Primary Sentence Examples
Support was heavy for the school's primary sport.
You guys are his primary target and don't ever forget it for a minute.
There we have command and power in their primary form.
Citizens in these countries are grateful for any job that pays anything at all, and their primary concern is simply survival.
Primary batteries have, in the case of all large offices, been displaced by accumulators.Advertisement
His principal characteristic was perfect confidence in any result obtained by the treatment of symbols in accordance with their primary laws and conditions, and an almost unrivalled skill and power in tracing out these results.
They first brought the products and arts of the Orient into western Europe; and in the Netherlands, by the impulse that they gave to commerce, they were one of the primary causes of the rise of the chartered towns.
The method of induction between insulated primary and secondary circuits laid out flat on the surface of the earth proves to be of limited application, and in his later experiments Preece returned to a method which unites both conduction and induction as the means of affecting one circuit by a current in another.
He proved that when so syntonized the circuits are inductively respondent to each other with a much less power expenditure in the primary circuit than without the syntony.
Primary courses for adults are instituted by the prefect on the recommendation of the municipal council and academy inspector.Advertisement
There are three kinds of primary batteries in general use in the British Postal Telegraph Department, viz., the Daniell, the bichromate, and the Leclanche.
In the optical examination we may, if we prefer it, polarize the primary light; but it is usually more convenient to analyse the scattered light.
There are Turkish primary and secondary schools in some of the towns; in the village mosques instruction in the Koran is given by the imams, but neither reading nor writing is taught.
Since there is no waste of energy upon the whole, this represents the loss of energy in the primary wave.
Persons keeping private primary schools are free with regard to their methods, programmes and books employed, except that they may not use books expressly prohibited by the superior council of public instruction.Advertisement
An interrupted current having a frequency of about 400 was used in the primary circuit, and a telephone was employed as a receiver in the secondary circuit.
More and more, those wishing to change the status quo adopt this as their primary tactic.
And if everyone you know speaks English and it is the language of the world, commerce, the Internet, and success, what will be the primary language you teach your children?
His primary object was to prove that the world was built after the same shape and fashion as the Ark made by the Children of Israel in the desert; but he was able to show that the Malay Peninsula had to be rounded and thereafter a course steered in a northerly direction if China was to be reached.
He inserts in the primary circuit of the alternating FIG.Advertisement
If we consider a number of particles which all lie upon a primary ray, we see that the phases of the secondary vibrations which issue along this line are all the same.
Consider the particles which occupy a thin stratum dx perpendicular to the primary ray x.
A state board of education, consisting of the state superintendent and five other persons appointed by him, constitutes a state board of examiners (for special primary, high school and professional certificates) and prescribes the course of study.
The tree has a remarkable appearance, due to shedding its primary branches for about five-sixths of its height and replacing them by a small bushy growth, the whole resembling a tall column crowned with foliage, suggesting to its discoverer, Captain Cook, a tall column of basalt.
In the primary circuit of the induction coil was an arrangement for rapidly intermitting the current and a key for short-circuiting this primary circuit.Advertisement
In this way we, as it were, bring the causal or primal term and its remotest dependent immediately together, and raise a derivative knowledge into one which is primary and intuitive.
Primary Inslruction.All primary public instruction is free and compulsory for children of both sexes between the ages of six and thirteen, but if a child can gain a certificate of primary studies at the age of eleven or after, he may be excused the rest of the period demanded by law.
Each commune is in theory obliged to maintain at least one public primary school, but with the approval of the niinister, the departmental council may authorize a commune to combine with other communes in the upkeep of a school.
In circuit with this battery was placed the secondary circuit of an induction coil, the primary circuit of which contained a telephone transmitter or microphone interrupter.
Instead of inserting the sensitive tube between the receiving antenna and the earth, he inserted the primary coil of a peculiar form of oscillation transformer and connected the terminals of the tube to the secondary circuit of the transformer.
Braun suggested in 1898 that the oscillatory discharge of a Leyden jar should be sent through the primary coil of a transformer and the secondary coil should be interposed between the antenna and an earth connexion.'
The transformer T has its secondary or high-pressure terminals connected to spark balls S1, which are also connected by a circuit consisting of a large glass plate condenser C, and the primary circuit of an air-core transformer called an oscillation transformer.
The impedance of the primary or alternator circuit is so adjusted that when both the chokers are in circuit the current flowing is not sufficient to charge the condensers; but when one choker is short-circuited the impedance is reduced so that the condenser is charged, but the alternating arc is not formed.
His transmitter consists of a nearly closed oscillating circuit comprising a condenser or battery of Leyden jars, a spark gap, and the primary coil of an oscillation transformer consisting of one turn of thick wire wound on a wooden frame.
Over this primary is wound a secondary circuit of five to ten turns which has one end connected to the earth through a variable inductance coil and the other end to an antenna.
The receiving arrangement consists of an antenna which is connected to earth through the primary coil of an oscillation transformer and a variable inductance.
It will be seen that the revenue is swollen by a large number o taxes which can only be justified by necessity; the reduction and still more, the readjustment of taxation (which now largely falls or articles of primary necessity) is urgently needed.
It reasserts them, with resolute loyalty; but if philosophy ought to vindicate, to explain, perhaps incidentally to modify, even, it may be, to purify our primary beliefs, intuitionalism is hardly a philosophy at all.
The endoderm of the planula now acquires a cavity, and at the narrower pole a mouth is formed, giving rise to the primary siphon.
The planula develops, on the whole, in a similar manner, but the ectodermal invagination arises, not at the pole of the planula, but on the side of its broader portion, and gives rise, not to a pneumatophore, but to a nectocalyx, the primary swimming bell or protocodon (" Fallschirm ") which is later thrown off and replaced by secondary swimming bells, metacodons, budded from the coenosarc.
A Siphonophore is regarded as a single individual composed of numerous zoids, budded from the primary zoid (siphon) produced from the planula.
It must be pointed out that, however probable Haeckel's theory may be in other respects, there is not the slightest evidence for any such cleft in the umbrella having been present at any time, and that the embryological evidence, as already pointed out, is all against any homology between the stem and a manubrium, since the primary siphon does not become the stem, which arises from the ex-umbral side of the protocodon and is strictly comparable to a stolon.
This phrase in its primary sense imports not jurisdiction over ecclesiastics, but jurisdiction exercised by ecclesiastics over other ecclesiastics and over the laity.
The primary root is a downward prolongation of the primary axis of the plant.
