run from the cotyledons and determine the symmetry of the stele of the primitive axis, the upperpart of which often shows stem-structure, in some respects at least, and is called the hypocoty- ledonary stem or hypocotyl, while the lower part is the primary root .~-,
The object of the phylogenetic study of any organ is to trace it back to its primitive form.
When two organs can be traced along the same line of descent to one primitive form, that is when they are found to be mono phyletic, their homology is complete; when, however, they are traceable to two primitive forms, though these forms belong to the same morphological series, they are polyphyletic and therefore only incompletely homologous.
Flora), the primitive leaf was a reproductive leaf, a sporophyll, from which the foliage-leaf was derived by progressive sterilization.
It was formerly assumed, and the view is still held, that the foliage-leaf was the primitive form from which all others were derived, mainly on the ground that, in ontogeny, the foliage-leaf generally precedes the sporophyll.
Moreover there is the fact that the flowers of nearly all the primitive phanerogams, such as the Gymnosperms, consist solely of sporophylls, having no perianth.
for regarding the monstrous form as necessarily primitive or ancestral, nor even as a stage in the ontogeny of the organ.
The primitive water-plants were succeeded by land-plants, a landflora being gradually established.
Tozer 2 as the father of geography on account of his Periodos, or general treatise on the earth, did not advance beyond the primitive conception of a circular disk.
The dominant forms result from crustal movements, the subsidiary from secondary reactions o during the action of the primitive forms on mobile distri butions.
The black type is found only in tropical or sub-tropical countries, and is usually in a primitive condition of culture, unless educated by contact with people of the white type.
They follow the most primitive forms of religion (mainly fetishism), live on products of the woods or of the chase, with the minimum of work, and have only a loose political organization.
In tropical forests primitive tribes depend on the collection of wild fruits, and in a minor degree on the chase of wild animals, for their food.
The schizognathous formation is doubtless the most primitive, and its representatives form a tolerably natural FIG.
It is absent in the Ratitae, which from this feature have received their name, but considerable traces of a cartilaginous keel occur in the embryo of the ostrich, showing undeniably that the absence of a keel in the recent bird is not a primitive, fundamental feature.
This primitive condition occurs only in the Odontornithes, Ratitae and Tinami; in all others this notch becomes converted into a foramen ischiadicum, through which pass the big stems of the ischiadic nerves and most of the bloodvessels of the hind-limb.
Of course this doubleheaded condition is the more primitive, and as such exists in most nidifugous birds, but in many of these, as well as in many nidicolous birds, either the caudal or the iliac head is absent, and in a very few (Cancroma, Dicholophus, Steatornis and some Cathartes) the whole muscle is absent.
The most primitive combination, ambiens and A B X Y, is the most common; next follows that of A X Y, meaning the reduction of B, i.e.
The former is morphologically the more primitive condition, and is found in the overwhelming majority of birds, including many Passeriformes.
In the great majority of birds it has disappeared completely and the primitive way of everting the cloaca is resorted to.
At all stages of religious development, however, and more especially in the case of the more primitive types of cult, prayer as thus understood occurs together with, and shades off into, other varieties of observance that bear obvious marks of belonging to the same family.
Thus the Zulu says to the ancestral ghost, "Help me or you will feed on nettles"; whilst the still more primitive Australian exclaims to the "dead hand" that he carries about with him as a kind of divining-rod, "Guide me aright, or I throw you to the dogs."
In more primitive ritual, however, set forms of prayer are the rule, and their function is mainly to accompany and support a ceremony the nerve of which consists in action rather than speech.
A favourite contrast for which there is more to be said is that drawn between the m k agico-religious spell-ritual, that says in effect, "My will be done," and the spirit of "Thy will be done" that breathes through the highest forms of worship. Such resignation in the face of the divine will and providence is, however, not altogether beyond the horizon of primitive faith, as witness the following prayer of the Khonds of Orissa: "We are ignorant of what it is good to ask for.
Tylor, Primitive Culture, ch.
The wheels, called naoura, are of the most primitive construction, made of rough branches of trees, with palm leaf paddles, rude clay vessels being slung on the outer edge to catch the water, of which they raise a prodigious amount, only a comparatively small part of which, however, is poured into the aqueducts on top of the dams. These latter are exceedingly picturesque, often consisting of a series of well-built Gothic arches, and give a peculiar character to the scenery; but they are also great impediments to navigation.
It is easy to distinguish the great primitive watercourses from the lateral ducts which they fed, the latter being almost without banks and merely traceable by the winding curves of the layers of alluvium in the bed, while the former are hedged in by high banks of mud, heaped up during centuries of dredging.
The fish of the lagoons and streams are coarse, and some of them primitive in type; but two or three kinds, found generally in the large rivers, are much prized.
Their habits were simple, and they were disfigured neither by the worst crimes nor by the primitive superstitition of savages.
Gold-mining has been carried on in a primitive manner for more than two centuries, but the output has never been large and no very rich mines have been discovered.
It was a primitive institution which gradually changed its character by force of circumstances.
The Great Council of Venice was anything but a primitive institution; it was the artificial institution of a late age, which grew at the expense of earlier institutions, of the prince on the one side and of the people on the other.
But in no part of Europe can the existing nobility trace itself to this immemorial nobility of primitive days; the nobility of medieval and modern days springs from the later nobility of office.
Herbert was also epoch-making for the whole 18th century in teaching that priests had corrupted this primitive faith.
aumonier), in the primitive sense, an officer in religious houses to whom belonged the management and distribution of the alms of the house.
Lameere, for example, considers some of his Cantharidif ormia as the most primitive Coleoptera.
Horn placed the Rhynchophora (weevils) in a group distinct from all other beetles, on account of their supposed primitive nature.
Kolbe, on the other hand, insists that the weevils are the most modified of all beetles, being highly specialized as regards their adult structure, and developing from legless maggots exceedingly different from the adult; he regards the Adephaga, with their active armoured larvae with two foot-claws, as the most primitive group of beetles, and there can be little doubt that the likeness between larvae and adult may safely be accepted as a primitive character among insects.
The generalized arrangement of the wing-nervure and the nature of the larva, which is less unlike the adult than in other beetles, distinguish this tribe as primitive, although the perfect insects are, in the more dominant families, distinctly specialized.
The Lymexylonidae, a small family of this group, characterized by its slender, undifferentiated feelers and feet, is believed by Lameere to comprise the most primitive of all living beetles, and Sharp lays stress on the undeveloped structure of the tribe generally.
