The priesthood of Dan certainly traced its origin to Moses (Judges xvii.
I was sure he was making a mistake about the priesthood and I thought I was proving it.
Their priesthood was a highly trained profession, and they had schools which taught a knowledge of the stars and constellations, for many of which they had names.
19), as we have already seen, and in the general practice of the regal period, there was no limitation as to the priesthood, but a definite order of priesthood, viz.
Another of the intimates of Rufinus was John, bishop of Jerusalem, and formerly a Nitrian monk, by whom he was ordained to the priesthood in 39 0.
It was to be a new priesthood and to be called by a new name (T.
movement, the childhood of a new community of faith, are reflected so naturally in them all, that it is impossible for a moment to think of a later period of composition by a priesthood whom we know to, have been devoid of any historical sense, and incapable of reconstructing the spiritual conditions under which Zoroaster lived.
Destined by his parents for the Roman Catholic priesthood, he studied theology at Munich, but felt an ever-growing attraction to philosophy.
In August 1498, Cesare in the consistory asked for the permission of the cardinals and the pope to renounce the priesthood, and the latter granted it "for the good of his soul."
This was the work open to the Christian priesthood, and it cannot be denied that it was well discharged.
The genealogies in their complete form pay little heed to Moses, although Aaron and Moses could typify the priesthood and other Levites generally (i Chron.
In the regal period the royal residence gave the priesthood of that place an exceptional position.
To the student of ecclesiastical history it is remarkable as exhibiting a form of Christianity widely divergent from the prevalent types, being a religious fellowship which has no formulated creed demanding definite subscription, and no liturgy, priesthood or outward sacrament, and which gives to women an equal place with men in church organization.
He was ordained to the priesthood on the 15th of March, consecrated bishop on the 17th, and enthroned with the name of Leo X.
Thus the priesthood is still further restricted as compared with the restriction already noted in the Deuteronomic legislation.
The motive for this change does not appear, and we are equally ignorant of the cause which prompted his transference of the priesthood from his nominee to another son of Annas in 37.
- The destruction of the Temple carried with it the destruction of the priesthood and all its power.
From the time of my admission to the priesthood to my (present) fifty-ninth year, I have endeavoured, for my own use and that of my brethren, to make brief notes upon the Holy Scripture, either out of the works of the venerable fathers, or in conformity with their meaning and interpretation."
It was used first in this sense in 1597 In the earliest periods of the world's history of which we have any record, this art, like that of the perfumer, was practised by a special class of the priesthood, as in the case of Eleazar (Num.
Doubtless such a reform met with strong resistance from the disestablished and vested interests, but it was firmly supported by royal influence and by the Jerusalem priesthood as well as by the true prophets of Yahweh who had protested against the idolatrous usages and corruptions of the high places.
The priesthood has three grades: (I) the Sh'kanda or deacon is generally chosen from episcopal or priestly families, and must be without bodily blemish.
Forsaking the priesthood about 1864, he was employed as a diplomatist by the British government in Egypt, Asia Minor, the West Indies, and Bulgaria, being appointed resident minister in Uruguay in 1884; he died at Montevideo on the 30th of September 1888.
He was a priest of the Jerusalem temple, probably a member of the dominant house of Zadok, and doubtless had the literary training of the cultivated priesthood of the time, including acquaintance with the national historical, legal and ritual traditions and with the contemporary history and customs of neighbouring peoples.
All access to the Deity is restricted to the one priesthood and to the one sanctuary at Jerusalem; the worshipping subject is the nation of Israel as a unity, and the function of worship is discharged on its behalf by divinely chosen priests.
In the last stage (c) the exclusion of the ordinary Levites from all share in the priesthood of the sons of Aaron is looked upon as a matter of course, dating from the institution of priestly worship by Moses.
8-11), Levi is a collective name for the priesthood, probably that of (north) Israel.
Again, in the composite story of Korah's revolt, one version reflects a contest between Aaronites and the other Levites who claimed the priesthood (Num.
It is to the collections formed by these baru-priests as a guidance for themselves and as a basis of instruction for those in training for the priesthood that we owe our knowledge of the parts of the liver to which particular attention was directed, of the signs noted, and of the principles guiding the interpretation of the signs.
For this he was driven out, and, taking refuge with the Samaritans, founded a rival temple and priesthood upon Mt Gerizim, to which repaired other priests and Levites who had been guilty of mixed marriages.
Is he going back to the priesthood?
He speaks as a legislator, citing no authority; but he formulates, doubtless, the ideas and perhaps the practices of the Jerusalem priesthood.
4 2 seq.), to the kingly priesthood of Jesus, as that idea is worked out at length in the Epistle to the Hebrews.
At the head of the Argentine hierarchy are one archbishop and five suffragan bishops, who have five seminaries for the education of the priesthood.
The older records utilized by the Deuteronomic and later compilers indicate some common tradition which has found expression in these varying forms. Different religious standpoints are represented in the biblical writings, and it is now important to observe that the prophecies of Hosea unmistakably show another attitude to the Israelite priesthood.
Nevertheless, after much hesitation, he took what he himself calls the most mistaken step of his life, and in 1847 entered the priesthood.
Finally, a band of loo marched from Basel to Avignon to the court of Pope Clement VI., who, in spite of the sympathy shown them by several of his cardinals, condemned the sect as constituting a menace to the priesthood.
Though the moralization of gods has only proceeded pari passu with the moralization of mankind, the deities of the more advanced nations are perhaps felt by them to be more terrible and more difficult of access than the divinities of lower races; herein lies one explanation of the power of the priesthood.
In Moses (q.v.) was seen the founder of Israel's religion and laws; in Aaron (q.v.) the prototype of the Israelite priesthood.
Some have claimed for it apostolical sanction and found its origin in the liturgical head-gear of the Jewish priesthood.
He defended himself ably against Archbishop Thomas Arundel, but in February he was condemned and was degraded from the priesthood.
Ordained to the priesthood, probably towards the close of 1521, he entered the household of Sir John Walsh, Old Sodbury, Gloucestershire, as chaplain and domestic tutor.
Paphos was believed to have been founded either by the Arcadian Agapenor, returning from the Trojan War (c. 1180 B.C.), or by his reputed contemporary Cinyras, whose clan retained royal privileges down to the Ptolemaic conquest of Cyprus in 295 B.C., and held the Paphian priesthood till the Roman occupation in 58 B.C. The town certainly dates back to the close of the Mycenaean Bronze age, and had a king Eteandros among the allies of Assur-bani-pal of Assyria in 668 B.C.'
on the 11th of July 1276, but died at Viterbo on the 18th of August, without having been ordained even to the priesthood.
Having entered the Christian priesthood, he naturally took an interest in the Priscillianist controversy then going on in his native country, and it may have been in connexion with this that he went to consult Augustine at Hippo in 413 or 414.
After Christ has appeared from heaven in the guise of a warrior, and vanquished the antichristian world-power, the wisdom of the world and the devil, those who have remained steadfast in the time of the last catastrophe, and have given up their lives for their faith, shall be raised up, and shall reign with Christ on this earth as a royal priesthood for one thousand years.
15) in conjunction with the functions of kingship and priesthood.
In my nineteenth year I was admitted to the diaconate, in my thirtieth to the priesthood, both by the hands of the most reverend Bishop John (of Hexham), and at the bidding of Abbot Ceolfrid.
On the basis of the new teaching arose a widely spread priesthood (athravano) who systematized its doctrines, organized and carried on its worship, and laid down the minutely elaborated laws for the purifying and keeping clean of soul and body, which are met with in the Vendidad.
The patriarch of Constantinople is the nominal head of the Orthodox priesthood; but by an arrangement concluded in 1879, his authority was delegated to the Austrian emperor, in exchange for a revenue equal to the tribute previously paid by the clergy of the provinces; and his nominations for the metropolitanate of Serajevo, and the bishoprics of Dolnja Tuzla, Banjaluka and Mostar require the imperial assent.
In the usage of the Catholic Church, both East and West, though the benediction as defined above has its place as between one Christian and another, it has also a special place in the sacramental system in virtue of the special powers of blessing vested in the priesthood.
Bishops, as belonging to the order of priesthood with completed powers, wear the same vestments as the priests, with the addition of ' The stole and maniple alone are symbolical of order, i.e.
The physically delicate boy was put into the ecclesiastical school of St Dizier, without any intention of a clerical career; but he decided for the priesthood, and in 1874 entered the Grand Seminaire of Chalons-sur-Marne.