Sometimes a complete internal vascular cylinder, having the same structure as the primary one, and concentric with it, occurs in the pith, and others may appear, internal to the first (Matonia, Saccoloma).
With our present knowledge the problem of the original form of sacrifice, if there be a single primary form, is insoluble.
The primary circular divisions of every group are three actually, or five apparently.
Meyer, which are formed when nitrous acid acts on primary aliphatic nitro compounds.
The parishes retain primary control of the schools.
Almost all schools are primary.
Substituted oxamides are produced by the action of primary amines on ethyl oxalate.
As the desire to dominate primaries was found to lead to many abuses, both in the way of manipulating the lists of party voters and in the unfair management of the primary meetings themselves, a movement was started for reforming the system, which, beginning soon after 1890, gathered so much support that now in the large majority of the states laws have been enacted for regulating the proceedings at primary nomination meetings.
The laws usually contain provisions punishing fraud or bribery practised at a primary, similar to those which apply to the subsequent elections to office.
Next he proceeds to substances (ovaiac), which he divides into primary (rrpfTat) and secondary (SEUTEpac).
As the primitive stele of a Pteridophyte is traced upwards from the primary rout into the stem, the phloem becomes continuous round the xylem.
In some solenostelic ferns, and in many dictyostelic ones additional vascular strands are present which do not form part of the primary vascular tube.
In other species, however, a peculiar type of polystely is met with, in which the original diarch stele gives rise to se-called dorsal and ventral stelar cords which at first lie on the surface of the primary stele, but eventually at a higher level separate from it and form distinct secondary steles resembling the primary one.
The typical structure of the vascular cylinder of the adult primary stem in the Gyrnnosperms and Dicotyledons is, like that of the higher ferns, a hollow cylinder of vas- Structure of cular tissue enclosing a central parenchymatous pith.
These collateral bundles are separated from one another by bands of conjunctive tissues called primary medullary rays, which may be quite narrow or of considerable width.
The monocotyledons, one of the primary divisions of angiosperms, typically possess large Monocoty- leaves with broad Iedonous sheathing bases containType.
The body thus formed ment of is called the embryo, and this develops into the adult Primary plant, not by continued growth of all its parts as in an animal, but by localization of the regions of cell-division and growth, such a localized region being called a growing-point.
This localization takes place first at the two free ends of the primary axis, the descending part of which is the primary root, and the ascending the primary shoot.
In other cases, however, continuous primitive stele is developed, extending from the primar stem to the primary root, the leaf-traces arising later.
In the seed-forming plants (Phanerogams) one or more primary leaves (cotyledons) are already formed in the resting embryo.
In other cases the root structure of the stele continues up to the cotyledonary node, though the hypocotyl is still to be distinguished from the primary root by the character of its epidermis.
In this case the formation of the primary bundle passes straight over into the formation of secondary tissue by a cumbium, and no line can be drawn between the two processes.
The differentiation of the stelar stereom, which usually takes the form of a sclerized pericycle, and may extend to the endocycle and parts of the rays, takes place in most cases later than the formation of the primary vascular strand.
A considerable evolution in complexity can be traced in passing from the simplest forms of xylem and phloem found in the primary vascular tissues both among Pteridophytes and Phanerogams to these highly differentiated types.
This type is found in nearly all Pteridophytes and, so far as is known, in Cycadofihices, both in primary and secondary tissue.
In the latter event the cells of the primary rays are either merely stretched radially, or they divide to keep pace with the growth of the bundles.
The interfascicular cambium may form nothing but parenchymatous tissue, producing merely continuations of the primary rays.
This is the typical case in most trees where the primary bundles are close together.
An ordinary cambium is scarcely ever found in the Monocotyledons, but in certain woody forms a secondary meristem is formed outside the primary bundles, and gives rise externally to a little secondary cortex, and internally to a secondary parenchyma in which are developed numerous zones of additional bundles, usually of concentric structure, with phloem surrounded by xylem.
The cambium in the root, which is found generally in those plants which possess a cambium in the stem, always begins in the conjunctive tissue internal to the primary phloems, and Camblum forms new (secondary) phloem in contact with the In Roots primary, and secondary xylem internally.
Opposite the primary xylems, the cambium either (a) forms parenchyma on both sides, making a broad, secondary (principal) ray, which interrupts the vascular ring and is divided at its inner extremity by the islet of primary xylem; or (b) forms secondary xylem and phloem in the ordinary way, completing the vascular ring.
Thus the structure of an old thickened root approximates to that of an old thickened stem, and so far as the vascular tissue is concerned can often only be distinguished from the latter by the position and orientation of the primary xylems. The cambium of the primary root, together with the tissues which it forms, is always directly continuous with that of the primary stem, just in the same way as the tissues of the primary stele.
Cork is also formed similarly in the root after the latter has passed through its primary stage as an absorptive organ, and its structure is becoming assimilated to that of the stem.
No doubt the primary object of the cell-wall of even the humblest protoplast is protection, and this too is the meaning of the coarser tegumentary structures of a bulkier plant.
The causes of disease may be provisionally classified somewhat as follows, but it may he remarked at the outset that no one of these proximal causes, or agents, is ever solely responsible; and it is very easy to err in attributing a diseased condition to any of them, unless the relative importance of primary and subordinate agencies is discoverable.
As regards water, its deficiency or excess is a relative matter, and although many of the minor maladies of pot-plants in windows and greenhouses controlled by amateurs depend on its misuse, water alone is probably never a primary cause of disease.
We may often distinguish between primary symptoms and secondary or subordinate symptoms, but for the purposes of classification in an article of this scope we shall only attempt to group the various cases under the more obvious signs of disease exhibited.
It is clear that in these cases the obvious symptomthe fluxis not the primary one.
The primary regions of vegetation, already indicated, and their subordinate provinces may now be considered more in detail.
These distinctions led Sir Joseph Hooker to claim for the two divisions the rank of primary regions.
The primary distinction of the forms of the crust is that between elevations and depressions.
There are only two or three vertebrae which are equivalent to those of the reptiles; these true sacrals are situated in a level just behind the acetabulum; as a rule between these two primary sacral vertebrae issues the last of the spinal nerves which contributes to the composition of the sciadic plexus.
The ventral inner margin of the preacetabular portion of the ilium is attached to the pre-sacral vertebrae, whilst the inner and dorsal margin of the postacetabular portion is attached to the primary sacral and the postsacral vertebrae.