The Ural industry is the older, and is still conducted on primitive methods, wood being largely used for fuel, and the ore and metals being transported by water down the Kama and other rivers.
What constituted in this primitive system of inheritance the strength of a claim was often not easily determined, and even when the legal question was clear enough the law was not always respected by the contending parties.
Like the European settlers on the coast of Africa in more recent times, they wished the barbarians of the interior to be restricted to the use of their primitive weapons.
Hubert and Mauss, while admitting that in all sacrifices is found some idea of purchase or substitution, decline to admit that all have issued from one primitive form.
Thus it appears that the gift theory may after all be primitive; the worship of, or care for, the dead may have supplied in other areas the motive for the transition from offering to sacrifice or the evolution may have been due to the spiritualization of the gods.
For other areas we have often no description of the procedure at all, but merely the briefest outline of the actual process of slaughter, and we are ignorant whether the form of the rite is in reality simple (either from a loss of primitive elements or from never having advanced beyond the stage at which we find it), or whether the absence of detail is due to the inattention or lack of interest of the observer.
How far this scheme of sacrifice holds good for other areas, and in particular for more primitive peoples, is an open question.
In spite of the importance attached to the idea of the common meal by Robertson Smith, it is not a primitive rite of adoption.
It has been held that animal sacrifice is the primitive form and that the decay of totemism or lack of domestic animals has brought about the substitution of a human victim; but it has also been urged that in many cases animal victims are treated like human beings and must consequently have replaced them, that human beings are smeared with the blood of sacrifice, and must therefore have themselves been sacrificed before a milder regime allowed an animal to replace them.
Tylor, Primitive Culture; Ed.
It is clear from the evidence of the early Western liturgies that, for at least six centuries, the primitive conception of the nature of the Christian sacrifice remained.
Other ideas no doubt attached themselves to the primitive conception, of which there is no certain evidence in primitive times, e.g.
On the other hand, the evidence for the existence of ancestor-worship in primitive Israel cannot be so easily disposed of as Kautzsch (ibid.
Whether the primitive rite of water-offerings (I Sam.
It is probable that in some primitive sanctuaries no real distinction was made between this stonepillar and the altar or place where the animal was slaughtered.
In ordinary pre-exilian high places the custom described in the primitive compend of laws (Ex.
In the primitive codes, Ex.
This narrative has all the marks of primitive simplicity.
This necessarily involved in that primitive age an extreme jealousy of foreign importations or innovations in ritual.
The word holiness (qodesh) in primitive Hebrew usage partook of the nature of taboo, and came to be applied to whatever, whether thing or person, stood in close relation to deity and belonged to him, and could not, therefore, be used or treated like other objects not so related, and so was separated or stood apart.
In the historical evolution of Hebrew sacrifice it is remarkable how long this non-ethical and primitive survival of old custom still survived, even far into post-exilian times.
But I refused the permission which Becket solicited of reprinting it; the public curiosity was imperfectly satisfied by a pirated copy of the booksellers of Dublin; and when a copy of the original edition has been discovered in a sale, the primitive value of half-a-crown has risen to the fanciful price of a guinea or thirty shillings."
It seems to point to the supersession of a primitive local Cretan divinity by Demeter, and the adoption of agriculture by the inhabitants, bringing wealth in its train in the form of the fruits of the earth, both vegetable and mineral.
at Delos), from 'lovAos, " corn-sheaf," has been regarded as identifying the goddess with the sheaf, and as proving that the cult of Demeter originated in the worship of the corn-mother or corn-spirit, the last sheaf having a more or less divine character for the primitive husbandman.
During the commonwealth and empire aes grave was used to denote the old as in contradistinction to the existing depreciated coin; while aes rude was applied to the original oblong coinage of primitive times.
The antennae of Diptera, which are also extremely important in classification, are thread-like in the more primitive families, such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), where they consist of a considerable number of joints, all of which except the first two, and sometimes also the last two, are similar in shape; in the more specialized families, such as the Tabanidae (horse-flies), Syrphidae (hover-flies) or Muscidae (house-flies, blue-bottles and their allies), the number of antennal joints is greatly reduced by coalescence, so that the antennae appear to consist of only three joints.
In these forms, however, the third joint is really a complex, which in many families bears in addition a jointed bristle (arista) or style, representing the terminal joints of the primitive antenna.
It is customary to divide the Orthorrhapha into the two divisions Nematocera and Brachycera, in the former of which the antennae are elongate and in a more or less primitive condition, as described above, while in the latter these organs are short, and, as already explained, apparently composed of only three joints.
The famous Tertiary beds :at Florissant, Colorado, have yielded a considerable number, or remarkably well-preserved Tipulidae (in which family are included the most primitive of existing Diptera), as also species belonging to other families, such as Mycetophilidae and even, Oestridae.
I 1-24); Caleb's overthrow of the Hebronite giants finds a parallel in David's conflicts before the capture of Jerusalem, and may be associated with the belief that these primitive giants once filled the land (Josh.
Many traces of myth, legend and " primitive " thought survive in the Old Testament, and on the most cautious estimate they presuppose a vitality which is not a little astonishing.
The fish was an early symbol of Christ in primitive and medieval Christian art.
Agriculture is still in a primitive condition; notwithstanding the fertility of the arable land the supply of cereals is far below the requirements of the population.
This more primitive phase of the indigenous culture, of which several distinct stages are traceable, is known as the Early Minoan, and roughly corresponds with the first half of the third millennium B.C. The succeeding period, to which the first palaces are due and to which the name of Middle Minoan is appropriately given, roughly coincides with the Middle Empire of Egypt.
It is a primitive cult similar to that of Early Canaan, illustrated by the pillow stone set up by Jacob, which was literally " Bethel " or the " House of God."
There halve also come to light remains of a great domed mortuary chamber of primitive construction containing relics of the Early Minoan period (Halbherr, Monumenti Antichi, xiii.
The East Syrians in most cases kept the more primitive pronunciation: e.g.
In vowel-sounds Syriac is clearly more primitive than Hebrew (as pointed by the Massoretes), less so than Arabic. Thus Ar.
But the second syllable of the same word shows Syriac siding with Hebrew against Arabic. Again the primitive a of Arabic is in the older (Nestorian) pronunciation of Syriac maintained, while in Jacobite Syriac and in Hebrew it passes into o: thus Ar.
Again Syriac 1 It may indeed be remarked that Syriac, which is generally more primitive in its sounds than Hebrew, shows a more advanced stage of weakening as regards the gutturals: thus in a good many forms it has substituted alef for initial he, and often shows a dislike for the presence of two gutturals in the same word, weakening one of them to alef.