He presupposes a nation of Yahweh-worshippers, whose religion has its centre in the temple and priesthood of Zion, which is indeed conscious of sin, and needs forgiveness and an outpouring of the Spirit, but is not visibly divided, as the kingdom of Judah was.
A fund bearing this name was formed in the 18th century for the purpose The sous of converting to the Catholic faith the native Indians of fu d of Upper and Lower California, both of which then belonged to Mexico, and of maintaining a Catholic priesthood there.
Princess Isabella was charitable in many ways, always ready to take her full share of the duties falling upon her as the future empress, and thoroughly realizing the responsibilities of her position; but she was greatly influenced by the clerical party and the priesthood, and she thereby incurred the hostility of the Progressives.
He was educated for the priesthood in Paris and Utrecht, but his taste for Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, and other languages of the East 7 Anorthite.
The minor orders, and even the subdiaconate and diaconate, are now regarded as no more than steps to the priesthood.
However, instances of men elevated at once from the condition of laymen to the priesthood were known in the early church, and Chardon (Hist.
v.) shows that in exceptional cases men were consecrated bishops without previous ordination to the priesthood.
Some account has been already given of scholastic opinion on presbyteral ordination to the diaconate and even to the priesthood.
the handing over of paten and chalice in ordination to the priesthood, are admittedly non-essential, unless we adopt the opinion of some Roman theologians that our Lord left the determination of matter and form to the church, which has insisted on different rites at different times.
Deaconesses in the East received the imposition of the bishop's hands, but could not ascend to the priesthood.
He could not doubt for a moment the utter invalidity of Edwardine ordinations to the priesthood.
He knew very well that the theologians of his church almost without exception held that the handing over of the paten and chalice with the words, " Receive power of offering sacrifice," &c., were the essential matter and form of ordination to the priesthood; indeed he published the decree of Eugenius IV.
The Anglican priesthood being gone, the episcopate also lapses.
He was educated at the English college, Douai, where on his ordination to the priesthood he held successively the chairs of philosophy and divinity.
When the cathedral chapter found courage to oppose this and opened suit to recover the ecclesiastical revenues for ecclesiastical purposes, Richelieu's mother proposed to make her second son, Alphonse, bishop. He defeated this scheme, however, by becoming a monk of the Grande Chartreuse, and Armand, whose health was rather feeble in any case for a military career, was induced to propose himself for the priesthood.
So Gregory of Narck upbraids the Thonraki for their "anthropolatrous apostasy, their selfconf erred contemptible priesthood which is a likening of themselves to Satan" (= Christ in Thonraki parlance).
Where the king is the human representative of the Deity he is theoretically and officially the priesthood, although the priests carry on the ordinary subordinate functions.
He was educated for the priesthood, but, after taking minor orders, gave up the idea of becoming a priest, and chose an administrative career.
The first grand characteristic of Hippocratic medicine is the high conception of the duties and status of the physician, shown in the celebrated "Oath of Hippocrates" and elsewhere - equally free from the mysticism of a priesthood and the vulgar pretensions of a mercenary craft.
- Castes were unknown in both Babylonia and Assyria, but the priesthood of Babylonia found its counterpart in the military aristocracy of Assyria.
The priesthood was divided into a great number of classes, among which that of the doctors may be reckoned.
They protest against the Asmonaean house for usurping the throne of David, and laying violent hands on the high priesthood (xvii.
It is certainly not impossible that a Christian Saxon, sufficiently educated to read Latin easily, may have chosen to follow the calling of a stop or minstrel instead of entering the priesthood or the cloister; and if such a person existed, it would be natural that he should be selected by the emperor to execute his design.
Priesthood, Oil of Unction, the Offering of the Body and Blood of Christ, Absolution, The Holy Leaven, the Signation of the life-giving Cross.
There is a certain degree of tolerance, however, and the Anglican and some of the evangelical churches are permitted to establish missions in the country, but not always without hostile demonstrations from the Catholic priesthood.
Each diocese has its seminary for the education of the priesthood, that of Arequipa being distinguished for its influence in church affairs.
The asceticism of Paulinus and his liberality towards the poor soon brought him into great repute; and while he was spending Christmas at Barcelona the people insisted on his being forthwith ordained to the priesthood.
1 Here he announced the impending fate of the priesthood and gained reputation throughout Israel as a prophet.
The elaborate and minute systematization of life, proper to the religion of Humanity, is to be directed by a priesthood.
The power of the priesthood rests upon special knowledge of man and nature; but to this intellectual eminence must also be added moral power and a certain greatness of character, without which force of intellect and completeness of attainment will not receivethe confidence they ought to inspire.
The authority of the priesthood is to rest wholly on voluntary adhesion, and there is to be perfect freedom of speech and discussion.
He hated two things intensely, a sacrosanct priesthood and an enforced uniformity.
In the same year (6th of September) a law was passed to compel all candidates for the priesthood to pass the government examinations.
He studied for the priesthood, but abandoned the idea before ordination, and took the diploma of doctor of letters (1860).
This metre was employed in ritual hymns, which seem to have assumed definite shapes out of the exclamations of a primitive priesthood engaged in a rude ceremonial dance.
12), and especially from his conception of the priesthood as resting on a covenant with Levi (ii.
Herein lies the importance of the priesthood: the priest is not, as in other religions, the mediator between god and man, but on the one hand for the purpose of state-worship the chosen representative of the whole people, on the other the repository of tradition and ritual lore.
Organization showed itself in the fixing of the annual calendar and the development of the character and functions of the priesthood, and as we should expect, in a new conception of the legal relation of the gods to the state.
The old priesthood, and in particular the flaminia, came to be regarded as tiresome restrictions on political life and were neglected: from 87 to II B.C. the office of flamen Dialis was vacant.
During the eight years of his life at Bayswater he was most active in all the duties of the priesthood, preaching, hearing confessions, and receiving converts; and he was notably zealous to promote in England all that was specially Roman and papal, thus giving offence to old-fashioned Catholics, both clerical and lay, many of whom were largely influenced by Gallican ideas, and had with difficulty accepted the restoration of the hierarchy in 1850.
SALII, the "dancers," an old Italian priesthood, said to have been instituted by Numa for the service of Mars, although later tradition derived them from Greece.
In this chapter we have the two beasts 2 which symbolize respectively Rome and the Roman provincial priesthood of the imperial cult.
The second beast, signifying the pagan priesthood of the imperial cult, called "the false prophet" in xvi.
At the age of twenty-four he entered the priesthood, becoming one of two curates under the incumbent of Pingjum, a village near his birthplace.
But it was only slowly that the growing sympathy of Huss with Wycliffe unfavourably affected his relations with his colleagues in the priesthood.
He was educated for the priesthood at St Sulpice, where in 1818 he became professor of dogmatic theology.
This account sufficiently shows the difference of the Waldenses from the Cathari: they were opposed to asceticism, and had no official priesthood; at the same time their objection to oaths and to capital punishment are closely related to the principles of the Cathari.
The earliest known document proceeding from the Waldensians is an account of a conference held at Bergamo in 1218 between the Ultramontane and the Lombard divisions, in which the Lombards showed a greater opposition to the recognized priesthood than did their northern brethren.2 As these opinions became more pronounced persecution became more severe, and the breach between the Waldenses and the church widened.
It would appear that its members received the sacraments of baptism and the holy communion from the regular priesthood, at all events sometimes, but maintained a discipline of their own and held services for their own edification.
250) the idea of the ministry as clergy or priesthood gained ground, parallel with the more mixed quality of those admitted by baptism to the status of " the faithful," and with the increasingly sacramental conception of the means of grace.
So was it among the Waldenses, who reasserted the priesthood of all believers: still more among the Lollards, 3 who produced 2 So not only the Didache (xv.
He studied for the priesthood, but did not take orders.
He distinguished himself at an early age, and on his ordination to the priesthood (1805) was appointed professor of the philosophy of religion in Prague University.
He bestowed the priesthood and a consulship upon his horse Incitatus, and demanded that sacrifice should be offered to himself.
On his return he entered Rome with an ovation (a minor form of triumph), temples were built, statues erected in his honour, and a special priesthood instituted to attend to his worship. The people were ground down by new forms of taxation and every kind of extortion, but on the whole Rome was free from internal disturbances during his reign; some insignificant conspiracies were discovered and rendered abortive.