The last nerve which contributes to the ischiadic plexus leaves the spinal column in most birds either between the two primary sacral vertebrae, or just below the hindmost of them, and sends a branch to the pubic portion which is composed of post-ischiadic nerves, partly imbedded in the kidneys, and innervates the ventral muscles between the tail and pubis, together with those of the cloaca and copulatory organs.
In other likewise very rare cases a left, or a left and right, superficial carotids are developed and take the place of the then vanished deep or primary carotids.
But these six divisions of Sclater and Wallace are not all equivalent, only some are of primary importance; they require coand sub-ordination.
Certainly the Oriental area, in spite of its considerable size, cannot possibly claim the standing of a primary region.
As minister of public instruction in the Brisson cabinet of 1898 he organized courses for adults in primary education.
Besides numerous primary schools there are a theological seminary and a normal school.
One good feature of the Russian primary school system, however, is that in many villages there are school gardens or fields; in nearly moo schools, bee-keeping, and in 300 silkworm culture is taught; while in some 900 schools the children receive instruction in various trades; and in 300 schools in slojd (a system of manual training originated in Finland).
The primary distinctions between these branches have been increased during the last nine centuries by their contact with different nationalities - the Great Russians absorbing Finnish elements, the Little Russians undergoing an admixture of Turkish blood, and the White Russians submitting to Lithuanian influence.
Whilst primary education was neglected, secondary schools were created in the principal towns and a Russian Academy was founded in St Petersburg.
Its primary purpose was to embody in statutory form the commonlaw principle of equal treatment under like circumstances, and to provide machinery for enforcement.
Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
The course of his narrative is unperplexed by doubtful or insoluble problems. The painting is filled in with primary colours and with a free hand; and any sense of crudity which may be awakened by close inspection is compensated by the vigour and massive effectiveness of the whole.
In the republican chamber elected after the 16th of May, he became minister of public instruction (December 1877), and proposed var i ous republican laws, notably on compulsory primary education.
By other writers Proboscidea and Eproboscidea are treated as primary divisions of the Cyclorrhapha.
In 1907 there were 547 primary schools (527 Christian and 20 Mahommedan), and 31 secondary schools.
The judges, in making their awards at the show held annually in December, at Islington, North London (since 1862), are instructed to decide according to quality of flesh, lightness of offal, age and early maturity, with no restrictions as to feeding, and thus to promote the primary aim of the club in encouraging the selection and breeding of the best and most useful animals for the production of meat, and testing their capabilities in respect of early maturity.
The standard of life of the ordinary well-to-do middle class in England, for example, includes not only food, clothing and shelter of a kind different in many respects from that of a similar class in other countries and of other classes in England, but a highly complicated mechanism, both public and private, for ministering to these primary needs, habits of social intercourse, educational and sanitary organization, recreative arrangements and many other elements.
Out of the further development and combination of these primary manifestations arise numerous aeons (` Uthre, " splendours," from "is rich"), of which the number is often stated to be three hundred and.
That these primary divisions of every group are characterized by definite peculiarities of form, structure and economy, which, under diversified modifications, are uniform throughout the animal kingdom, and are therefore to be regarded as the primary types of nature.
Moreover, the author goes on to remark that in adult birds trace of the origin of the sternum from five centres of ossification is always more or less indicated by sutures, and that, though these sutures had been generally regarded as ridges for the attachment of the sternal muscles, they indeed mark the extreme points of the five primary bony pieces of the sternum.
Yet this distinguished zoologist selects the sternum as furnishing the key to his primary groups or " Orders " of the class, adopting, as Merrem had done long before, the same two divisions Cartnatae and Ratitae, naming, however, the former Tropidosternii and the latter Homalosternii.
These terms were explained in his great work L' Organisation du regne animal, oiseaux, begun in 1855, to mean exactly the same as those applied by Merrem to his two primary divisions.
In 1908 a direct primary law was passed providing for party primaries, those of all parties in each district to be held at the same time (annually) and place, before the same election board, and at public expense, to nominate candidates for township and municipal offices and members of the school board; nominations to be by petition signed by at least 2% of the party voters of the political division, except that for United States senators a of 1% is the minimum.
Several facts point to the conclusion that the primary use of this secretion was the formation of egg-cases or cocoons by the female, for this is the only constant use for which the silk is employed, without exception, by all species.
There is no doubt that the primary influence that has guided the evolution of the architecture of the burrowing spiders has been that great necessity for the preservation of life, avoidance of enemies and protection from adverse physical conditions like rain, cold or drought.
And when we turn to the other line along which the web-building instinct has been developed we find that the primary guiding influence has been that second great vital necessity, namely the necessity of getting food.
The primary function of this poison is to kill the prey upon which they feed, its action being very rapid upon insects.
For the Christian Church the miracles of Jesus are of primary importance; and the evidence - external and internal - in their favour may be said to be sufficient to justify belief.
The primary force, which thus transmuted an appeal for reinforcements into a holy war for the conquest of Palestine, was the Church.
It is this Hohenstaufen policy which becomes the primary occasion of the diversion of the Fourth Crusade.
Venice is not the primary agent in the deflection of the Fourth Crusade.
He is the primary authority for the First Crusade.
The last two works, if not actually the works of eye-witnesses, are at any rate first-hand, and belong to the category of primary writers rather than to that of later compilations.
These latter cover the period from 1183 to 1228; and of the two Ernoul's account seems primary, while that of Bernard is in large part a mere copy of Ernoul.
For the Second Crusade the primary authority in the West is the work of Odo de Deuil, De profectione Ludovici VII regis Francorum in Orientem.
It is from the Second Crusade that William of Tyre, representing the attitude of the Franks of Jerusalem, begins to be a primary authority; while on the Mahommedan side a considerable authority emerges in Ibn Athir.
For the Fourth Crusade the primary authority is Villehardouin's La Conquete de Constantinople, an official apology for the diversion of the Crusade written by one of its leaders, and concealing the arcana under an appearance of frank naïveté.
As to the organ of touch, the great sensitiveness of the body has already been noticed, as well as the probable primary significance of the proboscis.
In accordance with these more sedentary habits during the first phases of life, the characteristic pilidium larva, which is so eminently adapted for a pelagic existence, appears to have been reduced to a close-fitting exterior layer of cells, which is stripped off after the definite body-wall of the Nemertine has similarly originated out of four ingrowths from the primary epiblast.
For any aboriginal race inhabiting these countries, such important articles of diet as the duri-an, &c., could not fail to be among the first natural objects to receive a name, and thus we find primary terms in use among the Sakai and Semang, the aborigines of the Peninsula, to describe these fruits.