The Melanochroi are not considered by Huxley to be one of the primitive modifications of mankind, but rather to be the result of the admixture of the Xanthochroi with the Australoid type, next to be mentioned.
The resemblances between primitive Christianity and Buddhism appear to be coincidences, and though both early Greek philosophy and later Alexandrine ideas suggest Indian affinities, there is no clear connexion such as there is between certain aspects of Chinese thought and India.
Again (b) the primitive stories of conflicts with " Philistine " giants between Hebron and Jerusalem (2 Sam.
The methods of cultivation are primitive: the curious water-wheels, made of brushwood with pots tied on to them, and turned by a blindfolded donkey, may be noted.
Agriculture is still carried on in a somewhat primitive fashion, and as a rule the livestock is of an inferior quality, though the breed of horses, of a heavy build and mostly used in agriculture, is held in high esteem.
The cultivation of the soil is, however, attended in many parts with great difficulties owing to the scanty rainfall and the very primitive implements still in use, and in the valley of the Kura heavy losses are frequently incurred from depredations by locusts.
The history of agriculture is the history of man in his most primitive, and most permanent aspect.
In times of scarcity the Norse peasant-farmer uses the sweetish inner bark, beaten in a mortar and ground in his primitive mill with oats or barley, to eke out a scanty supply of meal, the mixture yielding a tolerably palatable though somewhat resinous substitute for his ordinary flad-brod.
But this is not part of the primitive complex.
It is absent in the most primitive and symmetrical forms, such as Haliotis and Pleurotomaria.
In the most primitive existing Gastropods the gonad opens into the right kidney (Patellidae, Trochidae, Fissurellidae).
- These are the most primitive Gastropods, retaining to a great degree the original symmetry of the FIG.
The common limpet is a specially interesting and abundant example of the more primitive Aspidobranchia.
The eyes of the limpet deserve mention as examples of the most primitive kind of eye in the Molluscan series.
It corresponds to the right of the two primitive ctenidia in the untwisted archaic condition of the molluscan body, and does not project freely into the branchial cavity, but its axis is attached (by concrescence) to the mantle-skirt (roof of the branchial chamber).
E, The trochosphere passing to the veliger stage, dorsal view showing the formation of the primitive shell-sac.
This is clearly the same process in essence as that of the formation of a vitellogenous gland from part of the primitive ovary, or of the feeding of an ovarian egg by the absorption of neighbouring potential eggs; but here the period at which the sacrifice of one egg to another takes place is somewhat late.
shgl, The primitive shell-sac or shell-gland.
In several of the more primitive forms the same torsion occurs as in Streptoneura, viz.
In Clausilia, according to the observations of C. Gegenbaur, the primitive shell-sac does not flatten out and disappear, but takes the form of a flattened closed sac. Within this closed sac a plate of calcareous matter is developed, and after a time the upper wall of the sac disappears, and the calcareous plate continues to grow as the nucleus of the permanent shell.
The permanence of the primitive shell-sac in these slugs is a point of considerable interest.
It is clear enough that the sac is of a different origin from that of Aplysia (described in the section treating of Opisthobranchia), being primitive instead of secondary.
Whether the closed primitive shell-sac of the slugs (and with it the transient embryonic shell-gland of all other Mollusca) is precisely the same thing as the closed sac in which the calcareous pen or shell of the Cephalopod Sepia and its allies is formed, is a further question which we shall consider when dealing with the Cephalopoda.
It is important here to note that Clausilia furnishes us with an exceptional instance of the continuity of the shell or secreted product of the primitive shell - sac with the adult shell.
In most other Mollusca (Anisopleurous Gastropods, Pteropods and Conchifera) there is a want of such continuity; the primitive shell-sac contributes no factor to the permanent shell, or only a very minute FIG.
ing gs, the bilobed arch sh, The primitive shell-sac or enteron or lateral vesicles shell-gland ° of invaginated endoderm, pi, The rectal peduncle or whichwill develop into liver.
This, however, is not the primitive form of the legend, which a close examination shows to be derived from the following story related by Eusebius in his Historia Ecclesiastica (vii.
Thanks to the exploration of Cnossus, we now know that Aegean civilization had its roots in a primitive Neolithic period, of uncertain but very long duration, represented by a stratum which (on that site in particular) is in places nearly 20 ft.
- From these and other data the outlines of primitive history in the Aegean may be sketched thus.
It is true that Cuchulinn seems to stand in a special relation to the Tuatha De Danann leader, the god Lug, but in primitive societies there is always a tendency to ascribe a divine parentage to men who stand out pre-eminently in prowess beyond their fellows.
The head of an insect carries usually four pairs of conspicuous appendages - feelers, mandibles and two pairs of maxillae, so that the presence of four primitive somites is immediately evident.
I, 2) is composed of a number of sclerites firmly sutured together, so that the primitive segmentation is masked.
These have been interpreted as indicating one or more primitive segments between the head and thorax.
Verhoeff (1904) that the hexapodan thorax in reality contains six primitive segments is entirely without embryological support.
The brain innervates the eyes and feelers, and must be regarded as a " syncerebrum " representing the ganglia of the three foremost limb-bearing somites united with the primitive cephalic lobes.
13, od) leads, and in some of the more primitive insects (bristle-tails, earwigs, may-flies) the two oviducts open separately direct to the exterior.
From these facts it appears that the anterior three divisions of the head differ strongly from the posterior three, which greatly resemble thoracic segments; hence it has been thought possible that the anterior divisions may represent a primitive head, to which three segments and their leg-like appendages were subsequently added to form the head as it now exists.
In the cockroach embryo, before the segmentation of the germ-band has begun, the primitive germ-cells can be recognized at the hinder end of the mesoderm, from whose ordinary cells they can be distinguished by their larger size.
An exceedingly early differentiation of the primitive germ-cells occurs in certain Diptera.
In the absence of the external ectodermal ducts usual in winged insects, these two groups resemble therefore the primitive Aptera.
Carpenter (1899, 1902-1904) has lately endeavoured to show an exact numerical correspondence in segmentation between the Hexapoda, the Crustacea, the Arachnida, and the most primitive of the Diplopoda.
On either view it may be believed that the Hexapoda arose with the allied classes from a primitive arthropod stock, while the relationships of the class are with the Crustacea, the Chilopoda and the Diplopoda, rather than with the Arachnida.