Ordained to the priesthood in 1819, he was appointed to a curacy at Riedlingen, but speedily returned as "repetent" to Tubingen, where he became privatdozent in 1822, extraordinary professor of theology in 1826 and ordinary professor in 1828.
He was ordained deacon while at Moville, and afterwards, when about thirty years of age, was raised to the priesthood.
The object of the observances was to cleanse the sanctuary, the priesthood and the people from all their sins, and to renew and maintain favourable relations between Yahweh and Israel.
There is a close connexion between the laity and priesthood, as the Buddhist rule, which prescribes that every man should enter the priesthood for at least a few months, is almost universally observed, even young princes and noblemen who have been educated in Europe donning the yellow robe on their return to Siam.
He was intended for the priesthood and entered the seminary of Floreffe, but his energies claimed a more active sphere.
Himself a Catholic priest - "the glory of the priesthood and the shame" - the tone of the orthodox clergy was distasteful to him; the ignorant hostility to classical learning which reigned in their colleges and convents disgusted him.
all its essential features were already formed: imperial power extended equally over State and Church; indeed, care for the preservation of dogma and for the purity of the priesthood was the chief duty of the ruler.
The theologians of the Greek and Latin churches expressly found the conception of a Christian priesthood on the hierarchy of the Jewish temple, while the names by which the sacerdotal character is expressed - iEpEbs, sacerdos - originally designated the ministers of sacred things in Greek and Roman heathenism, and then came to be used as translations into Greek and Latin of the Hebrew kohen.
The close inter-relation which existed in primitive society between magic, priesthood and kingship has been indicated by Frazer in his Early History of the Kingship. His remarks throw some light on the early character of priesthood as well as kingship. " When once a special class of sorcerers has been segregated from the community and entrusted by it with the discharge of duties on which the public safety and welfare are believed to depend, these men gradually rise to wealth and power till their leaders blossom out into sacred kings."
The question, however, remains to be settled how far the officials and their functions, which in the much more highly developed civilization of Babylonia came to be differentiated and specialized, can be strictly included under the functions of priesthood.
This is certainly true of the sangatu or priesthood, which was connected with a special family attached to a particular temple and its worship. (2) Johns also points out the existence of the rab-baru, chief soothsayer, and the rab-masmasu or chief magician.
If a new god had a temple set up he had a new set of priests, but this priesthood descended in its line, e.g.
The highest nobility in the nome sought the honour of priesthood in the service of the local deity.
We now turn to the priesthood as we find it in ancient Greece and Italy.
In the domestic circle the union of priesthood and natural headship was never disturbed; the Roman paterfamilias sacrificed for the whole family.
In many nations divination and priesthood have always gone hand in hand; at Rome, for example, the augurs and the XV viri sacrorum, who interpreted the Sibylline books, were priestly colleges.
" In historical times the priesthood is rigidly confined to members of the Brahman caste, who are regarded as the representatives of God on earth.
The power of the priesthood began with the delegation by the king of his sacrificial duties to a ` president ' (purohita).
For further details as to the development of the priestly caste and wisdom in India the reader must refer to Brahminism; here it is enough to observe that among a religious people a priesthood which forms a close and still more an hereditary corporation, and the assistance of which is indispensable in all religious acts, must rise to practical supremacy in society except under the strongest form of despotism, where the sovereign is head of the Church as well as of the state.
Zoroastrianism is not a nature religion, but the result of a reform which never, under the old empire, thoroughly penetrated the masses; and the priesthood, as it was not based on family tradition, did not form a strict hereditary caste.
It was open to any one to obtain entrance into the priesthood, while on the other hand it was only as a priest that he could exercise sacerdotal functions, for these were strictly reserved to priests.
Amid all the ceremonialism of its priesthood there were also high ideals set forth in Zoroastrian religion of what a priest should be.
But the origin of a separate priestly class, distinct from the natural heads of the community, cannot be explained by any such broad general principle; in some cases, as in Greece, it is little more than a matter of convenience that part of the religious duties of the state should be confided to special ministers charged with the care of particular temples, while in others the intervention of a special priesthood is indispensable to the validity of every religious act, so that the priest ultimately becomes a mediator and the vehicle of all divine grace.
The strength of the priesthood in Chaldaea and in Egypt stands plainly in the closest connexion with the survival of a magical element in the state religion, and Rome, in like manner, is more priestly than Greece, because it is more superstitious.
In most cases, however, where an ancient civilization shows us a strong priestly system we are unable to make out in any detail the steps by which that system was elaborated; the clearest case perhaps is the priesthood of the Jews, which is not less interesting from its origin and growth 1 Cf.
Among the nomadic Semites, to whom the Hebrews belonged before they settled in Canaan, there has never been any developed priesthood.
We find therefore no trace of a sacrificial priesthood, but each temple had one or more doorkeepers (sadin, hajib), whose office was usually hereditary in a certain family and who had the charge of the temple and its treasures.
In Greece and Rome the public sacrifices were the chief function of religion, and in them the priesthood represented the ancient kings.
A sacrificial priesthood will arise as the worship becomes more complex.
Indeed, though priesthood was not yet tied to one family, so that Micah's son, or Eleazar of Kirjath-jearim (I Sam.
But between the priesthood of Eli at Shiloh or of Jonathan at Dan and the priesthood of the Levites as described in Deut.
The latter, on the contrary, must have grown in importance with the unification and progress of the nation, and in all probability the consolidation of the priesthood into one class went hand in hand with a consolidation of legal tradition.
And this work must have been well done, for, though the general corruption of society at the beginning of the Assyrian period was nowhere more conspicuous than at the sanctuaries and among the priesthood, the invective of Hos.
The ritual functions of the priesthood still appear in Deut.
That at least the greater offices were hereditary - as in the case of the sons of Zadok, who succeeded to the royal priesthood in Jerusalem after the fall of Abiathar - was almost a matter of course as society was then constituted, but there is not the slightest trace of an hereditary hierarchy officiating by divine right, such as existed after the exile.
In the time of Josiah altar service and not the function of " teaching " has become the essential thing in priesthood (Deut.
The influence of the Hebrew priesthood on the thought and organization of Christendom was the influence not of a living institution, for it hardly began till after the fall of the Temple, but of the theory embodied in the later parts of the Pentateuch.
This argument leaves no room for a special priesthood in the Christian Church, and in fact nothing of the kind is found in the oldest organization of the new communities of faith.
The idea that presbyters and bishops are priests and the successors of the Old Testament priesthood first appears in full force in the writings of Cyprian, and here it is not the notion of priestly mediation but that of priestly power which is insisted on.
The same conditions have produced similar spiritual aristocracies again and again in the East in more modern times, and even in antiquity more than one Oriental priesthood took a line of development similar to that which we have traced in Judaea.
As no such hierarchy existed in the West, it is plain that if the idea of Christian priesthood was influenced by living institutions as well as by the Old Testament that influence must be sought in the East (cf.
The further development of the notion of Christian priesthood was connected with the view that the Eucharist is a propitiatory sacrifice which only a consecrated priest can perform.
Protestants, in rejecting the sacrifice of the mass, deny also that there is a Christian priesthood " like the Levitical," and have either dropped the name of " priest" or use it in a quite emasculated sense.
For further details as to the history and doctrine of priesthood in Christendom the reader is referred to the article, " Priestertum: Priesterweihe in der Christlichen Kirche," in P.R.E., 3rd ed., Bd.
There is probably no nature religion among races above mere savagery which has not had a priesthood; but an examination of other examples would scarcely bring out any important XXII.
But a distinction of grades of holiness gained by ascetic life has never been entirely foreign to the Eastern mind, and in the popular faith of Mahommedan peoples something very like priesthood has crept in by this channel.
The idea of priestly asceticism expressed in the celibacy of the clergy belongs also to certain types of heathen and especially Semitic priesthood, to those above all in which the priestly service is held to have a magical or theurgic quality.
A considerable section of the priesthood demanded some dogmatical reforms, including the abolition of celibacy, the introduction of the vernacular into the Church services, and a more democratic administration of Church affairs.
Confession and absolution, strictly enforced, give great power to the priesthood.
In Italy, where the study of Latin literature seems never to have entirely died out, young nobles and students preparing for the priesthood were not infrequently learning Latin together, in private grammar schools under liberal clerics, such as Anselm of Bisate (fl.
He was educated in his native town and entered the priesthood in 1798; in 1807 the local chapter elected him vicar-general.