Ox and sheep tallow, with the addition of resin, are the primary materials for making the hard yellow or primrose soaps; these tallows are often adulterated.
The city continued to be the largest primary fur market of the world, with sales of $27,200,000 in 1920.
Farn; the Indo-European root, seen in the Sanskrit parna, a feather, shows the primary meaning; cf.
Dumas went no further that thus epitomizing his observations; and the next development was made in 1836 by Auguste Laurent, who, having amplified and discussed the applicability of Dumas' views, promulgated his Nucleus Theory, which assumed the existence of " original nuclei or radicals " (radicaux or noyaux fondamentaux) composed of carbon and hydrogen, and " derived nuclei " (radicaux or noyaux derives) formed from the original nuclei by the substitution of hydrogen or the addition of other elements, and having properties closely related to the primary nuclei.
From the primary amines are derived the diazo compounds and azo compounds; closely related are the hydrazines (q.v.).
The three primary members are furfurane, thiophene and pyrrol, each of which contains four methine or CH groups, and an oxygen, sulphur and imido (NH) member respectively; a series of compounds containing selenium is also known.
The average value for primary alcohols is 44.67 cal., but many large differences from this value obtain in certain cases.
The combination of nitrogen with carbon may result in the formation of nitriles, cyanides, or primary, secondary or tertiary amines.
He explained not only the gods but also the heroes Agamemnon, Achilles, Hector, as representing primary elements and natural phenomena.
In 1807 the African Institution was formed, with the primary objects of keeping a vigilant watch on the slave traders and procuring, if possible, the abolition of the slave trade by the other European nations.
In one important particular, however, affecting the primary construction of the material, there can no longer be any doubt.
Alluvial soil and bluff, the location of which has been indicated, are of primary agricultural importance.
On reduction by sodium amalgam in glacial acetic acid solution they yield primary amines.
In the Moslem schools, which, in 1905, comprised 855 mektebs or primary schools, and 41 madrasas or high schools, instruction is usually given in Turkish or Arabic; while in Orthodox schools the books are printed in Cyrillic characters.
Primary education is gratuitous and obligatory, and superior education is gratuitous or supported by bursaries.
Primary education is obligatory.
The state supports a highly efficient public school system, organized through all the grades from the primary district and rural schools to the state university.
In accordance with this view there would be also some probability in favour of regarding the collar nerve-tube of the Enteropneusta as the equivalent of the cerebral vesicle only of Amphioxus and the Ascidian tadpole, and also of the primary forebrain of vertebrates.
From serving primitively as the essential organ of the cleft the tongue-bar may have undergone reduction and modification, becoming a secondary bar in Amphioxus, subordinate to the primary bars in size, vascularity and development; finally, in the craniate vertebrates it would then have completed its involution, the suggestion having been made that the tongue-bars are represented by the thymusprimordia.
The primary products of the dissociation of albumins are the albumoses, characterized by not being coagulable by heat, more soluble than the albumins, having a far less complex composition, and capable of being " salted (7) out " by certain salts, and the peptones, similar to albumoses but not capable of being " salted out "; moreover, peptones are less complex than albumoses.
Albumoses and peptones are white powders, readily soluble in water, with the exception of the hetero-albumoses - a subdivision of primary albumoses.
With other electrolytes similar phenomena appear, though the primary chemical changes may be masked by secondary actions.
The coating of silver obtained by this process is coherent and homogeneous, while that deposited from a solution of silver nitrate, as the result of the primary action of the current, is crystalline and easily detached.
Primary education is in a very unsatisfactory state, and primary schools very scarce.
In a later scheme based on our increased knowledge of fossil forms, the Brachiopoda are divided into four primary groups (orders).
His powerful scientific imagination enabled him to realize that all the points of a wavefront originate partial waves, the aggregate effect of which is to reconstitute the primary disturbance at the subsequent stages of its advance, thus accomplishing its propagation; so that each primary undulation is the envelope of an indefinite number of secondary undulations.
A primary coil of length 1, having n turns, is wound upon a cylinder made of non-conducting and non-magnetic material, and upon the middle of the primary a secondary or induction coil is closely fitted.
When a current of strength i is suddenly interrupted in the primary, the increment of induction through the secondary is sensibly equal to 47rin/l units.
In the same circuit is also included the induction coil E, which is used for standardizing the galvanometer; this secondary coil is represented in the diagram by three turns of wire wound over a much longer primary coil.
By means of the three-way switch C the battery current may be sent either into the primary of E, for the purpose of calibrating the galvanometer, or into the magnetizing coil of the ring under test.
The metal to be tested was prepared in the form of a ring, upon which were wound primary and secondary coils of copper wire insulated with asbestos.
The primary coil carried the magnetizing current; the secondary, which was wound inside the other, could be connected either with a ballistic galvanometer for determining the induction, or with a Wheatstone's bridge for measuring the resistance, whence the temperature was calculated.
As in Hopkinson's experiments, ring magnets were employed; these were wound with primary and secondary coils of insulated platinum wire, which would bear a much higher temperature than copper without oxidation or fusion.
Nascent hydrogen reduces them to primary alcohols, and phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine.
Among other things they are charged with the supervision and support of primary education, with the maintenance of order, and with the organization and support of a system of state courts.
Primary instruction is free but not compulsory, and the schools are supported and supervised by the states.
There are many private schools in all the large cities, from the primary schools maintained by the church and various corporations and religious associations to schools of secondary and collegiate grades, such as the Protestant mission schools of Petropolis, Piracicaba, Juiz de Fora, Sao Paulo and Parana, the Lyceu de Artes e Officios (night school) of Rio de Janeiro, and the Mackenzie College of Sao Paulo.
Public opinion as to the " hospital " system of board and education, however, underwent a revolutionary change after the Education Act of 1872 introduced school boards, and the Merchant Company - acting as governors for most of the institutions - determined to board out the children on the foundation with families in the town, and convert the buildings into adequately equipped primary and secondary day-schools.
Since then, says their regretful pupil, " less time and less care have been bestowed on grammar, and persons who profess all arts, liberal and mechanical, are ignorant of the primary art, without which a man proceeds in vain to the rest.
Of the seven lines he saw, he regarded the five most prominent as the natural boundaries or dividing lines of the pure simple colours of the prismatic spectrum, which he supposed to have four primary divisions.
The plateau is built up of granites, gneisses and crystalline schists of Archean and probably Primary age.
The hydrogen in the primary and secondary nitro compounds which is attached to the same carbon atom as the nitro group is readily replaced by bromine in alkaline solution.