Some of those zoologists who look to Peripatus, or a similar worm-like form, as representing the direct ancestors of the Hexapoda have laid stress on a larva like the caterpillar of a moth or saw-fly as representing a primitive stage.
The caterpillar, or the maggot, is a specialized larval form characteristic of the most highly developed orders, while the campodeiform larva is the starting-point for the more primitive insects.
Many students of the group, following Brauer, have regarded the Apterygota as representing the original wingless progenitors of the Pterygota, and the many primitive characters shown by the former group lend support to this view.
How wings were acquired by these primitive Pterygota must remain for the present a subject for speculation.
the bionomic nature of metamorphosis, and to what extent it existed in primitive insects.
- Reasons have been given for regarding the Thysanura as representing, more nearly than any other living group, the primitive stock of the Hexapoda.
It is hard to arrange the Exopterygota in a linear series, for some of the orders that are remarkably primitive in some respects are rather highly specialized in others.
But the vestigial jaws, numerous Malpighian tubes, and specialized wings of may-flies forbid us to consider the order as on the whole primitive.
The Odonata are in many imaginal and larval characters highly specialized; yet they probably arose with the Ephemeroptera as a divergent offshoot of the same primitive isopteroid stock which developed more directly into the living Isoptera, Plecoptera, Dermaptera and Orthoptera.
This order can be traced with certainty back to the early Jurassic epoch, while the Permian fossil Eugereon, and the living order - specially modified in many respects - of the Thysanoptera indicate steps by which the aberrant suctorial and piercing mouth of the Hemiptera may have been developed from the biting mouth of primitive Isopteroids, by the elongation of some parts and the suppression of others.
We conclude, therefore, that the primitive stock of the former subclass became early differentiated from that of the latter.
The campodeiform larvae of many Coleoptera are indeed far more primitive than the neuropteran larvae, and suggest to us that the Coleoptera - modified as their wing-structure has become - arose very early from the primitive metabolous stock.
They afford an example - paralleled in other classes of the animal kingdom - of an order which, though specialized in some respects, retains many primitive characters, and has won its way to dominance rather by perfection of behaviour, and specially by the development of family life and helpful socialism, than by excessive elaboration of structure.
We would trace the Hymenoptera back therefore to the primitive endopterygote stock.
They could even discern dimly some generalized stock whence had descended whole groups that now differed strangely in habits and appearance - their discernment aided, may be, by some isolated form which yet retained undeniable traces of a primitive structure.
On the other hand the Odontotormae, as exemplified in Ichthyornis, having the primitive biconcave vertebrae, yet possessed the highly specialized feature of teeth in distinct sockets.
Fiirbringer supposes that birds must have begun with toothed forms of small or moderate size, with long tails and four lizard-like feet and bodies clothed with a primitive kind of down.
Here, where he had to deal with the Judaism that believed in a Messiah, he was far better able to do justice to Christianity as a revelation; and so we find that the arguments of this work are much more completely in harmony with primitive Christian theology than those of the Apology.
The dwellings of the primitive settlers in the lagoons were, in all probability, rude huts made of long reeds, such as may be seen to this day in the lagoon of Grado.
The assaults, of the Dalmatian pirates, attracted by the growing wealth of the city, necessitated the building of strong castellated houses, of which no example has come down to our day, but we may gather what they were like from Petrarch's description of his house on the Riva degli Schiavoni, with its two flanking towers, probably retaining the primitive form, and also from the representations of protecting towers which occur in Carpaccio's pictures.
Moorehead, Primitive Man in Ohio (New York, 1892).
Demons, when they are regarded as spirits, may belong to either of the classes of spirits recognized by primitive animism; that is to say, they may be human, or non-human, separable souls, or discarnate spirits which have never inhabited a body; a sharp distinction is often drawn between these two classes, notably by the Melanesians, the West Africans and others; the Arab jinn, for example, are not reducible to modified human souls; at the same time these classes are frequently conceived as producing identical results, e.g.
It should, however, be remembered that primitive peoples do not distinguish clearly between material and immaterial beings.
But these beliefs are far from being confined to the uncivilized; Greek philosophers like Porphyry, no less than the fathers of the Church, held that the world was pervaded with spirits; side by side with the belief in witchcraft, we can trace through the middle ages the survival of primitive animistic views; and in our own day even these beliefs subsist in unsuspected vigour among the peasantry of the more uneducated European countries.
In fact the ready acceptance of spiritualism testifies to the force with which the primitive animistic way of looking at things appealed to the white races in the middle of the last century.
Especially among the lower races the dead are regarded as hostile; the Australian avoids the grave even of a kinsman and elaborate ceremonies of mourning are found amongst most primitive peoples, whose object seems to be to rid the living of the danger they run by association with the ghost of the dead.
Primitive peoples from the Australians upwards celebrate, usually at fixed intervals, a driving out of hurtful influences.
To the north of the valley of the Drave the duchy is occupied by the Hohe Tauern and the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, which belong to the central zone of the Eastern Alps.
To the east of the Hohe Tauern stretches the group of the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, namely the PÃ¶llauer Alps with the glacier-covered peak of the Hafner Eck (10,041 ft.); the Stang Alps with the highest peak the Eisenhut (8007 ft.); the Saualpe with the highest peak the Grosse Saualpe (6825 ft.); and finally the Koralpen chain or the Stainzer Alps (7023 ft.) separated from the preceding group by the Lavant valley.
Until after the War of Independence the primitive topography remained unchanged, but it was afterwards subjected to changes greater than those effected on the site of any other American city.
The calendar was the Syro-Macedonian, a solar, as distinct from the primitive lunar, calendar, which Roman influence disseminated throughout Syria; it was practically a reproduction of the Julian calendar.
Along one line there was a gradual elaboration of the tube until it culminated, so far as structural complexity is concerned, in the so-called trapdoor nests or burrows of various families; along the other line the tubular retreat either retains its primitive simplicity in association with a new structure, the snare or net, or is entirely superseded by the latter.
The most primitive is hand-picking, the fibre being laboriously pulled from off each seed, as still practised in parts of Africa.
With this primitive machine, worked by hand, about 5 lb of lint is the daily output.
West Africa.-Cotton has long been grown in the various countries on the west coast of Africa, ginned by hand or by very primitive means, spun into yarn, and woven on simple looms into " country cloths "; these are often only a few inches wide, so that any large cloths have to be made by sewing the narrow strips together.
The area under cotton in all British India is about 20,000,000 acres, the crop being grown in a very primitive manner.