2 Nevertheless, while the propheticral teaching came to regard the ephod as contrary to the true worship of Yahweh, the priestly doctrine of the post-exilic age (when worship was withdrawn from the community at large to the recognized priesthood of Jerusalem) has retained it along with other remains of earlier usage, legalizing it, as it were, by confining it exclusively to the Aaronites.
8), and to have stood in pretty close relation to the priesthood (Hos.
His career was soon after interrupted by the triumphant return of Sulla (82 B.C.), who ordered him to divorce his wife, and on his refusal deprived him of his property and priesthood and was induced to spare his life only by the intercession of his aristocratic relatives and the college of vestal virgins.
The novice is classified according as his destination is the priesthood or lay brotherhood, while a third class of "indifferents" receives such as are reserved for further inquiry before a decision of this kind a strict retreat, practically in solitary confinement, during which he receives from a director, yet relying on Thine infinite kindness and mercy and impelled by the desire of serving Thee, before the Most Holy Virgin Mary and all Thy heavenly host, I, N., vow to Thy divine Majesty Poverty, Chastity and Perpetual Obedience to the Society of Jesus, and promise that I will enter the same Society to live in it perpetually, understanding all things according to the Constitutions of the Society.
The Mexican priesthood were much concerned with the art of picture-writing, which they used systematically as a means of recording religious festivals and legends, as well as keeping Picture- calendars of years and recording the historical events writing, which occurred in them.
The son of a Zapotec peasant in a mountain village of Oaxaca, he was employed as a lad by a bookbinder in Oaxaca city, and aided by him to study for the priesthood.
The word etymologically signifies "spirit-fighters," being originally intended by the priesthood to convey that they fight against the Spirit of God; but the Doukhobors themselves accepted the term as signifying that they fight, not against, but for and with the Spirit.
B.C.), Greek poet, physician and grammarian, was born at Claros, near Colophon, where his family held the hereditary priesthood of Apollo.
While the office was well known in Rome, there is nothing to prove that it was also an order through which, as to-day, every candidate to the priesthood must pass.
His activity as a Christian falls between 190 and 220, a period of very great moment in the history of the Catholic church; for within it the struggle with Gnosticism was brought to a victorious close, the New Testament established a firm footing within the churches, the " apostolic " rules which thenceforward regulated all the affairs of the church were called into existence, and the ecclesiastical priesthood came to be developed.
In this age the choachytae, as the Greeks called them ("libation priests, " or "shrine-openers" in Egyptian), belonged to an inferior grade of the priesthood, equivalent to the pastophori of the deities, and were organized in gilds for the different cemeteries.
On the assassination of his father and two elder brothers by Ptolemy, governor of Jericho, his brother-in-law, in February 135, he succeeded to the high priesthood and the supreme authority in Judaea.
In 63 it suited the policy of Pompey that he should be restored to the high priesthood, with some semblance of supreme command, but of much of this semblance even he was soon again deprived by the arrangement of the pro-consul Gabinius, according to which Palestine was in 57 B.C. divided into five separate circles (auv060c, vvv&3pca).
5 The Conception of Priesthood, p. 13.
This idea of the priesthood of the whole church has three elements - the divine element, the human element and self-sacrifice.
When that life is exhibited, as it ought to be, in its distinctively heavenly character, it bears witness to the presence of a power in Christian men which no mere recollection of a past example, however heroic or beautiful, The Conception of Priesthood, p. 29.
SILVERIUS, pope from June 536 to March 537, successor of Pope Agapetus I., was a legitimate son of Pope Hormisdas, born before his father entered the priesthood.
In religion, the chief feature was the priesthood of Druids, who here, as in Gaul, practised magical arts and barbarous rites of human sacrifice, taught a secret lore, wielded great influence, but, at least as Druids, took ordinarily no part in politics.
It is clear also that there were persons specially set apart for the priesthood, who were not allowed to bear arms or to ride except on mares.
The Old and the New Covenants are related to one another as imperfect (earthly) and perfect (heavenly) forms of the same method of salvation, each with its own type of sacrifice and priesthood.
(1) The Son has the qualifications of all priesthood, especially sympathy.
The Fathers of the Church had repeated times without number that the priesthood stands above even the supreme secular authority; the Bible was full of stories most aptly illustrating this theory; nobody questioned that, within the Church, the pope was the Vicar of Christ, and that, as such, his powers were unlimited; as proof positive could be cited councils and decretals - whether authentic or spurious; at any rate all authorized by long usage and taken as received authorities.
The Work To reform the Church in every grade and purge of Gregory the priesthood in order to shield it from feudal VII.
Henceforth the monk was to be the docile instrument of the wishes of Rome, to be opposed to the official priesthood according to Rome's needs.
The text they preached was harmony between the priesthood and the state.
It must not, however, be forgotten that, in the negotiations at Sutri, Paschal had pride and independence enough to propose to the emperor the only solution of the conflict that was entirely logical and essentially Christian, namely, the renunciation by the Church of its temporal power and the renunciation by the lay lords of all intervention in elections and investitures - in other words, the absolute separation of the priesthood and the state.
The conflict of the priesthood with the kingdoms Alexander and nations that were tending to aggrandize them- III.
From the moment that Arnold of Brescia, absorbed in his chimerical project of reviving the ancient Roman republic, disregarded the imperial power and neglected to shelter himself behind the German in his conflict with the priesthood, his failure was certain and his fate foredoomed.
At that council wise and urgent measures were taken against the abuses that discredited the priesthood, but the principle of appeals and exemptions and the question of the increasing abuse of the power wielded by the Roman legates remained untouched.
He wished to acquire the mastery of souls by unifying the faith and centralizing the priesthood, but he also aspired to possess temporal supremacy, if not as direct owner, at least as suzerain, over all the national crowns, and thus to realize the idea with which he was penetrated and which he himself expressed clearly.
The regular clergy, who were almost wholly sheltered from the power of the diocesan bishops, found themselves, even more than the secular priesthood, in a state of complete dependence on the Curia.
But throughout the ecclesiastical society traditional bonds were loosened and anarchy was rife, and this at the very moment when the enemies of the priesthood and its leaders redoubled their attack.
The constitutional guarantee of religious liberty had from the outset been resisted by the powerful and resolute priesthood, supported by numerous sympathizers among the nobility.
Another survival in the Armenian church was the hereditary priesthood.
The Armenian doctors also taught that John by laying hands on Jesus and ordaining him at his baptism sacramentally transferred to him the three graces or charismata of kingship, prophecy and priesthood which had belonged to ancient Israel.
Besides the full functions of the presbyterate, or priesthood, bishops have the sole right (I) to confer holy orders, (2) to administer confirmation, (3) to prepare the holy oil, or chrism, (4) to consecrate sacred places or utensils (churches, churchyards, altars, &c.), (5) to give the benediction to abbots and abbesses, (6) to anoint kings.
The insignia (pontificalia or pontificals) of the Roman Catholic bishop are (I) a ring with a jewel, symbolizing fidelity to the church, (2) the pastoral staff, (3) the pectoral cross, (4) the vestments, consisting of the caligae, stockings and sandals, the tunicle, and purple gloves, (5) the mitre, symbol of the royal priesthood, (6) the throne (cathedra), surmounted by a baldachin or canopy, on the gospel side of the choir in the cathedral church.
It was then that the analogy was first detected between the order of knighthood and the order of priesthood, and that an actual union of monachism and chivalry was effected by the establishment of the religious orders of which the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitallers were the most eminent examples.
Ten years later he came back to Paris, and was eventually persuaded (1676) to enter the priesthood, and become a chaplain at Port Royal.
escape the Levitical priesthood (Latin Prologue), or it was a natural defect (Cod.
It is not necessary to imagine, however, that these devices originated with the Semitic priesthood.
de Decker brought in a bill to establish " the liberty of charity," but in reality to place the administration of charities in the hands of the priesthood.
Up to the end of the 2nd century the universal priesthood of all believers was the accepted doctrine of the Church.
It was not till the middle of the 3rd century that the priesthood was.
As women are debarred from exercising the spiritual functions of the ministry, it follows that nuns have to devote themselves either to a more purely contemplative life, or else to a more wholly active one, than is usual among the orders of men, who commonly, in virtue of their priesthood, have been able to find a mixed form of life between the two extremes.
He was trained for the priesthood, taught theology in a provincial seminary and then went to Paris.
1 The tithe offered to Yahweh may have originally been consumed - in whole or in representative part - on the altar, but in the rituals preserved to us the offering is symbolical, the deity ceding his tithe to the priest, so that from quite early times the tithe helped to support the priesthood who like the poor had a customary share (guest-right) in the feasts.