Every unit of the rth species which does not vanish is the product of r different units of the first species; two such units are independent unless they are permutations of the same set of primary units e i, in which case they are equal or opposite according to the usual rule employed in determinants.
As in quaternions, so in the extensive calculus, there are numerous formulae of transformation which enable us to deal with extensive quantities without expressing them in terms of the primary units.
He also made If we remember that by " blood " Aristotle understood " red blood," and that he did not know of the existence of colourless blood, his primary division is not a bad one.
Of these latter, two grades were further distinguished by Lankester - those which remain possessed of a single archenteric cavity and of two primary cell-layers (the Coelentera or Diploblastica), and those which by nipping off the archenteron give rise to two cavities, the coelom or body-cavity and the metenteron or gut (Coelomata or Triploblastica).
Diagram showing the primary grades and branches' of the Animal Pedigree.
Now as to the phase of the secondary wave, it might appear natural to suppose that it starts from any point Q with the phase of the primary wave, so that on arrival at P, it is retarded by the amount corresponding to QP. But a little consideration will prove that in that case the series of secondary waves could not reconstitute the primary wave.
It is accordingly necessary to suppose that the secondary waves start with a phase one-quarter of a period in advance of that of the primary wave at the surface of resolution.
If the primary wave at 0 be cos kat, the effect of the secondary wave proceeding from the element dS at Q is dS 1 dS - p cos k(at - p+ 4 A) = - -- sin k(at - p).
In order to obtain the effect of the primary wave, as, retarded by traversing the distance r, viz.
When the primary wave is plane, the area of the first Fresnel zone is 7rXr, and, since the secondary waves vary as r 1, the intensity is independent of r, as of course it should be.
In like manner may be treated other cases, such as that of a primary wave-front of unequal principal curvatures.
This indefiniteness of images is sometimes said to be due to diffraction by the edge of the aperture, and proposals have even been made for curing it by causing the transition between the interrupted and transmitted parts of the primary wave to be less abrupt.
The former measures the thickness of the primary focal line, and the latter measures its curvature.
If we consider for the present only the primary plane of symmetry, the figure is reduced to two dimensions.
It may be remarked that these calculations apply to the rays in the primary plane only.
Curvature of the primary focal line having a very injurious effect upon definition, it may be inferred from the excellent performance of these gratings that y is in fact small.
To assume a cylindrical form of primary wave would be justifiable only when there is synchronism among the secondary waves issuing from the various centres.
For a point Q outside the shadow the integration extends over more than half the primary wave.
The utility of the curve depends upon the fact that the elements of arc represent, in amplitude and phase, the component vibrations due to the corresponding portions of the primary wave-front.
But, without entering upon matters of this kind, we may inquire in what manner a primary wave may be resolved into elementary secondary waves, and in particular as to the law of intensity and polarization in a secondary wave as dependent upon its direction of propagation, and upon the character as regards polarization of the primary wave.
It is then verified that, after integration with respect to dS, (6) gives the same disturbance as if the primary wave had been supposed to pass on unbroken.
The occurrence of sin 4 as a factor in (6) shows that the relative intensities of the primary light and of that diffracted in the direction B depend upon the condition of the former as regards polarization.
The factor (I -cos 0) shows in what manner the secondary disturbance depends upon the direction in which it is propagated with respect to the front of the primary wave.
The conception of the lamina leads immediately to two schemes, according to which a primary wave may be supposed to be broken up. In the first of these the element dS, the effect of which is to be estimated, is supposed to execute its actual motion, while every other element of the plane lamina is maintained at rest.
When the secondary disturbance thus obtained is integrated with respect to dS over the entire plane of the lamina, the result is necessarily the same as would have been obtained had the primary wave been supposed to pass on without resolution, for this is precisely the motion generated when every element of the lamina vibrates with a common motion, equal to that attributed to dS.
If, instead of supposing the motion at dS to be that of the primary wave, and to be zero elsewhere, we suppose the force operative over the element dS of the lamina to be that corresponding to the primary wave, and to vanish elsewhere, we obtain a secondary wave following quite a different law.
Here again, on integration over the entire lamina, the aggregate effect of the secondary waves is necessarily the same as that of the primary.
We will now apply (18) to the investigation of a law of secondary disturbance, when a primary wave = sin (nt - kx) (19) is supposed to be broken up in passing the plane x = o.
The proportionality of the secondary disturbance to sin 43 is common to the present law and to that given by Stokes, but here there is no dependence upon the angle 0 between the primary and secondary rays.
The following subdivisions have been recognized by Molengraaff Karroo System, Transvaal System, Vaal River System, South African Primary System.
The South African Primary System includes a complex of rocks as yet little understood.
Generally only one bow is clearly seen; this is known as the primary rainbow; it has an angular radius of about 410, and exhibits a fine display of the colours of the spectrum, being red on the outside and violet on the inside.
Sometimes an outer bow, the secondary rainbow, is observed; this is much fainter than the primary bow, and it exhibits the same play of colours, with the important distinction that the order is reversed, the red being inside and the violet outside.
In addition to these prominent features, there are sometimes to be seen a number of coloured bands, situated at or near the summits of the bows, close to the inner edge of the primary and the outer edge of the secondary bow; these are known as the spurious, supernumerary or complementary rainbows.
The same conception was utilized by Theodoric of Vriberg, a Dominican, who wrote at some time between 1304 and 1311 a tract entitled De radialibus impressionibus, in which he showed how the primary bow is formed by two refractions and one internal reflection; i.e.
Bartolus, although written some twenty years previously, contains a chapter entitled "Vera iridis tota generatis explicatur," in which it is shown how the primary bow is formed by two refractions and one reflection, and the secondary bow by two refractions and two reflections.
The same remarks apply to the fifth bow, which differs from the third and fourth in being situated in the same part of the sky as the primary and secondary bows, being just above the secondary.
We have now to consider the so-called spurious bows which are sometimes seen at the inner edge of the primary and at the outer edge of the secondary bow.
The mathematical discussion of Airy showed that the primary rainbow is not situated directly on the line of minimum deviation, but at a slightly greater value; this means that the true angular radius of the bow is a little less than that derived from the geometrical theory.
Primary, secondary and spurious bows were formed, and their radii measured; a comparison of these observations exhibited agreement with Airy's analytical values.
It is also found in the form of rolled lumps and grains, "stream tin," in alluvial gravels; the latter are secondary deposits, the products of the disintegration of the first-named primary deposits.