In the early days of the petroleum industry the oil was transported in the most primitive manner.
The primitive methods originally in use in the Russian oil-fields have already been described; but these were long ago superseded by pipe-lines, while a great deal of oil is carried by tank steamers on the Caspian to the mouth of the Volga where it is transferred to barges and thence at Tzaritzin to railway tank-cars.
Thus the story of the legists shrinks down to the regular myth of the primitive legislator, used to give an air of respectability to law-books, which really record an unwritten custom.
The crusading states had been founded by adventurers who thirsted for gain; and the primitive appetite did not lose its edge with the progress of time.
The Heteronemertini thus appear to have developed an extra layer of longitudinal fibres internally to those which they inherited from more primitive ancestors, whereas the Metanemertini are no longer in possession of the internal circular layer, but have on the contrary largely developed the external circular one, which has dwindled away in the Heteronemertini.
As to the Mesonemertini, in the most primitive genus, Carinella, we do not find any lateral organs answering to the description above given.
Besides these more highly differentiated organs of vision, more primitive eyes are present in others down to simple stellate pigment specks without any refracting apparatus.
Our knowledge of the development of the most primitive forms is scanty.
It encloses the primitive alimentary tract.
As the great nature-goddess, the attributes of fertility and reproduction are characteristically hers, as also the accompanying immorality which originally, perhaps, was often nothing more than primitive magic. As patroness of the hunt, later identification with Artemis was inevitable.
THE PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHURCH, a community of nonconformists, which owes its origin to the fact that Methodism as founded by the Wesleys tended, after the first generation, to depart from the enthusiasm that had marked its inception and to settle down to the task of self-organization.
There were, however, some ardent spirits who continued to work along the old lines and whose watchword was revivalism, and out of their efforts came the Bible Christian, the Independent Methodist and the Primitive Methodist denominations.
One of the men to whom Primitive Methodism owes its existence was Hugh Bourne (1772-1852), a millwright of Stoke-upon-Trent.
1805) of the joint founder of Primitive Methodism, William Clowes (1780-1851), a native of Burslem, who had come to Tunstall.
Lorenzo Dow (1777-1834), an eccentric American Methodist revivalist, visited North Staffordshire and spoke of the campmeetings held in America, with the result that on the 31st of May 1807 the first real English gathering of the kind was held on Mow Cop, since regarded as the Mecca of Primitive Methodism.
Clowes, like Crawfoot, was set apart as a preacher to "live by the gospel," and in February 1812 the name "Primitive Methodist" was formally adopted, although for nearly a generation the name "Clowesites" survived in local use.
The first distinct period in the history of Primitive Methodism proper is 1811-1843.
Thenceforward, while the Oxford Movement was awakening one section of the people of England the Primitive Methodists were making themselves felt among other classes of the population.
These were the classes the Primitive Methodists tried to reach, and in doing so they found themselves between two fires.
The years1842-1853mark a transition period in the history of Primitive Methodism.
Antliff, Thomas Bateman and Henry Hodge) finds Primitive Methodism as a connexion of federated districts, a unity which may be described as mechanical rather than organic. The districts between 1853 and 1873 were ten in number, Tunstall, Nottingham, Hull, Sunderland, Norwich, Manchester, Brinkworth, Leeds, Bristol and London.
Since 1885 Primitive Methodism has been developing from a "Connexion" into a "Church," the designation employed since 1902.
Kendall, The Origin and History of the Primitive Methodist Church (2 vols., 1906); and What hath God Wrought ?
The use by the Malays of artificially constructed terms to denote these things may certainly be taken to strengthen the opinion that the Malays arrived in the lands they now inhabit at a comparatively late period in their history, and at a time when they had developed considerably from the original state of primitive man.
Their implements are very primitive, consisting of a plough fashioned from a fork of a tree, and a rude harrow.
Their verse is of a very primitive description, and is chiefly used for purposes of love-making.
PHENACODUS, one of the earliest and most primitive of the ungulate mammals, typifying the family Phenacodontidae and the sub-order Condylarthra.
and two external, so that they were of the typical primitive bunodont structure.
A reprint of Primitive Marriage, with "Kinship in Ancient Greece" and some other essays not previously published, appeared in 1876, under the title of Studies in Ancient History.
The new essays in this volume were mostly critical, but one of them, in which perhaps his guessing talent is seen at its best, "The Divisions of the Irish Family," is an elaborate discussion of a problem which has long puzzled both Celtic scholars and jurists; and in another, "On the Classificatory System of Relationship," he propounded a new explanation of a series of facts which, he thought, might throw light upon the early history of society, at the same time putting to the test of those facts the theories he had set forth in Primitive Marriage.
The nervous system, composed of a ring and a ventral cord, retains its primitive connexion with the ectoderm.
Regarding all substances as being composed of one primitive matter - the prima materia, and as owing their specific differences to the presence of different qualities imposed upon it, the alchemist hoped, by taking away these qualities, to obtain the prima materia itself, and then to get from it the particular substance he desired by the addition of the appropriate qualities.
For the first requisites of a primitive settlement - food supply and defence - it afforded every advantage.
Remains of primitive polygonal walls which undoubtedly surrounded the entire area have been found at various points a little within the circuit of the existing parapet.
On the northern side are the foundations of a primitive tower and other remains, apparently of dwelling-houses, one of which may have been the 7rvKuV s Soµos 'EpEx01jos mentioned by Homer (Od.
The various approaches to the citadel on the northern side - the rock-cut flight of steps north-east of the Erechtheum, the stairs leading to the well Clepsydra, and the intermediate passage supposed to have furnished access to the Persians - are all to be attributed to the primitive epoch.
These early fortifications of the Acropolis, ascribed to the primitive non-hellenic Pelasgi, must be distinguished from the Pelasgicum or Pelargicum, which was in all prob ab i l i ty an encircling wall, built round the base of the g citadel and furnished with nine gates from which it derived the name of Enneapylon.
A portion of the outer wall has been recognized in a piece of primitive masonry discovered near the Odeum of Herodes Atticus; other traces will probably come to light when the northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis have been completely explored.
high, approached on either side by a flight of steps leading to the top; this block, which Curtius supposes to have been the primitive altar of Zeus "T ' w ros, may be safely identified with the orators' bema, 6 X Wos Ev 7-?7 IIUKvL (Aristoph.