This attitude of the Catholics was caused by Pitt's encouragement of the expectation that Catholic emancipation, the commutation of tithes, and the endowment of the Catholic priesthood, would accompany or quickly follow the passing of the measure.
On the philological methods of the ancient Babylonian priesthood, see Prince, Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, Introduction.
Although many Roman Catholic children attend the public schools, the number of separate schools is, under the influence of the priesthood, steadily increasing.
The Perfect formed the ordained priesthood, were women no less than men, and controlled the church; they received from the Believers unquestioning obedience, and as vessels of election in whom the Holy Spirit already dwelt, they were adored by the faithful, who were taught to prostrate themselves before them whenever they asked for their prayers.
Under the Roman empire the cult of Isis, now furnished with an official priesthood and elaborate ritual, became really popular in the Hellenistic world.
in the time of the second Ptolemy, " who had received a Greek education and cultivated philosophy," broke with the native priesthood (Diod.
But he failed to win the permanent adhesion of the people to his reform, or to conciliate or entirely crush the enormously powerful priesthood of Ammon.
No siege engines are depicted, even in the time of the Empire,, and the absence of original representations after the XXth Dynasty renders it difficult to judge the advances made in the art of war during the first half of the last millennium Bc. The inscription of Pankhi, however, proves that in the 8th century approaches and towers were raised against the walls of besieged cities Priesthood.The priesthood was in a great degree hereditary, though perhaps not essentially so.
on hands, feet and back?), also cutting off the nose with banishment to Nubia or the Syrian frontier., In the times of the OldKingdom decapitation was in use, and a decree exists of the Middle Kingdom degrading a nomarch of Coptos and his family for ever from his office and from the priesthood on account of services to a rival pretender.
The Theban god Ammon-Re was then supreme, and the evergrowing power of his priesthood may well have inflamed the jealousy of their Heliopolitan rivals.
Or again, contracts might be made with a neighboring temple, the priesthood of which bound itself to reserve for the contracting party some portion of the offerings that had already been used for the divine cult.
Setenkhot, C. 1200 B.C., priesthood).
For it is not supported by temporal agencies like the spiritual authority of the Christian priesthood in the middle ages, but is a pure power of knowledge over the ignorant masses, who do nothing without consulting their spiritual advisers.
The principal priests were a particular order, the priesthood being hereditary.
Both Morris and Burne-Jones had come to Oxford with the intention of taking holy orders, but as they felt their way they both came to the conclusion that there was more to be done in the direction of social reform than of ecclesiastical work, and that their energies would be best employed outside the priesthood.
ro) who seduces the inhabitants of the earth to worship the first Beast, and probably interpreted this figure as applying to the Roman provincial priesthood.'
Neither is there any doubt that he sat in judgment on Bishop Hooper, and on several other preachers whom he condemned, not exactly to the flames, but to be degraded from the priesthood.
To the days of his early desert life is probably to be assigned the treatise On Priesthood, a book full of wise counsel.
ARVAL BROTHERS (Fratres Arvales), in Roman antiquities, a college or priesthood, consisting of twelve members, elected for life from the highest ranks in Rome, and always apparently, during the empire, including the emperor.
The most striking feature in this work is the writer's scathing condemnation of the priesthood before, during, and after the Maccabean period, and an unsparing depreciation of the Temple services.
He saw that he stood for the spiritual priesthood of all believers and that medievalism in religion meant that man cannot approach God without a priestly mediator.
Two conceptions lay at the basis - the thought of the spiritual priesthood of all believers and the belief that the state was a divine ordinance, that the magistracy might represent the whole body of believers and that discipline and administration might be exercised through courts constituted somewhat like the consistorial courts of the medieval bishops, their members being appointed by the magistracy.
He belonged to a noble and wealthy family, but at an early age decided to enter the priesthood.
He formed the bold design of combining the Irish Catholic millions, under the superintendence of the native priesthood, into a vast league against the existing order of things, and of wresting the concession of the Catholic claims from every opposing party in the state by an agitation, continually kept up, and embracing almost the whole of the people, but maintained within constitutional limits, though menacing and shaking the frame of society.
O'Connell, having long before attained an undisputed and easy ascendancy, stood at the head of this great national movement; but it will be observed that, having been controlled from first to last by himself and the priesthood, it had little in common with the mob rule and violence which he had never ceased to regard with aversion.
Enormous meetings, convened by the priesthood, and directed or controlled by O'Connell, assembled in 1842-1843, and probably nine-tenths of the Irish Catholics were unanimous in the cry for repeal.
At first his thoughts turned towards the priesthood, and he spent some time at the London Oratory and at St Edmund's College, Ware; but being unable to surrender his belief in the validity of Anglican orders, he proceeded no further than minor orders in the Roman Church.
In concentrating the religious observances of the people upon Jerusalem, its Temple and its priesthood, it became less spontaneous, and its services more remote from ordinary life.
Fleury's evident intention was to write a history of the church for all classes of society; but at the time in which his great work appeared it was less religion than theology that absorbed the attention of the clergy and the educated public; and his work accordingly appealed to the student rather than to the popular reader, dwelling as it does very particularly on questions of doctrine, of discipline, of supremacy, and of rivalry between the priesthood and the imperial power.
Filipinos had for generations been ordained into priesthood although not received into monastic orders.
In some instances, as in the great Creation Series of Babylon, the later scribes subjected the different versions to processes of editing, with the result that the earlier forms gave place to the redactions of a militant priesthood.
While studying for the priesthood, which he intended to join, he devoted much attention to oriental languages, and was introduced by his friend M.
AARON, the traditional founder and head of the Jewish priesthood, who, in company with Moses, led the Israelites out of Egypt (see Exodus; Moses).
The name Phinehas (apparently of Egyptian origin) is better known as that of a son of Eli, a member of the priesthood of Shiloh, and Eleazar is only another form of Eliezer the son of Moses, to whose kin Eli is said to have belonged.
He may well have been the traditional head of the priesthood, and R.
For the literature and a general account of the Jewish priesthood, see the articles LEVITES and PRIEST.
He is specially invoked on behalf of the king (the nominal head of the priesthood) and the crops, and a very close connexion was supposed to exist between the god's agency and all agricultural life.
The priesthood held still the ancient ideas.
Even the prophets had spoken in the name of God; they accepted neither book nor priesthood as authoritative, but uttered their truth as they were inspired to speak, and commanded men to listen and obey.
In the earliest period the services were characterized by extreme freedom, and by manifestations of ecstasy which were believed to indicate the presence of the spirit of God; but as the years went by the original enthusiasm faded away, the cult became more and more controlled, until ultimately it was completely subject to the priesthood, and through the priesthood to the Church.
Practical difficulties called for the enforcement of discipline, and differences of opinion for authority in doctrine; and, finally, the sacramentarian system required a priesthood.
Priesthood in Homer is found in the case of particular temples, where an officer is naturally wanted to take charge of the sacred inclosure and the sacrifices offered within it.
In 1859 he graduated at Mount St Mary's College, Emmittsburg, Maryland, and began his studies for the priesthood as the first of the twelve students with whom the American College at Rome was opened.
On his return to England he became for a period vice-president of St Edmund's College, Ware, at that time the chief seminary for candidates for the priesthood in the south of England.
220) the right of second marriages was theoretically denied to the priesthood.
Both these rules, however, proved difficult of enforcement and seem to have rested only on a vague basis of public opinion; twice-married men (digami) were admitted to the priesthood by Pope Calixtus I.
2 Nor did the only difficulty lie in such secret breaches of the law; in many districts the priesthood tended to become a mere hereditary caste, to the disadvantage of church and state alike.
In spite of Dunstan's reforms at the end of the 10th century, the Norman Lanfranc found so many wedded priests that he dared not decree their separation; and when his successor St Anselm attempted to go further, this seemed a perilous novelty even to so distinguished an ecclesiastic as Henry of Huntingdon, who wrote: "About Michaelmas of this same year (1102) Archbishop Anselm held a council in London, wherein he forbade wives to the English priesthood, heretofore not forbidden; which seemed to some a matter of great purity, but to others a perilous thing, lest the clergy, in striving after a purity too great for human strength, should fall into horrible impurity, to the extreme dishonour of the Christian name" (lib.
A festival was held in their honour every year, superintended by a special priesthood, at which the offerings consisted of milk and honey mixed with water, but no wine.