Lode tin, as tinstone derived from primary deposits is often termed, is mined in the ordinary method, the very hard gangue in which it occurs necessitating a liberal use of explosives.
He became a member of the Committee of Public Instruction early in 1793, and after carrying many useful decrees on the preservation of national monuments, on the military schools, on the reorganization of the Museum of Natural History and other matters, he brought forward on the 26th of June his Projet d'education nationale (printed at the Imprimerie Nationale), which proposed to lay the burden or primary education on the public funds, but to leave secondary education to private enterprise.
Lakanal, who was a member of the commission, now began to work for the organization of higher education, and abandoning the principle of his Projet advocated the establishmentef state-aided schools for primary, secondary and university education.
He drew up schemes for departmental normal schools, for primary schools (reviving in substance the Projet) and central schools.
The primary school, in which the pupils learn only Chinese writing and the precepts of Confucius, stands at the base of this system.
It reported favourably, especially on the use of the measurements for primary classification, but recommended also the adoption in part of a system of "finger prints" as suggested by Francis Galton, and already practised in Bengal.
Small armies moving freely within a large theatre of war, the occupation of hostile territory as a primary object of operations, the absence of a decision-compelling spirit on either side, the hostile political "view" over-riding the hostile "feeling" - all these conditions remind the student of those of 17th and 18th century warfare.
Atrophy may follow primary arrest of function - disuse atrophy.
Thus the liability to tubercular infection is far commoner in the midst of a depraved population than in one fulfilling the primary laws of nature; rickets is a disease of great cities rather than of rural districts; and syphilis is more disastrous and protracted in its course in the depraved in health than in the robust.
Another important point in Sydenham's doctrine is his clear recognition of many diseases as being what would be now called specific, and not due merely to an alteration in the primary qualities or humours of the older schools.
Griesinger (1817-1868), Bevan Lewis - and in the separation from insanity due to primary disease or defect of nerve elements of such diseases as general paralysis of the insane, which probably arise, as we have said, by the action of poisons on contiguous structures - such as blood-vessels and connective elements - and invade the nervous matter secondarily.
In the general scheme of attack the landing at this last point was of primary importance; the largest force had been detailed for it, and the troops were for the most part conveyed to the beach in a steamer (the " River Clyde ") which was run ashore; but only some scattered detachments cowering close to the water's edge had established themselves on land by nightfall, and the Allies' position here seemed to be highly critical.
For the special supervision and encouragement of indigenous primary education in monastic and in lay schools, each circle of inspection is divided into sub-circles corresponding with one or more of the civil districts, and each sub-circle is placed under a deputyinspector or a sub-inspector of schools.
Matters which seem to us of primary importance and occupy a wide place in our law-books are almost entirely absent in Anglo-Saxon laws or relegated to the background.
On this view, therefore, at least two asexual generations (embryo and scolex) alternate with a sexual one (proglottides); and in the case of Staphylocystis the cyst contains two asexually produced generations, so that in such forms three stages (embryo, primary scolex-buds, secondary scolices) intervene between the proglottis of a Cestode and that of its offspring.
The primary object is to render the leaves soft and pliant; the use of the sauces is to improve the flavour and burning qualities of the leaves used.
The primary advantages of gasfiring are that less fuel is required, that there is better control of the heat in the furnace, and that larger and more accessible furnaces can be built.
This is the great social fact - the failure of government to perform one of its most primary duties, the necessity of finding some substitute in private life - extending in greater or less degree through the whole formative period of feudalism, which explains the transformation of institutions that brought it into existence.
He finally succeeded in passing the great law of the 28th of March 1882, which made primary education in France free, non-clerical and obligatory.
There are several second grade and a large number of primary schools.
The replacement of one hydrogen atom by one alkyl or aryl group gives rise to primary amines; of two hydrogen atoms by two groups, to secondary amines; of three hydrogen atoms by three groups, to tertiary amines.
They are ionized in aqueous solution to a much greater extent than ammonia, the quaternary ammonium bases being the most ionized, and the secondary bases being more strongly ionized than the primary or tertiary bases.
By the action of ammonia on the alkyl iodides a complex mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines, along with a quaternary ammonium salt, is obtained, the separation of which is difficult.
The primary, secondary and tertiary amines may be readily distinguished by their behaviour with various reagents.
Primary amines when heated with alcoholic potash and chloroform yield isonitriles, which are readily detected by their offensive smell.
Primary amines heated with carbon bisulphide in alcoholic solution are converted into mustard oils, when the dithiocarbamate first produced is heated with a solution of mercuric chloride.
Diamines.-The diamines contain two amino groups and bear the same relation to the glycols that the primary monamines bear to the primary alcohols.
The primary amines are colourless liquids or crystalline solids, which are insoluble in water, but readily soluble in the common organic solvents.
The secondary amines may be of two types-namely,the purely aromatic amines, and the mixed secondary amines, which contain an aromatic residue and an alkyl group. The purely aromatic amines result upon heating the primary amines with their hydrochlorides, and, in some cases, by heating a phenol with a primary amine and anhydrous zinc chloride.
The mixed secondary amines are prepared by the action of alkyl iodides on the primary amines, or by heating salts of the primary amine with alcohols under pressure.
The mixed tertiary amines are produced by the action of alkyl halides on the primary amines.
This was the primary cause of the jealousy of the Genoese, and of the wars afterwards made by them upon Pisa and carried on until its power was crushed.
As organized under the law of the 5th of December 1905, primary instruction is free and nominally obligatory, and is under the control of the national government.
There are, besides these, a large number of private schools, which in 1906 carried about 22,000 pupils on their rolls, or three times the number in the public primary schools.
The derivation of Yahweh from hawah is formally unimpeachable, and is adopted by many recent scholars, who proceed, however, from the primary sense of the root rather than from the specific meaning of the nouns.
By a series of changes similar to those by which the primary larva arose from a segmented egg, so do these secondary larvae or "rediae" arise from the germ-cells or germ-balls within the sporocyst.
The correctness of this association is questionable, and the Polyzoa are here treated as a primary division or phylum of the animal kingdom.
The ovicells are modified zooecia, and contain numerous embryos which in the cases so far investigated arise by fission of a primary embryo developed from an egg.
Hatschek (1888) treated the Entoprocta as a division of his group Scolecida, characterized by the possession of a primary body-cavity and of protonephridia; while he placed the Ectoprocta, with the Phoronida and Brachiopoda, in a distinct group, the Tentaculata.