It seems inconceivable, however, that any other site should have been preferred by the primitive settlers to the Acropolis, which offered the greatest advantages for defence; the Pnyx, owing to its proximity to the centres of civic life, can never have been deserted, and that portion which lay within the city walls must have been fully occupied when Athens was crowded during the Peloponnesian War.
The site of the primitive Agora (apXaia etyopa) was probably in the hollow between the Acropolis and the Pnyx, which formed a convenient meetingplace for the dwellers on the north and south sides of the fortress as well as for its inhabitants.
On this spot was apparently the primitive sanctuary of Athena, the rich temple (nicov vn6s) of Homer (Il.
- The history of primitive Athens is involved in the same obscurity which enshrouds the early development of most of the Greek city-states.
1888), and there is now no doubt that the absence of the power of flight is a secondary, not primitive, feature in the Ratitae as well as in the flightless bona fide Carinatae, e.g.
All the recent Ratitae still possess a considerable number of rather primitive characters, e.g.
Although loss of flight (correlated with more or less reduction of the wings and the sternal keel, and often compensated by stronger hind limbs) has occurred, and is still taking place in various groups of birds, it is quite impossible that a new Ratite can still come into existence, because the necessary primitive substratum, whence arose the true Ratitae, is no longer available.
A crystal may be regarded as built up of primitive parallelepipeda, the edges of which are in the ratio of the crystallographic axes, and the angles the axial angles of the crystals.
This idea that the Messianic kingdom of the future on earth should have a definite duration has - like the whole eschatology of the primitive Church - its roots in the Jewish apocalyptic literature, where it appears at a comparatively late period.
Commodian, Victorinus Pettavensis, Lactantius and Sulpicius Severus were all pronounced millennarians, holding by the very details of the primitive Christian expectations.
The bark is completely dog-like, and the primitive hunting instincts have been cultivated into a marvellous aptitude for herding sheep and cattle.
Together with these larger works Dahn wrote many monographs and studies upon primitive German society.
Hence a regular commerce in slaves was established, which was based on the " systematically-prosecuted hunting of man," and indicated an entire perversion of the primitive institution, which was essentially connected with conquest.
It now remains to consider the slavery of primitive origin which has .existed within recent times, or continues to exist, outside of the Western world.
Looking back on these days in 1777, Wesley felt "the Methodists at Oxford were all one body, and, as it were, one soul; zealous for the religion of the Bible, of the Primitive Church, and, in consequence, of the Church of England; as they believed it to come nearer the scriptural and primitive plan than any other national church upon earth."
Love-feasts for fellowship and testimony were also introduced, according to the custom of the primitive church.
It ' Preger is the only writer who has maintained that the three books in their primitive form date from 1254.
The newly discovered Hittite inscriptions have now thrown a welcome ray of light on the primitive Iranian creed (Ed.
Crofting agriculture is conducted on primitive methods, spade tillage being almost universal, and seaweed the principal manure.
But when it is granted that the ancient Hebrews, like other primitive peoples, had their own mythical and traditional figures, the story of Cain becomes less obscure.
His work, Monumenti delle anti christiane primitive, is the first in which the strange misconception, received with unquestioning faith by earlier writers, that the catacombs were exhausted sand-pits adapted by the Christians to the purpose of interment, was dispelled, and the true history of their formation demonstrated.
That facing the entrance was the place of greatest honour, where in many instances the remains of a martyr were deposited, whose tomb, according to primitive usage, served as an altar for the celebration of the eucharist.
In them was celebrated the funeral-feast on the day of burial and on its anniversary, as well as the eucharist, which was the invariable accompaniment of funerals in the primitive church (Bingham, FIG.Io.
Marchi, Monumenti delle arti cristiane primitive (Rome, 1844); Raoul Rochette, Tableau des catacombes de Rome (2nd ed., Paris, 1853) Perret, Les Catacombes de Rome (Paris, 1855) - a sumptuous folio work, but not always accurate; Roller, Les Catacombes de Rome (Paris, 1881); V.
In the upper molars the two outer columns or tubercles of the primitive tubercular molar coalesce to form an outer wall, from which proceed two crescentic transverse crests, the connexion between the crests and the wall being slight or imperfect, and the crests themselves sometimes tubercular.
The upper cheek-teeth are short-crowned and without cement, and show distinct traces of the primitive tubercles; the two outer columns form a more or less complete external wall, connected with the inner ones by a pair of nearly straight transverse crests; and the premolars are originally simpler than the molars.
The most primitive group is that of the American Hyracodontidae, !represented in the Oligocene by Hyrachyus, Hyracodon and Triplopus.
In the Lower Oligocene of Europe we have Ronzotherium and in that of America Leptaceratherium (Trigonias), which were primitive species with persistent upper canines and three-toed fore-feet.
Indeed, conditions were relatively primitive so late as 1880, if compared with those of other sugar-producing countries.
Save on the coffee, tobacco and sugar plantations, where competition in large markets has compelled the adoption of adequate modern methods, agriculture in Cuba is still very primitive.
The number of small brick plants is legion, almost all very primitive.
Wagon roads are still of small extent and primitive character save in a very few localities.
They were a tall race of copper hue; fairly intelligent, mild in temperament, who lived in poor huts and practised a limited and primitive agriculture.
Bachiller y Morales, Cuba primitive (Havana, 1883).
The former of these is connected with western Bagdad by a very primitive horse-tramway, also a relic of Midhat Pasha's reforms. The two parts of the city are joined by pontoon bridges, one in the suburbs and one in the main city.
On the other hand, the absence of leaven may recall primitive practice before its introduction as a domestic luxury; sacral rites generally keep alive primitive custom.
The complex of observances connected with the Passover and the very want of systemization observed in the literary sources would seem to vindicate the primitive character of the feast, which indeed is recognized by all inquirers.
into the primitive arctic community.
Down to the end of the 18th century there was only a primitive quay on the river side for shipping purposes.
In the inscription recording the contracts for its building it is called the Thymele; and this name may give the clue to its purpose; it was probably the idealized architectural representative of a primitive pit of sacrifice, such as may still be seen in the Asclepianum at Athens.
Since there are many species which do not possess these genital pleurae, the question arises as to whether their presence or their absence is the more primitive condition.
In the direct development Bateson showed that the three divisions of the coelom arise as pouches constricted off from the archenteron or primitive gut, thus resembling the development of the mesoblastic somites of Amphioxus.
QUERN, the primitive form of hand-mill for grinding corn, consisting of two flat circular stones; the lower stone, often shaped with a rim; has a wooden or metal pin in the centre which passes through a hole in the upper stone; the worker pours the grain through the hole with one hand, revolving the upper stone with the other by means of a peg fixed to one side.