The fiftieth anniversary of his ordination to the priesthood was celebrated in 1884.
The powers of the Shah (Shahanshah,2 or king of kings) over his subjects and their property were absolute, but only in so far as they were not opposed to the shar, or divine law, which consists of the doctrines of the Mahommedan religion, as laid down in the Koran, the oral commentaries and sayings of the Prophet, and the interpretations by his successors and the high priesthood.
Its formal character naturally germinated in the priesthood (Herod.
He encouraged the efforts of the Egyptian priesthood in every way, built temples, and enacted new laws in contin.uance of the old order.
It has already been mentioned, that, in his efforts to concifiate the Egyptians, Darius placed his chief reliance on the priesthood: and the same tendency runs throughout the imperial policy toward the conquered races.
The religious element is, of course, inseparable from the national, and Ardashir, like all the dynasts of Persis, was an ardent devotee of the Zoroastrian doctrine, and closely connected with the priesthood.
26)comparable to the influence of the priesthood in later Egypt, and especially in Byzantium and medieval Christendom.
Hormizd had not the ability to retain the authority of his father, and he further affronted the Magian priesthood by declining to proceed against the Christians and by requiring that, in his empire, both religions should dwell together in peace.
He then set out to complete his education by travel, and on the 28th of October 1792 arrived in Baltimore, Maryland, where he finally decided to enter the priesthood.
Having been ordained to the priesthood, he for some time acted as vicar of Archbishop Celsus or Ceallach of Armagh, and carried out many reforms tending to increase conformity with the usage of the Church of Rome.
the rules for the priesthood (chap. xxi.), the feasts (xxiii.
GIACOMO ZANELLA (1820-1888), Italian poet, was born at Chiampo, near Vicenza, on the 9th of September 1820, and was educated for the priesthood.
The bitterness of his outspoken invective against the clergy, against all priestcraft and priesthood, was a new feature in deistic literature, and injured the author more than it furthered his cause.
In 1635 he received the priesthood.
Abbesses have a right to demand absolute obedience of their nuns, over whom they exercise discipline, extending even to the power of expulsion, subject, however, to the bishop. As a female an abbess is incapable of performing the spiritual functions of the priesthood belonging to an abbot.
Afterwards he went to Rome and studied for the priesthood in the Collegio Capranica from which he passed to the Accademia dei nobili Ecclesiastici, the usual training school for those who devote themselves to the " carriera " or diplomatic service of the Vatican.
Public education is not, however, entirely in the hands of the priesthood and nuns; there are an institute, a normal school to train teachers, a school of arts and handicrafts, a nautical school and numerous public primary schools for both sexes.
a call to the priesthood he entered the Society of Jesus in 1560.
The language in which Zoroaster taught, especially a later development of it, remained as the standard with his followers, and became the sacred language of the priesthood of that faith which he had founded; as such it became, so to speak, absolved from the ordinary conditions of time and space.
The language of the Avesta travelled with the Zoroastrian religion and with the main body of the priesthood, in all probability, that is to say, from east to west; within the limits of Iran it became international.
It retained, however, its Syriac liturgy and a non-celibate priesthood.
The priesthood and ecclesiastical office were canonically closed to him.
The attempt (by Clemen and Beer) to place the TenWeeks Apocalypse before 167, because it makes no reference to the Maccabees, is not successful; for where the history of mankind from Adam to the final judgment is despatched in sixteen verses, such an omission need cause little embarrassment, and still less if the author is the determined foe of the Maccabees, whom he would probably have stigmatized as apostates, if he had mentioned them at all, just as he similarly brands all the Sadducean priesthood that preceded them to the time of the captivity.
Rome took good care to educate the priesthood far above the status of the Orthodox priests.
Though the ranks of the priesthood were for ever firmly closed against intruders, a man of lay birth, a Kshatriya or Vaisya, whose mind revolted against the orthodox creed, and whose heart was stirred by mingled zeal and ambition, might find through these irregular orders an entrance to the career of a religious teacher and reformer.
It should be noticed in passing that the idea of a priesthood with mystical powers is altogether repugnant to Buddhism; every one's salvation is entirely dependent on the modification or growth of his own inner nature, resulting from his own exertions.
Instead of advocating the priesthood of all believers, the Lutheran pastors had made themselves a despotic hierarchy, while they neglected their practical pastoral work.
(2) the Christian priesthood being universal, the laity should share in the spiritual government of the Church; (3) a knowledge of Christianity must be attended by the practice of it as its indispensable sign and supplement; (4) instead of merely didactic, and often bitter, attacks on the heterodox and unbelievers, a sympathetic and kindly treatment of them; (5) a reorganization of the theological training of the universities, giving more prominence to the devotional life; and (6) a different style of preaching, namely, in the place of pleasing rhetoric, the implanting of Christianity in the inner or new man, the soul of which is faith, and its effects the fruits of life.
of Aberdeen, is St Mary's Roman Catholic College for the training of young men intended for the priesthood.
In the Liber Sad-der, indeed (Porta xxv.), we read, " Cavendum est tibi a jejunio; nam a mane ad vesperam nihil comedere non est bonum in religione nostra "; but according to the Pere de Chinon (Lyons, 1671) the Parsee religion enjoins, upon the priesthood at least, no fewer than five yearly fasts.
The priesthood had successive rivals to face.
TAMAS BAKOCZ, CARDINAL (1442-1521), Hungarian ecclesi astic and statesman, was the son of a wagoner, adopted by his uncle, who trained him for the priesthood and whom he succeeded as rector of Tetel (1480).
If so, parliament was told that temporal possessions ruin the church and drive out the Christian graces of faith, hope and charity; that the priesthood of the church in communion with Rome was not the priesthood Christ gave to his apostles; that the monk's vow of celibacy had for its consequence unnatural lust, and should not be imposed; that transubstantiation was a feigned miracle, and led people to idolatry; that prayers made over wine, bread, water, oil, salt, wax, incense, altars of stone, church walls, vestments, mitres, crosses, staves, were magical and should not be allowed; that kings should possess the jus episcopale, and bring good government into the church; that no special prayers should be made for the dead; that auricular confession made to the clergy, and declared to be necessary for salvation, was the root of clerical arrogance and the cause of indulgences and other abuses in pardoning sin; that all wars were against the principles of the New Testament, and were but murdering and plundering the poor to win glory for kings; that the vows of chastity laid upon nuns led to child murder; that many of the trades practised in the commonwealth, such as those of goldsmiths and armourers, were unnecessary and led to luxury and waste.
When Meletius was appointed bishop of Antioch in 361 he raised Flavian to the priesthood, and on the death of Meletius in 381 Flavian was chosen to succeed him.
In practice the office has become a stepping-stone to the priesthood, the deacon corresponding to the licentiate in the Presbyterian Church.
Sennacherib alone seems to have failed in securing the support of the Babylonian priesthood; at all events he never underwent the ceremony, and Babylonia throughout his reign was in a constant state of revolt which was finally suppressed only by the complete destruction of the capital.
The disease having disappeared from Italy, Alberoni obtained the consent of the pope to the suppression of the hospital, which had fallen into great disorder, and replaced it by a college for the education of seventy poor boys for the priesthood, under the name of the Collegio Alberoni, which it still bears.
Calvin was now nearly twenty-five years of age, and in the ordinary way would have been ordained to the priesthood.
During the politico-religious agitation which preceded the establishment of the Bulgarian exarchate in 1870, a number of Bulgarian youths were sent to Russia to be educated at the expense of the Imperial government; among them was Stambolov, who was entered at the seminary of Odessa in order to prepare for the priesthood.
The priesthood usually was hereditary, and their influence great, and they had generally a good understanding with the chief.
He discouraged plurality of livings, and consequent non-residence, established a school of divinity at Salisbury, and spent much time himself in preparing candidates for confirmation, and in the examination of those who wished to enter the priesthood.
Maynooth (q.v.) College was founded by an Irish act of parliament in 1795 for the training of Roman Catholic students for the Irish priesthood.
Thus, whilst the mass of the people practically still continued in heathendom, the apostle was enabled to found churches and schools and educate a priesthood which should provide the most effective and certain means of conversion.
The Malagasy have never had any organized religious system or forms of worship; there are no temples, images or stated seasons of devotion, nor is there a priesthood, properly so-called.
Although there was no proper priesthood, the idol-keepers, the diviners, the day-declarers and some others formed a class of people closely connected with heathen customs and interested in their continued observance.