The Polyzoa are colonial animals, the colony (zoarium) originating in most cases from a free-swimming larva, which attaches itself to some solid object and becomes metamorphosed into the primary individual, or "ancestrula."
In the Cyclostomata the primary embryo undergoes repeated fission without developing definite organs, and each of the numerous pieces so formed becomes a free larva, which possesses no alimentary canal.
The Moslems, who are among the most law-abiding and intelligent citizens of Freetown, have several state-aided primary schools.
This led to an important despatch by Viscount Halifax, president of the board of control, to the marquess of Dalhousie, the governor-general, authorizing an educational advance in primary and secondary schools, the provision of technical and scientific teaching, and the establishment of schools for girls.
Haemorrhage has been classified as - (I) primary, occurring at the time of the injury; (2) reactionary, or within twenty-four hours of the accident, during the stage of reaction; (3) secondary, occurring at a later period and caused by faulty application of a ligature or septic condition of the wound.
It consists of a stoneware tank with a thin sheet of platinum-iridium alloy at either end forming the primary electrodes, and between them a number of glass plates reaching nearly to the bottom, each having a platinum gauze sheet on either side; the two sheets belonging to each plate are in metallic connexion, but insulated from all the others, and form intermediary or bi-polar electrodes.
The hills are of primary formation, with fine masses of contorted gneiss.
She wrote and lectured on women's education and in behalf of better primary schools, and radically opposed woman suffrage and college education for women, holding woman's sphere to be domestic. The National Board of Popular Education, a charitable society which she founded, sent hundreds of women as teachers into the South and West.
The distinctions between animals and plants are in fact obviously secondary and adaptive, and point clearly towards the conception of a common origin for the two forms of life, a conception which is made still more probable by the existence of many low forms in which the primary differences between animals and plants fade out.
It follows that alcohol is a food in fever, and its value in this regard is greatly increased by the fact that it requires no primary digestion, but passes without changes, and without needing change, to the tissues which are to use it.
The primary question related to the basis of representation upon which they should be restored to their full rank in the political system.
Education is provided in primary and secondary schools maintained by the state.
In the primary schools education is free but not compulsory.
The primary attitude of man to the numina seems clearly to be one of fear, which survives prominently in the "impish" character of certain of the spirits of the countryside, such as Faunus and Inuus, and is always seen in the underlying conception of religio, a sense of awe in the presence of a superhuman power.
These deposits seem to be the primary sources of native gold.
He sat on two royal commissions, the one on the housing of the working classes (1884), and the other on primary education (1886); and in each case the report showed evident marks of his influence, which his fellow-commissioners recognized as that of a wise and competent social reformer.
Eastern theologians expressed the mysterious relationship of the Holy Spirit to the Father and the Son in such phrases as " Who proceedeth from the Father and receiveth from the Son," rightly making the Godhead of the Father the foundation and primary source of the eternally derived Godhead of the Son and the Spirit.
The disciplinary question of clerical marriage is not of the same primary importance as the doctrinal questions involved in the restoration of the cup to the laity, or discussed in the subsequent article on the mass.
The gradual supplanting of sail by steamships has made Malta a coaling station of primary importance.
Both corps took as their primary objective the farms of St Hubert and Point du Jour, standing just above the defile made by the Verdun-Metz road where it climbs out of the Mance ravine towards the French position.
It centralizes power in a council of five (mayor and four councilmen), nominated at a non-partisan primary and voted for on a non-partisan ticket by the electors of the entire city, ward divisions having been abolished.
There is a university at Innsbruck, but primary education, though compulsory, does not attain any very high degree of excellence, as in summer the schools are closed, for all hands are then required in the fields or on the mountain pastures.
The Self as a primary, determining entity, he would not therefore admit.
Its primary object was to authenticate the relics of St James at Compostella.
Accordingly, in reading the scales A and B (attached to the slides which carry the two halves of the object-glass), it is only necessary to turn the screws until the fixed 1 The primary object was to have the object-glass mounted in steel cells, which more nearly correspond in expansion with glass.
From these primary axioms the whole body of necessary thoughts must be developed, and, as Socrates would say, the argument itself will indicate the path of the development.
This was largely overcome by the year 1857, and yet the constitution of that date prohibits any legislation of primary importance relating to banks without referring the matter to a direct vote of the people.
The primary schools are numerously attended, and there are very good normal schools for teachers of both sexes, and a model agricultural farm.
First Principles of the Reformation, the Three Primary Works of Dr Martin Luther, edited by Wace and Buchheim, - an English translation of the famous pamphlets of 1520.
It agrees with older forms of libertarianism in taking its stand on the fact of spontaneity as primary and self-evidencing, but it is not content to assert its existence side by side with rigidly determined sequence.
On behalf of the older it may be confidently affirmed that no solution is likely to find general acceptance which involves the rejection of the conception of unity and intelligible order as the primary principle of our world.
Nearly 10,000 pupils are said to receive their education in its 140 madrasas or theological colleges; primary schools are kept at most mosques.
Agriculture in one or more of its branches is taught to all, including the four or five hundred children of the Whittier school, a practice school with kindergarten and primary classes.
He means this - that he is no mere ecstatic enthusiast or "dervish," whose primary aim is to keep up the warlike spirit of the people, taking for granted that Yahweh is on the people's side, and that he is perfectly free from the taint of selfishness, not having to support himself by his prophesying.
The law divided the subjects of census inquiry into two parts - first, those of primary importance, requiring the aid of the enumerator; and, secondly, those of subsidiary importance, capable of production without the aid of the enumerator.
As it may be called the primary classic of congregational theory, its leading principles must here be summarized.
Grants are also made for scholarships from primary to secondary schools, for training institutions for teachers and for school buildings.
Large reserves of public lands have been made for primary, secondary and university education.
All primary and some secondary public schools are controlled by provincial education boards elected by school committees of the parents of pupils.
The percentage of attendance has rivalled that in the primary schools of Scotland, and in 1905 attained to 86.9%.
General elections are held biennially, in evennumbered years, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, and candidates, except those for the supreme court bench and a few local offices, are nominated at a direct primary election, held the second Tuesday in September.
Some curious effects were observed in the formation of harmonics in the rear of the primary tone used.
But the interval is still dissonant, and this is to be explained by the fact that the two tones unite to give a third tone of the frequency of the beats, easily heard when the two primary tones are loud.
On the attainment of self-government the colonial legislature passed an act (1908) which in respect to primary and secondary education made attendance compulsory on all white children, the fee system being maintained.
Primary education for natives is provided in private schools, many of which receive government grants.