The municipal picture gallery contains a collection of pictures, and among them are some primitive frescoes, attributable to the 12th century, which still retain traces of Byzantine influence.
America and in Mexico for incising the trees and obtaining the rubber are exceedingly primitive, but survive with little modification at the present day.
The native methods in vogue in Brazil and Mexico are primitive and often injurious to the tree.
The primitive methods of coagulation and curing practised in S.
In West Siberia there exist compact masses of Russians who have lost little of their primitive ethnographical features: but the case is otherwise on the outskirts.
Tillage is conducted on very primitive methods.
Mica mining is an industry of considerable importance, especially in India; but here the methods of mining are very primitive and wasteful.
Of these the aegis, usually explained as a storm-cloud, is probably intended as a battle-charm, like the Gorgon's head on the shield and the faces on the shields of Chinese soldiers; the owl probably represents the form under which she was worshipped in primitive times, and subsequently became her favourite bird (the epithet -yXavK6.)7rts, meaning "keen-eyed" in Homer, may have originally signified "owl-faced"); the snake, a common companion of the earth deities, probably refers to her connexion with ErechtheusErichthonius.
A similar primitive arrangement is thought by F.
(After Hancock.) The its primitive connexion with the letters indicate the muscles as external epithelium.
The histology of Brachiopods presents some peculiar and many primitive features.
In some less primitive genera, e.g.
The casuistry of primitive man is uncompromisingly legal.
These were huge digests of all that popes, councils, primitive fathers had decided on every kind of question pertaining to the confessional - what exactly is a sin, what kind of questions the priests must ask, under what conditions he could give absolution.
The needles of the primitive compasses, being made of iron, would require frequent re-magnetization, and a " stone " for the purpose of " touching the needle " was therefore generally included in the navigator's outfit.
The Arachnida form a distinct class or line of descent in the grade Euarthropoda, diverging (perhaps in common at the start with the Crustacea) from primitive Euarthropods, which gave rise also to the separate lines of descent known as the classes Diplopoda, Crustacea, Chilopoda and Hexapoda.
v., 1892.) heart differs in Limulus from the arrangement obtaining in Scorpio, in that a pair of lateral commissural arteries exist in Limulus (as described by Alphonse Milne-Edwards (6)) leading to a suppression of the more primitive direct connexion of the four pairs of posterior II.
It seems that there is a primitive tendency in the Arthropoda for the arteries to accompany the nerve cords, and a " supra-spinal " artery - that is to say, an artery in close relation to the ventral nerve cords--has been described in several cases.
Thirdly, those members of a group which, whilst exhibiting undoubted structural characters indicative of their proper assignment to that group, yet are simpler than and inferior in elaboration of their organization to other members of the group, are not necessarily representatives of the earlier and primitive phases in the development of the group - but are very often examples of retrogressive change or degeneration.
Agreements are not necessarily due to common inheritance; simplicity is not necessarily primitive and ancestral.
The feathers of a peacock afford a convenient example of primitive and degenerative simplicity.
Leaving that question for consideration in connexion with the systematic statement of the characters of the various groups of Arachnida which follows on p. 475, it is well now to consider the following question, viz., seeing that Limulus and Scorpio are such highly developed and specialized forms, and that they seem to constitute as it were the first and second steps in the series of recognized Arachnida - what do we know, or what are we led to suppose with regard to the more primitive Arachnida from which the Eurypterines and Limulus and Scorpio have sprung ?
Do we know in the recent or fossil condition any such primitive Arachnids ?
comprising the primitive phyllopods, the minute copepods, the parasitic cirrhipedes and the powerful crabs and lobsters, and the highly elaborated sand-hoppers and slaters.
On the other hand, the land crabs are at an immense distance from these simple forms. The record of the Crustacean familytree is, in fact, a fairly complete E .Ps one - the lower primitive members s: of the group are still represented c' by living forms in great abundance.
With those considerations in mind, the claim of the extinct group of the trilobites to be considered as representatives of the lower and more primitive steps in the Arachnidan genealogy must, it seems, receive a favourable judgment.
The bi-ramose structure of the post-oral limbs, demonstrated by Beecher in the trilobite Triarthrus, is no more inconsistent with its claim to be a primitive Arachnid than is the foliaceous modification of the limbs in Phyllopods inconsistent with their relationship to the Arthrostracous Crustaceans such as Gammarus and Oniscus.
This would lead to the supposition that the great development of metasomatic carapace is a primitive and not a late character, were it not for the fact that Paradcxides and Atops, with an inconspicuous telsonic carapace and numerous free somites, are also Cambrian in age, the latter indeed anterior in horizon to Agnostus.
- Appendages of the 2nd and 3rd pairs retained and developed, as in the more primitive types of Nymphonomorpha; but those of the 1st pair are either rudimentary, as in the Ascorhynchidae, or atrophied, as in the Colossendeidae.
In primitive forms the respiratory lamellae of the appendages of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th, or of the 1st and 2nd mesosomatic somites are sunk beneath the surface of the body, and become adapted to breathe atmospheric oxygen, forming the leaves of the so-called lung-books.
The appendages of the mesosoma generally suppressed; in the more primitive forms one or two pairs may be retained as organs subservient to reproduction or silkspinning.
- The primitive distinction between the mesosoma and the metasoma retained, the latter consisting of six somites and the former of six somites in the adult, each of which is furnished during growth with a pair of appendages.
- The primitive distinction between the mesosoma and the metasoma wholly or almost wholly obliterated, the two regions uniting to form an opisthosoma, which never consists of more than twelve somites and never bears appendages or breathing-organs behind the 4th somite.
Appendages of 2nd pair not underlying the mouth, but freely movable and, except in primitive forms, furnished with a maxillary lobe; the rest of the limb like the legs, tipped with a single claw and quite unmodified (except in a').
To reconcile their late appearance with their claims to primitive antiquity the alleged author is represented as " shutting up and sealing " (Dan.
Theol., 1885, pp. 498-504) as a fragment of one of the primitive gospels mentioned in Luke i.
The picture gallery is equally important in its way, affording a survey both of the earlier Bolognese paintings and of the works of the Bolognese eclectics of the 16th and 17th centuries, the Caracci, Guido Reni, Domenichino, Guercino, &c. The primitive masters are not of great excellence, but the works of the masters of the 15th century, especially those of Francesco Francia (1450-1517) and Lorenzo Costa of Ferrara (1460-1535), are of considerable merit.