The collegium of the Pontifices was the most important priesthood of ancient Rome, being specially charged with the administration of the jus divinum, i.e.
It is obvious that a priesthood having such functions as these, and holding office for life, must have been a great power in the state, and for the first three centuries of the republic it is probable that the pontifex maximus was in fact its most powerful member.
With the decay of the empire the title very naturally fell to the popes, whose functions as administrators of religious law closely resembled those of the ancient Roman priesthood, hence the modern use of "pontiff" and "pontifical."
They were retained in his ideal legislation, apparently, because their use was already invested with the mystery of a long-vanished past, and they were regarded as having formed one of the most venerable adjuncts of the priesthood.
Their religion had its fine lucid intervals, but their mythology and ritual were little better than savage ideas, elaborately worked up by the imagination of a cruel and superstitious priesthood.
He was educated by the fathers of the Oratory with a view to the priesthood and ordained in 1825.
aristocracy of the kingdom dominated the other classes, strengthened by the prestige of birth, the ownership of the soil and the practice of arms. Side by side with this martial nobility the Druids constituted a priesthood unique in ancient times; neither hereditary as in India, nor composed of isolated priests as in Greece, nor -of independent colleges as at Rome, it was a true corporation, which at first possessed great moral authority, though by Caesars time it had lost both strength and prestige.
Moreover, he astutely contrived to extend his priestly prestige to his whole family; his royalty was no longer merely a military command or a civil office, but became a Christian priesthood.
In the quarrels of the priesthood under the Empire it was St Bernard, the great abbot of Clairvaux, who tried to arrest the papacy on the slippery downward path of theocracy; finally, it was in Sugers church of St Denis that French art began that struggle between light against darkness which, culminating in Notre-Dame and the SainteChapelle, was to teach the architects of the world the delight of building with airiness of effect.
The famous quarrel between the priesthood and the Empire, which had culminated at Canossa under Gregory VII., in the apotheosis of Philip the the Lateran council under Innocent III., and again Fair and in the fall of the house of Hohenstaufen under Innocent the IV., was reopened with the king of France by Boniface Papacy.
Thus all the buttresses of the monarchical institution began to fall to pieces: the Church, undermined by the heresy of Jansenism, weakened by the inroads of philosophy, Ancient discredited by evil-livers among the priesthood, and Influcn~t divided against itself, like all losing parties; the and last!nobility of the court, still brave at heart, though ~~1tb0u1&
This religion was to have its special priesthood, ritual and organization.
The Donatist position, like that of the Novatians, was that the mark of the true church is to guard the essential predicate of holiness by excluding all who have committed mortal sin; the Catholic standpoint was that such holiness is not destroyed by the presence of unworthy members in the church but rests upon the divine foundation of the church and upon the gift of the Holy Spirit and the communication of grace through the priesthood.
On the other hand it degraded the priesthood.
A narrative of Eli and the priesthood of Shiloh has probably been used to form an introduction to Samuel's victory (vii.), and it has been supplemented partly by the account of the early life of the future prophet and judge (note the present abrupt introduction of Eli in i.
I forms the prelude to Samuel's great victory and belongs to the history of Shiloh and the priesthood of Eli.
They condemned marriage (save, perhaps, first marriages), the eating of meat, baptism of children, veneration of saints, fasting, prayers for the dead and belief in purgatory, denied transubstantiation, declared the Catholic priesthood worthless, and considered the whole church of their time corrupted by the "negotia saecularia" which absorbed all 1 One result is their inability to form a true theory of Judaism and of the Old Testament in relation to the Gospel, a matter of great moment for them and for their successors.
P. Dupanloup, then engaged in Organizing the ecclesiastical college of St Nicholas du Chardonnet, a school in which the young Catholic nobility and the most gifted pupils of the Catholic seminaries were to be educated together, with a view to cementing the bond between the aristocracy and the priesthood.
The revolution of 1848 aroused in Renan that side of him which loved the priesthood because "the priest lives for his fellows."
We cannot sit in silent acquiescence to the faded homilies of the nuclear priesthood.
celibate male priesthood is at present dying out through a lack of recruits.
We appreciate your constant encouragement and your steadfast upholding of the value of celibate chastity as normative for the ordained priesthood.
covenant of the priesthood and of the Levites.
deigned worthy of the grace of the priesthood on receiving the Angelic schema!
Just think of the Catholic Church and how long it took them to accept the huge amount of sexual depravity within their priesthood.
The priesthood which Christ exercises is the counterpart, in no merely figurative sense, of the levitical priesthood.
Rather, the priesthood is to empower the laity to fulfill its task.
ministerial priesthood, I love to attend mass quietly when I have the opportunity.
There will be few mourners, outside its own priesthood.
repentant people were all " sons of God ", and as such were a holy priesthood.
In 1939, he entered the minor seminary in Traunstein, his first step toward the priesthood.
studystudied for the priesthood at Oscott College, Birmingham, and was ordained on January 17, 1976.
The new covenant and the priesthood of Christ have to do with this the true tabernacle in heaven itself.
tabernacle of testimony and the priesthood complete the picture of God with them.
temple cult, extensive priesthood, or commitment to a sacrificial religion.
trained for the priesthood at St Cuthbert's College Durham.
The unifying bond between all the Celtic tribes was their common priesthood, the Druids.
Vocation Sunday also sees the national launch of posters, leaflets and prayer cards to promote the specific vocation Sunday also sees the national launch of posters, leaflets and prayer cards to promote the specific vocation to the Diocesan priesthood.
He was born at St Germain, entered the priesthood and was successively cure of Elan near Mezieres, vicar-general of Pontoise (1747), bishop of Evreux (1753) and archbishop of Toulouse (1758), archbishop of Narbonne in 1763, and in that capacity, president of the estates of Languedoc. He devoted himself much less to the spiritual direction of his diocese than to its temporal welfare, carrying out many works of public utility, bridges, canals, roads, harbours, &c.; had chairs of chemistry and of physics created at Montpellier and at Toulouse, and tried to reduce the poverty, especially in Narbonne.
He describes the safe and happy establishment of the people in their own land, and gives a sketch of a new constitution, of which the main point is the absolute control of public religion by the priesthood (xl.-xlviii.).
3); but the majestic figure of the king-priest, prior to the priesthood of the law, to whom even the father of all Israel paid tithes (cf.
Luther gave little attention to New Testament polity, though he believed in and clung passionately to the universal priesthood of all true Christians, and rejected the idea of a sacerdotal caste.
All are "Levites" by descent, and are thus correlated in the genealogical and other lists, but the true priesthood is confined to the sons of Aaron, while the mass of the Levites are subordinate servants who are not entitled to approach the altar or to perform any strictly priestly function.
But such a scheme finds no place in the monarchy; it presupposes a hierocracy under which the priesthood increased its rights by claiming the privileges which past kings had enjoyed; it is the outcome of a complicated development in Old Testament religion in the light of which it is to be followed (see Hebrew Religion).
But the different steps can hardly be recovered clearly, although the fact that the priesthood was extended beyond the Zadokites to families of the dispossessed priests points to some compromise (1 Chron.
xxix.) and Josiah (xxxv.) - contrast the history in the earlier books of Samuel and Kings - or when the still later book of Jubilees (xxxii.) places the rise of the Levitical priesthood in the patriarchal period.
But the tendency to ascribe the disasters of northern Israel to the priesthood (see esp. Hosea) takes another form when an inserted prophecy revokes the privileges of the ancient and honourable family, foretells its overthrow, and announces the rise of a new faithful and everlasting priesthood, at whose hands the dispossessed survivors, reduced to poverty, would beg some priestly office to secure a livelihood (i Sam.
28-31), and does not acknowledge the northern priesthood to be Levitical (I Kings xii.
5 Moreover, the real Judaean tendency which associates the fall of Eli's priesthood at Shiloh with the rise of the Zadokites involves the literary problems of Deuteronomy, a composite work whose age is not certainly known, and of the twofold Deuteronomic redaction elsewhere, one phase of which is more distinctly Judaean and anti-Samaritan.
The influence of a bigoted priesthood was re-established, and every form of intellectual and moral torment, everything save actual persecution and physical torture that could be inflicted on- the impure was inflicted (Cesare Balbos Autobiography).
(See Marti, Religion des A.T., p. 32.) The history of the rise of the priesthood in Israel is exceedingly obscure.
Thus Zadok, who obtained the priestly office at Jerusalem in the reign of Solomon and was succeeded by his sons, was regarded in later days as the founder of the true and legitimate succession of the priesthood descended from Levi (Ezek.