According to the U.S. Census of Manufactures (1905), "the coke industry in Everett is unique, inasmuch as illuminating gas is the primary product and coke really a by-product, while the coal used is brought from mines located in Nova Scotia."
Compound trusses consist of simple trusses used as primary, secondary and tertiary trusses, the secondary supported on the primary, and the tertiary on the secondary.
The primary offence of the ex-chancellor was the taking of bribes, which no twisting of the law could convert into a capital offence, while the charge of treason had not been substantiated.
At the beginning and end of each chapter occur puzzle-canons, wherein the primary part or parts alone are given, and the reader has to discover the canon that fixes the period and the interval at which the response is to enter.
A primary law enacted in 1905 authorizes the county convention of any party to provide for the nomination of candidates for county offices and the state legislature by direct vote.
In both the primary theme is repentance, as called for by serious sins, after baptism has placed the Christian on his new and higher level of responsibility.
In the metropolitan monton there are primary, secondary and special schools for boys and girls, affording instruction to some 10,000 pupils.
In local government a wide use is made of natives, in the appointment of whom a primary consideration is that if possible the people should be under their own chieftains.
Large sums have been voted in Holland for the establishment of primary and secondary schools, and the government has undertaken to assist in the establishment of parochial schools, the object being that every village, at least in Java, should possess one.
Priestly acts - that is, acts done by one and accepted by the gods on behalf of many - are common to all antique religions, and cannot be lacking where the primary subject of religion is not the individual but the natural community.
The creation of the so-called " Little Entente," aiming at the preser vation of the status quo in central Europe, was the primary outcome of Czechoslovak foreign policy.
Hence we have a primary subdivision of the colonies of Hydrozoa into those produced by budding of polyps and those produced by budding of medusae.
The medusa has a pronounced radial symmetry, and the positions of the primary tentacles, usually four in number, mark out the so-called radii, alternating with which are four interradii.
For, indeed, scepticism with regard to the senses is considered in the Inquiry .to be sufficiently justified by the fact that they lead us to suppose " an external universe which depends not on our perception," whereas " this universal and primary opinion of all men is soon destroyed by the slightest philosophy."
Their primary object is to gratify the pleasure most persons take in viewing at close range the curious and beautiful living products of nature, but they serve also as means of instruction in natural history, providing material for museums and for investigations in comparative anatomy and pathology, while they may have a commercial value as pleasure resorts, or as show grounds for the display of animals that have been imported or bred for sale.
There are higher schools in the principal towns, and the standard of primary education is well up to the average of Spain.
In 1908 the General Assembly passed a law providing for annual direct primary elections (outside of Baltimore; and making the Baltimore special primary law applicable to state as well as city officials), but, as regards state officers, making only a slight improvement upon previous conditions inasmuch as the county or district is the unit and the vote of county or district merely " instructs " delegates to the party's state nominating convention, representation in which is not strictly in proportion to population, the rural counties having an advantage over Baltimore; no nomination petition is required.
In the same year a separate law was passed providing for primary elections for the choice of United States senators; but here also the method is not that of nomination by a plurality throughout the state, but by the vote of counties and legislative districts, so that this measure, like the other primary law, is not sufficiently direct to give Baltimore a vote proportional to its population.
Eltekow, Ber., 1878, 11, p. 414); by the action of metals on the halogen compounds Cn.H 20 Br 2 i by boiling the aqueous solution of nitrites of the primary amines (V.
Primary deposits are doubtfully represented by the detached fragments of unfossiliferous strata of Traras, Blida and east of Orleansville.
In 1883 a law was passed for the reorganization of the systems in force, and primary instruction was made compulsory for Europeans and Jews, whilst in the case of Mahommedans discretion in the establishment of schools was vested in the governorgeneral.
The scholars attending primary schools number about 150,000 (over ioo,000 being Europeans and some 15,000 Jewish) and those at secondary schools about 6000.
Primary education is free and compulsory; the standard of attendance is high and the instruction fair, but a large proportion of the older inhabitants.
The primary schools are numerous in the capital, as well as in the other cities, and even exist in villages, and madrasas or theological seminaries for higher courses of study are comparatively plentiful.
This, the primary meaning, survives in the chapels usually placed in the aisles of cathedrals and large churches.
The forms of the four primary standards representing the four units of extension and mass are shown in figs.
Again, there are many theories of the equivalence of different cubic cubits of water with various multiples of talents (2, 3, 18, 24, 33); but connexion by lesser units would be far more probable, as the primary use of weights is not to weigh large cubical vessels of liquid, but rather small portions of precious metals.
But the Enneads of his pupil Plotinus are the primary and classical document of Neoplatonism.
In England Robert Hooke (1635-1703) held to the theory of extinction of fossil forms, and advanced the two most fertile ideas of deriving from fossils a chronology, or series of time intervals in the earth's history, and of primary changes of climate, to account for the former existence of tropical species in England.
Huxley in 1880 briefly suggested the arboreal origin, or primordial treehabitat of all the marsupials, a suggestion abundantly confirmed by the detailed studies of Dollo and of Bensley, according to which we may imagine the marsupials to have passed through (r) a former terrestrial phase, followed by (2) a primary arboreal phase - illustrated in the tree phalangers - followed by (3) a secondary terrestrial phase - illustrated in the kangaroos and wallabies - followed by (4) a secondary arboreal phase - illustrated in the tree kangaroos.
A very important evolutionary principle is that in such secondary returns to primary phases lost organs are never recovered, but new organs are acquired; hence the force of Dollo's dictum that evolution is irreversible from the point of view of structure, while frequently reversible, or recurrent, in point of view of the conditions of environment and adaptation.
Among American contributions to vertebrate palaeontology, 'the development of Cope's theories is to be found in the volumes of his collected essays, The Origin of the Fittest (New York, 1887), and The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution (Chicago, 1896).
Its realization was delayed by the wars that devastated the country down to the overthrow of Maximilian, but the leaven was at work, and with the return of peace a marked increase in the number of primary and secondary schools was noted.
From 1822 to this time the government primary schools had been under the supervision of the Compania Lancasteriana, but they were now placed under charge of the Department of Public Education.
It provides for uniform, free and non-sectarian primary instruction, and compulsory attendance for children of 6 to 12 years of age.
It is probable that the first of these forms is the primary one and the second in most cases a development from it due to (i.) the influence of other individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic tendencies, (iii.) the influence of chieftainship, hereditary and otherwise, (iv.) annual sacrifice of the sacred animal and mystical ideas con