To) shows figures masked and costumed to represent Corax, Perses, Miles and Leo, indicating the practice on occasion of rites involving the use of sacred disguise, a custom probably reminiscent of the primitive time when men represented their deities under the form of animals, and believed themselves in closer communion with them when disguised to impersonate them.
4 The In reality this is a survival of the primitive view that holy order is institution for an office which the local church confers and can therefore take away.
The Reformation brought in radical changes, which were on the whole a return to the primitive type.
They appealed not to the school divines, but to Scripture and primitive antiquity.
- [Ed.1 and primitive.
Laplace treated the subject from the point of view of the gradual aggregation and cooling of a mass of matter, and demonstrated that the form which such a mass would ultimately assume must be an ellipsoid of revolution whose equator was determined by the primitive plane of maximum areas.
To the primitive two-cell-layered form, the hypothetical ancestor of all Metazoa or Enterozoa, Haeckel gave the name Gastraea; the em- bryonic form which represents in the individual growth from the egg this ancestral condition he called a " gastrula."
Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.
The kingdom of Assyria, which was the outgrowth of the primitive settlement on the site of the city of Assur, was developed by a probably gradual process of colonization in the rich vales of the middle Tigris region, a district watered by the Tigris itself and also by several tributary streams, the chief of which was the lower Zab.'
This was the primitive process all over the world; in the East, South America and similar regions it still holds its own.
It is then on the whole probable that the Paulicians who appear in Armenian records as early as 550, and were afterwards= called Thonraki, by the Greeks by the Armenian name Paulikiani, were the remains of a primitive adoptionist Christianity, widely dispersed in the east and already condemned under the name of Pauliani by the council of Nice in 325.
Modesty therefore is highly conventional, and to discover its origin the most primitive tribes must be observed.
Primitive adornment in its earliest stages may be divided into three classes; first the moulding of the body itself to certain local standards of beauty.
Doubtless many of the smaller objects with which primitive man adorned himself, especially trophies from the animal world, were supposed to exert some beneficial or protective influence on the wearer, or to produce in him the distinguishing characteristics attributed to the object, or to the whole of which the object was a part.
2 The Hebrews held that the leaves of the fig-tree (the largest available tree in Palestine) served primitive man and that the Deity gave them skins for a covering - evidently after he had slain the animals (Gen.
The fact that both male and female costume amongst the primitive Aegean peoples is derivable from the simple loin-cloth with additions is rightly used by Mackenzie as a proof that their original home is not to be sought in the colder regions of central Europe, but in a warm climate such as that of North Africa.
8 a Perrot et Chipiez's Art in Primitive Greece, by permission of Chapman & Hall.
The epithelial cells are then able to pass from their normal position, in consequence of which they proliferate and at the same time revert to a more primitive type of cell.
431) might suggest, the primitive kingship was retained or renewed at Syracuse, as it certainly was in some other Greek colonies.
Probably nowhere can the actual historical progress from the primitive use of animal sacrifices to the later refinement of burning incense be more clearly traced than in the pages of the Old Testament, where no mention of the latter rite occurs before the period of the Mosaic legislation; but in the monuments of ancient Egypt the authentic traces of the use of incense that still exist carry us back to a much earlier date.
author of the epistle to the Hebrews; its use was foreign to the synagogue services on which, and not on those of the temple, the worship of the primitive Christians is well known to have been originally modelled; and its associations with heathen solemnities, and with the evil repute of those who were known as "thurificati," would still further militate against its employment.
The slighting references to it by the Christian fathers are no more an argument against its existence in the primitive church than the similar denunciations by the Jewish prophets of burnt-offerings and sacrifices are any proof that there were no such rites as the offering of incense, and of the blood of bulls and fat of rams, in the worship of the temple at Jerusalem.
369) is grateful to the deity, being indeed the most essential part of the sacrifice, or at least the vehicle by which alone it can successfully be conveyed to its destination, is also a very early one, if not absolutely primitive; and survivals of it are possibly to be met with even among the most highly cultured peoples where the purely symbolical nature of all religious ritual is most clearly understood and maintained.
The tools used are extremely primitive - hollow iron blowing-rods, solid rods for holding vessels during manipulation, spring tools, resembling sugar-tongs in shape, with steel or wooden blades for fashioning the viscous glass, callipers, measure-sticks, and a variety of moulds of wood, carbon, cast iron, gun-metal and plaster of Paris (figs.
In Egypt, however, no traces have at present been found of the industry in a rudimentary condition, and the vases which have been classified as " primitive " bear witness to an elaboration of technique far in advance of the experimental period.
The " primitive " vessels which have been found in Egypt are small in size and consist of columnar stibium jars, flattened bottles and amphorae, all decorated with zigzag lines, tiny wide-mouthed vases on feet and minute jugs.
The " primitive " glass-worker reversed this process.
Glass is made in several parts of India - as Patna and Mysore - by very simple and primitive methods, and the results are correspondingly defective.
The site is one of great strength, and is now occupied by a fort, in the construction of which traces of the outer walls and of huts, and several wells and a cistern, all belonging to the primitive village, were discovered, and also the remains of a villa of the end of the Republic.
The primitive seaport of the country, Eridu, the seat of the worship of Ea the culture-god, was a little south of Ur (at Abu Shahrain or Nowawis on the west side of the Euphrates).
In the deepest part of the excavations, however, inscribed clay tablets and fragments of stone vases are still found, though the cuneiform characters upon them are of a very archaic type, and sometimes even retain their primitive pictorial forms.
The sculptures belong to a primitive period of art.
In its primitive sense the word persists in the vocabulary of coal-miners.
3) by the eating of which he learnt the will of God, just as primitive man conceived that the eating of the tree in Paradise imparted spiritual knowledge.
(b) Another source of apocalyptic was primitive mythological and cosmological traditions, in which the eye of the seer could see the secrets of the future no less surely than those of the past.
Of primitive mythological traditions we might mention the primeval serpent, leviathan, behemoth, while to ideas native to or familiar in apocalyptic belong those of the seven archangels, the angelic patrons of the nations (Deut.
Hence we shall not be surprised to find that the two tendencies are fully represented in primitive Christianity, and, still more strange as it may appear, that New Testament apocalyptic found a more ready hearing amid the stress and storm of the 1st century than the prophetic side of Christianity, and that the type of the forerunner on the side of its declared asceticism appealed more readily to primitive Christianity than that of Him who came "eating and drinking," declaring both worlds good and both God's.
Of a more