As it was impossible to find a place for the officiating priests of the high places, non-levitical as well as levitical, in the single sanctuary, it became necessary to restrict the functions of sacrifice to the Levites only as well as to the existing official priesthood of the Jerusalem temple (see Priest).
And though there was positive gain in the removal of idolatrous and corrupt modes of worship, there was also positive loss in the disappearance of this old genial phase of Hebrew social life and worship. It involved a vast difference to many a Judaean village when the festival pilgrimage was no longer made to the familiar local sanctuary with its hoary associations of ancient heroic or patriarchal story, but to a distant and comparatively unfamiliar city with its stately shrine and priesthood.
His small kingdom of Judah enjoyed an unbroken dynasty which survived the most serious crises, a temple which grew in splendour and wealth under royal patronage, and a legitimate priesthood which owed its origin to Zadok, the successful rival of David's priest Abiathar.
The Judaean view pervades the present sources, and whilst its David and Solomon ruled over a united land, the separation under Jeroboam is viewed as one of calf-worshipping northern tribes from Jerusalem with its one central temple and the legitimate priesthood of the Zadokites.
There is also a more definite subordination of the royal authority to the priesthood (so too in the writings of Ezekiel, q.v.); and the stories of punishment inflicted upon kings who dared to contend against the priests (Jehoash, Uzziah) point to a conflict of authority, a hint of which is already found in the reconciliation of Zerubbabel and the priest Joshua in a passage ascribed to Zechariah (ch.
The candidate for orders must be at least nineteen years old and have undergone twelve years' preparation; he is then qualified to assist the priesthood in the ceremonies of religion.
Becket's opposition rested upon a casuistic interpretation of the canon law, and an extravagant conception of the dignity attaching to the priesthood; he showed, moreover, a disposition to quibble, to equivocate, and to make promises which he had no intention of fulfilling.
According to Yasna, 19, 18, the zarathushtrotema, or supreme head of the Zoroastrian priesthood, had at a later (Sasanian) time, his residence in Ragha.
Protected by this dynasty, the priesthood developed into a completely organized state church, which was able to employ the power of the state in enforcing strict compliance with the religious law-book hitherto enjoined by their unaided efforts only.
..1581-1606Nanak, like Buddha, revolted against a religion overladen with ceremonial and social restrictions, and both rebelled against the tyranny of the priesthood.
The functions of the priesthood are of this kind: - To exercise a systematic direction over education; to hold a consultative influence over all the important acts of actual life, public and private; to arbitrate in cases of practical conflict; to preach sermons recalling those principles of generality and universal harmony which our special activities dispose us to ignore; to order the due classification of society; to perform the various ceremonies appointed by the founder of the religion.
9) says, "It is not permitted to a woman to speak in church, nor yet to teach, nor to baptize, nor to offer, nor to assume any office which belongs to a man, least of all the priesthood;" (4) while both sections gave to prophets the power of absolution, the Phrygians extended it to martyrs also - at Carthage the Catholics did this contrary to the views of Tertullian.
His influence over these ladies alarmed their relatives and excited the suspicions of the regular priesthood and of the populace, but while Pope Damasus lived Jerome remained secure.
The practical corollary of this, " the Priesthood of Believers," though grasped by Luther (cf.
C. 1217), and even in the 15th century stray supporters of the Waldensian teaching were to be found in Italy, France and Germany, everywhere keeping alive mistrust of the temporal power of the Church, of her priesthood and her hierarchy.
(3) Bodily defects (as squinting, lack of teeth, maimed finger) was disqualifications for priesthood (cf.
In Rome, again, where the functions of the priesthood were politically much more weighty, where the technicalities of religion were more complicated, where priests interpreted the will of the gods, and where the pontiffs had a most important jurisdiction in sacred things, the state was much too strong to suffer these powers to escape from its own immediate control: the old monarchy of the king in sacred things descended to the inheritors of his temporal power; the highest civil and religious functions met in the same persons (cf.
It may be said in general that while Luther insisted that public worship ought to be conducted in a language understood by the people, and that all ideas and actions which were superstitious and obscured the primary truth of the priesthood of all believers should be expurged, he wished to retain as much as possible of the public service of the medieval church.
Educated by the Jesuits in Paris, he entered the priesthood, and became in 1679, through the influence of Cardinal Bonzi, almoner to Maria Theresa, queen of Louis XIV., and in 1698 bishop of Frejus.
(1243-1254) the conflict between the priesthood and the Empire was revived by the enigmatic Frederick II., the polyglot and lettered emperor, the friend of Saracens, the despot who, in youth styled " king of priests," in later years personified ideas that were directly opposed to the medieval theocracy; and the struggle lasted nearly thirty years.
He was educated at Dublin and in Rome for the Roman Catholic priesthood; but he declined to enter the Church, and devoted himself to geographical and ethnological research (see 1.44 2; 9.9 00; 22.678).
It is quite conceivable that the still earlier Sumerian priesthood invented the method of orthographic inversion, which after all is the very first device which suggests itself to the primitive mind when endeavouring to express itself in a manner out of the ordinary.
Contact with, foreign lands ight with it several new deities, Baal, Anat and ~ieph from Syria, and the misshapen dwarf Bes r such order as can be discerned in the mythological conions of the Egyptians the priesthood was largely responsible.
The revival of the various Balkan nationalities was in every case accompanied or preceded by a literary movement; in Servian literature, under the influence of Obradovich and Vuk Karajich, the popular idiom, notwithstanding the opposition of the priesthood, superseded the ecclesiastical RussianSlavonic; in Bulgaria the eastern dialect, that of the Sredna Gora, prevailed.
As regards this latter, purely exoteric, doctrine, there can be little doubt of its owing its origin to considerations of theological expediency, as being calculated to supply a sufficiently wide formula of belief for general acceptance; and the very fact of this divine triad including the two principal deities of the later sectarian worship, Vishnu and Siva, goes far to show that these two gods at all events must have been already in those early days favourite objects of popular adoration to an extent sufficient to preclude their being ignored by a diplomatic priesthood bent upon the formulation of a common creed.
So, too, fire-worship, especially of the sacrificial flame; the preparation of the intoxicating soma, which fills man with divine strength and uplifts him to the gods; the injunction to good thoughts and good works, imposed on the pious by Veda and Avesta alike: the belief in an unwavering order (rta)a law controlling gods and men and dominating them all; yet with this, a belief in the power of magical formulae (mantra), exclamations and prayers, to whose compulsion not merely demons (the evil spirits of deception druh) but even the gods (daeva) must submit; and, lastly, the institution of a priesthood of fire-kindlers (athravan), who are at once the repositories of all sacral traditions and the mediators in all intercourse between earth and heaven.
In Egypt the Persian kings still retained the style of the Pharaohs; but we hear no more of concessions to the priesthood or to the old institutions, and, apart from the great ouis of el-Kharga, no more temples were erected (see EGYPT:
Rome took good care to educate the priesthood far above the status of the Orthodox priests, and continued an extensive proselytizing activity.
If all conception of intermediary priesthood be eliminated, the Ulema may be said to be equivalent to the secular clergy of Roman Christendom (see Dervish).
But priesthood is another thing, and a thing sufficiently distinct to be easily recognized where it is claimed or in fact exists.
For the Essenes, righteous and repentant people were all " sons of God ", and as such were a holy priesthood.
We 're experiencing ways in which the common priesthood and the ministerial priesthood are developing together in a spirituality of communion and trust.
He studied for the priesthood at Oscott College, Birmingham, and was ordained on January 17, 1976.
The tabernacle of testimony and the priesthood complete the picture of God with them.
It has no suggestions of an advanced temple cult, extensive priesthood, or commitment to a sacrificial religion.
Aged 27, he trained for the priesthood at St Cuthbert 's College Durham.
Vocation Sunday also sees the national launch of posters, leaflets and prayer cards to promote the specific vocation to the Diocesan priesthood.
An Olympus of sorts is maintained, a priesthood exists to speak to the gods, and ask for their assistance, which often is quite successful.
Vulcan was the most important - perhaps in early times the only - deity worshipped at Ostia, and the priesthood of Vulcan was held sometimes by Roman senators.
2 The stem of David is superseded by the house of Zadok, the kingship has yielded to the priesthood, and the extinction of national hopes gives new importance to that strict organization of the hierarchy for which Ezekiel had prepared the way by his sentence of disfranchisement against the nonZadokite priests.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.